Page 1


SOCIAL WATERSCAPES Masterplan for Fangshan District, Beijing China Ana Abram (MA Candidate) Costanza Madricardo (MA Candidate) Jaime Traspaderne Vila (MA Candidate)

Landscape Urbanism Architectural Association 2011-2012


Cover image “ To raise te water level in a fishpond”, 1997 Performance, Beijing, China © Zhang Huan Studio


ABSTRACT The Social Waterscapes Project investigates the role of water infrastructures within the city as a medium to improve social life. In the context of Chinese rapid urbanisation, we explore the potential of water as an instrument of modernisation. In particular: • The diffusion of water on the territory and its accessibility throughout different social classes can become a means of democratization. The Social Water Landscape Project opposes the current tendency of the Chinese system that allows uneven accumulations of natural resources spreading inequality in the society. • Opposing the problem of water scarcity, the Social Water Landscape Project helps recycling water through sustainable and environmentally friendly techniques. The water infrastructure itself generates a new landscape that increases the aesthetical and economical value of the future city. • In the Social Water Landscape Project water is more than just a basic necessity for everyday life, it becomes the central element for a new urban social ecology.

• In the Social Waterscapes Project water is more than just a basic necessity for everyday life, it becomes the central element for a new urban social ecology. Our masterplan aims to integrate the existing urban pattern of the villages, recognizing and establishing them as cores of the cultural identity of the new city. The masterplan’s design is inspired by traditional social spaces in Beijing, modified and merged with contemporary architecture and waterscapes. The relationship between water and people has been the basis for all decisions that have been made while designing the city. Our aim is to establish a relation between people and water, that becomes the crucial driver for all the decisions in designing the city.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thanks Eva, Alfredo, Eduardo, Clara, Douglas and Tom. Ana thanks her family and Maj for all their support and believing in her every step of the way. Costanza thanks her family for their support. Special thanks to Fantina and Giulio. Jaime thanks his parents and and Concha for their faith and support. We would like to thank all the LU friends for the great time.


CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION..........................................11 1.2 Water crisis 1.3 Democratization of the water

2.

EXISTING CONDITIONS...............................23 2.2 Rapid urbanization 2.3 Existing infrastructures in Fangshan 2.4 Flooding risk 2.5 Existing urban patterns in Fangshan 2.6 Proposal

3.

INDEXING WATERSCAPES.........................39

4.

WATER URBANISM......................................49

3.2 Treatment of water 3.3 Branching system 3.4 Water loop 3.5 Water accessibility

4.1 Project strategy 4.2 Density analysis 4.3 Economic networks 4.4 Branching system 4.5 Infrastructural mesh 4.6 Soft landscape 4.7 Masterplan

5.

PROTOTYPING WATERSCAPES..................69 5.1 Wetlands prototype 5.2 Ground prototype 5.3 Urban Massing

6.

URBAN TYPOLOGIES...................................89 6.1 Social nodes 6.2 Urban villages 6.3 Spaces for sociality 6.4 Urban typologies 6.5 Soft landscape typologies

7. MASTERPLAN.................................................131 7.2 Land value index 7.3 Density index 7.4 Distribution of urban typologies 7.5 Urbanization timeline 7.6 Masterplan 7.7 Sensorial index 7.8 Water infrastructures

8. TECHNICAL REPORT......................................161 8.2 Water strategy 8.3 Water treatment 8.4 Earth work strategy 8.5 Water infrastructure 8.6 Connectivity index

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................179


10

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


INTRODUCTION

11


+ PEOPLE AND WATER: DATA AND STATISTICS

World population 2010: 6.908.7 million Projected population 2050: 9.150,0 million Water consumption in highly developed countries: 100 liters per capita/day Water consumption in underdeveloped countries: 20 liters per capita/day (or less) World population with no access to safe drinking water: 1.000 million World population with no access to clean toilets or washing facilities: 2.600 million Deaths from direct or indirect consequences of poor hygene and exposure to contaminated water: 3.5 million every year

People with no access to an improved water source.

Source: calculated base on UNICEF 2006.

Data from United Nations “human development report”, 2006. “The report argues that the roots of the crisis in water can be traced to poverty, inequality and unequal power relationships, as well as flawed water management policies that exacerbate scarcity”.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2006 Source: www.undp.org/content/ undp/en/home/librarypage/ hdr/human-development-report-2006.html

12

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

People with no access to an improved water in 2004.


+ WATER CRISIS OVERVIEW One of the most urgent of modern-days problems is the scarcity of water in cities, particularly in the sprawling slums of rapidly growing megacities. The problem is not just about having enough water. The lack of access is a story of poverty, repression and irresponsibility. 1billion human beings have no access to safe drinking water. 2 billions human beings live under intolerable hygienic conditions. Already worldwide is more waste water generated and dispersed today than at any other time in the history of our planet: more than one out of six people lack access to safe drinking water, namely 1.1 billion people, and more than two out of six lack adequate sanitation, namely 2.6 billion people (Estimation for 2002, by the UNICEF JMP, 2004). 3900 children die every day from water borne diseases (ibid). One must know that these figures represent only people with very poor conditions. In reality, these figures should be much higher (World Water Council). The World Health Organization states that one fifth of the world’s population (more than 1.1 billion people) live in areas where water is physically scarce. By 2025 the UN estimates 1.8 billion people will live in countries or regions suffering from absolute water scarcity – meaning water demand by all users cannot be fully met by available supplies. Water development underpins food security, people’s livelihoods, industrial growth, and environmental sustainability throughout the world. In 1995 the world withdrew 3,906 cubic kilometres (km3) of water for these purposes (Figure 1). By 2025 water withdrawal for most uses (domestic, industrial, and livestock) is projected to increase by at least 50 percent. This will severely limit irrigation water withdrawal, which will increase by only 4 percent, constraining food production in turn (Global water Outlook, 2005).

WATER SCARCITY: PREDICTION FOR 2025

No or little water scarcity Economic water scarcity Physical water scarcity No data available

CONNECTED TO WATER SUPPLY: WORLDWIDE COVERAGE

91-100 %

26-50 %

76-90 %

0-25 %

51-75 %

no data

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 13


+ WATER CRISIS IN BEIJING OVERVIEW According to Beijing’s Water Crisis1949 - 2008, shortsighted policies since 1949 have degraded Beijing’s watershed and promoted the over-use of limited water resources. In particular, the political fixation on large scale engineering projects to keep urban taps flowing. The key to addressing Beijing’s water crisis is not to build more engineering projects to deliver new supplies. More dams, diversion canals, pipelines and even desalination plants may be technically feasible but they are economically and environmentally ruinous. A better approach would be to curb demand through efficiency improvements in water supply and consumption using the rule of law and economic incentives. Beijing, China’s capital city, and one of its fastestgrowing municipalities, is running out of water. Although more than 200 rivers and streams can still be found on official maps of Beijing, the sad reality is that little or no water flows there anymore. Beijing’s springs, famous for their sweet- tasting water, have disappeared. Dozens of reservoirs built since the 1950s have dried up. Finding a clean source of water anywhere in the city has become impossible. As recently as 30 years ago, Beijing residents regarded groundwater as an inexhaustible resource. Now hydro-geologists warn it too is running out. Beijing’s groundwater table is dropping, water is being pumped out faster than it can be replenished, and more and more groundwater is becoming polluted. Today, more than two-thirds of the municipality’s total water supply comes from groundwater. The rest is surface water coming from Beijing’s dwindling reservoirs and rivers. The municipality’s two largest reservoirs, Miyun and Guanting, now hold less than ten percent of their original storage capacity and Guanting is so polluted it hasn’t been used as a drinking water source since 1997.

Official data indicate that Beijing’s population growth, industrial development, and its expansion of irrigated farmland have driven huge increases in water consumption since 1949. Meanwhile, 25 years of drought and pollution of the city’s reservoirs have contributed to the steady decline in available water resources per person, from about 1,000 cubic metres in 1949 to less than 230 cubic metres in 2007. The report also argues that drought and rapid demand growth aren’t the only factors behind the water crisis. Short-sighted policies since 1949 have degraded Beijing’s watershed and promoted the over-use of limited water resources. In particular, the political fixation on large- scale engineering projects to keep urban taps flowing at little or no cost to consumers meant that consumption has divorced from consequence without price signals to indicate scarcity.

DATA FOR BEIJING WATER Total water use: 3.25 billion cubic metres (2007) Source: groundwater 70-80%; surface water 20-30% Estimated supply deficit: 400 million cubic metres Water consumption: domestic (39%), agriculture (38%), industry (20%), urban environment (3%) 1995 -2005: Domestic water use more than doubled Agricultural water use dropped by one-third Industrial water use dropped by one quarter

Water consumption trends from 1975 to 2005. Source: Beijing’s Water Crisis 19492008 Olympics report (Probe International Beijing Group).

14

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WATER CRISIS IN BEIJING YONGDING RIVER Honoured as the “Mother Waters of Beijing,” this river was historically an important water source and waterway for Beijing residents. It is Beijing’s largest river, originating from the Yang River in Inner Mongolia and the Sanggan River in Shanxi province. It has a total length of 680 kilometres, flowing 174 kilometres eastward through Beijing before joining the Hai River in Beijing’s Water Crisis 1949 — 2008 3 1: Beijing Watershed Tianjin municipality and emptying into the Bohai Sea. Tributaries include: Naqiu, Qingshuihe, Xiamalinggou, Weidiangou, Qingjian, Yingtaogou, Dalonghe, Xiaolonghe, and Tiantanghe. Prior to construction of the Guanting dam in the 1950s, the swift-flowing river would swell from 500 metres to 2,000 metres wide in the rainy season. JUMA RIVER Juma River originates in Hebei province and flows through Fanghsan district of Beijing before flowing back into Hebei province and splitting into Nanjuma (South Juma) and Beijuma (North Juma). One of Juma’s tributaries is the Dashi River, once known as Shenshui (holy water) because its water was so pure and such an important source for people in the ancient capital. Tributaries include: Dashi and Xiaoqing Rivers.

Top: Yongding river Bottom: Juma river

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 15


+ WATER INFRASTRUCTURES THREE GORGES DAM Le Corbusier described the opening of “ Bhakra Dam” as one of the first temples of modern India” Since the 1950s, the number of major dams around the world has increased more than sevenfold, from 5750 to over 47000. According to the World Commision o Dams, more than half of them (56%) are in China and India alone, the world’s two most populated countries. China leads the list with 22000 large dams. Most Chinese dams serve both agricultural and energy purposes. The main dam of the Three Gorges project is 185 m high and 2.300 m wide. It will turn the waters of the Yangtze into a reservoir 640 km long. Roughly 1.9 million people will be forced to resettle. It is still not clear what ecological effect the Three Gorges Dam will have on the hydrologic balance to the lower reaches of the Yangtze.

SOUTH-NORTH WATER DIVERSION The chinese Nanshui Beidiao ( meaning “ water from the south for the north”) project is even more ambitious. It dates back to plans laid out by Mao Zedong in the 1960s. This is the largest network of canals ever designed. Three independent canals would divert 48 billion cubic meters of water a year from the Yangtze to the densely populated industrial and urban centers of the north. Western canal is to feed 40% of the Yangtze’s headstream across 4000 meter high Tibetan plateau into the Yellow river. A central canal is supposed to transfer 40% of the Han river across 1250 km to the Beijing area in its first phase of construction. In its final phase of construction, this canal would transfer water from the Three Gorges dam to the Beijing area. Finally, a more than 1000 km long eastern canal will transfer water from the lower reaches of the Yangtze through 13 sewage treatment plants and 30 pumping station to the Tianjin region. This 60$ billion project will displace more than2 million of people from over 100 villages and towns, and destroy 44.000 hectare.s of farmland

Natural courses of rivers Planned canals

South North water diverson route (source: “Who owns the water” K. Lanz)

FANGSHAN Fangshan has a important role in the evolution of the South-North diversion project because three huge reservoirs will be located close to the Yongding river as a final stop before Beijing. Fangshan council is making use of this new reservoirs a as core for future new high-end developments which will enclosed the landscape and the source for a small amount of lucky wealthy inhabitants. The social water landscape project fights against the Mao’s ideas of concentrate resources in one point , instead the project aims the necessity to spread the natural source equally into all citizens in order to generate a active role in the management of the source, in this case water.

Previous page: preparation for the construction of the Three Gorges Dam

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 17


+ TITLE

18

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF WATER “ China has moved away form being one of the most egalitarian to one of the most unequal societies in the world”. World Bank,1997

OVERVIEW This quote from the World Bank highlights how the Chinese society has radically changed, since 1978, when capitalist market driven logic was integrated into its economy. The Chinese economic reform led to the privatisation of the state sector, the liberalisation of trade and prices, and the dismantlement of the welfare state. The reform had a big impact on the society, increasing the gap between levels of wealth and creating a stronger separation between social classes. Moreover, the lack of welfare policies has further increased the separation between the two main social groups: the rich and the poor, the city and rural inhabitants, separated from birth by a certification of their origin (hukou), which is branding them into a predefined future. The hukou, infact, is a system of household registration, based on birthplace, to define a person’s socioeconomic status and access to welfare benefits.

GINI COEFFICIENT

+ UPPER CLASS Communist party leaders, wealthy landowners, business men, civil service + MIDDLE CLASS Middle working class composed by sellers, academics, lawyers + LOWER CLASS Lower class is constituted by paesants who work the land, the villagers, low paying wage jobs, migrants

The level of social inequality existing is commonly measured by the Gini coefficient, which has the value 0 expressing perfect equality and the value of 1 maximal inequality. China has recently reached a level of 0.49, whereas Sweden has 0.23 and the United Kingdom has 0.29.

UNEVEN WATER DISTRIBUTION In this context, the distribution of natural resources, such as water, Is fundamental. As described in the previous pages, water is supplied in very different quantities depending on the urban area. In high end developments, water is provided from the tap and overused in order to accomplish western esthetical paradigms, as, for example, to create artificial lakes or golf courses. On the other hand, in urban villages water is still supplied through centralized wells and therefore, the hygienic conditions are really poor. The paradox is that, these opposite conditions can occur within a few meters, just separated by a fence. This is caused by existing socially segregated patterns, such as gated communities or enclaves like slums, which can co-exist in the same area. This phenomenon also occurs in the area where the project is focussed. For this reason, the project has to deal with these inequalities.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 19


20

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ DEMOCRATIZATION DESIGN AS POLITICAL TOOL Considering design as a political tool, the project aims to explore possibilities of how water can be a medium of “democratization”, by increasing its availability and accessibility. It can be argued that often infrastructural projects produce inequalities of access that exacerbate social divisions. Instead, in our project we seek to avoid this problem by putting in place water infrastructures to reduce social divisions by providing greater access to and enjoyment of water.

The fountain worked and is still working as element to revitalize public spaces. This example has been reinterpreted in the many cities, like Paris, London and Chicago. Nowadays, more than fountains, the focus has shifted to projects of revitalization of waterfronts, that are appearing from cities all over the world. Waterfront provides a unique realm for development, entailing social, recreational and environmental benefits as well as serving political and economic interests.

Water can connect different urban realities. The water infrastructure in our project will provide a constant treatment of wastewater that will allow a wider supply distributing water between different social classes. At the same time, in the context of constructing a new city, it is essential to provide water infrastructure. Already the Byzantines and Romans used to build aqueducts and canals to supply their population with fresh drinking water ( Rome and Constantinople).

CONCLUSIONS The project recognises the presence of water bodies (constructed wetlands) within the definition of public spaces, while considering the requirements of water supply for both the existing urban villages and new developments. This link created by proposed infrastructures would provide a more equal accessibility to water.

WATER AND SOCIAL SPACES “Given the increasing emphasis on environmental approaches to living, working and playing, water has become central to discussion about new architecture and urban planning.” The waterscape proposed in the masterplan wants to serve as a water treatment system as well as an esthetical landscape, which will be the central element for public spaces, and therefore, for social interactions within the city. The relationship between water and people is ancient: first of all because the water is a symbol of life and therefore, a primordial attractor for people. Secondly, it is possible to find also some historical examples of interactions with water that can help to understand the relationship between water and people. Charles Moore credits the city of Rome as the first to fully explore the potential for a new relationship between the built environment and water with projects such as Trevi Fountain in Rome.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 21


22

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


EXISTING CONDITIONS

23


+ RAPID URBANIZATION OVERVIEW Nowadays, the population is increasingly concentrated in metropolitan areas, this trend started in Europe in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution and it has continued until now. On the other side of the world, China is experiencing this change but in a really short period time due to the rapidly economic growth in Asia. As a result cities such as Beijing, Shanghai or Tianjin have changed dramatically over the past years.

MASTERPLAN FOR FANGSHAN “FUNHILL” Beijing is facing now a massive migration of rural people into cities, as we can see in the graph below, so urgent urban plans are needed to manage the dweller. In addition, the article from Lu Huapu, 2002. Institute of Transportation Engineering, Tsinghua University, emphasised that the urbanization level in China will reach 50% in next 20 to 30 years. China is now in a stage of accelerate urbanization. Factors such as urban planning, land-use policy and economic growth pattern, all have great impacts on the development of urban structure, cities in China will experience the troubles caused by extra-centralization and extradecentralization. 7-8. Images from “Funhill” masterplan for Fangshan 2020

FANGSHAN DISTRICT 2010

FANGSHAN DISTRICT 2020

Population: 814.367 density: 403.4/km2 Urban constructed land area: 60.2 km2 Area rate: 3.0 % Village constructed land area: 117.3 km2 area rate: 5.9% Water consumption per year: tot. 190 m3

Population: 1.650.000 density: 817.2/km2 Urban constructed land area: 118.8 km2 Area rate: 6.0 % Village constructed land area: 39 km2 area rate: 2 % Water consumption per year: tot. 380 m3

Water consumption by sector per year: domestic: 76 million m3 agriculture: 75 million m3 industrie: 38,8 million m3 urban enviroment: 0,62 million m3 TOT: 5.5% of Beijing’s consumption

Water consumption by sector per year: domestic: 152 million m3 agriculture: 150 million m3 industrie: 77,6 million m3 urban enviroment: 1,24 million m3 TOT: 11% of Beijing’s consumption

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 25


+ EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURES IN FANGSHAN

1. Photo of a existing overground rail station 2. South-north water diversion canal

26

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURES IN FANGSHAN DATA FOR FANGSHAN’S DISTRICT 01 FANGSHAN CITY CENTRE

05 YONGDING RIVER

Yungang Forest Park The Tomb of Zhang Fu Area: 29.49 Km2 Residential: 23.8% Urban Village: 10.3% Industry: 9.7%

Three Lakes + Leisure Areas Food Production Area: 40.59Km2 Residential: 0.0% Urban Village: 0.0% Industry: 0.0%

Agricultural Fields: 0.0%

Agricultural Fields: 5.3%

02 CHANGYANGZHEN

06 ZHAN ZHUANGCUN

Xiang River + Line 9 Tube Institute of Technology Area: 20.15 Km2 Residential: 3.0% Urban Village: 6.2% Industry: 8.0%

South-North Diversion Liangxiangzhen Airbase Area: 26.00Km2 Residential: 0.0% Urban Village: 7.6% Industry: 7.2%

Agricultural Fields: 13.5%

Agricultural Fields: 0.0%

03 CHANGYANG NORTH

Yungang Forest Park The Tomb of Zhang Fu Area: 47.40Km2 Residential: 7.0% UrbanVillage: 7.4% Industry: 11.7%

Agricultural Fields: 27.2%

Agricultural Fields: 0.8%

River Edge Food Production Area: 18.61 Km2 Residential: 0.5% Urban Village: 7.5% Industry: 7.9% Agricultural Fields: 48.5%

05 YONGDING RIVER

07 ERLAOZHUANG NORTH

River Edge + Line 9 Tube New Urban Development Area: 18.33 Km2 Residential: 2.8% Urban Village: 6.4% Industry: 12.3%

04 CHANGYANG SOUTH

07 ERLAOZHUANG Population: 44.500 Wastewater: 11.575.000 m3/year

06 ZHAN ZHUANGCUN Population: 23.400 Wastewater: 5.754.000 m3/year

08 ERLAOZHUANG SOUTH

02 CHANGYANGZHEN Population: 19.200 Wastewater: 4.800.000 m3/year

Research Centers University Area: 14.68Km2 Residential: 0.8% Urban Village: 19% Industry: 10.9% Agricultural Fields: 15%

03 CHANGYANG NORTH Population: 10.080 Wastewater: 2.015.000 m3/year

S-N diversion project main highway to Beijing high-speed train Beijing overground n.9

130.000 expected inhabitants for 2025

01 FANGSHAN CITY CENTRE Population: 200.200 Wastewater: 15.125.000 m3/year

04 CHANGYANG SOUTH Population: 9.850 Wastewater: 1.975.000 m3/year

08 ERLAOZHUANG Population: 12.600 Wastewater: 3.150.000 m3/year

0

2500 m

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 27


+ FLOODING RISK

Due to the abundant water resources in Fangshan, the first important issue to consider is the flooding risk, which is affecting the area. In the history of Beijing, Fanghsan has been one of the most damaged districts by flooding events, caused mainly by the inundation of the Yongding River. Indeed, the last flood was on the 20 of July 2012 were 37 people died and thousands were evacuated. Hu Yongqi and Cui Jia reported in the CHINADAILY

“Million of people across the capital were hit by the deluge and thousands were evacuated from their homes. The deluge caused losses of at least 10 billion yuan ($1.6 billion), according to the Beijing municipal government. The southwestern district of Fangshan was the hardest hit. Of the 56,933 people evacuated in the city, 20,990 came from Fangshan.� 23-07-2012 CHINADAILY

1. Photo of the flooding happened in Fangshan on the 23d of July 2012

28

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


1. Photo of the flooding happened in Fangshan on the 23d of July 2012

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 29


+ FLOODING RISK YONGDING RIVER The Yongding River has had lots of modifications, as a result, people have changed the name of the river in 1698 from Wunding River “never-stable River” to Yongding River “Eternally Stable River” . The basin area of Yongding River is the largest subcatchment area inside of Hai River watershed with 47.016km2. It can be divided in two well defined areas, the north and south area from Beijing. The north area comprises the 90% of the total area and collects more than 95% of water. The basin area is shaped like a bottleneck and creates a funnel effect in proximity of the city of Beijing, specifically, in the districts of Fangshan and Mentougou. For this reason, the Yongding River has been responsible for major floods in the area. (see Historical flooding events in Beijing graph). According to the average annual precipitation in Beijing, there is a repetitive pattern of twenty years between floods and drought.

Considering the Water Crisis Report1949-2008 (see Precipitation Histogram of Beijing ), it is clear the dramatic plunge of annual precipitation of the Youngding River in the last thirty years. For example, between 1970 and 2008 the river lost fifty percent of the average annual precipitation. Looking at the history and the numbers of population statistics, the population of Beijing has grown from almost 4 million to 17 million. Combining these data it is evident that Beijing is facing one of the worst water crisis ever, and the future could be catastrophic if the government does not take action to solve the problem.

30

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

Historical flooding events in Beijing between years 1724-1960 (Source Fighting Famine in North China (2007) by Li, Lillian M. (p.29)

Precipitation Histogram of Beijing (Source Beijing’s Water Crisis 1949 — 2008.(p. 6))


+ YONGDING RIVER WATERSHED

Fangshan

+ Juma river WATERSHED

medium

higher

water system

Watershed: the geographic area from which water drains into a specific body. A watershed may contain several subwatersheds.

+ Yongding river WATERSHED

FANGSHAN

highest

BEIJING

Water table

Aquifer

Terrain depressions

The section show the topographical condition that defines the watersheds of the Yongding river and the Juma river.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 31


+ EXISTING URBAN PATTERNS IN FANGHSAN URBAN VILLAGE Vehicular accessibility through secondary or tertiary roads

Shared space between inhabitants (transportation, leisure, commercial)

GATED COMMUNITY Accessibility through secuity gates

Shared space (private leisure)

Density: 500 dwellers/km2 Water consumption per capita/year: 400m3* FAR: 0.5 Coverage: 0.7 * approximate exstimation

Density:200 dwellers/km2 Water consumption per capita/year: 1000m3* FAR: 0.3 Coverage: 0.2 * approximate exstimation

Satellite image: urban village in Fangshan

Satellite image: gated community in Fangshan

SOCIAL HOUSING Vehicular accessibility through main roads

Shared space (public leisure, transportation, commercial)

Density:1500 dwellers/km2 Water consumption per capita/year: 800m3* FAR: 2 Coverage: 0.3 *approximate exstimation

Satellite image: social housing block in Fangshan

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 33


+ BUILDING TYPOLOGIES IN FANGSHAN HUTONG Hutongs are small allees connecting patio-houses called Siheyuan. An important characteristic consists on the regular proportions, both in the buildings and in the open spaces, and their implicit serenity, aimed at assuring the constructions are in harmony with the landscape and with Man.This building typology has been almost unchanged since the time of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D).

SOCIALIST SLAB The socialist slabs have elements of the modernist and communist soviet architecture. The buildings are disposed in the block creating shared space in between(gardens or playground for example) thougth also to allow cars to enter the block. This is really typical social housing that started to be built from the ‘50s and is still used a lot nowadays.

SOCIALIST CORRIDOR SLAB The socialist corridor slabs are disposed in lines, facing wide roads. This typology does not provide a outdoor shared space for the inhabitants.

Leisure/shared space Accessibility

34

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ BUILDING TYPOLOGIES IN FANGSHAN GATED COMMUNITY Gated community are residential communty containing strictly controlled entrances. The area is characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. There is one common area with shared amenities. The rest of the development is mainly has characterized by private spaces and gardens.

TOWER The tower typology condeses high density in a small footprint. Shared spaces are mainly leftover spaces from the road system and the parking areas.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS The architecture of public buildings in Beijing is a composite of factors based in modernism, communism, and historicism. The architectural aspects of the traditionally inspired buildings included large and heavy roofs laden with ceramic tiles. These were often stacked in multiple layers recalling the towering form of the pagoda.

Leisure/shared space Accessibility

Source : “EL Croquis� n.134-135 pp.180

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 35


+ PROPOSAL

The elements considered; water, people and ground are generating the fundamental basis fort the projects „social waterscape“.

36

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

+ WATER

Regarding these three different categories of “Social Watercapes” one can observe a common principle: a linear and punctual materiality or a division in “flow and concentration”. People moving from one place to another represent the “flow”, while “concentration” happens within the social spaces establishing different levels of privacy: from private, to semi-private over to public spaces. Looking at the distribution of water the project proposes a new infrastructure that is cleaning and redistributing water at the same time with a pattern of a constantly changing infrastructure of flows and concentration. In this case “flow” is represented by canal and flooding systems whereby “concentration” is achieved through patches of different kinds of wetlands. In order to distribute new water and social infrastructure on the ground, new landscape is being created. Wetlands will be built using dig-fill techniques resulting in a convex or concave appearance of the landscape. This will produce more enclosed or more open spaces allowing either a better flow or a better concentration of people or water.

+ LANDSCAPE

1.the current SOCIAL situation: urban villages with a cultural identity and history 2.the unequal WATER distribution and a newly proposed water treatment infrastructure 3.the creation of new LANDSCAPES and social spaces with earthwork gained from the planned excavations and constructions

+ PEOPLE

The project “Social Water Landscapes” approaches several components that exist in the area of Fangshang:


+ SOCIAL WATERSCAPES

37


38

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


INDEXING WATERSCAPES

39


+ WATER RUNOFF INDEX LOCATION OF THE RUNOFF INDEX

Fangshan city centre

As described in the introduction chapter (see pg. 29) Yongding River has larger absolute height than Juma River. That is why the local geography doesn’t work in a way that the catchment area is related to the larger stream in the broader area. The water that flows off the surface next to the Yongding River doesn’t flow into the river, but the other way, towards Juma River. According to the runoff index, the branching system of larger Fangshan district area shows, that the stream of on surface water flow into the Juma stream, without being absorbed into the soil.

0

2500 m

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 41


+ FLOODING SCENARIOS

Water level + 2 m

Water level +4 m

Water level +8 m

Normal condition

Water level + 2 m

Water level +4 m

Water level + 6 m

42

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

Water level + 7 m

Water level +8 m


+ FLOODING INDEX As a consequence, during the intensive rain period, minor or major flooding events are happening in Fangshan. Minor increase water level happens every year during rainy season, mainly between May and August, and major approximately every 20 years according to the data from historical flooding events between years 1724-1960. If the water hight difference is significant, the surplus of water stays inside the both rivers (Yongding and Juma), and if that is not enough the extra water absorb small terrain depressions existing in the area. When extreme raining events happen, there is a risk of flooding. The water floods vertically and horizontally. Vertical flooding occurs when the amount of water fallen in m3/s is too large, so that the soil cannot absorb the surplus of the water, and as a consequence, the water table rises vertically to the extent that floods the lower parts of the terrain. While horizontal flooding appears in relation to the runoffs. In the case of Fangshan it was possible to identify the weak embankments of Yongding River, where after vertical flooding, water reaches the edges of the river. The flooding index shows these points, where the water pressure is the highest, and the water starts to flow with approx. 8m3/s speed. In the case of the extreme flooding the big reservoirs of water from S-N diversion project catch extra water. In the case that heavy rain overwhelms the embankments of reservoirs. As a result it is possible to recognize different floodways that are extending flood hazard area. CONCLUSION On the base of indexes of runoffs and flooding the basic structure for the large masterplan has been extracted. Terrain depressions that already exist in the area are in the proposal made even deeper, so they can contain more water. With extra excavated soil the areas intended for building are made even higher. With `dig and fill ` technique the proposed structure for flood control is preventing urbanized areas to be flooded. According to breaking points of Yongding River embankments, main hazard areas are recognized. As a solution the masterplan proposes terraced riverbanks, which allow gradual water rising in combination with several flood ways operating as `sponge system`. Main flood canals are in catastrophic scenarios supported by primary, secondary and tertiary canals.

63 m

61 m

59 m

57 m

55 m

51 m 49 m

0

2500 m

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 43


+ EXISTING WATER LOOP

Beijing’s groundwater table is dropping; water is being pumped out faster than it can be replenished. Besides the municipality’s two largest reservoirs, Miyun and Guanting, now hold less than ten percent of their original storage capacity and Guanting is so polluted it hasn’t been used as a drinking water source since 1997. Further on, as the graph indicates water consumption of the last thirty years changed dramatically. While the usage of water in Industrial and Agricultural sector has dropped dramatically, the consumption of water in Household raised significantly in the last couple of years.

44

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

As explained in the introduction, due to water crisis and ever bigger needs for potable water in Beijing, the government is building for the last eight years the enormous engineering project: South – North diversion project. The Central route of this big infrastructure is passing also Fangshan district. As the diagram 00 is indicating the current water consumption scenario does not use fresh water efficiently. After the water is used in different sectors, it is brought to treatment plants, but this does not imply in many cases as well, and after the essential treatment it is flashed further in major streams, and returned to water cycle. Besides, the water distribution supplies as a priority higher social classes first, while leaving many times poorer areas without or with very poor water supplies.

The section show the topographical behaviour that defines the watersheds of the Yongding river and the Juma river.


+ PROPOSED WATER LOOP

As a more efficient proposal, the masterplan propose the `water loops strategy`. In this scenario water is not flowing through the city system but it represents “perpetual flux of infrastructurally mediated flow, movement and exchange (S. Graham, 2006). The water loop scenario proposes recycling the water throughout the city system. Recycling is taking place in physical space of the city through bio-technology of natural wetlands. This kind of system allows more even water distribution in a way that in general every area (from high-end development to urban villages) gets around 50 % of fresh water and 50 % of recycled water. The percentage varies for 20% between different areas. The upper diagram suggests that the amount of recycled water is increasing throughout the system. The proposed wetland system does not provide merely cleaning of the water, but it creates infrastructural landscapes which are mediators between ‘nature’ and the production of the ‘city’ (ibid.)

Further on this new infrastructural landscapes do not work as separate units, but every new `cleaning landscape` triggers new landscapes. Parts of one system rely on each other and correlate while producing “interrelationships with urban development and with urban space” (S. Graham). By this embeddedness in space this infrastructural productive landscape configurations reproduce activities by harnessing the social process in a new geography of places and connecting flows’ (E. Swyngedouw, 1993). The diagram suggests the water recycling is producing many different by-products besides water recovery status: leisure areas, water recreation areas, wildlife restoration, fisheries, aquaponics, micro-climate quality, and cleaned water for agriculture irrigation.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 45


+ WATER ACCESSIBILITY

ZERO CONDITION

FIRST CONDITION

SECOND CONDITION

THIRD CONDITION

46

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WATER ACCESSIBILITY

The accessibility to the water is meant as 1.Distance from the source

0-15 m

0-300 m

20-300 m

2.Value perceived small value

medium value

big value

3.Visual access to water

invisible

indirectly visible

directly visible

4. Quality of water supplied Large accessibility high quality Medium accessibility medium quality Small accessibility medium-low quality 0

2500 m

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 47


48

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


WATER URBANISM

49


+ PROJECT STRATEGY

HIGH END DEVELOPMENT high land value 1.

TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER THROUGH WETLANDS creation of valuable landscape and water supply for urban villages

2.

Preserved as core of cultural identity

EXISTING URBAN VILLAGES

Preserved as core of cultural identity

HIGH END DEVELOPMENT high land value

3.

Preserved as core of cultural identity TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER THROUGH WETLANDS creation of water landscape as social spaces

EXISTING URBAN VILLAGES

EXISTING URBAN VILLAGES

4. TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER THROUGH WETLANDS creation of valuable landscape and water supply for urban villages

HIGH END DEVELOPMENT high land value

EXISTING URBAN VILLAGES

NEW DEVELOPMENT medium land value

NEW DEVELOPMENT medium land value

AGRICULTURAL FIELDS low land value

The project considers existing urban villages, those interesting to preserve (see Chapter 7), as cores of cultural identity for the proposed masterplan (1). The project identifies the high land value as an attractor area for the investors where they can build high end development (2.), source of immediate profits.* Urban villages surrounding these developments, will take advantage of new infrastructures, which will be the by-product of this development. Further developments will arise from new landscapes that the cleaning water system is creating (3.). Making use of this strategy, the developers will have to provide water infrastructures, but later on these infrastructures will influence the value of the entire investment. In some cases, the developers might cooperate with the State, providing improvement of the water supply conditions, especially in the existing urban villages.

The idea of project’s proposal is that the new development does not overtake the existing situation but makes a coherent urban environment . Urban villages would be in this case the active centres, which give a character and is emphasising the local identity of the area (4.).

“...we can be the first to experience the moment that preservation is no longer a retroactive activity, but becomes a perspective activity.”

* In particular, see the masterplan zoom in: the high value plots are identified according to proximity to the water and good infrastructural connections.

Rem Koolhaas, “Preservation is overtaking us”, 2004

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 51


+ STRATEGY FOR URBANIZATION

The strategy for urban growth initiates from the idea that every stage of new urbanization uses partially recycled water, partially fresh water from S-N diversion project. In this way, urbanization starts on land with the highest value, in order to attract developers, who could then make a profit by selling or renting houses. These estates would benefit from good connectivity, high living standard and beautiful surrounding, having view on the lake and on wetlands` habitats. The new high-end development would improve surrounding urban villages, recycling their water. This water, once treated, could be used for irrigation and leisure purposes. Considering the water scarcity in the villages, the infrastructes provided by the new development would create new “Water distribution centres” where villagers have access to potable water and sanitation facilities. The new series of urbanization is determined by a number of people that are able to “feed” from the new urbanisation with water. This is done by calculating the number of people in urban villages and the amount of needed water per capita (cca. 400m3/ capita/year) summing the number of people living in high-end development and the approximate estimation of the water they are needing (cca. 1000 m3/capita/year ). With the amount of water that is possible to be recycled (around 60% of all the water), it can be calculated how many people can inhabit new territories - taking into consideration that the new wave of urbanisation would take 60% of recycled water and 40% of fresh potable water from S-N diversion project. Because of the amount of water available and other special indexes done throughout the process of the project (connectivity, land available, etc.) the new development has higher build density; more people could inhabit the space, with rough estimations for needs of water, which is around 800 m3/ capita/year. With this strategy the new development allows the built density always according to existing build urbanization.

52

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


0

2500 m SOCIALWATERSCAPES 53


+ TRANSPORTATION NODES

Tertiary nodes

Secondary nodes

Primary nodes

54

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ DENSITY ANALYSIS

Tertiary nodes

Secondary nodes

Primary nodes

High density

Medium density

Low density

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 55


+ ECONOMIC NETWORKS ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF WETLANDS Wetlands are more than a ecological environment related with water, these systems create wide new opportunities and new markets and therefore clean wastewater. For instance, EPA(United States Environmental Protection Agency) defines the important value and the profit of wetlands in USA... “wetlands contribute to the national and local economies by producing resources, enabling recreational activities and providing other benefits, such as pollution control and flood protection”. Moreover according to one assessment of natural ecosystems, the dollar value of wetlands worldwide was estimated to be $14.9 trillion. Wetlands have natural functions (water purification, storm surge prevention, flood control, etc.) and human uses (recreation, resource harvesting, etc.). Both functions and uses have economic values. Part of this economic value lies in the variety of commercial products they provide, such as food and energy sources. Some wetland plant species, such as wild rice and various reeds, can be harvested for or used to produce specialty foods, medicines, cosmetics and decorative items. Wetlands also provide employment opportunities. The production of raw materials from wetlands provides jobs to those employed in the commercial fishing, specialty food and cosmetic industries. These are billion dollar industries that depend in part on wetlands to flourish. In addition to the many ways wetlands provide economic benefits, they offer numerous less tangible benefits as well. These include providing aesthetic value to residential communities, reducing stream bank erosion and providing educational opportunities as an ideal “outdoor classroom.” In addition wetlands can play a important role in reducing the frequency and intensity of floods by acting as natural buffers, soaking up and storing a significant amount of floodwater. The effect is lowering of the peak water levels, which is especially useful when surrounding areas are sensitive to flooding and are heavily utilised.

56

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

Sustainable use of Wetlands (source: “Sustainable use of Wetlands. Edward B. Barbier. page 24”)

ECONOMIC WETLANDS NETWORK

Fish ponds Recreation Markets Biomass Pharmacy industry


+ ECONOMIC NETWORKS EXISTING ECONOMIC CONDITION IN FANGSHAN

PROPOSAL 1

PROPOSAL 2

Existing economical situation works as monocentric network. All main business, commercial, educational, and other activities are concentrated in a small city area.

Business: this network represents a new proposal for business centres , which can serve companies settled in the centre of Beijing.

Business and commercial: the network of business centres and commercial centres is very much overlapping. Besides the existing activities in Fangshan, new centres would spread across the Juma river and the Yongding river, along the transportation nodes already existing.

PROPOSAL 3

PROPOSAL 4

PROPOSED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 2025

Business, commercial and leisure: leisure centres are supporting business and commercial activities, which are placed between existing and new urban fabric. The proposal suggests an intensive hybridization of economical flows.

Business, commercial and leisure: cultural network does not take into consideration only big cultural centres (operas, cinemas, theatres), but includes revitalized cultural heritage in existing urban villages. By that, cultural life would flow between the new city and the revitalized urban villages.

The proposed economical network for the year 2025, when 130.000 new inhabitants are expected, represents a holistic image where different flows of investements, transport, goods, culture and leisure are interconnected throughout the entire area of Fangshan.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 57


+ BRANCHING SYSTEM Waterways branching 02

Waterways branching 01

Waterways branching 03 Water input

Water input S-N diversion

Water output

Water output

Urban intervention branching 01

Water output

Urban intervention branching 02

Urban patch

Water input

Urban intervention branching 03

Primary branch

Tertiary branch

Secondary branch

Secondary branch

Primary branch Primary branch

Social nodes 01

Social nodes 02

Small node

Social nodes 03

Small node Medium node

Small node

Medium node

Medium node Big node Big node

58

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ BRANCHING SYSTEM

0

2500 m

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 59


+ INFRASTRUCTURAL MESH WATER MOVEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION The scale of wetlands and canals is increasing alongside every branch. With the progression through the branch, the amount of water is increasing, and so is scale of canals, wetlands, flood plains, etc.

FLOODING SCENARIOS - Depth of the canals Primary canal with flooding pocket width 5-7 m depth 3 m

Secondary canals width 2-4 m depth 2 m

Tertiary canals width 1-2 m depth 1 m

FLOODING CANALS and FLOODING POCKETS Regular flow of the water in canals (rainy season betweeh May and August) 1. stage of flood 20 years flood Height of water 7 m

2. stage of flood 50 years flood Height of water 7,5 m

3. stage of flood 100 years flood Height of water 8 m

WATER MOVEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WETLANDS -water movement according to the most convienient angle (between 25째 - 35째) -water meandering with centrifugal force, creating exchanging sides for the wetlands placing -appliend wetlands in on the broken lines branching system

60

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ INFRASTRUCTURAL MESH

0

2500 m SOCIALWATERSCAPES 61


+ SOFT LANDSCAPE

62

INFRASTRUCTURAL MESH

BIG WETLANDS

Primary, secondary, tertiaty canals

Tertiary treatment wetlands

FLOODING AREAS

PARK SYSTEM AND ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS

Flooding areas are in normal condition used as agricultural fields

Seasonal crops, park systems, patches of forest

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ SOFT LANDSCAPE NATURAL SYSTEM Wetland system Big wetlands next to Juma river Flooding areas

GREEN SYSTEM and PRODUCTION AREAS Forests Seasonal crops Seasonal crops Parks

0

2500 m SOCIALWATERSCAPES 63


+ MASTERPLAN - STAGES MASTERPLAN STAGE 1

The urbanization starts next to the lake on the high land value and near the existing city of Fangshan, so consolidate the city. The water is taken fron S-N diversion project reservoir(70%), and self recycled water from irrigation (30%).

MASTERPLAN STAGE 4

Urbanization takes place in the central part of the masterplan,. The area has the highest density, according to good connectivity and other parameters. The water is 50% fresh (S-N d.p.), and 50% recycled form the water from urban villages.

64

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

MASTERPLAN STAGE 2

New development with higher density comes in the next stage on the second rang of land value. The water comes from S-N diversion project(60%), and partially the recycled water from urban villages(40).

MASTERPLAN STAGE 5

Stage five is mostly developed in the NW part of the masterplan, with good connectivity and 50/50 recycled and fresh water.

MASTERPLAN STAGE 3

Third stage of the masterplan happens on high land value with partially recycled water (30%), and partially water from S-N diversion project(70%).

MASTERPLAN STAGE 6

The final stage of the masterplan is consolidating further the existing city of Fangshan, taking 50/50 fresh and recycled water.


+ MASTERPLAN NEW URBAN DEVELOPMENT High end development New development - middle density New development - high density

0

2500 m SOCIALWATERSCAPES 65


+ MASTERPLAN

66

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


SOCIALWATERSCAPES 67


68

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


PROTOTYPING WATERSCAPES

69


+ WETLANDS PROTOTYPE GEOMETRICAL UNIT DEFORMATIONS The octagon is taken as base shape for further deformation, which are optimising the wetland performance. The water flows through the the stages of the cleaning treatment with different speed, difefrent

PERFORMATIVE FLOW OF WATER The natural meandering of the water is following a inclination between 15째 and 45째

PERFORMATIVE WETLANDS SHAPE Possible shapes for wetlands which are allowing optimal water flow throughout the cleaning treatment

70

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WETLANDS PROTOTYPE

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 71


+ WETLAND PROTOTYPE WATER TREATMENT PERFORMANCE

3D COMBINATION OF WETLANDS

A wetlandare is a more natural areaa that is often wet but may Wetlands than ecological environment not be wet year these round.systems Wetlands are characterelated with all water, create wide new rized by their distinctive hydrology, soils and opportunities and new markets and thereforeplants. clean Constructed wetlands use less energy to process wawastewater. For instance, EPA(United States Enviste than traditional municipal systems while creating ronmental Protection Agency) defines the important habitats for plant and animal life. Moreover they are value and the profit of wetlands in USA... “wetlands now recognized important of the lancontribute to the as national and features local economies by dscape that provide numerous beneficial services for producing resources, enabling recreational activities people and wildlife. The economic value of a conwetand providing other benefits, such as pollution land is an estimate of the importance, or worth, to of trol and flood protection�. Moreover according one assessment or more of its services to society. Some of these of natural ecosystems, the dollar vaservices, or functions, include lue of wetlands worldwide wasprotecting estimated and to beimpro$14.9 ving water quality, supporting the fishing industry, stotrillion. ring floodwaters and providing opportunities for education and recreation. Wetlands have natural functions (water purification, storm surge prevention, flood control, etc.) and human uses (recreation, resource harvesting, etc.). Both functions and uses have economic values. Part of this economic value lies in the variety of commercial products they provide, such as food and energy sources.

3d view of combination of constructed wetland on the geometrical base shape

72

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

The combination of wetlands which are treating greywater is creating a landscape made by canals, vegetation and artificial topography


+ WATER TREATMENT FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS (FWS) A Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland is a series of flooded channels that aims to replicate the naturally occurring processes of a natural wetland, marsh or swamp. As water slowly flows through the wetland, particles settle, pathogens are destroyed, in the treatment of different kinds of wastewaters, municipal, industrial and agricultural. Other benefits are also gained from constructing FWS wetlands. Biodiversity and aesthetic values are additional advantages when this treatment technology is employed.

x. Detail of free water constructed wetland.

HORIZONTAL SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND(HSSF) A Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland is a large gravel and sand-filled channel that is planted with aquatic vegetation. As wastewater flows horizontally through the channel, the filter material filters out particles and microorganisms degrade organics. The water level in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland is maintained at 5 to 15cm below the surface to ensure subsurface flow.

x. Detail of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 73


+ WETLANDS EXCAVATION PROCESS

+wetlands exc. for NEW URBANIZATION

+excavated soil for INTERIM LANDSCAPE

+REFERENCES

+ soil VOLUME

74

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WETLANDS EXCAVATION PROCESS

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 75


+ GROUND PROTOTYPE

01. Ground morphology: enclosed

76

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

02. Ground morphology: partially open

03. Ground morphology: open


+ COMBINATION OF GROUND PROTOTYPES

Combination 01

Combination 02

Combination 03

Combination 04

Combination 05

Pedestrian circulation Vehicular circulation

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 77


+ GROUND PROTOTYPE REFERENCE FOR LANDSCAPE TECHNIQUES

SE Coastal Park, Barcelona, FOA Architects

CIRCULATION Pedestrian circulation Vehicular circulation Water circulation

LAND USE DISTRIBUTION

78

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ GROUND PROTOTYPE

International Port Termianl, Yokohama, FOA Architects

Sculpture Park, Seattle, Weiss&Manfredi

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 79


+ GROUND PROTOTYPE PHYSICAL MODEL: EXPLORATION OF GROUND PROTOTYPE

80

frame no. 001

frame no. 005

frame no. 007

frame no. 011

frame no. 014

frame no. 025

frame no. 032

frame no. 039

frame no. 047

frame no. 052

frame no. 058

frame no. 065

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ GROUND PROTOTYPE

frame no. 075

frame no. 083

frame no. 090

frame no. 097

frame no. 105

frame no. 112

frame no. 121

frame no. 142

frame no. 150

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 81


+ URBAN MASSING

Location

Massing + Wetlands

Massing rules

Massing + Flood plain

Massing + Urban village

82

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ URBAN MASSING

GROUND MORPHOLOGY

BUILDING MASSING

URBAN MASSING

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 83


+ WATERSCAPES

+ Traditional

AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

84

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

+ Social activity

FLOODING AREAS

+ Public space

WETLANDS

+ Traditional

URBAN VILLAGE


+ GROUND MORPHOLOGY

+ Traditional

AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

+ Public space

GROUND MORPHOLOGY

+ Social activity

FLOODING AREAS

+ Public space

WETLANDS

+ Traditional

URBAN VILLAGE

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 85


+ URBAN MASSING

86

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


SOCIALWATERSCAPES 87


88

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


URBAN TYPOLOGIES

89


+ SOCIAL NODES

INDIVIDUAL SCALE

Social nodes appear from intersection of infrastructures and facilities. In these points social connections increase and become social nodes.

90

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

COMMUNITY SCALE

URBAN SCALE


+ SOCIAL NODES - EXISTING REFERENCES

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 91


+ URBAN VILLAGES One of the main issues tackled by the project is that of urban villages. The typology of urban villages is considered as one of the main typologies in Chinese architecture and history. The new urban proposal for Fangshan addresses the issue of existing urban villages, aiming to integrate and include them in new urban development. The idea of the proposal is to improve the conditions of these villages by tackling issues such as accessibility to the water, sanitation and other problems prevalent in the areas. The idea of urban integration with new major urbanisation introduced in the project proposal attempts to include local identity and preserve a vibrant social life in existing urban villages, with partial reconstruction and adaptation of the already existing villages. The idea of urban village preservation is currently a “hot topic” among academia, urban practitioners and architects. Various projects and professionals attempt to deal with this topic, and some major notions need to be taken into account while this matter is discussed. Thus, the project proposal requires a more subtle and strategic approach. A few questions could rise from this issue: how is it possible, with a delicate approach, to preserve but at the same time revitalize these vulnerable human cores; and what should be the basic engine of this process. Urban villages are similar to Hutongs, recognized worldwide as areas with distinct character that attract visitors as well as people from surrounding areas. This traditional way of living is full of vibrant social life, local market exchange and local artists’ disposal. The initial idea from which the project is developed from stems from the intent that urban villages could take a central position in the new hyper-urbanized areas. By doing that, they could represent areas which are keeping the small, human scale, and maintain the dynamic social life of traditional Chinese living. Majority of villages in Fangshan are not `true urban villages`, as they are surrounded by agricultural land. Urban village means village in the middle of the city, emerging as a by-product of the rapid urbanization process as well as the complicated dual-track land ownership system of China. These villages pose a major urban problem for the metropolitan authority, as they are “untouchable” as far as land use rights are concerned. Rapid urban growth is a major factor for the creation of urban villages, which often find themselves in the middle of concentrated urban tissue.

92

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

The table shows the criteria on which was decided which villages needed to be replaced, rebuild, or renovated.


+ URBAN VILLAGES SCENARIO 1: REVITALISING THE VILLAGE INSIDE-OUT

First step is implementation of canal system and wetlands into existing urban village

SCENARIO 3: SHRINKING OF THE VILLAGE

In the scenario, that the villagers start to move out, the proposal suggests that it is possible for village to shrink

SCENARIO 2: GROWTH OF THE VILLAGE

The proposal aleaves the space on the N and the S, in order to leave space for village to grow

SCENARIO 3: VILLAGE MERGED WITH NEW URBAN FABRIC

In the scenario that the new urbanisation approaches the village, the existing and new work as a coherent urban fabric

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 93


+ URBAN VILLAGES The villagers, who find themselves in the middle of dense urban cores do not often want to leave their homes - this is because of the potential increase of land price or chance of living a profitable life by renting their house. Sometimes the reason for isolated villages is government’s lack of interest in rebuilding or relocating the villagers in other areas. On the other hand, the issue is very delicate, thus for the government it is easier to leave the villagers in their original locations and build a “wall� of new development around it. In the rapidly developing areas, such as outskirts of Beijing, this phenomenon of urban villages is very common (Li Ling, 2010). The project proposal identifies with a specific strategy for a set of urban villages which would be valuable to preserve. With a critical approach, the proposal is taking into consideration the fact that not all villages are in good condition. Using several parameters as the criteria of selection, the villages are grouped three main categories: villages that need to be replaced, rebuilt, or rehabilitated. In the first two cases the physical space of the village is taken over by the new development. In the third scenario the village remains, and when new development around it starts to take place, the rehabilitated village becomes the centre of social gatherings, small local economy exchange, etc. The villages are put in different categories according to the following properties and parameters: the number of people living in the village, how much, if any, agricultural activity is surrounding the village, what the condition of the buildings is, how much existing infrastructure (roads, sewage system, etc.) exist in the village, what the sanitation status of the village is, and if the village contains any important buildings that could have cultural heritage value. With the notion that at least 30% of the village`s houses are in bad condition, the plan is to identify these cores and replace them with the new buildings or new purposes of use, according to stages. After identifying the first set of unstable houses, removing them and discovering bigger voids, a new public use is to be implemented; for example schools or community centres. In the second stage, the voids would be filled with the new community housing, directed for those inhabitants with the greatest need.

Preserved urban villages in Fangshan

0 94

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

500 m


+ URBAN VILLAGES

Preserved urban villages in Fangshan

Preserved urban villages in Fangshan

0

500 m SOCIALWATERSCAPES 95


+ URBAN VILLAGES Finally, after the last wave of void identification, new commercial uses can be introduced, which could follow site specific market flows if there are any excising in the village. With this strategy, urban villages in Beijing`s suburbia would not be only maintained, but would also get an important status in the socioeconomic environment. With the strategic identification of voids and integration of new-old uses, villages could have an opportunity to “breathe� in size and capacity. The land used for farming would stay protected from two sides at least, so the villages would not become closed enclaves and people living there would not feel as prisoners locked inside the new high-end development. As part of the main social ecology, the water distribution centres are naturally a part of village renovation. They are placed in a way that they cover areas with a radius of 150m, and this way people have very close accessibility to the potable sources of water. The proposal for village renovation is taking place acupunctural in selected places - thus, with some time, the whole village would be revitalised. CONCLUSION However, changes in our cities occur and will continue to occur at a constant rate. Physical change in the cityscape happens generally at a slow pace, sometimes meaning that unsuccessful structures and forms contained by this change remain present for decades or even centuries - meaning that major changes are often not practical. This is why the proven solutions of past urban forms should be adapted to present needs. There is urgency to this task, which becomes clearer as realised at present, sometimes certain things need to be destroyed to make space for new. However, sometimes we, as space planners, need to protect not just some buildings that are aesthetically worthy but also places that give sense of belonging, identity and culture. While technology and design development have occasionally produced new urban forms of limited success, the overall record indicates a lack of ability to design and produce modern, liveable cities.

96

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

0

250 m


The image represents the proposed revitalised village with water infrastructure, which is providing villagers with potable water.

97


+ SPACES FOR SOCIALITY EXISTING HUTONG PATTERN

CONNECTING & GATHERING

EXTRACTED GEOMETRY

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 99


+ SPACES FOR SOCIALITY

The project studies traditional Chinese housing typologies. Courtyards of Hutongs are taken as valuable example, where livelihood of Chinese cities is present the most. Courtyards represent enclosed and semienclosed spaces, where opportunities for social links are created. Courtyards have specific rules of organisation, with the entrance facing the south. The project takes inspiration from these existing spaces, in order to develop their major spatial and social qualities within the proposed urban typologies. This has been done through the manipulation of walls, which are closing the courtyard. By breaking apart the barriers of walls, the aim is to enlarge these spaces from the private familiar dimension to a wider community. The studies on th right hand side are suggesting the new possible configuration of the courtyards. Their reinterpretation is the core of the sociality that the project aims to create in the proposal.

100

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ SPACES FOR SOCIALITY

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 101


+ SPATIAL QUALITY OF THE COURTYARDS

The growth of the area of the courtyards as space for sociality is according to the proposed building typologies.

The number of storeys building increases according to the density of the inhabitants required by new urbanisation.

The common space informed by the courtyards of the Si-he-Yuan hosts traditionally the family. The proposed typologies vary in size this space according to the density required by the urbanization.

102

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ SPATIAL QUALITY OF THE COURTYARDS

TRADITIONAL HUTONG’S COURTYARD

The courtyard composed by 4 walls is breaken by 2 new entrances in order to increase permeability and therefore flow of people. The space become less private (semi-private).

OPENING OF TRADITIONAL HUTONG’S COURTYARD

TRADITIONAL COURTYARD WITH INSERTION OF PROPOSED PROJECT’S ELEMENT

One of the 4 walls composing the courtyard is replaced by a wetland and artificial topography obtained by its excavation. The space becomes more public (semipublic).

One of the 4 walls composing the courtyard is replaced by a wetland and artificial topography obtained by its excavation. The space becomes more public (semipublic).

PROPOSED TYPOLOGY WITH EXISTING HUTONGS

PROPOSED TYPOLOGY

The courtyard is defined by the new typology, wetland and artificial ground. The space mantains an enclosed character but can be more public according to the different programs contained in the building (commercial, office or private).

The typologies proposed are higher according to higher density. The aim is to mantain the inner courtyard as core for social life. The courtyard is permeable and public.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 103


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 01 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 7500 - 10000 m2 Foot Print: 1750 m2 Built Area: 5500 m2 Covered Area: 20%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 3.5 Dwellings: 25 Inhabitants: 80t Primary Treatment: 80.000 L

Sport

Secondary Treatment: 50 - 100 m2 Tertiary Treatment: 100 - 150 m2

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW

Offices

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Civic

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Culture

Work-Unit

Education

104

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Top view

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 105


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 02 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 7500 - 10000 m2 Foot Print: 1750 m2 Built Area: 5500 m2 Covered Area: 20%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 3.5 Dwellings: 25 Inhabitants: 80t Primary Treatment: 80.000 L Secondary Treatment: 50 - 100 m2

Sport

Tertiary Treatment: 100 - 150 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW Offices

Civic

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Culture

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Work-Unit

Education

106

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Top view

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 107


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 03 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 7500 - 10000 m2 Foot Print: 3500 m2 Built Area: 12000 m2 Covered Area: 40%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 3.5 Dwellings: 80 Inhabitants: 250 Primary Treatment: 250000 L Secondary Treatment: 150 - 250 m2

Sport

Tertiary Treatment: 300 - 400 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW Offices

Civic

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Culture

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Work-Unit

Education

108

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Top view

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 109


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 04 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 7500 - 10000 m2 Foot Print: 3800 m2 Built Area: 16000 m2 Covered Area: 45%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 4.0 Dwellings: 60 Inhabitants: 190 Primary Treatment: 190000 L Secondary Treatment: 150 - 250 m2

Sport

Terciary Treatment: 300 - 400 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW Offices

Civic

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Culture

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Work-Unit

Education

110

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Top view

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 111


View from urban park


View from a street


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 05 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 10000 - 15000 m2 Foot Print: 4000 m2 Built Area: 18000 m2 Covered Area: 55%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 5.0 Dwellings: 90 Inhabitants: 230 Primary Treatment: 21000 L

Sport

Secondary Treatment: 300 - 400 m2 Tertiary Treatment: 400 - 550 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW

Offices

Civic

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Culture

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Work-Unit

Education

114

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Top view

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 115


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 06 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 15000 - 20000 m2 Foot Print: 5000 m2 Built Area: 20000 m2 Covered Area: 65%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 6.5 Dwellings: 120 Inhabitants: 230 Primary Treatment: 24000 L Secondary Treatment: 350 - 400 m2

Sport

Tertiary Treatment: 500 - 600 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW Offices

Civic

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Culture

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Work-Unit

Education

116

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 117


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 07 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 20000 - 24000 m2 Foot Print: 5000 m2 Built Area: 25000 m2 Covered Area: 70%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 7.5 Dwellings: 200 Inhabitants: 200 Primary Treatment: 24000 L Secondary Treatment: 350 - 400 m2

Sport

Tertiary Treatment: 550 - 650 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW

Offices

Civic

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

Culture

+WATER SYSTEM

WETLANDS+CANALS

Work-Unit

Education

118

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Perspective

Section

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 119


+ URBAN TYPOLOGY 08 AXONOMETRIC VIEW Plot Area: 20000 - 25000 m2 Foot Print: 5000 m2 Built Area: 40000 m2 Covered Area: 80%

Hotel

Floor Area Ratio: 9.0 Dwellings: 500 Inhabitants: 250 Primary Treatment: 30000 L Secondary Treatment: 600 - 800 m2

Sport

Tertiary Treatment: 650 - 850 m2

+WATER SYSTEM

RAIN WATER

Comercial

Residential

+PEOPLE

PUBLIC FLOW Offices

Civic

Culture

+GROUND

TOPOGRAPHY

+WATER SYSTEM

Work-Unit

WETLANDS+CANALS Education

120

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

PHYSICAL CONSITIONS sun, rain and wind Rain Wind

Perspective

121


+ SOFT LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGIES

SMALL WETLAND

Sections of wetlands represent soft typologies of the master plan. Behaviour of the water makes a connection with behaviour of people.

TOP VIEW

Water infrastructure represents flow by canal system, while with wetlands water patches. This behaviour could be recognized with people moving through space. People moving from one place to another represent the “flow”, while “concentration” happens within the social spaces establishing different levels of privacy: from private, to semi-private over to public spaces. Looking at the distribution of water the project proposes a new infrastructure that is cleaning and redistributing water at the same time with a pattern of a constantly changing infrastructure of flows and concentration. In this case “flow” is represented by canal and flooding systems whereby “concentration” is achieved through patches of different kinds of wetlands. These spaces will be enjoyed by people, attracting social life.

SECTION

124

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


MEDIUM WETLAND

TOP VIEW

SECTION

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 125


+ SOFT LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGIES

CANAL SYSTEM

SECTION

126

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

SMALL WETLAND

PLAYGROUND

FOOTBRIDGE


TOP VIEW

FLOODING AREA

MEDIUM WETLAND

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 127


View of composed wetland

128

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


View of composed wetland

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 129


130

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


MASTERPLAN

131


+ LAND VALUE INDEX PROXIMITY TO PARKS

PROXIMITY TO URBAN VILLAGES

land valur parameters land valur parameters phisical proximity x < 300m visual proximity x < 100m

phisical proximity x >100m visual proximity x < 200m

PROXIMITY TO THE LAKE

PROXIMITY TO ROADS

land valur parameters

land valur parameters

phisical proximity x < 300m visual proximity x < 500m

phisical proximity x < 50m visual proximity x < 100m

PROXIMITY TO CANALS

COMBINED LAND VALUE

land valur parameters

High value

phisical proximity < 100m visual proximity < 150m

Medium value

Low value

132

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ DENSITY INDEX

FAR Floor area ratio = (total covered area on all floors of all buildings on a certain plot)/(area of the plot) Source: wikipedia

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 133


+ DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN TYPOLOGIES MASSING

FOOTPRINT Permeabilty

RELATION URBAN MODEL

134

Cluster urban typology 01-02

Cluster urban typology 02-03

Cluster of transportation HUB

Cluster urban typology 04-05

Cluster urban typology 06-07-08

Cluster of all urban typologies

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ DISTRIBUTION OF USES

USES CONFIGURATION Working unit Civic Offices Residential Hotel Sport Education Culture Comercial

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Configuration 03

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 135


+ URBANIZATION TIMELINE

+INFRASTRUCTURE The construction of major infrastructures, such as roads and canals for the water treatments and flooding prevention, is taking place in the first stage of the masterplan. This is planned in order to serve movement of materials for construction, workers and water in the area.

+URBANIZATION The excavation of wetlands and their consequently earthwoks are strictly connected to the construction of buildings. When the buildings are used, wetlands will serve for treatment of their grey water.

+LANDSCAPE Part of the soil resulting from the excavation of infrastructures and wetlands is hauled off site, creating a interim landscape. This is meant as temporay green buffer areas which are the base for future urbanization. Some of these green patches will be mantained with the function of urban parks, wind breakers and agroforesty patches.

136

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ URBANIZATION TIMELINE

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 137


+ MASTERPLAN: PHASES + 2012

+ 2015

138

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ MASTERPLAN: PHASES + 2020

+ 2025

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 139


+ MASTERPLAN

0

140

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

250 m


+ MASTERPLAN AXONOMETRIC VIEW

URBAN FABRIC

GROUND CONFIGURATION

WATERSCAPES+URBAN VILLAGES

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 141


Birdview of the masterplan

142

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


Birdview of the masterplan in the flooded scenario

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 143


+ SOFT LANDSCAPE

0

144

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

250 m


+ SENSORIAL INDEX

Nowadays, contemporary cities often suffer from the impoverishment of public spaces. Some of the activities once carried out in public space have been taken over by new forms of communal spaces, like shopping malls and theme parks. In the new proposal, the new landscape proliferated with wetland system is bringing together ideas from new-, ecological- and landscape urbanism. The project proposal gives an emphasis on creating places for social activities and to be used as gathering spaces. Thus, the critical thinking in the proposal is not driven merely by language communication and signs, but by rediscovery of experience, perceptions and senses. Therefore the new urban proposal gives an emphasis on sensorial perception of the city and new public spaces, where users do not rely only on visual conditions, but embrace all the various sensory experiences that one can have in a space (M. Zardini, 2006). The sensorial index is showing how one can perceive the new city landscape through different senses. Areas of hearing refer to the larger canals where the stream of the water is faster, and thus it is possible to hear the water. The sense of smell is activated primarily around wetlands with secondary treatment, which are planted with different aromatic plants. The wind is blowing from the north, so the scents are mostly spread towards the south and south-west. The sense of touch is mainly possible around tertiary treatment, where human contact is allowed. The new urban proposal with series of wetlands is visually stimulated throughout the city.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 145


+ WATER INFRASTRUCTURE CANALS

146

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WATER INFRASTRUCTURE WETLANDS

147


+ WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FLOODING PREVENTION

148

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


149


View of the water front

150

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


View of the water front, floodable sport facilities

151


+ MASTERPLAN TYPOLOGICAL SECTIONS

Flood Plain longitudinal section

Urban Villages longitudinal section

Urban longitudinal section

152

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


153


+ MASTERPLAN AXONONOMETRY

154

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


SOCIALWATERSCAPES 155


Birdview of the masterplan

156

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


Birdview of the masterplan

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 157


160

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


TECHNICAL REPORT

161


+ OVERALL WATER STRATEGY

162

OVERALL WATER STRATEGY

GENERAL WATER SYSTEMS

The various systems in the masterplan have been treated in a holistic way, this comprising a unified concept. Figure above shows the coordination of all three systems, which are divided into the following categories: 1. General Water system 2. Natural Water system 3. Formal Water system

The general water systems include surface water drainage, foul drainage, potable water supply and fire supply:

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

STORMWATER TREATMENT will be integrated into the landscape, either through the treatment wetlands or through a series of swales. This will provide a degree of treatment, particularly with respect to base flows and the â&#x20AC;&#x153;first flushâ&#x20AC;? and help to meet objectives of water quality criteria for discharge of storm water into the Juma river. The system will visually demonstrate storm water treatment, FOUL DRAINAGE is to be connected to the existing network via a main sewer running along main road, next to the main flood canal. The system will minimise energy use and optimise capital and operational costs, POTABLE WATER will be taken from S-N diversion project reservoir, A NON-POTABLE WATER system will be provided through wetlands` cleaning, and different loops of cleaning water process.


+ WATER QUALITY CATEGORIES

GREYWATER DEFINITION

WASTE WATER SOURCES

Greywater is the wastewater produced from sinks, baths, or clothes-washing; it does not include toilet water, which contains many more pathogens and bacteria. Typically greywater does contain nitrate, phosphate, soaps, salt, bacteria, bleach, foam, food particles, organic matter, suspended solids, perfumes and dye. Additions of grey water to surface water bodies can cause pH imbala ces, increased oxygen demand and increased turbidity. Biological and chemical purification of water to defined standards is necessary to reduce risk of damage to human health, minimise damage the environment and, maintain quality of rivers and costal water. Different categories of water, need different treatment and different amount of treatment.

Any water that has been chemically or biologically altered such that it may pose a pollution risk if released into the environment 1. Domestic -Sinks and showers -Washing machines -Toilets 2. Commercial 3. Industrial -Material, chemical and food processing -Often stronger concentrations of contaminants -Specific and unique contaminants from different industries 4. Agricultural 5. Surface run-off 6. Drainage, including storm run-off

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 163


+ STRATEGY FOR LOCATING WETLANDS

WETLAND SYSTEM DEFINITION

WETLAND SYSTEM LOCATIONS IN INITIAL STAGES OF NEW URBANISATION

A greywater biofiltration system is a constructed wetland that removes a significant amount of pollutants from greywater before it flows into the groundwater, river, or natural wetland. Addition of pathogens, bacteria, and non-biodegradable toxins to the surface water can be avoided with this biological treatment, to promote a healthier ecosystem and more sanitary conditions. The system can be built for a single household or a group of households, typically at a low cost.

WETLAND SYSTEM LOCATIONS IN FINAL STAGES OF NEW URBANISATION

164

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEMS GRAVITY FLOW AND PURIFICATION THROUGH PLANTS

WETLANDS WORKING

beneath the soil surface, which eliminates the risk for standing pools and mosquito breeding. The system consists of a thin layer

Wetland system usually has a typical subsurface flow. Water flows

(5cm) of sand topped by a thick layer (45-75cm) of small-medium

from the house or other greywater-producing system into the gra-

sized gravel, with a thin layer (5cm) of mulch or rich organic soil

vel level of the treatment wetland. The greywater passes through

on top. Greywater enters the wetland by gravity and is first filte-

the wetland slowly, and cleaner water exits the system at the same

red by mechanical processes - the suspended solids settle into the

level as it entered. A hose or pipe brings the water to the ground,

substrate as the water moves through the soil and plants. Wetland

and the water flows to surface water with gravity, preferably throu-

plants transfer oxygen to the submerged root zone, which allows

gh a vegetated pathway. Water that is discharged into a greywa-

for the biological breakdown of pollutants and organic materials

ter wetland biofiltration system will be filtered through both me-

by m crobes. Removal rate varies, but usually the wetland is able

chanical and biological processes by both the plants in the system

to take up a good of the polluting ingredients from greywater.Ef-

and the microbes that live around the plant roots. In subsurface

fluent from a completed system should be monitored to determine

flow wetlands, the greywater flows through the system

approximate removal rates.

Wetland plants (cattails, reeds, etc) are planted in the topsoil and roots grow into the gravel substrate.

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 165


+ WATER RECYCLING LOOPS

Strategy diagram for wetlands recycling loops for one branch in the new urbanisation.

166

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WATER RECYCLING LOOPS

Size of wetlands according to the location in the water treatment branch

Water loop generations

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 167


+ EARTHWORK STRATEGY

Earthworks strategy was done on the example of one branch. By dig-fill technique different configurations of the ground were created. The configuration of the ground indicates the scale of urban fabric that is able to take place on the site in the future. The ground configuration so varies between linear, double linear, slope and terraced ground typology. A catalogue of different ground configurations is in constant dialogue with water typologies. The composition of both types of prototypes is creating a variety of social configuration opportunities.

168

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ EARTHWORKS STRATEGY SELECTED SECTION IN MASTERPLAN

ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY STUDY

ONSITE SOIL COMPENSATION

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 169


+ WATER INFRASTRUCTURES

170

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ DRAINAGE SYSTEM

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 171


+ SECTIONS OF FLOODING SCENARIOS CANALS SYSTEM

172

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ WATER INFRASTRUCTURE+ SECTIONS WETLANDS SYSTEM

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 173


+ SECTIONS OF FLOODING SCENARIOS FLOODING SYSTEM

174

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


SOCIALWATERSCAPES 175


+ CONNECTIVITY INDEX SPACE SINTAX EXPLANATION SPACE SYNTAX is a method for describing and analysing the relationships between spaces of urban areas and buildings. Architects normally refer to these relationships as “the layout”. In Space Syntax, the spaces are understood as voids (streets, squares, rooms, fields, etc.) between walls, fences and other impediments or obstructions that restrain (pedestrian) traffic and/or the visual field.

1. NODE COUNT INDEX: Node count map is based on three parameters: The parameters are measuring the number of immediate neighbours that are directly connected to a space. Control value measures the degree

Focus path map

to which a space controls access to its immediate neighbours taking into account the number of alternative connections that each of these neighbours has. Global choice represents “flow” through a space. Index no 00 is indicating existing situation, where city centre of Fangshan is the most infrastructurally connected area (red areas).

2. FOCUS PATH INDEX: Convex map depicts the least number of convex spaces that fully cover a layout and the connections between them. Axial map depicts the least number of axial lines covering all convex spaces of a layout and their connections. In the case of Fangshan (see index no.00) this areas represent mostly the areas which are well connected, but does not have an immediate neighbourhood nodes. These areas (in cyan colour) in Fangshan are mostly industrial and production areas.

3. INTEGRATION INDEX: Integration describes the average depth of a space to all other spaces in the system. The spaces of a system can be ranked from the most integrated to the most segregated. The spatial measures of integration map can be related to social indicators, to test socio-spatial hypotheses or to develop predictive models the “social effects” of spatial layout. The integration map index for Fanshan (see index no.00) is showing areas in red which represent the areas where peple are most likely to `end up in`. This area shows the area which is well connected with main roads, which are all connected, but they are without any close neighbours, represented as tertiary roads. Further on, this area is crossed with the tube line which is another major transport connection. Integration map Conclusion: This data are supporting the intention for urbanisation to take place in this area.

176

SOCIALWATERSCAPES

Node count map


177


178

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


BIBLIOGRAPHY

179


+ BIBLIOGRAPHY Bélanger Pierre(2009), `Landscape As Infrastructure` in Landscape Journal 28:1–09 Bullivant Lucy (2012), Masterplanning Futures, Routledge, London Dreiseitl Herbert, Grau Dieter, Ludwig H.C. Karl (2001), Waterscapes, Birkhauser, Basel Economy Elizabeth(2004), The River runs back; The environmental challange to China`s Future, Cornell University Press, New York Graham Stephen(2000),`Cities and Infrastructure Networks` in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Volume 24.1 March 2000 Heggelund,Gorild. Environment and Resettlement Politics in China, The Three Gorges Project. 2004. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. England Herbert Dreiseitl and Dieter Grau (2009), Recent Waterscapes, Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel Koolhas Rem (2004), Preservation is overtaking us, Future Anterior Volume 1, Number 2 (2006),Who Owns The Water ?, Lars Müller Publishers, London Ho Peter(2001), Mao`s war against nature? The environmental impact of the grain-first campaign in China, The China Journal, No. 50 Ryan Zoe(2010), Building with water, Birkhäuser Architecture, Berlin Swyngedouw, E. (1993) Communication, mobility and the struggle for power over space. In G. Giannopoulos and A. Gillespie (eds.), Transport and communications in the New Europe, Belhaven, London. Van Uffelen Chris (2011), Waterscapes: contemporary landscaping, Braun Publishing, Berlin Zardini Mirko(2006), Sense of the city: An Alternate Approach to Urbanism, Lars Muller Publishers, Montreal Zhu Jianfei (2004), Chinese Spatial Strategies: Imperial Beijing 1420-1911, RooutladgeCurzon, London

180

SOCIALWATERSCAPES


+ OTHER SOURCES Beijing’s Water Crisis 1949 — 2008 http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/016/_docs/BeijingWaterCrisis1949-2008.pdf) Beijing’s Water Crisis 1949 — 2008 http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/016/_docs/BeijingWaterCrisis1949-2008.pdf Design Manual: Greywater Biofiltration - Constructed Wetland System http://fiesta.bren.ucsb.edu/~chiapas2/Water%20Management_files/Greywater%20Wetlands-1.pdf Explanation for space syntax: vvhttps://dspace.ist.utl.pt/bitstream/2295/630855/1/glossarySS.pdf Li Ling Hin, Li Xin (2010), Redevelopment of urban villages in Shenzhen, China and analysis of power relations and urban coalitions http://202.114.32.103/ctdb/UserFile/Inspect/2011091505345038.pdf Unmasking and overcoming health inequalities in urban settings http://www.hiddencities.org/downloads/WHO_UN-HABITAT_Hidden_Cities_Web.pdf UN Water report(2006), Water a shared responsibility: The United Nations, World Water Development Report 2 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001444/144409e.pdf

SOCIALWATERSCAPES 181


AA-Landscape-Urbanism-Social-Waterscapes-2011-12  

Social waterscapes is the design thesis of Jaime Traspaderne, Ana Abram and Costanza Madricardo at the Architectural Association within the...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you