180914_FISHMATCH_AA Landscape Urbanism MSc 2018

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EXCHANGE NET WORK FOR SMALL INSHORE FISHERS IN THE SOUTH

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OF UK


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EXCHANGE NET WORK FOR SMALL INSHORE FISHERS IN THE SOUTH

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OF UK


EXMOUTH MARINA Original picture by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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Directors: José Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Studio Master: Clara Ortiz Theory Tutor: Douglas Spencer Technical Tutors: Gustavo Romanillos Giancarlo Torpiano Vincenzo Reale Claudio Campanile Andrew Barkwith 2017-2018 September 2018 Raúl Bielsa Pérez bielsaperezraul@gmail.com IG @nwtntppls Camila Ocejo Domenge ocejoc@gmail.com IG @amilaocejo

Special thanks to the New Economics Foundation for helping us frame our research, to Griffin Carpenter for the amazingly insightful conversations, to Jim Pettipher and Paul Joy for sharing their knowledge and experience with us, to Shaked Lokits for helping us develop the app prototype, to Gustavo Romanillos for hopping-in our road trip to the coast, to Javier Gonzalez for the delicious food he has cooked for us, to our tutors for making us feel constantly challenged, to our AALU colleagues, and to the Sainsbury’s ‘£3 meal deal’ and Gail’s chocolate chunk cookie.

AALU LANDSCAPE URBANISM 6


menu

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politics of landscape 13

small scale fishers number of vessels vs amount of landing deprived under 10 england’s hot dog is Fishy evolution of the fishing industry who owns britain’s fish gear up, on the lookout for fish how is your fish caught? the ones who made it through the hot spots (spawning areas for commercial species) - interactive tool for balancing fish stocks *the good companion “England hot dog is fish and chips”* 49

fish better have my money community supported fisheries *geopolitical salad. from Franco’s socio-hydrological dream of spain to tesco’s tomatoes*

checking the facts

dungeness, isolated beauty hastings, the fishers playground eastbourne, marina not for fishers worthing, the last fisher standing chats with the fishers

work it out, fisher

fishing beyond the industry 67

network for small-scale fishers 81

hello it’s me, the fisher inside fish match - quota swaap, interactive cartographies fish pilgrimage data calendar - marketplace prototype

becoming data fish pilgrimage cartography lyme bay, a landscape concealer sidmouth a marina for the fishers by the fishers design process diagram - coastal evolution model breakwaters made of tyres - breakwaters waves reduction script sidmouth, year 2040 timeline. processes and design strategy deployment everything would be alright section high tide section low tide

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digital territories

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Although Britain’s small-scale fishing industry accounts for only a small part of its national economy, it remains crucial to regional development of coastal communities. The relevance of fishing has not gone unrecognized and is reflected through policy rhetoric at a national and European level. Fishing is no longer only about catching fish. It involves a shift of circumstance; the outcome of policies have heavily impacted the way fishers live and how they interact with their communities, the market, and the environment. This study sets off from a national scale into the centralized vision of fishing policies. It explores the social common-ground in order to enable links within fishers to become stronger competitors within the industry and act as catalysts for the development of coastal communities. Our research seeks to unveil the current discrepancies of the of the small-scale fishing industry and the cross-political framework it falls under. Even though the small-scale fishers make up the majority of the United Kingdom’s fishing fleet, they receives only 4% of the total allowable catch, leaving them with less than a hand full of fish to catch per day. Consequently, we explored the complexities of the market, consumption trends, and how this has made it difficult for fishers to be competent in a market too often dominated by larger agents. Over the past decades, fishing policies have led the small-scale fisheries into an overall deprivation, impacting the communities that have historically depended on this industry. Although fishing is not a profitable industry for most communities, it does play a significant role for the overall local economy that it triggers. Fishing enables many economic activities to take place that allow the community to revolve around it. Fishing

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allows the community to engage through values, heritage, and various alternative economic activities, therefore in which ways can we enable and improve communication between fishers to work jointly? In which way could fishers control these links? And how could this be implemented at a larger scale? This dissertation proposes Fish Match , an open platform for the fishing industry that intends to address these questions through an alternative vision. This open platform allows interactions in which fishers can connect among each other to ensure a constant supply for buyers. This can facilitate fishers to temporally migrate to other ports to continue fishing regardless of the weather conditions of their home port. It also allows fishers to diversify into other activities through associations and contribute to a localized, circular economy. The application is meant to challenge existing landscapes which could ultimately be replicated throughout the coast in a multi-scalar dimension. With the south of the United Kingdom serving as the backdrop, we propose a speculative scenario of different spaces, the integration of new social dynamics, and the necessity for new flexible policies informed by these same interactions. Focusing in the coastal town of Sidmouth, situated in Lyme Bay, we explore the multilayer spectrum of territorial production and the possible reconfiguration of space in which our proposal, a new mooring area, can serve as the base for supporting economies. We envision ways in which this speculative scenario could mould territory through methods of associative, co-operative production within fishers while utilizing coastal erosion tools and interactions enhanced by open platform data sources.


EXMOUTH LOW TIDE Original picture by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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When people travel to the coast they choose to eat fish because it is fresh, or so you would think. This stopped being the case in Britain. Here, fish is no longer fresh. Fish comes into British coasts in frozen bundles from foreign suppliers rather than caught by local fisher in their own seas. This research brought us to the following: fishing is no longer only about catching fish. It involves the decline of an industry and with it, the communities that for centuries have so strongly depended on it. It is the outcome of policies that have heavily influenced the increase of unemployment rate in many coastal towns, impacting the way fishers live and on how they interact with the community, the market, and the environment. Historically, Britain has always prospered from its fishing fleet. It used to be one of the leading countries in the fishing industry up until mid-20th century. For generations, fishing had been a vital economic activity for coastal communities. However, today, more than half of fishing boats are inactive and fishers are forced to shift towards other activities. The turning point dates back to when Great Britain entered the European Union in 1983 and joined the Common Fisheries Policy. This introduced a quota-based system and later, a shared sea territory with the members of the EU, altering the economies of coastal communities while increasing a dependency on imports. Inevitably, this altered the living conditions of coastal

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communities since it soon became impossible for local fishers to compete with foreign fishing enterprises due to low tariffs on imports. This modified the complex production network by making the industry part of a larger, interconnected economy. The research looks into aspects of the policy system, particularly the quota allocation scheme within the United Kingdom for small and big vessels as well as the non quota species and their potential in each region of England. It questions the role of the Fish Producer Organizations (FPO), the bodies that manage quota for big-scale vessels. It explores the complex production system, the market allocation scheme, the environmental conditions, and its social implications, and suggests how it can weave together through local cooperative initiatives. Finally, by examining the several gear techniques we can further grasp the availability of species in terms of the consumption demand. The main purpose of understanding the current industry is to be able to determine a way for small-scale fishers to find a new spectrum of opportunities within the current legislation. It questions the power of the community to support the smallscale fishers whom have been left out of the big picture, as well as the architect’s social responsibility to address ways in which the lives of people can improve through community engagement.


fishing industry uk

The United Kingdom’s fishing fleet is composed of 6,187 registered vessels. Around 80% of them are under 10 meter long vessels. This map represents the amount of vessels of under 10 meter long vessels and of over 10 meter long. It displays that the under 10 meter vessels predominate in most of the ports. While small inshore fishers account for the the majority of United Kingdom’s fishing fleet, they only catch around 6 percent of the total landings. So the amount of small-scale vessels is not proportionally reflected in the amount of fish they actually catch.

<10 m vessels

NUMBER OF VESSELS PER PORT Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO Vessels Over 10m Long

Vessels Under 10m Long

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fishing policies

This map represents the amount of landings in gross tonnage of fish per year for both the under 10 meter vessels or small-inshore fishers, and for over 10 meter vessels. Comparing it to the amount of vessels map, there is a considerable deficit that indicates disproportionate landings for the over 10 meter vessels.

6% <10 m vessels

LANDINGS PER PORT Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO Amount of Landings for Over 10m Vessels

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Amount of Landings for Under 10m Vessels


Ravenglass Silloth 15

vessels <10 <10 32 vessels

GT 00 GT

vessels >10 >10 21 vessels

148 GT GT 199

11 GT

71 vessels >10 >10

344 GT 21 GT

37

23 vessels <10 10 <10

18 vessels >10 >10

0 GT

essels >10

199 GT

1412 8

essels <10

1 GT

essels >10

21 GT

25913

93 GT 19

3826 vessels<10 <10 2vessels vessels <10 vessels <10

0809GT GT GT GT

2715vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 vessels >10

199 GT 115 GT 2 GT 298 GT

4211 vessels<10 <10 4vessels vessels <10 vessels <10

151 GT GT 013GT GT

7153vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 vessels >10

21 61GT 185 GT 148 GT

vessels <10

0 GT

0100GT GT GT GT

essels >10

19 GT

1111vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 vessels >10

19 7GT GT 30 GT 344

essels >10

298 GT

4711 15

0 GT 148 199 GT

5812 16

13 23 20 16

14 24 21 17

essels <10 <10 essels

GT 1 GT

essels >10 >10 essels

21 GT 344 GT

6913 17

8397GT GT GT GT

7855 vessels>10 >10 4vessels vessels >10 vessels >10

298 GT 190 GT 34 GT 93

15 1825

2226vessels vessels<10 <10 vessels <10

0012 9GT GT GT GT

vessels <10 <10 vessels

03 GT GT

essels >10 >10 essels

19 GT 93 GT

710 14 18

1145vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

148 GT 115 GT 256 2 GT

16 22 26 19

ssels <10 essels <10

008GT GT

ssels >10 essels >10

199 GT 2 GT 298 GT

811 12 15 19

4463 vessels <10 11 vessels <10 vessels <10

113 6GT GT 51 GT

155 vessels>10 >10 3vessels vessels >10

344 135 GT 61GT GT 185

17 23 2027

ssels <10 essels <10

151 0GT GT GT

ssels >10 essels >10

21 148GT 185 GT

913 16 20

23 474vessels vessels <10 vessels<10 <10

324 GT 00GT GT GT

811vessels vessels >10 vessels>10 >10

93 307GT GT 367 GT

18 24 2128

essels <10 <10 essels

010GT GT

ssels >10 essels >10 essels >10

19 30GT GT 344 GT

10 1417 21

7 GT 367 GT

28 24

211 <10 26 vessels <10 194 vessels <10 9vessels

0957GT GT GT

15455 >10 vessels >10 vessels >10 1vessels vessels >10

2190 115 GT GT 96GT 34 GT

19 2229 25

430 vessels 11 vessels <10 26 vessels<10 <10

51 13 GT 12GT 11 GT

26 19 vessels<10 <10 9 vessels 194

913 GT 75GT GT

516vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 55

115 213 GT 96 GT 190 GT

2225 33 29

5374vessels vessels >10 vessels>10 >10

185 61 256 GT 71GT GT

11 27vessels vessels<10 <10 30 26 vessels <10

13 5 GT GT 11 12

310 vessels>10 >10 47vessels vessels >10

61 32GT GT 71 GT 256

23 34 30 26

0046GT GT GT

1133 vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 5vessels vessels >10

30 7 GT 376 GT 135

21 24 27 31

672 GT 213

5 GT 24 GT

10 vessels >10 >10 1 vessels

32 59 GT

010 GT 64GT GT

133 53 vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 5 vessels vessels >10

7 GT 218 GT 376 135 GT

24 35 31 27

8 GT 10

5 vessels >10 53

278 GT GT 218

735GT GT 24 GT

55 vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 11vessels

190 200GT GT 367 GT

25 32 28 36

26 18 vessels<10 <10 919vessels

12 GT 0GT GT 513

4126vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

256 213GT 672 GT 96

19 vessels <10 23 vessels<10 <10 25vessels

13 18 GT 2 GT GT 35

6111vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 vessels >10

213 119 GT 6 GT 200 GT

27 21vessels vessels<10 <10 74 vessels <10 18 vessels <10

5012 GT 9GT GT GT

10 vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 274vessels

32 58GT GT 32 GT 672

82 12 vessels<10 <10 4 vessels vessels <10 13

10 30 GT 7 GT GT 24

53 vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 113vessels

218 GT 231 GT 31 GT GT 59

249 <10 124 vessels <10 vessels <10 1vessels vessels <10

35 GT 83GT 40

1555 >10 vessels >10 vessels >10 1vessels

200 33GT 278 GT 218

Teignmouth Sunderland Holy Island Portland 26 37 33 29

18 13 vessels<10 <10 5vessels 23 vessels <10

0218 1GT GT GT GT

2131vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

672 GT 119 GT 67 GT

West Bay Seaham Amble Poole

63 27vessels 13 vessels<10 <10 30 vessels <10

624 5GT GT 11 GT

5710 vessels>10 >10 1vessels vessels >10 vessels >10

135 GT 32GT 59 GT 71

27 38 34 30

13 1vessels vessels <10 21 vessels<10 <10 74

24912 0GT GT GT

1724vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

59 2GT GT 58 GT 32

Weymouth South Shields Blyth Cowes

782 vessels 49 234 vessels<10 <10

24 8GT GT GT 410

153 5vessels vessels>10 >10 33 vessels >10

367 278GT 218 GT 376 GT

28 39 35 31

49 vessels <10 2vessels vessels <10 vessels<10 <10 412

8730 0GT GT GT GT

5113vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

278 GT 2 GT 231 GT 31

Portland Hartlepool Holy Island North Shields Burnmouth

923 <10 19 vessels <10 vessels <10 2vessels

535 13 GT 2GT GT GT

1611vessels vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

96 213 GT 6GT GT 200 GT

29 32 40 33 36

23 25 vessels <10 51 vessels <10 124 vessels <10

218 GT 18 GT 3GT 40

1155 3vessels vessels >10 vessels >10 vessels>10 >10

633GT 175 GT 119 GT 218

Poole Whitby Amble Sunderland

30 27 vessels <10 74vessels 18 vessels<10 <10

11 509GT GT

727vessels 10 vessels>10 >10

71 32 GT 32GT GT 672 GT

30 34 41 37

74 24 vessels<10 <10 21 vessels <10 13vessels

913 GT 12 1GT GT

7463vessels vessels>10 >10 vessels >10

32 170 GT 58 7 GT GT

Cowes Scarborough Seaham Blyth

234 82 13 vessels<10 <10 4 vessels

424 10 GT GT 7GT

33 531 vessels vessels >10 >10

376 218 GT 59 31GT

31 38 42 35

Bideford Newlyn River Fowey

ssels <10 vessels <10 vessels <10

893GT GT GT

ssels >10 essels >10 essels >10

298 93 GT 34 GT

11 15 18

englass erpool th

Torquay Weymouth Burnmouth

117 vessels 194 vessels<10 <10 vessels <10

9724GT GT GT

41vessels 55 vessels>10 >10

34 190 GT 367GT GT

32 28 25

456 1vessels vessels <10 vessels<10 <10 12

713 0GT GT GT 30

119 vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 32vessels vessels >10

31 2 GT GT 134 GT 231 GT

GT GT 000GT

ssels >10 >10 essels >10 ssels

148 GT 2 GT 199

16 19 12

row acombe yport

269 vessels vessels <10 <10 26

12 GT 95GT

vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 541vessels

256 GT 96 GT 115

26 29 22

GT 1151GT

essels >10 ssels >10 >10

344 GT 185GT GT 21

17 20 13

twood pledore kington

63 vessels <10 30vessels vessels<10 <10 11

611GT GT 13 GT

vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 357vessels

135 GT 71GT 61

27 30 23

GT 030GT

essels >10 ssels >10 >10

93 30GT GT 19

1821 14

115vessels vessels>10 >10

278GT 200 218 GT

32 36 39

234 vessels <10 47 vessels <10

24 GT 04GT

vessels>10 >10 133vessels

376 GT 367 GT 7 GT

28 31 24

12vessels 124 vessels<10 <10 vessels <10

40 30GT GT

11vessels 55 vessels>10 >10

218 33 2 GT

Sunderland Hartlepool Holy Island

18 23vessels vessels<10 <10 19

02GT GT 13 GT

vessels>10 >10 621vessels

672 6 GT 213

37 40 33

13 vessels <10 vessels<10 <10 525vessels

118GT GT 18 GT

vessels>10 >10 133vessels

7 GT 175 GT 119 GT

13 74vessels vessels<10 <10 27

24 GT GT 59GT

17vessels vessels>10 >10 10 vessels >10

59 32GT GT 32

38 41 34

124vessels vessels<10 <10 21 vessels <10

013GT GT 12 GT

vessels>10 >10 426vessels

2 GT 170 GT 58 GT

87GT GT 10

51vessels vessels>10 >10 53

278 GT 31 GT 218

42 39 35

Portland Burnmouth Torquay

Polperro Newlyn

ssels <10 <10 vessels <10 ssels

GT GT 809GT

ssels >10 >10 essels >10 ssels

234GT GT 298 GT

19 15

combe englass

9 vessels 194 vessels<10 <10

75 GT

1 vessels 55 vessels >10 >10

96 GT 190 GT

32 29 25

Looe Fal-Falmouth River

ssels <10 <10 ssels

51 GT 0 GT

ssels >10 >10 ssels

185 GT GT 148

20 16

ledore row

30 vessels <10 26

11 GT 12

47 vessels >10

71 GT 256 GT

256vessels vessels<10 <10 12 vessels <10

013GT GT 30 GT

vessels>10 >10 3119vessels

2 GT 134 GT 231 GT

30 GT 344

21 17

234 vessels<10 <10 63 vessels 33 vessels>10 >10 5 vessels

23 vessels<10 <10 21vessels

240GT GT 35

vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 111vessels

6 GT 218 GT 200 GT

Number of Vessels Hartlepool North Shields 40 36

30 26

74 vessels vessels <10 <10 18

GT 09 GT

vessels >10 >10 27 vessels

32 GT 672

41 37

376 GT 135

31 27

4 vessels <10 13 vessels >10 >10 11 vessels

7 GT 24

25 vessels 124 vessels <10 <10

18 GT 3 GT

3 vessels 55 vessels >10 >10

175 GT 33 GT

31 GT GT 59

Amount of Landings

42 38

13 GT 1 GT

vessels >10 >10 36 vessels

170 GT 7 GT

19 vessels>10 >10 2 vessels

13 15 GT

1 vessels 14 vessels>10 >10

137 201 GT

58 54

0 GT 12 GT

42 vessels >10

2 GT 58 GT

48 44

2 vessels 28 vessels<10 <10

1 GT 11 GT

1 vessels 27 vessels>10 >10

12 87 GT

55 59

Pagelsham Great Yarmouth

2 vessels 12 vessels <10 <10

0 GT 30 GT

31 vessels >10

2 GT 231 GT

49 45

1 vessels <10 25

GT 31 GT

vessels >10 >10 11 vessels

3 GT 13

35 vessels<10 <10 5 vessels

32 GT 2 GT

vessels >10 >10 23 vessels

165 GT GT 391

Newhaven Whitstable

Walton-On-Naze Grimsby

1 vessels 21 vessels <10 <10

31 vessels vessels <10 <10 10

25 GT GT 34

vessels >10 >10 42 vessels

284 GT GT 316

Shoreham Ramsgate 56 60

33 43 40 36

43 54 46 50

54 61 57

34 41 44 37

44 55 51 47

55 58 62

35 45 42 38

45 56 52 48

56 59

36 46 39

46 57 53 49

57 60

37 43 47 40

47 58 54 50

58 61

38 44 48 41

48 55 59 51

59 62

39 49 45 42

49 56 60 52

60

40 43 46 50

50 54 57 61 53

61

41 51 44 47

51 55 58 62

62

42 45 52 48

52 56 59

34 vessels vessels <10 <10 28

26 GT GT 19

vessels >10 >10 14 vessels

672 GT GT 242

(

53 49 46

53 57 60

47 43 50

58 61 54

Newhaven Portsmouth Whitstable

51 48 44

219 vessels <10 vessels <10 28 vessels <10

124 GT GT 11 GT

1 9vessels vessels>10 >10 27 vessels >10

12 GT 231 GT 87

59 62 55

49 52 45

15vessels vessels<10 <10 25

GT GT 310GT

vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 111vessels

33GT GT 13

56 60

134 GT 2 GT

16 Amount of Landings

25 GT 23GT GT 34

vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 428vessels

284 GT 50 GT 316

34 vessels vessels <10 <10 28

26 GT GT 19

NUMBER OF VESSELS PER PORT 672 GT GT Original242 drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

vessels >10 >10 14 vessels

Level of Unemployment Ship Routs for <10 Burnham-On-Crouch Selsey Sheerness Lowestoft Deprivation Ratio Rye Ship Routs for >10

(

53 50 46

vessels <10 vessels<10 <10 3642vessels

GT GT 1200GT

vessels >10 vessels>10 >10 811vessels

1 GT GT 116 GT 36

61 57

51 47

52 48

24GT GT 13

vessels>10 >10 19vessels

231GT GT 137

vessels<10 <10 25vessels

GT 10GT

vessels>10 >10 11vessels

GT 123 GT

Level of Unemployment

24 vessels vessels <10 <10 30

16 GT GT 14

vessels >10 >10 25 vessels

68 GT GT 28

Portsmouth Eastbourne

19vessels vessels<10 <10 16

62 58

Canvey Island Walton-On-Naze 13 GT 0 GT

31 vessels <10 52vessels vessels<10 <10 10

Shoreham Ramsgate

Leigh-On-Sea Southwold

24 vessels vessels <10 <10 13

56 vessels<10 <10 1 vessels

16 18 vessels <10

OneBridlington of the most challenging issues Queenborough Queenborough Burnham-On-Crouch Selsey Lowestoft Rye for fishers is the lack of access to 524vessels 216GT 18 15 525 18 vessels<10 <10 GT 18vessels vessels<10 <10 15 GT vessels <10 18 GT vessels <10 GT vessels<10 <10 GT 3645vessels 1202GT 124 3 GT 30 vessels <10 14 GT quota, or amount of fish each 225vessels 391 GT 14 vessels >10 114 vessels >10the201 391 GT vessels>10 >10 119 201 GT 3vessels vessels >10 175 GT vessels >10 1 GT GT vessels>10 >10 68 GT 812vessels >10 36 55 vessels >10 33 GT vessels >10 28 country can catch. Quota within the United Kingdom is administered Grimsby Whitstable Amble Whitby Grimsby Whitstable Leigh-On-Sea Portsmouth Southwold Eastbourne Sunderland and distributed mainly through Fish 28 11 10 34 21 12 GT 24 vessels <10 13 GT 28vessels vessels<10 <10 GT 10vessels vessels<10 <10 13 34GT GT 19 vessels <10 24 GT 35 vessels <10 32 GT 52vessels vessels<10 <10 23GT GT 16 13 vessels <10 111GT Producer (FPO) 27 vessels >10 87 GT 438vessels 316 4327 58 GT 6vessels vessels >10 170 GT vessels>10 >10 GT vessels>10 >10 Organizations 316 GT vessels >10 231 GT vessels >10 165 GT vessels>10 >10 50 GT 194vessels 137 GT vessels >10 787GT which are institutions intended to protect and represent fisher’s Great Yarmouth Ramsgate Blyth Great Yarmouth Canvey Island Scarborough Ramsgate Newhaven Walton-On-Naze Seaham state of affairs. Throughout the 25 vessels <10 3 GT 28 19 12 vessels <10 30 GT vessels<10 <10 GT 5vessels vessels <10 0 GT 56 vessels <10 13 GT vessels <10 GT 31 vessels vessels <10 <10 25 GT GT 125vessels 03GT 228 <10 119 years, FPOs have tended to favor 111vessels 13 12 vessels 242 319 231 GT vessels >10 GT vessels >10 3 GT GT vessels>10 >10 134 GT vessels>10 >10 242 GT vessels >10 >10 284 GT GT 21vessels vessels >10 213GT 12 the business making rather than the interest of their members. The Lowestoft North Shields Rye Lowestoft Rye Sheerness Pagelsham South Shields Shoreham Cornelis Vrolek, for example, is a 36 vessels <10 12 GT 124 3 GT 30 14 36 vessels <10 12 GT 30 vessels <10 14 GT vessels <10 <10 GT 2 vessels <10 0 GT 34 vessels vessels <10 <10 26 GT GT 12 vessels 10 GT single Dutch trawler with the right 811vessels >10 36 GT 55 vessels >10 >10 33 GT 24 vessels 28 GT 36 GT 2vessels vessels >10 GT vessels >10 116 18 vessels 2 GT vessels >10 >10 672 GT >10 328 GT to catch around 20% of England’s entire fishing quota. This has led Southwold Eastbourne Sunderland Queenborough Southwold Eastbourne Bridlington Burnham-On-Crouch Hartlepool Selsey to an unequal distribution of quota 35 32 16435 <10 13 113 vessels <10 13032 GT 5vessels vessels <10 2GT GT 16 18vessels vessels<10 <10 15GT GT 25 vessels <10 18 GT vessels <10 GT 24 vessels vessels <10 <10 16 GT GT leaving small scale fishers with 3 vessels >10 165 GT 1 vessels >10 137 GT 3314 vessels >10 7 GT 165 vessels>10 >10 391 1 vessels 137 vessels>10 >10 201GT GT 175 123vessels 1 GT 5 vessels >10 68 GT roughly 4% of the quota allocated for the United Kingdom. Given Newhaven Walton-On-Naze Seaham Newhaven Walton-On-Naze Grimsby Whitstable Whitby Leigh-On-Sea Portsmouth that the small-inshore fishers vessels 25 128 011 219 vessels <10 124 GT 31 vessels <10 25 GT 2vessels vessels <10 1GT GT vessels<10 <10 GT 10 34 24 vessels <10 13 GT vessels <10 GT vessels <10 <10 23 GT GT make up around 80% of3152the 2 vessels >10 284 GT 2627 212 19vessels >10 12 GT 24vessels vessels >10 284 GT 1vessels GT vessels>10 >10 87GT 316 vessels >10 170 GT >10 231 GT United Kingdom’s fishing fleet,8 vessels it >10 50 GT leaves them with less than a hand Pagelsham South GreatShields Yarmouth Pagelsham Shoreham Ramsgate Canvey Island Scarborough full of fish to catch per day. Shoreham As a 225 031GT 34 vessels <10 26 GT 1534 vessels 1026 GT vessels<10 <10 coastal GT 1vessels vessels <10 GT vessels<10 <10 28 19 vessels <10 GT 56 vessels <10 13 GT consequence, communities 11vessels 213 4 vessels >10 672 GT 1141vessels >10 3242 GT vessels >10 672 GT vessels>10 >10 3GT GT vessels >10 3 GT 19 vessels >10 134 GT have been in a gradual decline and in repeated cases, are suffering from Burnham-On-Crouch Hartlepool Selsey Queenborough Burnham-On-Crouch Lowestoft Bridlington Selsey Rye a profound deprivation. According Sheerness 25 18 02016 GT vessels <10 16 GT vessels <10 GT 18 vessels <10 15 GT 364vessels vessels<10 <10 120GT GT vessels<10 <10 GT 30vessels 14 to the45224 Seafarers’ report ‘Fishing24for 381vessels 175 168 5 vessels >10 68 GT vessels >10 391 GTof the ports with 14 vessels >10 201 GT vessels>10 >10 vessels >10 361 GT 52vessels vessels>10 >10 66% 28GT 116 a 121Future’, significant landings are deprived. This reveals the main issue within Whitby Leigh-On-Sea Portsmouth Grimsby Whitstable Leigh-On-Sea Southwold Eastbourne Portsmouth the quota distribution system, 24 vessels <10 13 GT 19 vessels <10 24 GT 52 vessels <10 23 GT 35vessels 32GT 28 11 10 34 19vessels vessels<10 <10 24GT GT 16 vessels <10 13 GT 52 vessels<10 <10 23 GT 619vessels 170 >10 231 8 vessels >10 50 GT where9483vessels the majority of quota is being 165 GT 27 vessels >10 87 vessels >10 316 GT vessels>10 >10 231GT GT vessels >10 137 GT vessels >10 50GT granted to the minority of vessels. The mapIsland points out 62 of the most Canvey Scarborough Great Yarmouth Canvey Island Newhaven Ramsgate Walton-On-Naze deprived ports in England where 531vessels 025GT 56 13 25 vessels <10 310GT vessels<10 <10 GT vessels<10 <10 GT 28 vessels <10 19 GT 25vessels GT there the high 1 vessels >10 3 GT 19 134 111vessels 13 vessels>10 >10 vessels>10 >10 284GT GTlevel of unequal 12vessels 242 vessels >10 123 GT GT distribution of quota overlaps with Level of Unemployment Ship Routs for <10 an increased unemployment rate Lowestoft Rye Pagelsham Sheerness Shoreham Deprivation Ratio Sheerness Ship Routs for >10 for sea-related economic activities. 234vessels 026GT 3621vessels 1201GT 30 vessels <10 14 GT vessels<10 <10 GT vessels<10 <10 GT The 12size of>10 the116 cross represents the 8 1vessels 36 vessels 28 4vessels vessels>10 >10 672GT GT 3GT GT vessels>10 >10 116 GT level of the deficit and the size of the circle represents the unemployment Southwold Burnham-On-Crouch Eastbourne Selsey Queenborough Bridlington rate, the bigger for a higher rate. 35 vessels <10 32 GT 16 13 vessels<10 <10 GT vessels<10 <10 GT 524vessels 216GT 184vessels 150GT The sea routes are labeled blue for 3 vessels >10 165 GT 1 vessels >10 137 GT 1 vessels >10 1 5 vessels >10 68 2 vessels >10 391 GT 14 vessels >10 201 under 10 meter vessels and the red for over 10 meter vessels.

Scarborough Seaham

Cowes West Bay 64 GT

39 35

Whitby Sunderland

Poole Teignmouth

Plymouth Mevagissey GT 10 GT

Vessels <10 m Long Vessels >10 m Long

7 GT 119 GT

Pagelsham Canvey Island Great Yarmouth

Amount of Landings

rpool eford tehaven

38 34

South Shields Scarborough Blyth

494 vessels vessels <10 <10 82

13 vessels >10

43 47

Walton-On-Naze Leigh-On-Sea Grimsby

Whitby Seaham Amble

Weymouth Cowes Brixham

River Fowey Penzance Plymouth

essels<10 <10 essels <10

8 GT GT 35 40 GT

West PooleBay Dartmouth

Mevagissey Looe Newquay

essels <10 ssels <10 <10

vessels<10 <10 249 1vessels vessels <10

Number of Vessels Burnmouth North South Shields Shields

Teignmouth Portland Salcombe

River Fal-Falmouth Polperro Padstow

ssels <10 <10 essels <10 ssels

Vessels <10 m Long Vessels >10 m Long

1 GT 18 GT

Eastbourne Queenborough

Holy Island Hartlepool Bridlington North Shields

Torquay North Shields Burnmouth Weymouth

194 vessels<10 <10 vessels <10 72vessels

13 vessels<10 <10 5 vessels

South Shields Blyth

49 vessels vessels <10 <10 82

Amount of Landings

tehaven etwood eford

37 33

Seaham Amble

27 13 vessels <10

Brixham BlythBay West Cowes

482vessels <10 vessels <10 234 vessels <10 63 vessels <10

Plymouth West Brixham CowesBay

4463vessels <10 vessels <10 234 vessels <10 vessels <10

62 vessels >10

Dartmouth Amble Poole Teignmouth

Looe Dartmouth Teignmouth Poole 20 23 30 26

0 GT 13 GT

Salcombe Holy Island Portland Torquay

Polperro Salcombe Portland Torquay

Appledore Penzance Mevagissey Plymouth

kington pledore row

1 vessels >10

18 vessels <10 19

Weymouth Brixham 0 GT 24 GT

River Fowey Weymouth Brixham Plymouth

Ilfracombe Newquay Looe River Fal-Falmouth

yport venglass acombe

47 vessels <10

Mevagissey West Bay Dartmouth Looe

Liverpool Padstow Newlyn Polperro Bideford

th erpool itehaven

135 GT 61 GT

River Fal-Falmouth Salcombe Teignmouth Polperro

Fleetwood Penzance River Fowey Appledore

etwood rkington

vessels >10 >10 35 vessels

23 27

Newlyn Torquay River Fowey

811vessels <10 194 vessels <10 vessels <10 23 vessels <10

Barrow Newquay Mevagissey Ilfracombe

ryport row

ssels>10 >10 ssels

12 22 15 19

Ravenglass Padstow River Fal-Falmouth Liverpool

venglass oth

ssels<10 <10 ssels

14 18

Whitehaven Newlyn Bideford Fleetwood 8 GT

6 GT 13 GT

Southwold Bridlington

Sunderland Holy Island

West Bay Dartmouth

63 vessels vessels <10 <10 11

Penzance Brixham Mevagissey Plymouth

10 vessels <10 vessels<10 <10 444vessels

essels <10

256 GT GT 115

Newquay Dartmouth Looe River Fal-Falmouth

Workington Penzance Appledore Barrow

itehaven

vessels >10 >10 54 vessels

26 22

Padstow Salcombe Polperro Newlyn

rkington 310 14 6

12 GT 9 GT

River Fowey Penzance 03 GT

Maryport Newquay Ilfracombe Ravenglass

ryport

essels >10

17 13

Silloth Padstow Liverpool Whitehaven

essels <10

26 vessels vessels <10 <10 26

Mevagissey Newquay

44 vessels <10 <10

Fleetwood Workington

oth

essels <10

12 16

Barrow Maryport 26

Teignmouth Salcombe fishing industry uk

River Fal-Falmouth Padstow

59

52 vessels vessels <10 <10 35

23 GT GT 32

vessels >10 >10 38 vessels

50 GT 165 GT

DEPRIVED COASTAL COMMUNITIES Newhaven Original drawing by Camila Ocejo 31data vesselsfrom <10 MMO 25 GT

Level of Unemployment

2 vessels >10

284 GT


Amount of Landings Vessels <10 m Long Vessels >10 m Long

Number of Vessels

Ship Routs for <10 Ship Routs for >10

(

Level of Unemployment Deprivation Ratio


fishing industry uk

T he UK ’s S m a l l S ca l e Fi sh e r s A re S tr u gg l i n g t o M a k e a Li v i n g Article extracts from MUNCHIES Magazine. By Michael Segalov. April 2015. Small-scale fishers make up the majority of the UK’s fishing fleet but have access to just 4 percent of the Individual Fishing Quota, a system intended to prevent overfishing, but that could actually be harming the seabed and local fishers.

for fishers like Doswell, the quota system is failing. “Right now, we get the few crumbs left over after everyone else takes their share,” he tells me. “We don’t even get enough to earn a living wage.”...

...It’s a far cry from fishing vessels like the Cornelis, a Dutchowned, 370-foot trawler that gets 23 percent of the English quota We all know the saying: all to itself. What kind give a man a fish and he of impact do vessels can eat for a day, teach like this have on the a man to fish and he can seabed? eat for a lifetime. But “They use echowhat happens when the sounding technology to government decides that locate fish. Their nets the man who can fish are so big from all the shouldn’t be allowed to fish they catch that they catch enough to make a are too heavy to haul,” living? says Nina Schrank, an For fishers like Graham oceans campaigner at Doswell, this is the Greenpeace. “Instead exact dilemma. the fish are pumped on board and stored before The quota system— being processed and imposed on commercial frozen in the ship’s onfishers to ensure that board factory.” no species is overfished Boats like the Cornelis at sea—is supposed to can stay out at sea keep stocks at a healthy fishing for up to six level and hold the fish weeks at a time, using apocalypse at bay. But techniques that, while

efficient, can resemble “large-scale, unethical slaughter.”...

especially when other people are struggling to make a living. It’s unbelievable.”...

... ”To my mind, fish in the sea are a public resource; they don’t belong to me, to you, or to anyone else for that matter,” he says. “If you can’t catch it, you shouldn’t have ownership of it,

... Unless something gives, British coastal towns will lose not only their smallscale fishers, but stewards of our inland waters and marine conservationists, too....

UK Fishers May Not Win Waters Back After Brexit, EU Memo Reveals Article extracts from The Guardian. By Daniel Boffey. February 2017. The hopes of British fishers that the UK can win its “waters back” after Brexit are expected to be dashed by the European parliament, despite the campaign promises of Boris Johnson and Nigel Farage, a leaked EU document reveals. The document, obtained by the Guardian, adds that in order for the UK and EU to keep to commitments on sustainable fishing – contained within

EASTBOURNE Fisher GRAHAM DOSWELL Imange from Munchis Vice Magazine, “The UKs Small-Scale Fishers Are Struggling to Make a Living” by Michael Segalov

18

the United Nations stocks agreement – “it is difficult to see any alternative to the continued application of the common fisheries policy”. It is estimated that there only about 11,000 people directly employed in fishing in the UK, however the UK’s trawlermen were among the most vocal critics of the EU during the referendum, fuelled by frustration over controls on fishing quotas, which have been blamed on Brussels and the common fisheries policy (CFP)...


fishing policies

Nigel Farage and Bob Geldof’s rival EU Referendum Flotillas Clash on the Thames

FISHING FOR LEAVE PROTESTS BREXIT DEAL Photograph by Facundo Arrizabalaga/EPA extracted from Intenational Business Times

Article extracts from The Guardian. By Robert Booth. June 2016.

Farage’s vessel with a high decibel blast of 60s pop music; Geldof called Farage “a fraud” and flicked him the V sign...

The Brexit battle took to the waves on Wednesday as Nigel Farage and Bob Geldof commandeered rival Thames cruiser boats for a campaign stunt about EU fishing policy that quickly turned to mayhem.

... “Some of these lads have come from the north of Scotland, communities that have never been listened to, where we have seen tens of thousands of jobs lost and a way of life destroyed, and they come here to make their protest and be heard, and they get a multimillionaire laughing at them.”...

In what at times resembled a naval battle, rival leave and remain fleets skippered in spirit by the Ukip leader and the rock star fundraiser skirmished on the fast flowing river between Tower Bridge and the Palace of Westminster. Before it was over, Farage’s flotilla of angry trawlermen campaigning for leave had drenched Geldof’s boat with hoses and angrily boarded it midstream to the dismay of the river authorities. Geldof’s boat almost shredded the eardrums of those on

... Geldof angered the fishers, too, who yelled from their boats that they could not make a living under EU quotas and were being forced to discard tonnes of catch.... ... Steve Easton, who fishes off the south coast, shouted angrily about “French and Belgians going up and down six miles off Brighton and we can’t”...

Cornelis Vrolijk: The Trawler which Catches 23% of England’s Fish

EU Fishing Laws Lead to TONNES of Fish Dumped Off UK Coast

Article extract from British Sea Fishing. November 2014.

Article extract from Express. By Charlie Bayliss. April 2017.

In November 2014 the British media reported that a single Dutch trawler, the Cornelis Vrolijk, had the right to catch 23% of England’s entire fishing quota. The entire small inshore fishing fleet

for the whole England is given only 4% of the quota. Built in the Netherlands in 1988 the Cornelis Vrolijk is a pelagic trawler which specialises in catching mid-water species such as mackerel, sardines, blue whiting and herring. It is 114 metres in length and displaces over 5500

tons, making it easily the largest fishing vessel in the UKbased fleet and it has the ability to process, freeze and package its catch on board. Although the Cornelis Vrolijk sails under a British flag and has Hull as its homeport it is owned by a Dutch company...

The EU’s Fixed Quota Allocation (FQAs) limits the amount of fish which can be landed – meaning if trawlers catch over their allowance of a certain type of fish, they must throw their catch back into the sea even if the fish are dead. Owen Paterson, a former Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) claimed an estimated one million tonnes of fish was dumped back into the sea due to the centralised Brussels policy...

THE CORNELIS VROLIJK TRAWLER

... Britain’s diverse

Photograph extracted from British Sea Fishing

19

COD DISCARDS Photograph extracted from Express

sea life means fishers often snag more than one type of fish during their trips – meaning it is impossible to determine how much of a certain fish will be caught... ... A Fishing for Leave spokesman said: “Quotas are a disaster

economically, socially and operationally. They lead to increased mortality as vessels have to catch more fish to find what they are allowed to keep whilst the system is crippling the industry...


fishing industry uk

1950

BRITAIN, ONE OF THE LARGEST FISHING INDUSTRIES GRIMSBY One of the world’s greatest fishing ports, home to a fleet of 600 trawlers back in the 1950s

BRITAIN JOINS THE EU 1973 COD WARS A series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland as the UK conceded a 200-nautical-mile Icelandic exclusive fishery zone, forbiding British fishing communities to access fishing grounds up North that meant an important resource for trawlers that spent several days at sea.

1976 200 NAUTICAL MILE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE WAS ESTABLISHED

COMMON FISHERIES 1983 POLICY This set up a system of quotas for each Member State that allowed equal access to all EU fishing grounds, claiming all living marine life as a common resource. It also established a coastal band around the shores of each country reserved for local fishers.

1992 FIRST REFORM CFP SECOND REFORM CFP 2002 2015 PLAN TO BAN DISCARDS FOR PELAGIC SPECIES UK - EU MEMBERSHIP 2016 REFERENDUM CONCEDES BRITISH EXIT OF THE EU

Fisheries management and administration is being discussed. Remaining on the Common Fisheries Policy is still uncertain.

20

TRAWLERS LOOSE ACCESS TO THEIR RICHEST FISHING GROUNDS A sea zone was established prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources. It strechs out from the baseline to 200 nautical miles from its coastline.


21


fishing industry uk

The Fish Producer Organizations play an important role in managing quotas as a vital link for fishers towards marketing their products. They are recognized bodies set up by fisheries that promote the sustainable exploitation of fish by distributing quota according to member’s needs. This map shows the presence of the FPOs for the over 10 meter fishing fleet, uncovering that although there are 11 operating FPOs in England, there are a couple that predominate in amount of fleet(e.g. the Cornish Fish Producers Organisation). In practice, members of FPO are in a vast majority vessels over 10 meters long.

FPOS FOR OVER 10M VESSELS Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO Non Sector

Eastern England

Aberdeen FPO

Northern PO

Scottish FPO

Fleetwood

Anglo Northern

Northern I

South West

Orkney FPO

Anglo Scottish

Cornish FPO

Interfish

North Sea FPO

The FPO LT

North Atlantic

Lowestoft

The Fife FPO

22


fishing policies

In England, there are currently 11 operating Fish Producer Organizations , 24 in all of United Kingdom. Vessels, in terms of how their quota state of affairs is represented, can be classified into three broad categories: the sector vessels (vessels over 10 meters which are members of FPOs), the non-sector (vessels not fishing against quota allocations managed by FPOs), and the inshore fleet (under 10 meter vessels not fishing against quota allocations managed by FPOs). Under this framework, members market all their catch through the Fish Producer Organizations in order to reduce their costs and increase fishing feasibility. In England, however, few Fish Producer Organisations have gained majority control of the overall FPO quota and today, these few FPOs control around 95% of the United Kingdom’s quota. This map shows the lack of presence of FPOs for the small-inshore fishing fleet, uncovering that most of the vessels belong to the non-sector categorization, meaning that their quota is directly managed by the government and that they cannot own nor exchange quota.

FPOS FOR UNDER 10M VESSELS Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO Non Sector

Eastern England

Aberdeen FPO

Northern PO

Scottish FPO

Fleetwood

Anglo Northern

Northern I

South West

Orkney FPO

Anglo Scottish

Cornish FPO

Interfish

North Sea FPO

The FPO LT

North Atlantic

Lowestoft

The Fife FPO

23


fishing industry uk

The present study aims for gears to be indicative of the relative abundance of species. Cod

Bluefin Tuna

Anchovie

Saithe

Herring

UK TAC

28 541

UK TAC

-

UK TAC

-

UK TAC

88 036

UK TAC

9 583

UE TAC

167 618

UETAC

34 656

UE TAC

9 372,92

UE TAC

817 611

UE TAC

47 337

Pollack

Sandeel

Sprat

Mackerel

Horse Mackerel

UK TAC

2 498

UK TAC

-

UK TAC

247 296

UK TAC

10 973

UK TAC

9 143

UE TAC

15 887

UE TAC

-

UE TAC

521 689

UETAC

478 990

UETAC

168 754

Cod

Megrims

Haddock

Blue Whiting

Boarfish

UK TAC

28 541

UK TAC

5 793

UK TAC

36 376

UK TAC

39 945

UK TAC

3 387

UE TAC

167 618

UE TAC

26 690

UE TAC

54 892

UETAC

231 482

UE TAC

53 296

Norway Pout

Herring

Atlantic Salmon

Redfish

Lemon Sole

UK TAC

-

UK TAC

88 036

UK TAC

-

UK TAC

187

UK TAC

3 904

UE TAC

128 000

UE TAC

817 611

UE TAC

109 034

UETAC

24 127

UE TAC

6 391

Plaice

Hake

Whiting

UK TAC

36 210

UK TAC

9 729

UK TAC

10 810

UE TAC

143 188

UE TAC

104 675

UE TAC

35 541

Lemon Sole

Black Scabbardfish

Swordfish

Ling

UK TAC

15 572

UK TAC

3 904

UK TAC

36 376

UK TAC

211

UK TAC

4 913

UE TAC

61 686

UE TAC

6 391

UE TAC

17 213,05

UE TAC

10 499

UE TAC

13 498

Norway Lobster

Greenland Halibut

Turbot

Dab

UK TAC

36 455

UK TAC

1 309

UK TAC

717

UE TAC

64 183

UE TAC

14 123

UE TAC

4 728,40

Skates and rays

Tusk

Spiny Dogfish

UK TAC UE TAC

Sole 1 588

UK TAC

2 018

18 434

UE TAC

22 723

Roundnose Grenadier

Blue Ling

UK TAC

3 017

UK TAC

370

UK TAC

-

UK TAC

206

UK TAC

931

UE TAC

17 961

UE TAC

1 392

UE TAC

-

UE TAC

8 102

UE TAC

5 365

+Beam trawls are best suited for targeting small to medium sized demersal fishes. They have a low net height, with the beam lying over 50cm above the sea floor. The chain mat and its dimensions ensure close ground contact and prevents large fish entering the net. There are specific beam trawls designed to target particular species. +Pots, on the other hand, are best suited for targeting species that inhabit the sea bed. These traps usually have the standard two entrances on the side with plastic obstacles that allow the shellfish to enter easily but prevents them from escaping. The position, size, and obstacles of the entrances vary according to which species is being meant for. +Line fishing is perhaps the most sustainable method to catch pelagic and demersal species. Hand lines consist in the traditional rod or hand held line. Other variations include trolling and pole and line, for which the main difference is the hooks and bait used. Long line features a long length of line or light rope that varies its length depending on the type of fishery. +Gill nets are best suited to work on the surface (pelagic species or on the sea bed, (skates and sole). These consist of a sheet of thin netting hung vertically from airbags so it floats on the surface or attached to weight so it sinks down to the seabed. +Seine nets feature large nets that catches fish by trapping them in a circular shaped net. Depending on the size and how it is used, it can be suitable for demersal or pelagic species. FISH SPECIES CLASSIFICATION Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

FISHING GEAR TECNIQUES Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

24


pelagic Lines

Lines

Hand Line

Small Line

Water Column Location

Pelagic

Species Targeted

Bass, Tuna, Yellow Fin Tuna

Bass, Cod, Dogfish, Haddock, Halibut, Ling, Pollack (Lythe), Skates, Turbot

ByCatch

ByCatch

Low bycatch

Juveniles of the target species

Anchovie

Gill Nets

Bluefin Tuna

Surface Gill Net Water Column Location

Herring

Horse Mackerel

Lines

Trolling/Pole&Line

Lines

Long Line

Cod

Water Column Location

Pelagic

Species Targeted

Sea bed or surface

Saithe

Species Targeted

Cod, Haddock, Hake, Megrims, Monkfish, Pollack (Lythe), Skates

Sprat

ByCatch

Pelagic

Water Column Location

Pollack

Species Targeted

Pelagic&Demersal

Sandeel

Water Column Location

Pelagic

Bass, Tuna, Yellow Fin Tuna

Species Targeted

Bass, Cod, Haddock, Halibut, Ling, Pollack (Lythe), Saithe, Skates, Tuna, Turbot

Species Targeted

Anchovy, Herring, Mackerel, Sardines, Scad, Yellow Fin Tuna

Mackerel

ByCatch

Low bycatch

ByCatch

Cetaceans

Seine Nets

Purse Seine

Water Column Location

ByCatch

Herring, juveniles of the target species, Mackerel, occasional cetaceans and mammals, Sardines

Billfishes (pelagic), Sea birds (pelagic), Sea Turtles (pelagic)

demersal

Seine Nets

Scottish Seine Water Column Location

Demersal Species Targeted

Cod, Flats, Haddock, Hake, Lemon Sole, Monkfish, Plaice, Whiting ByCatch

Immature round fish, Juveniles of the target species

Cod

Megrims

Haddock

Blue Whiting

Boarfish

Hake

Whiting

Norway Pout

Herring

Seine Nets

Anchor Seine Atlantic Salmon

Redfish

Water Column Location

Demersal

seabed

Species Targeted

Cod, Flats, Haddock, Hake, Lemon Sole, Monkfish, Plaice, Whiting ByCatch

Lemon Sole

Immature round fish, Juveniles of the target species, Megrims, Monkfish,

Plaice

Trawl Nets

Beam Trawl Pots

Pots

Anglerfish

Lemon Sole

Swordfish

Cuttlefish, dover sole, flats, lemon sole, monkfish, plaice, skates

Seabed

Black Scabbardfish

Species Targeted

ByCatch

No bycatch

Seabed

Species Targeted

Water Column Location

Nephrops, Brown Crab, Crabs, Lobsters, Cuttlefish, Velvet Crab, Whelks

Water Column Location

Ling

ByCatch

Trawl Nets

Sole Trawl Water Column Location

Skates and rays

Blue Ling

Seabed

Species Targeted

Dover Sole

Dab

Sole

Northern Prawn

Spiny Dogfish

Tusk

Norway Lobster

Greenland Halibut

Turbot

ByCatch

Brill, Dover Sole, Flounder, Plaice, Rays, Skates, Turbot

Benthos, Dab, Flounder, Immature round fish, Juveniles of the target species


fishing industry uk

POTTING

TRAWLING

NETTING

LINING

Quota is set according to species within the United Kingdom and allocated equally in each region . This means that it the English Channel will have the same quota for Cod as the North Sea, although there is no availability, hence no need, for Cod in the English Channel. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of quota not used by vessels either because of lack of abundance of a fish species in the area, or because vessels aim for a particular species and are not interested in catching their respective quota for the rest of species. This becomes problematic especially within the small-inshore vessels that struggle to get more quota while there is quota left unused. The map portrays how these policies are reflected in the sea activities. To grasp which fish category is being caught in which area, the gear techniques are mapped accordingly to their intensity. This is represented with lines that tone from white (the gear techniques more harmful to the seabed) to pink (the ones least harmful). The pink dots represent the overall fishing intensity, which overlapped with the gear techniques heat map can point to the most targeted species as well as the location where they are abundant.

GEAR LOCATION CARTOGRAPHIES Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

GEAR CARTOGRAPHY Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

26


Fishing Activity

Pelagic Demersal Shellfish

Type of Group Species Landed From Under 10 Vessels

Ship Routs for <10 Ship Routs for >10

(

Level of Unemployment Deprivation Ratio

Potting Gear Netting Gear Lining Gear Trawling Gear Dredging Gear


fishing industry uk

COD

PLAICE

NEPHROPS

SOLE

WHITING

HERRING

The following maps highlight the spawning grounds of selected species. The data displayed comes from a collaboration between the national fisheries laboratories (Cefas and the then Fisheries Research Services, Scotland), with the United Kingdom Offshore Operator’s Association, the Scottish Fishers’s Association and the National Federation of Fishers’s Organizations. The presence of fish eggs or mature fish can be indicative of spawning grounds, which are areas where fish reproduce. The understanding of the distribution of these together with additional ecologically important habitats is required for a better management of human practices in the sea. Effective management of fish spawning areas necessitates a well understanding of the dynamics of spawning behavior associated fishing activities both seasonally and in reproduction grounds. Fish tend to disperse and emigrate away from the aggregation site at the end of spawning cycle but regroup at the time of the subsequent aggregation period. Fishing activities may become synchronized with the spawning cycles of fish, such that effort and catch are maximized during aggregation periods. What if quota within the United Kingdom was exchangeable? What if unmarketable species were actually popular? Assuming that quota could ultimately be flexible and all fish species had consuming demand, this study acknowledges the relative abundance of species through the understanding of gears can indicate the most optimal landing possibility for each.

FISH LOCATION CARTOGRAPHIES Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

FISH SPECIES BY PORT Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

28


Silloth

Looe

South Shields

Maryport

Plymouth

Hartlepool

Workington

Salcombe

Whitby

Whitehaven

Dartmouth

Scarborough

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Ravenglass

Brixham

Bridlington

Barrow

Torquay

Grimsby

Fleetwood

Teignmouth

Great Yarmouth

Liverpool

West Bay

Lowestoft

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Ilfracombe

Weymouth

Southwold

Appledore

Portland

Walton-On-Naze

Bideford

Poole

Pagelsham

Padstow

Cowes

BurnhamOnCrouch

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Newquay

Burnmouth

Leigh-On-Sea

Penzance

Holy Island

Canvey Island

Newlyn

Amble

Sheerness

River Fal/Falmouth

Blyth

Queenborough

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Mevagissey

North Shields

Whistable

River Fowey

Sunderland

Ramsgate

Polperro

Seaham

Rye

Newhaven

Shoreham

Eastbourne

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Pelagic Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Demersal Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species

Seabed Species


fishing industry uk

As the fish stocks grow accordingly to the average rate of fish reproduction, the ports decrease in size as the fish stocks landed gets sold and sent out for distribution. The user in this case acts as the fisher, where each click represent the catching of a whole year in a certain radius; allocating it to the closest port, thus incrementing the port’s size accordingly to the catch.

>>>Inputs Fish Landing Ports

Fish Activity

Active fish ports in the UK with total landing values

Sea coordinates of fishing activity with fishing intensity values

>>>ArcGIS >>>Model >>>draw points Fish Landing Points Extract geometries from ArcGIS files, create an array list, get coordinates and set up drawing action

>>>extract data Total Landings Add table of data referenced to previously created geometry. Select value field of total quantity of landings in tonnes

>>>time factor Decrease Point Size

>>>fishing function Increase Point Size

Decrease size of point accordingly to value of fish landed. The value would be decreasing over time, representing the fish landed being sold away.

Fish Activity Points

Amount of Fish

Increase Point Size

Extract geometries from ArcGIS files, create an array list, get coordinates and set up drawing action

Add table of data referenced to previously created geometry. Select value field of total amount of fish available.

Increase size of point accordingly to value of total fish. The value would be increasing over time, representing the natural reproduction rate of fish.

Increase size of point accordingly to value of fish landed. The value would be increasing with each click (action of fishing) representing the fish caught reaching its nearest port.

Decrease Point Size

Decrease size of point accordingly to value of total fish. The value would be decreasing with each click (action of fishing) representing fish being caught.

>>>Processing >>>Outputs

Landings tons per year

Fish Stocks tons per year

Through these parameters, it can be determined how much fish can be caught without affecting its natural rate of reproduction while keeping the port’s growth stable. Underfishing Scenario This scenario represents the potential growth of fish stocks if there is small or no intervention. Fish stocks’ exponential growth can lead us to speculate on possible policies such as one often referred to as Days at Sea, where the restriction is based on a fixed amount of fishing days where discarded fish can be avoided and an environmental stability kept. Overfishing Scenario This extreme scenario represents what would happen in a frame of a couple of years if the United Kingdom over-fished and exploited all fish stocks. Although this scenario is unlikely to happen because of lack of infrastructure, it would represent an immediate growth for the coastal community, but in the long run, there would be almost a free-fall decay because the fish stocks would have been damaged beyond recovery.

Ports all vessels

>>>Processing WORKFLOW STRUCTURE Original code by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

INTERACTIVE TOOL OUTPUT Original drawings by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

30


fishing policies

FEW HARVESTING

BALANCED HARVESTING

EXCESS HARVESTING

31


fishing industry uk

Essay by Camila Ocejo Objects and commodities from everyday life often reveal global processes’ intersection at a territorial scale brought down to local affinities. Their genealogy unveils insightful socio-economic structures from the past that can explain the way in which certain current events mold the cultural traffic happening in the contemporary world. Before the last couple of centuries, cultural transactions between different social groups was often restricted, generally due to geographical limitations or at times because of negligence from within. In the exceptional cases where certain cultural traffic was enhanced, it usually involved long-distance journeys sustained by two main forces: warfare and expansion. Hence, the overlapping set of the expanding worlds withdrew great relevance for an ongoing traffic of ideas that contributed to a larger social imaginaire. Today, this social imaginaire plays a fundamental role in several conceptual landscapes of collective aspirations and ‘is now central to all forms of agency; is alone a social fact and key component of the new global order.’1 In her essay Reciprocal Landscapes Jane Hutton discloses the intricate tie between the invisible transformation of landscapes of production through material displacements for the consolidation of new landscapes. These ties can be further extrapolated and translated into a closer look towards the social and historical setting that largely impacts the conditions of the contemporary world. Thus, I will refer to one of Arjun Appadurai’s five dimensions of global cultural flows: ethnoscapes. In Arjun’s words, ...the suffix -scape allows us to point to the fluid, irregular shapes of these landscapes, shapes that characterize international capital...they are deeply perspectival constructs, inflected by the historical, linguistic, and political situatedness of different sort of actors: nation-states, multinationals, diasporic communities, as well as subnational groupings and movements.2 As people migrate they continuously reconstruct their social identity and reconfigure their ethnic background. The ethnoscapes of our contemporary world inasmuch as groups that are no longer firmly territorialized and spatially circumscribed have become profoundly dynamic and have completely shaped the cultural flows of new living arrangements. Ethnoscapes bear the genealogies of tendencies and progressions as well as the histories that fall within; ...while the genealogies reveal the cultural spaces within which new forms can become indigenized, the histories of these forms may lead outward to transnational sources and structures. Thus, the most appropriate ethnoscapes for today’s world, with its alternative, interactive modernities, should enable genealogy and history to confront each other, thus leaving the terrain open for interpretations of the ways in which local historical trajectories flow into complicated transnational structures.3 Culture has become the ultimate representation of a series of political and economic layers that stand in constant transformation, of landscapes that reflect the collective imaginaire constituted by the historically situated aspirations of different groups of people around the world. Central among ethnic paradoxes, in what British life concerns, lies as protagonic the genealogy and history of fish and chips. The simple, unpretentious battered fried fish with potato chips represents a influential cultural transfer as the result of migration in Great Britain and it has played an critical role in sustaining a large working-class in the beginning of the twentieth century while enhancing strong trade ties that have altogether shaped the prevailing tendencies of Great Britain’s present-day. Fish and chips as an ethnoscape provides a window that explains the social, economic, and political setting of Britain through the ubiquitous, mundane fast-food diet of the British, it is the result of the social imaginaire built by a diverse history of ideas, values, and assumptions. The birth, ownership, and consumption of fish and chips exemplifies the changing nature of immigration and social context in Britain over the past two centuries and its consistency to become the utmost national symbol. ...from the strong East End Jewish element in the early days of fish frying in London, through the strong italian presence in the trade from the turn of the century, in urban Scotland and Ireland especially, to the growing importance of the Chinese and the Greek Cypriots in the post-Second World War decades.4 1 Arjun, Appadurai. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, University of Minnesota Press, Minnesota 2 Ibid,. 33 3 Ibid,. 64 4 Walton, John. 1992. Fish and Chips and the British Working Class 18701940, Leicester University Press, Great Britain

Moreover, fish and chips became part of the enduring working-class popular culture moving on to the substantive neighborhood life and its local sympathy. It is the face of the changing social, territorial, and cultural reproduction of a population’s identity, to which its multi-localized quality deserves its respective descriptive geohistorical and anthropological analysis. The historiography of fish and chips is quite limited due to the fact that for a long period of time, it has been systematically neglected by historians who argued that such matters fall within triviality far from any academic inquiry. Topics directly related to politics and diplomacy, economy, high culture, and the exercise of power have always been prioritized in most historian’s agenda, whereas the scrutiny of the everyday lives, values, and popular culture of small communities has commonly been left aside. Nevertheless, several journalists, historians, and even fryers themselves have done an extensive job of gathering newspaper publications and any kind of historic reference to amend the balance, as far as fish and chips is concerned.5

Figure 1

An examination of the origins of the two main ingredients indicate that both came from off-shores following a far-off sojourn to first come together in the East End streets of London. It is certain that fish came first and that Jews played a significant role in the propagation of fried battered fish consumption in Britain during the nineteenth century. The Jewish community in London culminated due to their expulsion from Spain and Portugal in the late fifteenth century by the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition. Groups of Jewish-convert merchants settled in Britain longing to revert into Judaism. It wasn’t, however, until mid seventeenth century that the English Government deliberately announced that Jews could settle back in to the country, hence the former Jewish community was established by Sephardim in England, a community which thrived and dominated the British Jewry until the beginning of the nineteenth century when a new influx of Jewish refugees from Poland and Eastern Europe came to completely transform the composition of the community by the increase of Ashkenazi families.6 The gastronomic historian Denise Phillips affirms that fried fish was brought to Great Britain by the Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe and that they were responsible for opening the famous fried fish warehouses so-mentioned in Charles Dickens’ novel Oliver Twist dating back to 1838. Phillips also acknowledges that the battered fried fish was an adaptation from the original bread crumbs recipe that was cooked on fridays to be eaten cold during shabbat; a possible explanation to the former Fish on Fridays tradition. On the other hand, the eighteenth century saw the potato climb its way into the English life, quickly rising and pushing itself in their diet. Triggered by the urban crowding and the booming of the industrial and agricultural revolutions, traditional social bonds were weakened as the introduction of new ways of sustenance was required. The potato came to easen up the household’s expenses and postulated itself as a precious time-saving food commodity, something highly valuable in a nation that was quickly growing modern. The potato’s triumph likewise highlighted an important British phenomena. While early in the nineteenth century England rose as the world’s strongest industrial nation, the country was yet predominantly rural, both physically and psychologically; the ideal setting for the fried potato to come into demand- a crop that was easy to harvest, a country rich in crop fields, and a growing hungry population. As for fried potatoes, their popularity was not reached so much in London but in Lancashire, where they strongly held the tradition of the baked-potato that naturally branched into frying. London would soon after adopt and enhance the fried potato business as a popular street food.7 Before uniting, both fried fish and chips made its way through the streets separately. London and Lancashire were both attributed with the unitement of fish with chips, setting off a new market that would quickly grow in demand. Steam-powered vessels were soon introduced and as steam trawlers increased their catch speed and radius, the greater amount in less time would reach inland.8 This became a cyclic development for the following decades, where the fish demand would lead to technic improvements and these would increase the fish demand. Yet another paradoxical aspect of fish and chips comes into play; while the businesses required supplies from distant sources, complex technologies to bring them together, and major capital investment to propel it -particularly for the deep-sea trawling, agricultural, and engineering branches-, the majority of the shops continued 5 Ibid,. 5 6 http://www.sephardicstudies.org/uk.html 7 Zuckerman, Larry. 1998. The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World, Faber & Faber, Boston, 251 8 Ibid,. 252

BIBLIOGRAPHY & FIGURES Zuckerman, Larry. 1998. The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World, Faber & Faber, Boston Walton, John. 1992. Fish and Chips and the British Working Class 1870-1940, Leicester University Press, Leicester Tannahill, Reay. 1973. Food in History, Penguin Group, London Arjun, Appadurai. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, University of Minnesota Press, Minnesota Panayi, Panikos. 2014. Fish and Chips, Reaktion Books Ltd, London Figure 1 Victorian cartoon stressing the Jewishness of fish fryers by using anti-Semitic stereotypes, Panikos Payani, Fish and Chips Figure 2 NFFF 1976 poster promoting the Britishness of fish and chips Figure 3 1960s cartoon demonstrating anxiety and pride at the presence of the newly arrived takeaways, Panikos Payani, Fish and Chips

32

Figure 2


fishing policies

to be run as small-scale family businesses. The proliferation of the dish had an intricate association with the new waves of immigrants that came into the country that ultimately exported it and spread it across the globe. By the beginning of the twentieth century, fish and chips stood for roughly one-third of the fish industry of Great Britain. The turn of the century was rough for the urban working class, due, in part, to the decline of wages from 1900 to the First World War. Food was the first thing that went into shortage, cutting out some essential products and being replaced with cheaper, more endurable ones. Condensed milk replaced fresh because it went farther, but it was sweet, skimmed, and less wholesome. Some workers did have a daily hot meal of meat and potatoes...Meat went into Sunday dinner, whose leftovers supplied a second meal; into a stew; a suet pudding; and perhaps cheap sausages a fourth night. Pickles were ever-present. Breakfast was tea and bread and butter, jam or margarine. Children never tasted milk once they finished nursing.9 The British population was worryingly underfed and fish and chips came to aid the decaying diet. It was then that fish and chips gained its social relevance, for it not only sustained a large part of the British population during a hard-shortage period, but it also founded a ‘common and democratic institution’ where the business’ ownership was ethnically diverse, where woman and children found employment other than in mining and metalworking, and where shops became popular places for the young. Churchill, the century’s most famous conservative called fish and chips the good companions. The phrase is apt, not only because fried fish and potatoes are meant for one another, but because, from the late nineteenth century onward, they were good company for the urban working class. Without them, the diet would have been poorer, the homemaker harder pressed and the factory worker leaving the late shift hungrier in soul if not in body. 10

Figure 3

Once the fish and chips was firmly established, the eating habit provoked pessimistic connotations and negative feelings from the most conservative and high class sectors from society since eating on the street suggested poor hygiene and disdain for domestic traditions, both utterly important from a bourgeois point of view. These accusations blamed the working-class, before they were also attributed to the Jews in what Panikos Panayi called ‘casual anti-Semitism’. The link between these is remarked by Panayi through the examination of newspapers from the nineteenth century. For some, the working-class’ tendency for fish and chips implied ignorance and overall laziness to cook proper food at home. A ‘moral degradation born of slothful housekeeping’. However, a closer look at the average household’s dynamics tells a whole different story. ‘Fuel spent on cooking could mean sacrifices elsewhere.’ For many homes back then operated with coin-based gas systems where they faced the choice of a warm house or a better diet. How ironic that this institution rested partly on a vegetable whose cultivation predated Western civilization and came rom a rural society whose most important piece of equipment was a spade. How ironic too that the world most technologically advanced nation had managed to recreate in its largest, busiest cities the domestic conditions that made the potato so valuable on the Andean altiplano. Britain’s mines and refineries produced fuel that helped build an empire far richer the the Incas’, but the laborers who made this possible might enjoy a warm home only once a week.11 Fish and chips faithfully expressed the concerns of a progressive and modernized nation, where time was a highly valued in terms of labour. Fast food allowed people to save time, to pursue other activities while eating. It certainly withdrew value to privacy and domesticity, replacing the dinner table experience for a far less familiar one. The food experience would never be the same, nor would be the working-class’ diet. Fish and chips positive contribution towards the living standards has often been ignored and the prevalent prejudice against the dish has affected the understanding of its own relevance. The origins of these skepticisms can be traced to the highly promoted Victorian ideals of the time. Fish and chips revolutionized the domestic morality and role of the members of the family. It went against the stigmatization of the domestic female associated with home chores and the breakdown of the ideal family structure. An extract from This England in 1986 remarks the Victorian concerns: ‘Poor mum is too tired...she has 9 Ibid,. 252 10 Ibid,. 247-248 11 Zuckerman, Larry. 1998. The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World, Faber & Faber, Boston, 258

33

no time to bake a cake or prepare nourishing meal...Whatever damages the family unit will eventually destroy the nation’. Although organized friers have done a great deal to shake off these negative images and associations, it wasn’t until the mid-twentieth century that the British began to accept fish and chips as a national symbol. This was initially due to the introduction of foreign foods that triggered a general consciousness around national identity which soon led to the same conclusion: the simple battered fried fish with potatoes had replaced Britain’s earlier culinary symbol, the roast beef. The connection between the dish with Britishness was soon embraced and promoted by the general opinion, perpetuating it through popular disclosure. The marketing and increasing trade of fish and chips played and important role in the process of consolidating the social imaginaire of the identity of a nation, nevertheless the underlying idea beared much significance, for it unveiled the roots of a nation that has been highly influenced by external social settings to the degree that it has become a major part of what Britain is today. Fish and chips can be regarded as a major point of cross-cultural contact which gathered components from ethnic majorities who sold a commodity which progressively became a ‘symbol of Britishness’. It weaves together mayor historical affairs such as the Spanish Inquisition that founded the British Jewry, the discovery of the New World that brought the potato to Western grounds, the industrial revolution that introduced the steam trawler, the population growth in Britain that led to the raise in demand, the railway system that allowed food to reach urban areas, the poor urban living conditions of the time, etc. The ethnoscape for fish and chips is highly interactive and profoundly relevant for the understanding of contemporary challenges of a highly centralized country, where the urban settlements dictate the what, when, and how of its resources. Perhaps today’s economic and environmental nature around the fishing industry can be explained.


fishing industry uk

COD VALUE CHAIN

Fishmonger / Retail-chain / Groceries store

PLYMOUTH FISH CHAIN

Restaurants / Fish&Chips / Catering

4.3£/kg

l

Processors / buyers

Frozen fish fingers

£765m 45000 t

£354m

The cod value chain diagram shows in UK from boat to plate and an example of the economic value change in a product like fish fingers.

£29m 14300 t

63700 t

Supermarket

Exports

Retail sector

47% added value

he fish (cod in this case) that enter in the UK chain is coming from UK vessels landings and imports (this is the main source). The fish is now going to be processing (primary or secondary processors) or to a wholesale/trade agent. After this, the cod will end up in a fishmonger / retail-chain or groceries store, in a restaurant or catering or it will be export.

Foodservice sector

£ OUTGOING PRODUCTS

£416m

£22m

5000 t

6000 t

Frozen fish fingers

#

Secondary/mix Processors

Rex Down Fish Merchants

£36m 8700 t

£345m 120800 t

WHOLESALE TRADER

PROCESSING

Distribution UK

3.2£/kg

Fish Wholesalers

110500 t

£27m

Cornwall Transport

Processo

53% added value

£19m

£27m

Auction Market + Direct Purchase + Merchants

7000 t

Primary Processors

15200 t

2.8£/kg rozen F cod block import from China

! Fish Market / Auction site

Imports

SUPPLY RAW MATERIAL

£320m 120700 t

To understand how the fish market works at a national/global scale, we need to see all the agents involve in the process and how the value chain is distributed along them. This would give us an inside about where the money is going, and where we can hack the system in order to propose alternative markets.

The Plymouth fish chain show the specific agents involve in the fish chain from Plymouth market to the consumer in the UK. Plymouth Fisheries at Sutton Harbour in Plymouth is one of the most important fish market in the UK (600 direct /indirect jobs & 6,000 tonnes of fish sell per year). 75% arrives by road from fishers across Wales and the South West for the best price. Plymouth Trawler Agents, is fresh fish auctioneer and fishing boat agents company that manages Plymouth Fisheries auction market. The company is own by the fishers. In Plymouth the fish can go to wholesalers like Moby Nicks or Rex Down or just being distributed around UK to processors and buyers until it reach the consumer.

Auction management Private limited company

Import Agent

£35m 22000 t

FISH CHAIN EXAMPLES Original drawing by Raul Bielsa data from Seafish / Plymouth Trawler agents limited

UK vessel landings

BOAT2PLATE FISH VALUE CHAIN UK Original drawing by Raul Bielsa data from Seafish / MCS / MSC

34


PORTS <10 m vessels D

0 - 83

D 83 - 274

by tons of landings

D

274 - 643

D 643 - 1271

Fish Industry

! (

auctionsites

#

wholesalemarkets

ÂŁ

processing industry

l

buy/sell fish

fishermen tracks

routes networks

Ports

Auction Markets

Wholesale markets

Processing Industry

Buyers/Sellers

Consumer


fishing industry uk

part of a bigger project UK funding

+ community seafood hub

£

vessels < 10 m / local

collection points

whole catch / low-impact methods

building community seafood savvy

fair price / stable income

fresh fish / fish box subscription

13£/kg

< 48h

~Amble~

? members Northumberland County

Private limited Company

different geographical conditions ports

+ stable to weather conditions Private limited Company

£

vessels < 10 m / local

collection points

whole catch / low-impact methods

building community seafood savvy

fair price / stable income

fresh fish / fish box subscription

15£/kg < 48h

~Newlyn~

London

~Newhaven~ ~Dungeness~

150 members

simple logistics

+ fresh fish Private limited Company

£

vessels < 10 m / local

collection points

whole catch / low-impact methods

building community seafood savvy

fair price / stable income

fresh fish / fish box subscription

14£/kg < 48h

~Emsworth~

London 65 members

existing logistic infrastructure

CIC fisher owners

+ UK delivery

+ Profits to community Community Interest Company

£

vessels < 10 m / local

food network / online / delivery

whole catch / low-impact methods

scientific research marine environment

fair price / stable income / owners

blast chilled & freezing / fresh fish

There are alternatives to the establish fish industry trying to put closer fishers and consumers in a more sustainable way. The CSF (Community supported fisheries) model is based on community supported agriculture (CSA) programs (think veg box). CSFs aim to encourage sustainable fishing practices and strengthen relationships between small-scale fishers and communities. +The Creel Fish Club is a fish box scheme where you can access quality, fresh, locally sourced, seasonal fish and seafood. The idea is to introduce customers to new types of fish and seafood and help support our inshore fishing fleet. This initiative is part of the Northumberland Seafood Centre, a fishing hub in Amble, part of the Amble Harbour Village development. +Soleshare is a CSF, an alternative model for selling fresh, locallysourced seafood based in London. They work directly with inshore fishers from Newlyn, Newhaven and Dungeness and distribute the fish in London by collection points. They also organize workshops to learn how to cook fish and have receipts for different fishes. +Faircatch is a CSF, or fish box scheme, for local distribution of fresh, seasonal, sustainable, local fish, while paying local fishers a fair price and helping to protect our coastal cultural heritage and the marine environment. It is based in south-west London. They work with fishers in Emsworth, Hampshire and deliver the fish in south-west London. +Sole of Discretion is “a collective of small-scale fishers fishing out of Plymouth harbour”.They sell fish on-line through food network around the UK. The company is a CIC own by the fishers, with the profits going back into the fishing community.

Bath London

~Plymouth~

Bristol

CSF ORGANIZATIONS Original drawing by Raul Bielsa data from Creel Fish Club / Soleshare / Faircatch / Sole of Discretion

IGENE PEROR AUT APELLA POR Original drawing by Camila Ocejo data from MMO

36


Community Supported Fisheries

!

CSF port

PORTS <10 m vessels D

0 - 83

D 83 - 274

by tons of landings

D

274 - 643

D 643 - 1271

~Amble~

~Emsworth~

~Plymouth~ ~Newlyn~

~Dungeness~ ~Newhaven~

fishermen tracks


fishing industry uk

Essay by Raul Bielsa If you’d told your grandma that you would be eating tomatoes in the middle of winter season, she wouldn’t believe it. Of course, nowadays, nobody is shock about having tomatoes in winter. New technologies and a globalized world have allowed us to shrink space-time. No seasonality, no frontiers. But at what price? We already know, right? This expansionist context lead us to the opposite one. A post-true society scenario where Trump happened, where BREXIT happened, where Catalonia happened. Brexit could mean for British people to know about seasonality and about how England is super depending of European Union fruits and vegetables (hello tomato and lettuce of Spain) and how this would change one way or another after Brexit. How this interdepending relationship between UK and Spain took place is what we are going to unveil here, from the Spain post-imperial scenario to UK leaving EU. How Spain become a leader in exporting fruit and vegetables and how that change the water culture in Spain, its landscape and the social-nature relationship. This is what Hutton calls reciprocal landscapes1. As he says “The material assemblies of constructed landscapes generate ecological, economic and social conditions in situ, yet are embedded with the relations of their own production, concealed through the processes of commodification”. How eating a tomato in winter in London (consumption) means that the sociohydraulic landscape in Spain changed forever (production). The first part of the essay will be based in the book “Liquid Power. Contested Hydro-Modernities in Twentieth-Century Spain” by Erik Swyngedouw2, a really interesting vision about water politics from the postcolonial era till now in Spain. POST-IMPERIAL SPAIN At the end of the XIX century, Spain Empire was crumbling, losing the most of its colonies and entering in a new post-colonial post-imperialistic nation period. Till this moment Spain was not concern about its mainland but after losing its imperial power, it started looking again to the fatherland and realised that everything was a disaster. People were living in poverty, there were no jobs, agriculture were really rudimental because the soil is bad and the rain is not stable. This started becoming a national problem, a geographic one. Nature was not fair with Spain. There was a problem of unequal distribution of nature that it needed to be fix. This will become the main thinking in the following years. The fixing of the nature, the production of a new nature of equal distribution for the whole nation. If God didn’t do it right, we’ll do it, we’ll produce good soil, and distribute the water where is needed. A new socio-nature project based on hydrographic basins started taking form to restoring the equilibrium. It was seeing from a really scientific positive engineering perspective. “Hydraulic politics became the mediator to archive the social and political objectives”3 as Swyngedouw writes. Nothing really happened at that time because of the social and political tensions (there were still people thinking about re-conquest the empire, and also, implementing this new vision was facing the opposition of the latifundistas (owners of large pieces of land), thinking that they would lost power. So the regenacionistas (the state) failed to accomplish this mission, the hydraulic modernization of Spain will have to wait. In the following years, before the social tension that will end up with the Spanish civil war, there were some minor victories. The water issue became a state issue due of the scale and sacrifice that it was involved. “The river basin authorities were stablished for an integrated water politics, as a solution to the agrarian question and the social problems of Spain”4. But despise meaningful changes in legal frameworks (water as public domain) and political efforts (“not a single drop of water would reach the sea” was the main mantra), very little was archived. After a really hard drought which was fatal for the agricultural production, the corps of engineers present a plan in 1899 for public hydraulic works

1 2 3 4

(Hutton 2013) (Swyngedouw 2015) (Swyngedouw 2015) (Swyngedouw 2015)

(dams and irrigation canals), for planning and developing the nation’s water resources based on large scale and state initiated hydraulic projects. This came with a huge marketing campaign to present it as a urgent problem that it needed to be implemented immediately. A final version of the plan (Plan de Obras Hidraulicas) was published in 1902 with a list of 205 projects to be done and about 1.2 hectares of dryland to be transform intro irrigated land, but at the end, it wasn’t a consistent plan, it was more like a catalog of projects with no relation between them. More and more modifications of the plan were done, but nothing was really being done. One thing was clear as Swyngedouw says, “in the early 1920s, hydraulic politics had been ingrained in the imagination of many Spanish leaders”5. The plan was poorly implemented cause of the social struggles that leaded to the civil war and ended up with the dictatorship of Franco, in a time that water would be “reimagined and rescripted in a particular fashion part of the Francoist project, the liquid dream”6. FRANCO’S TIME During this period, there would be a real techno-natural revolution (193975) Form, flow and structure of the terrestrial hydro-social cycle. Franco’s time is divide in two periods, the first one focus on the nation, and a second one with a rescaling of the networks of interest, with a geopolitical and geoeconomic integration in the US-led western alliance after the cold war during the second half of the XX century. During Franco more than 600 dams were build (Spain has the highest ratio of dams per inhabitants), and this was an ongoing projects till the 1990s. In the imaginary of every Spanish, you can find Franco inaugurating a dam. Even I, a millennial, have this fantasy in my mind, and how this hydrotechnical project become an obsession for him. The main objective was to “restore the balance”, to transfer water from surplus Northern basins to deficit southern basins. Rebalance the socio-ecological matrix of the nation. If there is scarcity is just because of the state incapacity so we just need a strong state and a good state management of water.

Figure 1

This will end up in a heterogeneous network of interests. On one hand, the Falange (fascism national political party), as an ideological glue and in the other the technical and scientific approach. The good thing (the bad thing) about the dictatorship after the civil war is that there were not opinions against any vision or plan because the opposition were imprisonment or in exile, so the social-hydrological vision started being implement sort of smoothly. Other thing that happen after the war is that latifundistas, mostly in the south of Spain stayed in their position with more power than ever. It was a win-win, they will have better hydrological infrastructure, meaning more irrigation lands and better production, and for free, the state pays for everything. Despite the main discourse and propaganda was about the irrigation mission (expanding irrigation, improving agriculture and contain flood risk) the reality was that hydro electrical power generation was the main purpose. Spain was looking to be energy independent and at that time, there was a rural exodus, cities were growing and Spain experimented the 1960s tourism boom in the coast. So the demand of electricity grow really fast. But everything was seeing as a success that control by the media, made Franco a truly hero.

Figure 2

However, the path for the whole transformation of Spain’s hydro landscape was a long run, what it would not be archived (and just partially) till the end of 1970. After putting together a national territorial vision problems started to appear. This concrete and steel engineering dream it was too difficult to be archived and Spain didn’t have the resources to implement it. “The early Franco era (up to mid-1950s) was economically one of relative paralysis, enduring shortages, untold misery for many, and sluggish growth”7. Only after rescaling the networks of interest for a nationalist and autarchic vision to a more liberal geoeconomic political economy and internationalist geopolitical imagination Spain would start doing real development.

5 6 7

(Swyngedouw 2015) (Swyngedouw 2015) (Swyngedouw 2015)

Figure 3

BIBLIOGRAPHY & FIGURES FEPEX. 2016. Fepex. Último acceso: 2017. http://www.fepex.es/datos-del-sector/exportacion-importacion-espa%C3%B1ola-frutas-hortalizas. Gandy, Matthew. 1999. “The Paris Sewers and the Rationalization of Urban Space.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 23-44. Hutton, Jane. 2013. “Reciprocal landscapes: material portraits in New York.” Journal of Landscape Architecture, 40-47. ifema. 2015. “ifema.” http://ifema.es/PresentacionInet/groups/public/documents/binario/if_090825.pdf. Jones, Sam. 2017. “Courgette crisis: Spanish farmers hope the worst is over.” The Guardian. Accessed 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/22/courgette-crisis-cold-weather-spanish-farmers-hope-worst-over. Levitt, Tom. 2016. “Brexit could mean UK gets more fruit and vegetables from Africa.” The Guardian. Accessed 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2016/aug/05/brexit-uk-fruit-vegetables-africa-kenya. Swyngedouw, Erik. 2015. Liquid Power Contested Hydro-Modernities in Twentieth-Century Spain. The MIT Press. Figure 1 Shironosov, Dmitriy. 2011. Family eating fresh vegetables, man giving his wife a slice of tomato and cucumber to try. Alamy Stock Photo. http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-family-eating-fresh-vegetables-man-giving-his-wife-a-slice-oftomato-43658896.html.

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fish supply chain

The issue is that Spain was under a fascism authoritarian regime where they were using war prisoners as cheap labour (slaves) to build hydraulic infrastructure (like canal de los Presos), and outside Spain, the other countries weren’t seeing it with good eyes (we are in a post cold war situation, with the US-led western alliance). So a campaign for washing the image of Spain to the outside started. In 1953 the Catholic Church gets privileges (so they have their support), there is an opening up to US, military and economically. Spain lets US to have military bases in Spain and US will support Spain economically and in front of the other countries (as so to enter to the UN).

Figure 4

In this new scenario, one of the biggest engineering work in Europe was built. The Tajo-Segura Transfer became the first large inter-river basin water transfer and “the point around which much of the debate and hydro-social practices over the next forty year would be articulated”8. The works started in 1968, and this became the first implementation of transfer water from a northern surplus basin to the south (Murcia and Alicante areas were the most benefited areas). This project was completed in 1979 (after Franco’s death) and was the beginning for a new social-nature landscape, one based on irrigated agriculture and coast oriented tourism boom. This area will become the “Orchard of Europe” and a holiday resort for European gerontocracy. The price to pay for this hydro-progress was really high. The expropriations, the censorship, the slave labour and the natural environmental disasters were intimate related with this hydro mission. But this is not what is remembered, is just Franco being “the great builder of dams”. BYEBYE FRANCO, HELLO DEMOCRACY After Franco’s death, a new democratic scenario is on stage, and with it new actors, scales and issues will appear.

Figure 5

Spain transitioned from a dictatorship to a democracy and a lot of hydroprojects were still on going. But a new mentality was taking over those days, it was not anymore just about rebalance the geography of Spain as a national plan where all the agents were in the same boat. Now, multiple voices were started being heard, and a new water culture arrived. Transfer water doesn’t seem so right anymore. It a completely environmental disaster. People started mobilising and demonstrating in the streets because of this new water plan that wanted to transfer water from the Ebro basin to the south of Spain (deficit). And the government (the conservative one till 2004) was really into it. It was really huge. I even remember it as my first demonstration, thousands of people marching for the water war. At the end this transfer never happen, but this two Spains are still in the imaginary of the people (“water for all”).The plan was cancel with the new government and a new water paradigm was already taking shape.

Figure 6

There is plenty of water in the seas, and you know, it’s for free. This period is defined by a new viewing of the water issue. Spain is just surrounded by seas. A new desalination industry just started as the XXI century solution. This was a huge social-techno-nature change. We were moving from a state national water leadership to a private local management of water, a democratic and “sustainable” one (also moving to the commodification of water). At the end, a radical sociotechnical configuration is changing so “nothing really has to change”9.

All this entangled water politics gave as a result that the drylands of the south of Spain (like Murcia, Alicante and Almeria) become a paradise. The most of their lands now are irrigated and the rest is tourism (two of the activities that consumed more water). Since the 1990s their economic is just based in this two factors. They export 2/3 of the production of fruits and vegetables and import European tourists. Spain export almost 13 tons of fruits and vegetables per year (2015), and 90% of these exports go to Europe (mostly Germany, UK and France). It is the first provider of these goods in the EU, with a 32% of the total amount. Tomato, lettuce and pepper are the most export vegetables11. Becoming one of the main fruit and vegetables exporting country to Europe meaning that they have to maintain their competitiveness. The strong position of this industry is based in a variety offer, different productive zones and structures (open crops or greenhouses), all year commercialization, big production volume and market-oriented industry12. Now we have the plastics (Almeria) where we can grow tomatoes and lettuce the whole year. We are not even aware about seasonality. It’s just demand and offer. It’s really easy to see this interdependent market (and of course unsustainable) with a recent example. 2016-2017 winter was really extreme in Spain and even worst in Murcia area. After three years of drought, there was a heavy rain fall, flooding everything with it, and a week after, the heaviest snow in 30 years. This ended up with a vegetable shortage in UK supermarkets for a while and higher prices till spring. Iceberg lettuce was one of the most affect vegetables (only 3 lettuces per person!)13. Spain provides the 60% of the total amount of lettuces to the UK. There were even a black market of lettuce. We love our crunchy lettuce right. But this is not only a fault of the extreme weather, there is a deeper reason under our capitalism and globalise system. We are so disconnected from the processes of production (as Hutton says in reciprocal landscapes14) that we don’t realize that lettuces are not made for UK winter. POST-BREXIT SCENARIO The Brexit referendum took place the 23 June 2016 with the result of UK leaving the EU. This situation is bad for both parts. Spain have too much dependency of exports to UK, and UK relies too much in the imports from Spain. Let’s see, but Brexit will change this dramatically. “About one-third of UK retailers now say they are considering sourcing from a different country and 38% expect to see more produce sourced from Africa.” The guardian said15. This would mean that Spain would have to redefine its exportation politics. Maybe it would change again the Spanish landscape and the culture of water. Maybe is an opportunity to redefine irrigation agriculture (nowadays facing several issues due to underground water being overexploited, the cost of desalinization, the seasonality labour and the bad conditions). At the end, as we know, every socio-nature transformation is a political one, even a trans-national political change. Unveiling this reciprocal relationships and realizing that everything is political is the only way to be aware about our contemporary, displaced and globalized world. To see how an insignificant common action as eating a tomato during winter in UK can be trace till the disintegration of the Spanish Empire.

The desalination fix is not as political, economic and ecological good solution as they told us. It produces a lot of waste, CO2 as result of the energy that desalination requires, it changes the the marine ecosystems and the price is more elevated that transfer water. So this named techno-natural revolution which will save Spain it is not really that. However, it keeps the system running. As a conclusion of this briefly summary of water politics in Spain, it’s really easy to relate this approach with Matthew Gandy text about Paris sewers10. Gandy teach us about how an infrastructure project, as the underground sewers of the Haussmann Paris or the hydrological projects in Spain are always a socio-political projects that reveal the real tensions of society in a specific moment of time.

11 12 13 14 15

THE ORCHARD OF EUROPE

8 9 10

(Swyngedouw 2015) (Swyngedouw 2015) (Gandy 1999)

(FEPEX 2016) (ifema 2015) (Jones 2017) (Hutton 2013) (Levitt 2016)

Figure 2 Miguel A. García-Rubio, Alberto Ruiz-Villaverde, Francisco González-Gó. 2015. Average price of urban water cycle (in €/m3) and water source in the peninsular Spanish River Basins Districts. http://www.mdpi.com/20734441/7/4/1456/htm. Figure 3 -. 2014. Franco inagurando pantanos. Tiempo de hoy. http://www.tiempodehoy.com/espana/franco-tenia-acciones-de-los-pantanos-que-inauguraba. Figure 4 FLICKR. 2016. Manifestación de la Chunta Aragonesista contra el trasvase del Ebro en 2008. http://www.vozpopuli.com/espana/Carles_Puigdemont-Assamblea_Nacional_Catalana-Ebro-aragon-catalunya-ebro-plan_hidrologico-agua-medio_ambiente_0_881611870.html. Figure 5 Chandra, Marcia. 2009. Greenhouse. https://timeislivingme.wordpress.com/2009/12/09/permanently-temporary-passing-time-in-a-plastic-sea/. Figure 6 Tillmans, Wolfgang. 2015. Brexit. http://tillmans.co.uk/protect-the-eu.

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13

Worthing

Brighton

24

50°48’56.2”N 0°20’21.3”W

50°48’41.1”N 0°05’49.1”W

<10 small fishing vessels

<10 small fishing vessels 95 tons/year 32 >> 24 vessels

10 tons/year 16 >> 13 vessels

beach fishers beach fishers

Heritage Fund

The physical place of the fishers plays an important role from them. There are basically two types of moorings: in a port or a harbour and on the beach. In both cases small fishers always have to fight tourism or developments to keep their space, that most of the time, is not enough or not working for them This cartography unveils the ports that have a harbour infrastructure and the ones that does not have it, having working beaches instead. These are usually small fleets of inshore fishers. It also shows if the ports are doing well or not. This is measured by different criteria like the growing/decreasing fleet, the organizations involve (FLAG), and 191 the EU funding. Some of the ports Newlyn are picked as examples of good/bad practices.

fishers quay

> no organization > no sell/buy space > no ownership

> no organization > no infrastructure > no ownership

beach-launched fishing inshore fleet

harbour marina + beach-launched fishing inshore fleet

beach fishers

fish market Shoreham Harbour

235 Plymouth

9 Polperro

4 2 Paignton

Sidmouth

2 Torquay

1 Axmouth

22 Portland


35

Eastbourne 50°55’07.7”N 0°58’54.6”E

77

fishers quay

Hastings

10

50°51’18.6”N 0°35’36.6”E

50°55’07.7”N 0°58’54.6”E

<10 small fishing vessels

<10 small fishing vessels

1128 tons/year 39 >> 35 vessels

groined beach Beach tourism

Dungeness

<10 small fishing vessels

proposal / own by the CIC fishers

Marina

66 tons/year 12 >> 10 vessels

Future Marina Project will reduce fishers right

274 tons/year 36 >> 77 vessels

Nuclear Plant EDF Energy

Hastings FLAG Hastings Fishers’s Protection Society Fishing Heritage

> CIC organization > facilities > ownership

owners of the area movement of shingle for protection

> self organization > coop infrastructure > beach ownership

harbour marina + beach-launched fishing inshore fleet

shingle beach Natural Reserve Fishing Heritage Landscaping Tourism

CSF > 1 vessel

> no organization > no infrastructure beach-launched fishing inshore fleet > no ownership

beach-launched fishing inshore fleet

77

Hastings 13

Worthing

24

Brighton

35

10

Eastbourne 3

14 Keyhaven

4

Rochester

5 Langstone Harbour

Dungeness 2

Herne Bay Broadstairs

14 4 Christchurch Cowes

Ports & Harbours 0 - 25 25 - 50 50 - 75 75 - 100 100 - 200 200 - 600

Beach-launched

%

0 - 25 25 - 50 50 - 75 75 - 100 100 - 200 200 - 600

%

Beach

fishing tracks

subcell sediment

sediment


PORTSMOUTH FISH MARKET Original picture by Camila Ocejo

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43


44


Hastings Fishers’s Protection Society, for instance, is one of the case studies we looked into that exemplifies the significance of the fishing industry in a town where it no longer contributes to the local economy by itself, but that its so inter-weaved with the town’s identity that when they began facing such challenges, the industry became resilient. Fishers began diversifying into other economic activities that would later subsidiz fishing itself. Fishing enabled other economic activities to take place, such as retail, industries, and leisure activities. All these measures allow fishing to happen, for although fishing is not a profitable industry in many cases, it does play a significant role for the overall local economy. The scope of the fishing industry meaning more than an industry by itself led us to several references where the tradition of fishing was approached through the meaning of heritage and community values. The New Economics Foundation’s Blue New Deal sees community empowerment as inclusive, sustainable fishing, and healthy seas. Meanwhile, Eastbourne’s fishers claim their rights to the harbour and challengethe idea of the privatization of their mooring area. Likewise, oyster beds boosted the employment rate in Porlock Bay securing high quality rating of locally sold shellfish, an initiative led and supported by the local community. Even the renowned chef Rick Stein raised the value of the fishers in Padstow creating hundreds of jobs and attracting new visitors. Moreover, we studied alternatives market schemes which intend to bring closer fishers with consumers while promoting sustainable fishing methods. Most of them, follow a Community Supported Fisheries Model (CSFs), for selling fresh, locally-sourced seafood. CSFs aim to

45

encourage sustainable fishing practices and strengthen relationships between small-scale fishers and communities. Sole of Discretion or SoleShare are two examples of how the of fish chains in the South of the United Kingdom have promoted a fair exchange that contributes to the livelihood of small-scale fishers and their communities. Both commit to protect the skills of the inshore small-scale fisher by guaranteeing them a fair prices rather than market prices and by supporting sustainable fishing methods, safeguarding a healthy marine environment. Additionally, fishers themselves have undertaken a much more direct approach with buyers by using social media to sell their catch. Pesky Fish and the Jersey Catch are just a few examples of fishers utilizing social media to reach out to consumers, opening new doors to a fair trade. Lastly, in a more institutionalized scope, Coastal Producer Organisation is another proposal that stands as a form of FPO for the small-scale fishers. It intends to grant fishers a bigger voice in a marketplace too often controlled by industrial-fishing interests through collective management and new marketing strategies, representing them as a single association in affairs for quota allocation and fishing policies. Fishing has been a way of life at the core of coastal communities for centuries, building on traditional skills and values handed down through generations. This got us thinking, if fishing provides the community with values, heritage, and alternative economic activities, in which way could we enable communication links that could allow fishers to work jointly and empower the community? In which way could fishers control these links? And how could this be implemented in a larger scale?


why is fishing still relevant

Dungeness is a headland on the coast of Kent, England, formed largely of a shingle beach in the form of a cuspate foreland. It shelters a large area of low-lying land, Romney Marsh. Dungeness is also the name of the power station, of the hamlet within the location, and of an important ecological site at the same location. It lies within the civil parish of Lydd. Dungeness is defined by + The nuclear power station, who owns the beach and moves shingle in front of the station because of the erosion. + The shingle beach. Is one of the biggest shingle accumulation in Europe. There are still 10 under 10 m vessels mooring on the beach. + Cottages tourism. Popular tourism destination cause of the landscape. It has been used in films, videos and adverts. Dungeness is a headland on the coast of Kent, England, formed largely of a shingle beach in the form of a cuspate foreland. It shelters a large area of low-lying land, Romney Marsh. Dungeness is also the name of the power station, of the hamlet within the location, and of an important ecological site at the same location. It lies within the civil parish of Lydd.

BEACH LAUNCHING MACHINERY Original picture by Camila Ocejo

SHINGLE BEACH Original picture by Raul Bielsa

46


field trip

50°55’07.7”N 0°58’54.6”E

Len is a retired local fisher. He says that in Dungeness there are only 4 or 5 full-time fishers left. He explained to us how Sea Bass became a popular species thanks to TV advertising. Whelks are abundant in the area but they get shipped off to Spain, there is no demand for it in the United Kingdom. Same happens with Skate. Len thinks people rather not eat it because its ugly. If anything, they would eat only the wings, the rest is left to waste. Fish stocks are running low nowadays, large vessels are overfishing and damaging the marine ecosystem beyond repair. The boats on the beach pay heir right to the beach to the nuclear power station, the owner of the beach. When the nuclear power station first arrived, lot of fishers chose to leave fishing to go work at the power station, it seemed like a better deal. The local restaurant do not buy fish from the fishers, they can’t depend on their unsteady supply. Problems that Dungeness fishers are facing: + Fishers do not own the beach. EDF energy is the landlord and they can end the right to work on the beach at anytime, leaving fishers without a place to berth their boats. + There are no fishers associations, they have no voice within the community and no legal representation. + There is no local fish industry. Most of the fish is exported. The few wholesale/restaurants buy fish from foreign providers.

FISHING SMALL BOAT Original picture by Camila Ocejo

47


why is fishing still relevant

Hastings is a town and borough in the county of East Sussex, on the south coast of England (90000 pp). Hastings has been an important fishing port for over hundreds of years. Today, it has the largest beach-based fishing fleet in Europe. For the past four centuries, the fleet has been launching their boats from the same beach, below the cliffs of Hastings. Hastings is defined by: + The Stade, a shingle working beach with the biggest beachlaunching fleet in Europe, with around 25 vessels. + The Hastings Fishermen’s Protection Society (HFPS) owns the beach and keeps it free of charge for fishers. They also work with the Hastings FLAG in order to get European Funding for the improvement of their facilities. + Fishing Heritage. The net shops, the museum, the fish market, the fish&chips shops, etc. The town’s heritage is deeply interrelated with its fishing industry.

FISHING HERITAGE Original picture by Raul Bielsa

HASTINGS WORKING BEACH Original picture by Raul Bielsa

48


field trip

“We are also a FLAG, we have strong relationship with NGOs like Greenpeace. The legal rights belongs to the fishers and since 1947,the ownership of the grounds belongs to the borough and the foreshore trust. In 1936, when council requested to move the boats away from the beach, the association claimed their rights to land. Today they have irrevocable licenses to the land. The council, however, can reverse this if the fishers are not using the beach for productive purposes. We built up an infrastructure around the fishing fleet, because of the rights of the ground. The car park gives us money. We created supporting economic activities around the fishing industry to supported us financially. Fishers are fully supplied by the protection society. The market company, the cooperative, the social club and rented accommodations generate a financial aid for the fishing fleet to continue doing their business.”

50°51’18.6”N 0°35’36.6”E

Paul Joy, Hastings Fishermen’s Protection Society. Problems that Hastings fishers are facing: + Quotas are very limited for small-scale fishers. + Most of the fish is exported. The local fish&chips buys fish from other places. An alternative fish chain could improve local economy. + A new marina proposal. There are plans for building a big marina right close to the Stade. Marinas are good for yacht, but for fishers, it’s complicated. They require storage areas and logistics space, none which would be provided in the marina plan. Plus, a fee would be requested.

BEACH LAUNCHING Original picture by Camila Ocejo

49


why is fishing still relevant

Eastbourne is a large town and borough in East Sussex, on the south coast of England. (99000) As a seaside resort, Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions hosting conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. Eastbourne is defined by: + Beach-launching under 10 m vessels and a marina. There is not space to store fishing gear in the marina. There are only a few warehouses. + The Eastbourne Fishers CIC was created in order to fight for a place in the marina for the fishers. There is a proposal to be build for a place for them. + The fishing industry is not as present in the culture nor the economic status, as Hastings is. Eastbourne tends to revolve more around tourism than the fishing industry. Problems that Eastbourne fishers are facing: + Moving to the marina. The new space proposal will have to include the space necessary to fit the fishing gear. + Most of the fish is exported. There is not local fish economy. + Tourism dominates Eastbourne’s seafront. If the fishers that do not move to the marina, will end up disappearing.

FISHERS SPACE IN THE MARINA Original picture by Raul Bielsa

EASTBOURNE BEACH Original picture by Raul Bielsa

50


field trip

Joe, under 10 m fishers, Eastbourne +What do you think of the marina? The marina can allow us to have more days than in the beach, but getting a place there is difficult.

50°55’07.7”N 0°58’54.6”E

+How many boats are still in the beach? I think there are two, maybe four boats. +These white boxes are pots? These pots are for whelks. We could buy the proper ones, but these are better and cheaper. There is no quota for the whelks. +Do you have to pay a rent to be on the beach? You pay for the sheds, for the boat its not too much, the council pay for the fishers. The harbour is not owned by the council, it’s private. We use this warehouse for storage but the boat is in the harbour. +Where do you usually sell your catch? There are a few places, salmon to France, to the fish market. For the whelks, the go to for processing here in the United Kingdom. +What are the main species of your catch? Dover sole, plaice and skate.

FISHING GEAR ON THE BEACH Original picture by Raul Bielsa

51


why is fishing still relevant

Worthing is a large seaside town in West Sussex, England (105000 pp). It is situated at the edge of the South Downs National Park, west of Brighton. For many centuries, Worthing was a small mackerel fishing hamlet until in the late 18th century, when it evolved into an elegant seaside resort and attracted the well-known and wealthy of those days. Modern Worthing now has a large service industry, particularly in financial services. Worthing is defined by: + Beach-launching under 10 m vessels. There are just a few fulltime fishers left on the beach. The frequent tide variations are an important factor for launching the boats. + Fishers and tourism share ties and are both important in the local economy. + A Community Supported Fishery: Catchbox Worthing, working locally, providing fresh, sustainable, and untargeted fish.

FISHING SMALL BOAT Original picture by Camila

WORTHING BEACH LOW TIDE Original picture by Raul Bielsa

52


field trip

Problems that Worthing fishers are facing: + They are not a strong fishers organization. Having it would help them to apply for funding for upgrade the beach infrastructure. + Even with a local Community Supported Fishery, it seems to be not enough to keep an active local fish industry.

50°51’18.6”N 0°35’36.6”E

SELLING FRESH FISH Original picture by Raul Bielsa

53


why is fishing still relevant

“We got loads of whelks but they are not popular here, they get shipped to Spain and France” ‘Joe’, Eastbourne fisher

“Skate is our largest catch, but people think they are ugly, they are not used to these fish.” ‘Len’, Dungeness retired fisher

“Seabass wasn’t popular until the TV began advertising it, now Seabass is scarce, we don’t get it very often” ‘Len’, Dungeness retired fisher

FISHING LANDSCAPES Original picture by Camila Ocejo

HASTING FISHER Original picture by Camila Ocejo

54



why is fishing still relevant

Blue New Deal: Good Jobs for Coastal Communities Through Healthy Seas

GRAHAM’S STORY Photo from the New Economics Foundation

Report Extract from the New Economics Foundation: Blue New Deal & Graham’s Story. Written by Fernanda Balata & Chris Williams.

coastal communities and protecting the natural resources they depend on. Our aim is to balance the economic and social needs of communities with those of our From small fishing marine environment, villages to large ensuring their return seaside resorts, coastal to prosperity. The UK communities in the UK coast and seas are owe their livelihoods to assets to our society, the marine environment. and we want to see But over the years the thriving communities absence of social and full of happy, active environmental goals in people who are able to some of our key coastal enjoy and benefit from and marine industries – healthy seas. such as fishing, energy, and tourism – has put ...Previous NEF this relationship under research has threat. highlighted the untapped potential Many coastal of the UK’s abundant economies are now in natural resources – decline. As traditional a healthier marine industries have failed, environment can communities are support more and experiencing high levels better jobs, increased of inequality, increased resilience to economic unemployment, and and environmental lower wages. At the challenges, sustainable same time, ecosystems sources of food and and habitats are energy, increased suffering from wellbeing, and healthier overfishing, pollution, and more sustainable and the effects of lifestyles... climate change. ...Like so many smallThe Blue New Deal sets scale fleets across a vision for revitalising the UK, fishers in

Eastbourne have been squeezed to the point of extinction. That’s why four years ago, local fisher Graham Doswell decided it was time for the people of Eastbourne to take control of their own future. With the help of NEF, he has led an effort to secure a sustainable future for the inshore fleet – and with it, a better future for the whole

community... ... NEF brought together fishers, local residents, businesses, local authorities, the chamber of commerce and others...It is this strategic shared vision that will help the fishers’s quay become a success and ensure that the value created also stays in that local economy...

Porlock Bay Oysters: A Community Project Information extracts from Porlock Bay Oysters website. In 2012 Porlock Parish Council set up a group called Porlock Futures to look for ways to improve employment in the Porlock area. In 2013 we started a project to grow and sell shellfish in Porlock Bay. This in an area where only 1/3 of the national average of school leavers stay in the area as there is little employment... ...The oyster beds were laid off the coast of Porlock Bay in 2013 as part of an initiative to boost employment and “improve the image of

BBC POINTS WEST VISIT PORLOCK BAY OYSTERS Photo from Porlock Bay Oysters website

56

the area”. Now, the farming of the shellfish has taken off, secured the highest quality rating and are due to be sold locally... ... We are now growing the finest Pacific Oysters for you to enjoy. Unlike other types of oyster they have the advantage of being available all year round, even when there’s an ‘R’ in the month...


precedents

TV Chef Rick Stein: Taking Over Padstow Article extracts from Coombeshead Farm. By Jeff Chu. March 2017. ...The establishment is one of eight Padstow businesses bearing the Stein name, including four restaurants, two gift shops, a fish market, and a bakery. (He also runs a hotel and rents cottages and rooms above the restaurants.) Stein’s success has downsides, as does Cornwall’s emergence as a gastronomic destination. The Cornish never fail to point them out. “There’s a Cornish saying,” said Mark Hellyar, a native whose family raises lambs and grows barley on 400 acres outside Padstow. “Give a Cornishman a pot of gold, and he’ll complain that he doesn’t like the pot.” The complaints? Crowds in Padstow, whose population swells from about 2,500 to 5,000 during peak season. Commercialization, too: Stein’s empire can feel corporate and over-branded...

CHEF RICK STEIN Fish & Shellfish bookcover

... The upsides of success? Hundreds of jobs, as well as a magnetism that attracts tourists and culinary talent. Nathan Outlaw, who originally came to cook in one of Stein’s restaurants, now has five of his own—two in Port Isaac, one in Rock, and two outside of Cornwall—and they have four Michelin stars among them. He never expected inspiration from the place or its people. When I asked what rejuvenates him, he thought for a moment. “Callum, one of my fishers, who does all the crabs and lobsters,” he said. “From the restaurant, I can watch him get his pots, day in and day out, rough weather—whatever. That’s an inspiration.”...

Coastal Producer Organisation: A Bigger Voice for Small-Scale Fishers Information extracts from Coastal Producer Organisation website. Small scale coastal fishing has been a defining way of life at the heart of UK coastal communities for centuries. It’s a tough, sometimes brutal way to earn a living, built on traditional skills and values handed down through generations of fathers and sons. In coastal communities, small scale coastal fishers are admired for their seamanship, honoured for their respect of the sea and revered for their strength of mind and spirit in adversity.

We take pride in landing the freshest, best-conditioned sea food, brought ashore in the shortest possible time to ensure tip-top taste for our customers. We encourage responsible, sustainable fishing methods. We are conservationminded, self-regulating custodians of a proud heritage; committed to a way of life we will guard throughout our working lives and then pass on to future generations, according to time-honoured tradition...

The Coastal Producer Organisation will: Collectively manage small-scale sustainable fishing in the UK, always with an eye on provision for future generations. Bargain nationally for its members, representing them as a bloc in negotiations for quota allocation and fishing policy. Develop marketing strategies to help members achieve the most favourable prices for their fish. t as a purchasing group on behalf of members to achieve economies of scale in the acquisition of services and supplies required to carry out their profession.

CPO WEBSITE https://fish.coop/

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why is fishing still relevant

PESKY FISH ON TWITTER

From Sea to Plate in 18 Hours: London Hooked on Fresh Jersey Seafood

https://twitter.com/pesky_fish?lang=es

Report Extract from the Bailiwick Express. June 2018.

Pesky Fish and the Jersey Catch are already working on their next one. It should ... Josh started the take place within the Genuine Jersey member, next few weeks and Jersey Catch, two years from there, Josh is ago. He previously ran hoping it will only get a smaller company bigger with more people dedicated to scallops placing orders... but with too many variables impacting the ...”The way things are business, he decided it is very hard for young to start fishing lobsters fishers. If we could and crabs as well. “It maximise things for added another string everyone and explore to our bow,” Josh new ways of doing says. His father, Mike things, and not just do Dearing, also known as what has been done the ‘Trusty Sea Dog,’ before... There is still came out of retirement a good fishing industry to help him out and can but it is important sometimes be found the young ones are diving for scallops... supported. If you look at lobster pots, they ... Josh and Mike’s cost £60 each, when produce was the you need 300 of them, perfect catch for it’s a huge investment. restaurant supplier, Then you add on the Pesky Fish, who’s Ben engines and the cost of King contacted them licensing. Young fishers and helped set up a need help to thrive in transport link for the the industry. Hopefully produce to be shipped it will mean the industry to London in record lives on.” time...It took just 18 hours for the produce to make its way from the sea to the plate...

PESKY FISH ON INSTAGRAM https://www.instagram.com/pesky_fish/

... After this first successful shipment, PESKY FISH

https://www.instagram.com/pesky_fish/

DORSET SHELLFISH CO

THE JERSEY CATCH

https://www.instagram.com/dorsetshellfishco/

https://www.instagram.com/the_jersey_catch/

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precedents

SOLESHARE WEBSITE http://www.soleshare.net/

SOLE OF DISCRETION WEBSITE https://soleofdiscretion.co.uk/

SoleShare: A Community Supported Fishery

Sole of Discretion: Quality, ethical, sustainable fish delivered straight to your door

Information extracts from SoleShare website.

relationships between small-scale fishers and communities...

Information extracts from Sole of Discretion website.

A “Community Supported Fishery” (CSF) is an alternative model for selling fresh, locally-sourced seafood. Based on community supported agriculture (CSA) programs (think veg box), CSFs aim to encourage good relationships between local fishers, consumers and the sea by bringing top quality, locally caught seafood direct to their members.

Meet the Fishers

CSFs encourage sustainable fishing practices and strengthen

... Martin’s been with us since day one, he’s about as low impact as they come. He only uses static gear and hand lines and catches a variety of fish from his 16 ft open hulled boat. He’s got a reel knack (and a bit of a lead foot) for getting his fish from the sea to the city in a matter of hours... ...Joe inherited his dad, Ken’s boat when he retired from active duty. The Thomas family have been fishing for generations

and live in blustery Dungeness, Kent. Joe’s uncle Dave also has a boat down there and together they supply us with their spanking fresh catch of the day...

as sardine or herring. 5. Discards: We do not discard any fish unless we are legally Manifesto obliged, and we refuse 1. Our commitment to replicate the wide is to procure fish and spread practise of high shellfish that have grading. We believe been caught with as that every fish has a little damage to the value... marine environment as 6. Community owned: possible... Our fisher are paid 2. Traceablity: We an agreed price know all our fishers rather than market and can trace your fish price and because the back to their boat. trading company is a 3. Quality: All our fish Community Interest is iced at sea to ensure Company that the the fish reaches you in fishers own, profits go peak condition... back into their fishing 4. Fishing methods: communities. All our boats are under 7. Fair prices: We 10 meters long. We use provide the fishers fish rod and line, static gill to your plate at a true and trammel nets and cost, not at the expense mid-water trawls for of the sea... shoaling species such 8. Social: We believe

... Fishing in the clear blue waters off Cornwall, Kevin mainly targets brown crab, spider crab and lobster. At certain times of the year he’ll use static nets and traditional handlines to catch spanking fresh Cornish fish too. He’s our go to guy when we’re after a big haul of fresh SouthWest shellfish for our members...

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in playing a role in keeping the skills of the inshore smallscale fisher intact... Our concern is that if we don’t reward these fishers for fishing with sensitivity to our seas, their knowledge will be lost forever. 9. Carbon emissions: Our static-net fishers use relatively less fuel per kilo of fish than trawl caught fish. 10. Fair play: We will campaign on the behalf of the disparate smallscale fishers on the basis that quota should be allocated according to environmental and social considerations as well as economic as newly required under Article 17 of the CFP.


HASTINGS FISHER Original picture by Camila Ocejo

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Fish Match intends to address these questions as an alternative vision of the industry through an open platform in which interactions can take place. The network creates links that would allow fishers to explore opportunities in the market, the society, and the environment. In the current market, due to the fish chain going through many agents, from the fishers to the consumers, a fisher’s income is highly reduced since the earnings are distributed with more actors. Although alternative <shorter> fish chains based on fair labour and sustainable fishing exist, these initiatives are not usually owned by the fishers, often putting them at risk by depending on the fluctuating market. In addition, local restaurants don’t rely on small fisher’s catch because they cannot provide a constant supply so they rather buy cheaper frozen fish from abroad, making it a more feasible choice due to the low tariffs on imports. Therefore, Fish Match allows interactions in which fishers can connect among each other to ensure a constant supply for buyers. This encourages a local and decentralized market, supports a stronger local market, and promotes the consumption of alternative species.

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Beach launching is the most common way of mooring boats for small inshore fishers, making them highly dependent to weather conditions and commonly preventing them from setting sail. Fish Match addresses this issue through the fish pilgrimage action. Here, whenever fishers are faced with a bad weather forecast, the app can point out ports with good weather conditions in order for them to migrate temporarily to other ports to be able to continue fishing. Alternatively, based on previously discussed example of Hastings, fishers could to diversify into other activities through associations. The application is meant to challenge existing landscapes which could ultimately be replicated throughout the coast in a multi-scalar dimension. It is in this fishersowned platform of interactions, in which territories themselves are produced, where space ought to be challenged in a way that ponders the voices behind Fish Match, that emerges the need for a designer to push the limits of its discipline and participate in the fundamental questions around what makes up space.


fish match

fisher

buyer

The app comprises of two main players, first of all the fishers, the main users and the ones responsible for its governance, and secondly, the buyers. The app functions through three main actions: Swaap, Fish Pilgrimage, and Marketplace. Swaap allows fishers to exchange quota on a need basis. Fish Pilgrimage allows fishers to temporary migrate to other ports when the weather conditions in their home port are preventing them from going fishing. Finally, the Marketplace connects fishers with buyers to ensure a constant supply. The application’s main purpose is to ensure jobs for fishers by facilitating the link within them and by suggesting different ways to approach their practice when facing difficulties. The app guides fishers through their possibilities by taking in account several restrictions such as wave height and fish seasonality. If there were good, low waves for boat launching plus availability of fish, then the fisher could chose to get more quota through Swaap or to participate in supporting economies for the fishing industry. If there were good, low waves but no availability of fish in the area, then the fisher could chose to migrate temporarily to another port through Fish Pilgrimage or to participate in supporting economies. Finally, if the waves were tall, hard waves to tackle when boat launching, then either there be fish availability or not, the fisher could chose to migrate of to participate in a supporting economy.

♼ SWAAAP

FISH PILGRIMAGE

MARKETPLACE

FISH MATCH APP Original drawings by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo pictures by John Cole / Crystal Waters

PRIMARY DIAGRAM Original drawings by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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SWAAAP SUPPORTING ECONOMIES

good fish season good waves

bad waves

tourism fishing related

bad fish season

FISH PILGRIMAGE

environmental

buyers constant supply

incentives daily catch request based stock access

storage

tourism infrastructure

beach space

cultural activities aquaculture

transport

non target species impact on consumption patterns


fish match

♥ SWAAAP

peer to peer exchange FISH PILGRIMAGE

fisher

site specific distribution building trust

MARKETPLACE

♥ SWAAAP

weather & site conditions

FISH PILGRIMAGE

temporary migration fisher

Swaap allows a quota exchange between fishers based on the species available in each region accordingly to the season. It is based on a fisher to fisher exchange, in order to develop further outside of the app relationships base on trust. This action will implement a quota system that is based on site specific species distribution.

Fish Pilgrimage points out ports with good weather conditions in order for fishers to migrate temporally to other ports and to be able to keep fishing. It is implement complementary with supporting economies, allowing fishers to diversify temporary to other areas of work.

supporting economies

MARKETPLACE

Marketplace connect fishers with buyers without intermediaries. In order to make fishers stronger is based on a co-operative model with a decentralized market and promoting a sustainable consumption.

♥ SWAAAP

fishers co-operative FISH PILGRIMAGE

decentralized market fisher

sustainable consumption

MARKETPLACE

FUNCTIONS OF FISH MATCH Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

buyer

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In Brixham where Peter is from, there are loads of Cod but no Plaice, whereas in Seafork, where Gary is from, there are loads of Place but no Cod. It’s a Swaap match! They just exchange their quotas. SEAFORK////Gary

BRIXHAM////Peter Quota in use

Quota in use

Sprat Cod Lemon Sole Dover Sole

Sprat Sandeel Plaice Whiting Lemon Sole Dover Sole

SWAAAP

Quota no use Sprat Sandeel Herring Plaice

Quota no use Herring Cod

Waves are coming very steep in Coverack for the following months, as it is normal at this point of the season. Paul has checked Fish Match to see his options and Fish Pilgrimage in within the alternatives. Polperro seems like a good option, it is just a few hours away.

SUPPORTING ECONOMIES market-based activities

tourism & leisure

environmental activities

supply of capital

non-fishing contract work

capture & culture

processing wholesale marketing retail

catch %

employment obligations

COVERACK////Paul

SWAAAP FISH PILGRIMAGE

maintenance participation pay rent

Larry the owner from the fish and chip shop “The Happy Skipper” has requested 45 kilos of frying fish through Fish Match Marketplace. Gary and Jack will be fishing together to provide him with the right amount.

0:00 PM

SEAFORK////Gary

REQUEST

GARY

HOW FISH MATCH WORKS Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

SIDMOUTH////Jack

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SEABASS 8KG

0 kg

185 kg

200 kg


fish match

Small inshore fishers don’t have enough quota to catch enough to make a living. This tool allows small inshore fishers in the south coast of England to swap or lease their quota by species, depending on the availability of species (seasonality and distribution) by area and the possibility of the exchange. The tool would be integrated inside this new FPO (Fish Producer Organization) FISH MATCH, for small inshore fishers in England. Belonging to this FPO would allow them to do the quota swap. (Right now they are set under the nonsector quota pool managed by the government).

Ports data

List of the ports with their location (coordinates) and data (.csv) +Name of the ports +Code of the Port +Total tons of fish per year +Numer of register vessels under 10 m +Location coordinates +Potencial acess to diferrent species (Cod, Herring, Lemon Sole, Plaice, Sandeel, Sole, Sprat and Whiting) +Designated FAO Area

>>>ArcGIS / ArcMap Libraries unfolding maps controlP5

background map interface

species button

Fishers

Cod Herring Lemon Sole Placie Sandeel Sole Sprat Whiting Boolean buttons that enable the different fish species that you can swap

Session select the closest point from a pointcloud and the mouse position

+fish specie selected for the session +index port selected by clicking the points +index of highlight ports +potential traders linking with the port selected +direct traders This class start a new session for the selected fish and gives you the ports with you can exchange with

Users The main user of the application is the small inshore fishers. Functions >The user select the fish specie that he needs more quota. >The ports that don’t use that fish quota will appear colour code. > The user select their port and the ports that could have a direct swap exchange will appear colour code. >The user select which port they want to do the exchange. >Information about the port and the exchange will appear in a pop-up. Further development The last 2 functions are not implemented yet. This application will be part of the FISH MATCH app.

APP WORKFLOW Original code by Raul Bielsa data from MMO

APP VISUALIZATION Original drawings by Raul Bielsa

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fish match

Fish pilgrimage data calendar_ explain data, harsher conditions, host ports, pilgrim ports, species availabiilty. Describe how the calendar works** Wave data, fish spawning areas, plus the seasonality of each species became the backbone of the app’s database. Wave data (height, length of waves, and time period) would serve to determine the the port’s ability to launch fishing boats through out the year. The seasonality of fish and their spawning areas would allow fishers to foresee the availability of fish stocks and determine if it is profitable to go out fishing. Additionally, each port is classified by its geomorphological conditions (river inlet, beach, etc) and by its mooring space characteristics (marina or beach launching) to pin down the ports that would actually require to participate in such exchange. The ports with calmer waters, what we call the host ports, would not require to migrate and would be most likely be hosting boats from other ports. The ports with steeper waters, called pilgrim ports, would most likely be migrating to host ports, looking for suitable mooring areas for them to launch their fishing boats. The ports that have both conditions throughout the year can perform both roles. The calendar shown graphically describes the data behind the decision making of the app. For every month, each port is referenced to a chart indicating the wave conditions (the darkest arrows indicating steep, harsher waves while the lighter arrows indicating low and calmer), the fish available for six main species, and the amount incoming pilgrim boats

JANUARY FISH PILGRIMAGE Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo data from MMO

ONE YEAR CALENDAR Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo data from MMO

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fish match

Core Functionalities Buyer

● Authentication - Logging in

and adding new users

Fisher

Browse Type of Fish

Report Amount

Buttons with the following categories: fried, oven, pan sauté, grilled and shellfish

Slider with a range of 0 kg to 500 kg

Choose Amount

Feed is updated according to chosen constraints

FishFeed Data

Confirm

Report Type of Fish Buttons with the following categories: fried, oven, pan sauté, grilled and shellfish

Slider with a range of 0 kg to 500 kg

Fishfeed

● Settings - Defining user

Feed is updated according to chosen constraints

Confirm

Buttons that works only when the fields above are complete

Buttons that works only when the fields above are complete

Request

Request Inbox

Choose Amount Listings

Slider with a range of 0 kg to 500 kg

Confirmation Page

Choose Type of Fish

Break down of prices and details of pick up date.

Buttons with the following categories: fried, oven, pan sauté, grilled and shellfish

Request

Confirm

Submit Daily Catch

The app will search for fishers according to a closest range criteria. Fishers can share requests if the request exceed fishers’s quota.

Buttons that will confirm purchase and send out request to the corresponding fishers

Notifications On

Notification Pop Up

Notifications Off

Confirm

Allows request notifications to pop up

Buttons that works only when the fields above are complete

Disables request notifications to pop up

role(buyer-seller) and additional personal info ● Map - Displaying available offers nearby ● Search - Searching for commodity-specific offers nearby, possibly sorting them ● Offers - If seller, viewing, editing and canceling existing offers ● Requests - Existing requests ● Add Offer - Adding a new offer ● Make Request About an Offer - Requesting an amount from an offer(In Deal Scenarios) ● Rate Request - After a request is done(canceled/ finished), rate on value/ quality/service. ● Offer Info - Viewing an offer(second-party view) ● User Info - Viewing user information(second-part view) ● Request Info - Viewing an open request information(private)

In our effort to provide fisher with an open-framework trading tool which could decentralize their current supply chain economics and empower small-craft, local fisher over their cooperate and large-scale competitors we have encountered an issue with providing listing prioritization which would pay more attention to smaller offers and acquisitions. In order to do so, we have decided to model a function which could give us a first notion on the methods we would address this problems by.

APP FUNTION DIAGRAMS Original drawing by Camila Ocejo & Shaked Lokis

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Taking into account the data provided by Marine Management Organization we extrapolated two main factors for fish offer priority evaluations. The first would be the average quantity of fish landed by small scale fisher on a single landing, which is a 100 kg mean with a standard deviation of about 50 kg, this could be best described as a normal distribution . The second is the average number of landings at each dock which is considered to be small in local fishing communities and stands on a density scale of 2000 vessels on average for small crafts. We could then describe this as an inverse exponential distribution(which yields higher probabilities for small value instances) . Now, let 0<<1 be a “quantitylandings trandoff� variable, 0<q be the landing quantity in kg and 0<l be the number of landing at offer dock on the same day and we would get the following rating function: Note that we’ve taken into account the exponential growth of demand by adding a natural logarithm base constant factor. Visualizing this function we would get the following graph. We could see that the highest rating is given to median small-craft fisher in small fishing residents while the lowest is given for high margin, high traffic instances. Also pay attention to effort given to lower the rating for hobby-fisher while not inhibiting their gross sells by still being competitive with the large-scale companies. When applying this function to the current GIS data we could see that the high priority areas are mostly standing to our own aspirations as to adhere higher priorities for local communities. APP MOCKUP Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Shaked Lokis

Shaked Lokits is a triple bachelor of Computer Sciences (B.Sc), Education (B.A) and Visual Communications (B.Des) from the interdisciplinary program for science and design at Jerusalem. Shaked expertise lies in generative models, parametric design and procedural generation systems. 73


FISHERS IN EXMOUTH Original picture by Camila Ocejo

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So, what’s the catch? How will quota exchange lead to more adaptable fishing policies? How will temporary migration serve as the base for associations to happen? What can the consumption patterns tell us about the logistics of the market? How will the data serve as index of the communities that require extra support? How will this data be managed and what will we do with it? A prototype of the app was developed in collaboration with Shaked Lokits, a computer scientist who guided us into the understanding of all the complexities behind app-design. This resulted in a broader vision of the responsibility of the app-designer, raising discussions about the reality of open markets, the double-edged sword of rating systems, and of the extent of the user’s freedom to make choices. Fishers and buyers would become data emitters, which under the orbit of shared economy, management would be a key aspect to address. The app comprises of two main players, first of all the fishers, the main users and the ones responsible for its governance, and secondly, the buyers. We knew that an in-depth understanding of the players would be fundamental to design a form of management where fishers would be protected from the pressures of the market. We ensure a fair play for fishers

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through an agreed fair price in advance, regardless of the market being low. This way, fishers can provide fish to the consumers at a true cost, and not at the expense of the marine environment. The app would be a test based interaction platform, in which after some time fishers would be able to extract knowledge from it and choose whom to work with and whom to associate with. Even associations could emerge, where the profits of fishing could go back into their communities in a much more localized way. It could become the base for communities that strongly depend on fishing to thrive through co-operative work. Perhaps, throughout time, the app would become obsolete. The data itself, however, should then be able to frame the policies for them to be flexible, adaptable and work on the behalf of small-scale fishers and community development in terms of the environmental and social considerations as well as economic welfare. We explore the possibilities through a speculative scenario. The scenario would be based on these interactions and would be the backdrop for the integration of new social dynamics, the necessity for new flexible policies informed by same interactions and ultimately, the need of different spaces.


so what’s the catch

Polperro

River Fowey

Looe

Cawsand

Kingsbridge

Brixham

Beesands

Paignton

Exm

population

population

population

population

population

population

population

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

FAO 27.7.e

january february march april may june july august september october november december

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49021

<10m vessel

2

<10m ve

lw

o

67

populat

Lu th ou dm Si

Exmouth

Beesands Kingswear Teignmouth Brixham

Salcombe Kingsbridge

Cawsand

Looe

Polperro

River Fowey

This cartography displays a graphic simulacrum of Fish Pilgrimage through the data generated by the interactions. These connections unveil the possible links between the different kinds ports throughout the year according to the restrictions we set on the database. The catalogue on top displays the geomorphology of each port while indicating the characteristics of each town (population, amount of small-scale vessels and level of tourism and fishing activity). This would serve as a indicator of the site-specific aspects that would determine the course of action for each port in a smaller scaleFAO approach. Below, 27.7.f the chart shows black dots on the months that each host port can expect pilgrim incomers according to the size (the smaller the dot, the least amount of boats).

Paignton

population


producing scenarios

mouth

Weymouth

Sidmouth

tion

population

population

population

essel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

12569

32563 21

5

Kimmeridge

Lulworth Cove

52323 49

population

-

110

<10m vessel

3

Swanage

2

Christchurch

Dungeness

population

population

population

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

<10m vessel

9601 11

54210 14

Hythe

9

population

14170

<10m vessel

3

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

Fishing activity

m

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Tourism

Ch

ris

tc

hu

rc

h

Sw

an

ag

e

Ki

m

m

er

id

ge

Poole

or th

Co

ve

Dungeness

Hythe

g activity

nยบ <10 fishing vessels 10 - 20 >20

<10

H&P PORTS

river inlet harbour

nยบ <10 fishing vessels 10 - 20 >20

<10

HOST PORTS

beach / cove

nยบ <10 fishing vessels 10 - 20 >20

<10

PILGRIM PORTS

FAO 27.7.d

nยบ pigrim ports relate to host ports

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amount of fish variety

% days at sea waves heigth

routes from pilgrim and h&p ports to host and h&p ports


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Abbotsbury

West Bay

Lyme Regis

Beer Axmouth

Sidmouth

Teignmouth Paignton Kingswear Brixham Exmouth

Beesands

Kingsbridge Salcombe

so what’s the catch


producing scenarios

The interactions are intensified in this bay-like typology. It can be clearly seen how a pattern is created, where the host ports get grouped in the side of the bay where they are more protected from tall waves whereas the pilgrim ports are grouped in the tip most exposed to tall waves. The bay acts as a landscape concealer for these connections to happen. Sidmouth, for instance, would play an important role as a host port since it is next to several pilgrim ports which most likely would chose Sidmouth as a first option for a host port due to proximity.

types of ports host ports

autumn

seafish

host&pilgrm ports

pelagic

pilgrim ports

demersal

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+ -

+ -

summer spring winter

each 20 vessels from host&pilgrm ports each 20 vessels from pilgrim ports each 20 existing vessels

netting routes from pilgrim and h&p ports to host and h&p ports

dredging

gravel

potting

mud

trawling

sand


so what’s the catch

In Sidmouth, the question beaks down into a need for space, a space created by the fishers for the fishers as a result of the app running for several years while building relationships, trends, and associations. The space would be an outcome of fishers coming together for a mutual benefit as a result of the participatory nature of the app. A space that could host up to 40 boats for a season and that could ultimately create a setting for new activities to develop involving the fishing industry and the community.

SIDMOUTH AERIAL VIEW Original picture by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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producing scenarios

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so what’s the catch

The FISH MATCH network, and specifically the fish pilgrimage action will give a unique opportunity to rethink mooring spaces related to small scale fishers. As it is been said, beach launching involves a huge physical effort for the fishers that have to take the boat in and out of the water. But it has some benefits. The beach is usually own by the council and they have space for everything that involves being a fisher , form space to keep the gears to space to prepare the fresh fish and sell it for the beach. This opportunity allows to think about different ways of ownership for mooring spaces, about the beach as a natural infrastructure which works temporally with the tide and about how important is it for fishers to have their own space.

HASTING BEACH LAUNCHING Original picture by Raul Bielsa

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the future looks awesome

On the other hand, marinas are a much better option to have a quiet area safe from the tide and the waves. This means that mooring spaces in marinas allows fishermen to go to the sea more days than if they were in a beach. But usually, marinas are privately own and fishers does not get the space their need for their activities because marinas are more focus on recreational boats. A marina that is for the fishers and that is done by the fishers is what we should look for. A mooring area that can be an adaptable, growing system that could work in evolving stages as more boats joined the association and that could be feasible for fishers to build. The quiet space that marinas held could represent more days at sea for fishers. How could we create a mooring space� with such characteristics?

EASTBOURNE MARINA Original picture by Camila Ocejo

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so what’s the catch

In order to slow down with steep, fast waves and generate an efficient mooring area, the beach is mirrored to create a quite zone within for boats to moor. For this, we worked with a coastal evolution model software to simulate sand movement and retention by placing obstacles through time. Building these barriers would be the first step of the strategy. After studying several type of barriers, we chose tyres as a cheap and effective solution for barriers that fishers could build by themselves. Fishers could easily get their hands on them as millions of tyres get thrown away yearly in the United Kingdom. Breakwaters would follow, protecting the exposed bits of accumulated sand from strong waves. The tyre company Goodyear proposed scrap tires as a construction material for building large floating breakwater devices. Our design adopts the Goodyear module, for its flexibility allowed us to experiment with a range of configurations. These breakwaters would ultimately turn into the base for activities to take place.

DESIGN DIAGRAM & MATERIALITY Original drawing by Camila Ocejo

AERIAL VIEW SIDMOUTH Original picture by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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so what’s the catch

>>>Method

>>>Inputs Input Surface Generate coastline surface with sand and rock area

>>>Rhino

Set Parameters Python Script Rhino to CEM

Extract Curves Python Script CEM to Rhino

-Wave_In.dat file specifying wave height and angle -Surface txt file input

Surface contours extraction for further analysis

>>>Rhino

>>>CEM Barrier Intervention Barrier placement for sand retention

In order to understand how the sand will be evolving we used a coastal evolution model CEM developed at Duke university. It is a one-line sand transport model that is based in the cellular automata method that represents dynamic systems through local cell interactions. A surface model is built in rhino that is converted to a text file for CEM by a python script.

>>>Excel >>>CEM/Rhino/Excel

Inside CEM the wave parameters are set by a waves file with the specific data for waves in Sidmouth.

23 Year Span

From CEM we get a result showing by year the changing on the sediments. We get different outputs through different python scripts.

>>>Output Sand Movement

The result is evaluated in order to decided where the barriers should be place. After the evaluation a new model with the barriers is built and the process is iterated until the result is the optimum one.

Groin link to land Barriers

Dropped Sand

Sand Distribuition

>>>CEM/Rhino/Excel

WORKFLOW STRUCTURE Original drawing by Camila Ocejo & Raul Bielsa

OUTPUTS Original drawing by Camila Ocejo & Raul Bielsa

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the future looks awesome

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so what’s the catch

Scrap tires strung on pole framework or bound together with chain or belting. Foam flotation is usually need.

TYRE MAT

Two-Direction Module

One-Direction Module

Waste tyres are proposed as a main building material for creating a floating mat breakwater device. We adopted the Goodyear breakwater module because its flexibility allowed us to explore a range of configurations in an additive manner. It would be also a viable material for fishers to acquire and build with as it were necessary. The Goodyear scrap tyre floating breakwater arrangements are generated by tying together modules of close-fitted interlocked tyres with ropes or cables. This building procedure grants an easy to install, adaptable breakwater structure with high wave absorbing capacity.

wave reduction diagram

Incident Wave

Floating Breakwater

Transmitted Wave

Wave Length

wave length calculus

The variable that most mattered to us was the mat width. This width is what determines the impact the breakwater will have on the incoming wave. The longer the mat, the smaller the ‘transmitted wave’. In order to optimize the fishers’ mooring area for boat launching, we needed to achieve a breakwater mat that would sufficiently reduce the ‘incident waves’. This was further explored through a grasshopper script we developed that allowed us to explore the inputs in detail.

good year module picture

52

C! CV

C3 LD

UJ Ld !

.0

2e0

4iO

PERIOD

6' 0

8.0

10 ~ 0

GOOD YEAR MODEL SYSTEM Original drawing by Good year system

SEC.!

FigUrelB. Relationship BetweenWavelength,WavePeriod andWaterOepth 1i near theory!

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the future looks awesome

Several methodologies were develop in order to have a better understanding of the dynamics of the tyres as floating breakwaters.

PHYSICAL SAND TANK

OPTICAL FLOW

How the tyres will be attached, the degree of movement, the angles of rotation and the incident of the waves are some of the questions that we tried to answer with these simulations.

SEWING TYRES MODEL

PHYSICAL MODEL

Though the sand tank waves were simulated in order to understand different ways of tyres association and different spatial configurations. Two floating pieces were simulating several tyres together with a break in the middle. The results were draw though an optical flow script to follow the movements of the tyres. Though the physical model different join technics were develop in order to get different levels of attachment and rotation /movement. This was simulated with metallic nuts and thread. The results gave more detail spatial configuration of association between the tyres.

TYRES SPATIAL CONFIGURATION Sand Tank model by Raul Bielsa Physical model by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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so what’s the catch

This script allowed us to develop a design strategy for the placement of the floating breakwater made of tyres.

Inputs

tyres breakwater

reduce factor tyres

walls

waves visualization

1.616-31.322*(H/(g*T*T))-1.099*(h/ d)+0.265*(h/B)

intersection

H*cos(2*π*d/T)

H waves hight T waves period g factor h object hight d distance to seabed B width

sand dunes

>>>Rhino

walls

Once we have these reduction values, they are applied to the waves in order to get the new value of the waves for the visualization process.

sand dunes >>>Grasshopper

mean

high 0

165º

.53 m

waves May

The inputs for the script are the barriers (sand dune, walls and tyres breakwater) and the characteristics of the waves that hit Sidmouth. Thought the intersection of the waves with this barriers we get with barriers are acting as protection from the waves. Each of the different barriers has a different wave reduction coefficient. For the tyres breakwaters it depends on the characteristics of the waves, the dimensions of the breakwater and the distance to the seabed.

>>>Rhino 4

waves direction waves hight waves period

April

5

May

6

June

7

8

July

August

9

September

3

March

In this calendar, we can observe that because of the difference of tide thought the year, the amount of tyre floating breakwater that we need varies cause the distance to the seabed is different.

0.5 m 1.0 m 1.5 m 2.0 m 2.5 m 3.0 m

3

breakwater width calendar

3.5 m 4.0 m 4.5 m 5.0 m 5.5 m

10 October

11November

12December

1 January

2 February

10

11

12

0.5 m 1.0 m 1.5 m 2.0 m 2.5 m 3.0 m 3.5 m 4.0 m 4.5 m

WAVES REDUCTION SCRIPT Original code by Raul Bielsa Original drawings by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

5.0 m 5.5 m

AERIAL VIEW SIDMOUTH Original picture by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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mean high 0 .53

165ยบ

May

m

the future looks awesome

rings

ter Sp igh Wa

Mean H

l

ea Leve

Mean S

ngs

ter Spri

ow Wa

Mean L

st

Augu

.5 m high 0

165ยบ

mean

ngs

ter Spri

igh Wa

Mean H

l

ea Leve

Mean S

ngs

ter Spri

ow Wa

Mean L

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sid valley neighbourhood plan


river sid sidmouth trawlers

red sandstone cliffs Jurassic Coast

Drill Hall sidmouth sailing & sea angling Club sidmouth lifeboat station

<10 fishing boats E30 Kathann E460 Gus E1 KJM E566 Azzurro

5.9 m 5.2 m 4.6 m 4.6 m

Beer 12 Axmouth

Lyme Re

3 gis 12

West Bay

13

e mb lco Sa

Abb otsb ury

14

19


so what’s the catch

YEAR 2020_ I am Tom from Beer and since I’ve started using Fish Match, I’ve been going to Sidmouth over the summer for the past few years. We share the space with the fishers from Sidmouth but it is getting very crowded nowadays. Council has finally grated us financial support to buy some sand to begin our fishing hub.

year 2020

YEAR 2024_ We are eight fishers already, the fishers from West Bay have been using Fish Match for a while and have now decided to join our association. To build the wall, each one of us has to contribute with six modules of tires, plus an extra two for the floating breakwaters.

year 2024

YEAR 2028_ The hub is doubling its size, new associations are emerging! We just recently decided to collaborate with our dune neighbor to build an aquaculture farm, they are six good fishers from Abotsbery whom we’ve been fishing with. This summer our fish market & fish&chips shop is up and running!

year 2028

TIMELINE PROCESS SCENARIO Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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the future looks awesome

YEAR 2033_ New boats have been visiting from Beesands. This summer our oysters should start growing in our aquaculture farm. We had to build 21 modules more.

year 2033

YEAR 2035_ Good news! We are now hosting Sidmouth’s annual fish festival in our hub. Now that the new associations have built a cooking school and more market spaces it should be quite the hit. New young people are joining the fishing industry.

year 2035

YEAR 2038_ We’ve decided to join the marketplace of Fish Match with our fellows from the dune next door. Now we provide fresh plaice and dover to several restaurants in town, they even take the ugly fish! We are finally getting started our own processing center. Now, we are the main providers of fish fingers for Lyme Bay.

year 2038

TIMELINE PROCESS SCENARIO Original drawing by Raul Bielsa & Camila Ocejo

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so what’s the catch

An important thing to highlight about how these systems of barriers work together is the tire topography. The topographic variation in the floating breakwaters, so these escalated areas, allow the dunes to be accessible during low and high tide.

100


the future looks awesome

During high tide, the roofs are lower and the dunes closer. The fish market is always on it’s feet. Peter is there as always selling hand picked scallops. Jim sells lobsters on the next stand. Kids during summer time join the surf school.

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so what’s the catch

During low tide, the roofs are higher and the dunes further away. The fish market feel huge, I can see stands from other dunes through these large spaces. In the cooking school their specialty is seafood. They teach the whole process, from cutting down the fist to spaghetti alle vongole!

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the future looks awesome

103


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As we became familiar with the struggles around the coastal communities, we realized that our research questions had changed. What began as an exploration on the economic and political concerns behind the deprivation of these regions, ended up as a series of questions around ownership, heritage as the core driver of these communities, and on the empowerment of these through fishing. “Why is fishing still relevant?� This framed the follow-up questions that reshaped our understanding of what the fishing meant for coastal communities. This scope also prompted larger questions: How can policies address the needs of the people by becoming flexible while adapting to ongoing changes? How are policies altering and producing landscapes? How can communities have a bigger say on their landscapes? As part of the AA Landscape Urbanism scope, cartographic projection and data analysis were some of the methods adopted in our research. While this defined a whole range of parameters that framed our method, having dealt with data allowed us to have a digital approach that enabled us to grasp on the tendencies shaping our present and the various strata that make up society. This gave us the grounds to foresee how we will be living in the near future and how we as architects could participate in the territorial production that came with it. So we asked ourselves the following: how can this be included in a regional ecosystem? How can we give more room for people to take part in the overall

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choices? Our course of action was driven by these questions, believing that projects such as our own could provide a precedent for the alteration of roles and power relationships through the digitization of industries as a result of collective decisions. Collectivism became central to our project, allowing us to speculate on the interactions within fishers, their freedom to participate in productive processes, and above all, on how can the ownership and shared responsibility of these outline their community’s objectives. It is in this fishers-owned platform, in which territories themselves are produced, where space ought to be challenged in a way that ponders the voices behind Fish Match, that emerges the need for a designer to push the limits of its discipline and participate in the fundamental questions around what makes up space. This research allowed us to envisage a radical small-scale proposal informed by larger tendencies while questioning the significance of traditional industries in the development of communities, of how social common-grounds can become the base for political change, of how can a digital technologies can shift the roles of power. Most importantly, we were able to challenge our role as architects, suggesting a proactive, cross-disciplinary involvement in the making of space by adopting processes to understand space as the product of dynamics that are often invisible to our eyes.


chapter title

Faircatch Ltd. n.d. faircatch. Accessed April 2018. http://faircatch.co.uk. Adams, Martin. 2015. Land : a new paradigm for a thriving world. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. Cahill, Kevin. 2002. Who owns Britain. Edinburgh: Canongate. n.d. Fishing into the future. Accessed April 2018. http://www. fishingintothefuture.co.uk/. GIFSproject. n.d. The Geography of Inshore Fishing and Sustainability. Accessed April 2018. http://www.gifsproject.eu. Hastings Fisheries Local Action Group. n.d. Hastings flag. Accessed April 2018. https://hastingsflag.org.uk. Locality. n.d. My Community. Accessed April 2018. https://mycommunity. org.uk. Marine Stewardship Council. n.d. The Marine Stewardship Council. Accessed April 2018. https://www.msc.org. National Federation of Fishers’s Organisations. n.d. The National Federation of Fishers’s Organisations. Accessed April 2018. http://nffo.org. uk. Plymouth Trawler Agents Limited. n.d. Plymouth trawler agents. Accessed April 2018. http://www.plymouthtrawleragents.com. Raworth, Kate. 2017. Doughnut economics : seven ways to think like a 21stcentury economist. London: Random House Business Books. Ryan-Collins, Josh, Toby Lloyd, and Laurie Macfarlane. 2017. Rethinking the economics of land and housing. London: Zed Books. Seafish. n.d. Seafish. Accessed April 2018. http://www.seafish.org. Service, Government Digital. n.d. Find open data. Accessed April 2018. https://data.gov.uk/. Shrubsole, Guy, and Anna Powell-Smith. n.d. Who owns Engand? Accessed April 2008. http://map.whoownsengland.org/. Soleshare. n.d. Soleshare. Accessed April 2018. http://www.soleshare.net. Sustain. n.d. Sustain. Accessed April 2018. https://www.sustainweb.org/. Sutton Harbour Holdings PLC. n.d. Plymouth Fisheries. Accessed April 2018. http://www.plymouthfisheries.co.uk. Urquhart, Julie, Tim G. Acott, David Symes, and Minghu Zhao. 2014. Social issues in sustainable fisheries management. Dordrecht: Springer.

type” [online] Intergovernmental organization. Avaiable in http://www.fao. org/fishery/geartype/ (visited on 03.19.2018). The Seafish Organization “Gear” [online] Non-departmental public body sponsored by the four fisheries departments of the government of the United Kingdom. Avaiable in http://www.seafish.org/geardb/gear/(visited on 03.20.2018). European Commission (2015): “Fishing Tacs and Quotas 2015”, As fixed by Council Regulations (EU) No 1221/2014 of 10 November 2014, No 1367/2014 of 15 December 2014, No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015, and No 2015/106 of 19 January 2015. Bryant, Barry (2018): “Fishing for a future, An Analysis of Need, Challenges and Opportunities in UK Fishing Communities”, Seafarers UK. Steins, Natalia and Edwards Victoria (1997): “Institutional analysis of UK coastal fisheries: implications of overlapping regulations for fisheries management”, Elsevier Science. Oxby, Ray and Ross, David (2018): “Greater Grimsby Town Deal Prospectus 2018-2028: Submission Draft”, North East Lincolnshire Council. D. Morgan, Richard (2013): “Exploring how fishers respond to the challenges facing the fishing industry: A study of diversification and multiple-job holding in the English Channel fishery”, Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Portsmouth. Lawrence, Steve, Moran, Marta and Motova Arina (2017): “Quayissues, Economics of the UK Fishing Fleet”, Seafish. Milliken, Kirsten, Lawrence, Steven, Moran, Marta and Warner, Mike (2016): “Quayissues, Exploring the stories behind the data: A look at the Seafish Fleet survey 2016”, Seafish. Phillipson, Jeremy (2002): “WIDENING THE NET Prospects for Fisheries Co-Management”, Centre for Rural Economy. Sea Fish Industry Authority: “Fishing UK: past, present and future”, Seafish. Lawrence, Steve, Motova, Arina and Rusell, Jennifer (2017): “Fleet Economic Performance Dataset 2008-16”, Seafish. Patterson, Owen (27th January 2017): “UK Fisheries Policy Post-Brexit”, UK 2020 Limited.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations “Fishing Gear

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sub chapter title

fishmatch.tumblr.com

Raul Bielsa Perez Architect Graduated from the School of Architecture in Zaragoza from where he developed an interest in the relation between architecture and its wider context. Whether a city, a specific territory or landscape. His work at Groundlab and previously, in the PUPC (Urban Landscape and Contemporary Project) research group of Zaragoza University, shows his continuous and consistent interest in urban and territorial transformations worldwide and his keen interest to pursue further research in the possibilities design offers in the production of built environments. Camila Ocejo Domenge Architect Graduated from an architecture degree in the Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City and in the Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo. Her interest in the intrinsic political and socioeconomic conditions, which outcomes translate into impacts on territory, has led her into projects that encompass matters such as transportation for marginalized neighborhoods in Sao Paulo, abandoned low-income housing in the periphery of Mexico City, and water mismanagement in the State of Mexico. The challenge for contemporary cities is a field she is keen on exploring. 107


AALU LANDSCAPE URBANISM