Page 1

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM

COASTAL FUTURES

VALERIA GARCIA ABARCA/ YUNYA TANG

2013/2014


COASTAL FUTURES Architectural Association School of Architecture Landscape Urbanism 2013/2014 Tutors Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Clara Oloriz Sanjuan Seminar Tutors: Douglas Spencer Tom Smith Project team members: Valeria Garcia Abarca Yunya Tang September, 2014


COASTAL FUTURES


COASTAL FUTURES AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2013/2014

Tutors: Alfredo Ramirez, Eduardo Rico, Clara Oloriz Sanjuan

VALERIA GARCIA ABARCA YUNYA TANG September 2014


INDEX INDEX PREFACE

Page h-vi

INTRODUCTION_ Coastal futures INTRODUCTION_ Multiscalar_Diagram

Page 1-8

1.0

Climate Background

1.1

European Surge

1.2

Surge UK

1.3

Flooding Risk UK

2.0

Page 9-24

2.1

Insurance/ Damage Scheme

2.1

Governance Funding

2.2

South East Surge

Damages / News

2.3

Centralized Model

2.4

South East Realignments

2.5

Conventional Realignment Model (CRL)

2.6

CRL Tidal Defences

2.7

CRL Coastal Engineering

2.8

Alternatives to CRL Netherlands.

3.0

Page 25-30

Flooding Strategies

Territorial Framework

3.1

Territorial Acknowledgment

3.2

Alternative Realignment Model

3.3

Territorial Engine


4.0

Coastal Flooding

4.1

Coastal Evolution Before 150BC.

4.2

Case Study Camber East Sussex

4.3

Case Study Isle of Sheppey

4.4

Case Study Eastbourne East Sussex

4.5

Case Study Little Hampton Sussex

4.6

Focus on East Kent Peninsula

5.0

Site Background

5.1

Sandwich in History

5.2

WATSUM CHANNEL

5.3

Roman Fort

5.4

World war one

5.5

Mining Heritage

5.6

Pfizer and Sandwich

5.7

New

6.0

Page 31-44

Page 47-60

Energy Strategy

Site Social Formation

6.1

Social components on site

6.2

Outskirts

6.3

Settlements

6.4

Sub Urban

6.5

Urban

6.6

Coastal

Page 61-74


ange:1.0 m size: 0.01 mm level:4 Level: 4

INDEX 7.0

Page 75-84

7.1

Site Visit

7.2

Site Simulation

7.3

Cartography

8.0

Page 85-96

-0.20m

Geophormological Process

Flooding Mechanism

8.1

Reservoir Storage Strategy

8.2

Tidal Creek

8.3

Tidal Creek Mechanism

8.4

Tidal Creek Provocation

8.5

Grazing Marsh Essay.

-0.30m

9.0

Page 97-142 -0.10m 0.5m

Technical Catalogue

9.1

Catalogue of Land formation

9.2

Catalogue of Social Formation

9.3

Catalogue of Evolution

9.4

Catalogue of Construction

0.0m

-0.25m Newly formed creek

0m contour Dyke construction and offset S= 0.18 km2

-0.5m

10.0

-1.0m

Page 143-150

bankment

Territorial Intersection

10.1

Territorial Intersection

10.2

Cartogenesis

10.3

Cartogenesis Simulation.

11.0

A0

Regional Evolution 1

ays

ays

ays

ays

Page 151-168

11.1

Pond Condition Site

11.2

Strategical Planning

11.3

Executions

11.4

Functional Are Study/ Site retribution

11.5

Construction Details


12.0

Regional Evolution 2

12.1

Town Condition Site

12.2

Catalogue Reference

12.4

Stakeholder Diagram

12.3

Execution

12.4

Strategical Planning

12.5

Functional Are Study/ Campus typology

12.7

Model

12.8

Render Views.

13.0

Exploration of Coexistence

13.1

Economical Entities

13.2

Coexistence Evolution

14.0

Page 209-214

Territorial Adaptation

14.1

Territorial Adaptability

14.2

Sandwich Adaptability

14.3

Littleampton Adaptability

14.4

Eastbourne Adaptability

14.5

Territorial outlook

15.0

Page 169-208

Conclusion

Page 215-226

Page 227-228

Bibliography Image Credits Appendix Cartographies Appendix Essays

Page 229-264


PREFACE

AA LU _

Pan-European ATLAS

The MA is engaged with the idea of territorial landscapes as the milieu for the development of a territorial practice. This practice is concerned on the one hand with the geomorphological formations of relevant landforms as its raw material and on the other with the actual cultural, political and economic forces that drive and choreograph what we call the social formations of these landforms. The understanding of these landforms as the primeval material is not solely the concern of a geologist or more specifically a geomorphologist (or any other scientist), i

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


A Pan-European Surge Atlas

_

though the understanding of their physical processes derive from it, but of the landscape urbanist who see them in turn as manufactured landscapes, in other words as cultural productions, derived from a constant and relentless human activity full of conflicts, struggles, alterations, shifts, within or outside legal or institutional frameworks. In short the result of a specific historical processes with political consequences.

neither conventional nor touristic. If the European territory is ever to gain the status of a coherent project, this demands that no process is regarded as too humble, that no mountain is thought more sublime than another, and that no stream is considered insufficiently picturesque. Landscape Urbanism will generate an atlas of possible territories as the basis of new forms of documenting the future of European environments.

The course seeks to explore how productive and natural formations can generate the basis of a pan-European project of territories which are neither generic nor iconic, Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

ii


COASTAL FUTURES iii

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

INTRODUCTION _ The British territorial crust is subsiding and global warming makes the southern England in siege. Facing to this invasive flooding, the short-term flooding protection tends to act upon a centralized territorial framework. From Cameron's speech, the Flood Re policy presents more capital distributed towards the centralized model, which might cause a huge loss in areas along the coastal communities. Our proposition seeks to revert the broken economical model with using tidal force as


A Pan-European Surge Atlas

_

instrument for transformation. Here flooding acts as an agent to influence the regional disparities, and potentiate decentralization. The project introduces a series of regulations to establish framework for independent economies. Instead of passive hard engineering, we choose to co-exist with flooding physically and economically. Activity on site, uses tidal creek as agent of change, space can be transformed in functional spaces such as hybrid agriculture, recreational land-

scape, aquaculture, etc. The land value is even boosted by flooding. As an alternative, the intervention seeks to mobilize territories effected by flooding, enabling local actor economies, and propose a territorial adjustment towards liberalization of territorial disparities caused by centralization.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

iv


paneuropean atlas _

England _

south east England _

climate change

Policies strategies England

decentralization

MULTISCALAR

Project Approach, addresses 4 different scales across multiple territorial conditions


Sandwich East Kent _

Regional Evolution _

Economic Activities

Economic Activities


BACKGROUND

01 CLIMATE


_

EUROPEAN SURGE 3

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Europe storm surges1

1.1 Where do surges occur? _ Storm surges can occur on almost any low lying coastline; practically any populated coast has some risk of a storm surge. However particularly high risk areas include The southern North Sea shoreline, where many highly populated areas lie close to th e coast just above, or even below, the mean sea level. The area has a large number of winter storms, leading to surges of over 50 cm around 10 times per year. The best known surge event in this region was the storm of January 1953, which killed and displaced thousands across the Netherlands, Belgium and the UK1.


Architectural Association

A Pan-European Surge Atlas2 Coastal Futures

4


The Thames flowing over Teddington Weir

Storm surge; depression originating in the Atlantic

UK SURGE 5

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Low tide at Tower beach

High tide central London

Depression passes Northen Scotland and enters the North Sea

Surge moves down the East Coast towards

1.2 Sources of Flooding S _ Recent severe flooding around the UK coast is a stark reminder of the risks presented by storm surges caused by a combination of high tides, winds and low pressure. The impacts on people, property and infrastructure, as recent events in Dawlish illustrate, can be significant. Storm surges, and their potential impacts, need to be understood by coastal managers, affected communities and all those with assets on the coastline. International flood and coastal engineering specialist HR Wallingford has developed SMART tide, a tool that can now be used to predict storm surges.2


Surge tide event at the Thames Barrier

the Thames estuary

Surge tide approaches the Thames

Surge tide enters the Thames Estuary _

The UK Environment Agency warned of "extreme danger to life and property" in parts of Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent and Essex and issued eight severe flood alerts. The Met Office meanwhile warned of gusts of up to 145km/h (90mph) for the Orkney and Shetland islands in Scotland.3

Surge Formation 1

Further surges are expected to hit the English coast around Kent and London, but they will not coincide with high tide. The Thames Barrier is already being raised and the Thames has been declared all clear.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

6


Flooding atlas of UK1 _

FLOODING RISK UK 7

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

1.3 Flooding Risk UK _ In addition to the daily tides, the Thames estuary is prone to an increase in water levels caused by a North Sea surge. Surge tides occur when a band of low pressure or depression moves across the Atlantic towards the British Isles, the sea under it rises above the normal level creating a hump of water. This hump moves with the depression, passing the north of Scotland and moves south into the North Sea. A surge tide happens when this mass


European surge3 _

Flooding news2 _

In addition to the daily tides, the Thames estuary is prone to an increase in water levels caused by a North Sea surge. Surge tides occur when a band of low pressure or depression moves across the Atlantic towards the British Isles, the sea under it rises above the normal level creating a hump of water. This hump moves with the depression, passing the north of Scotland and moves south into the North Sea. A surge tide happens when this mass

In addition to the daily tides, the Thames estuary is prone to an increase in water levels caused by a North Sea surge. Surge tides occur when a band of low pressure or depression moves across the Atlantic towards the British Isles, the sea under it rises above the normal level creating a hump of water. This hump moves with the depression, passing the north of Scotland and moves south into the North Sea. A surge tide happens when this mass

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

8


STRATEGIES

02 FLOODING


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

10


_

DAMAGE SCHEME

Flood Re Dynamics Diagram 1

2.1 Insurance Policy _ The compensations scheme for private property damages, is regulated and supervised by Three bodies; The Environmental Agency, ABI and British Parliament. Association of British Insurers (ABI) represents around 300 insurance companies who together sell around 90% of all insurance products in the UK. Under the Statement of Principles, ABI member companies commit to make insurance available to domestic and small business, properties in areas that are not at a significant risk of flooding.

11

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


_

The Guardian Home Insurance Report 2

According UK Government Revised Statement of Principles on the provision of flood insurance in 2014 1 house damage insurance will not be available for properties in flooding areas that were built after 1 January 2009 nor the most expensive at risk homes- that pay the highest rate of council tax-. ABI members agree to continue to offer cover to existing customers if plans are in place to reduce the risk within five years. In a ten year period, 208,664 homes were built on floodplains in England alone. Some

_

ABI Insurace Report 4

_

The Royal Times Goverment Flood Recover 3

38,026 of these are in areas of serious flood risk. Anyone unfortunate to have bought a new home built on floodplains since 2009 will not be included in a new insurance scheme to those in the worst-hit areas. 3 More than a million homes and 300,000 businesses are at risk. Homeowners living near rivers and the coast face losing up to 40 per cent of the value of their homes as flood risk make them uninsurable. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

12


GOVERNANCE FUNDING

2.2 Governance funding _

_

Funding distribution diagram1

Furthermore, flooding defences funds are distributed within the centralized model, therefore the regeneration of coastal communities becomes an isolated problem. Most of the funding has been given London area, and it has kept growing for these years. Even in this case, Cameron announced that the funding towards flooding will decrease which may pose the coastal areas in siege. As security of coastal communities are dependent on central investments, experts have pointed out that reducing funding will be a very wrong decision.

13

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


_

New report about flooding loss2

_

funding data 3

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

14


SOUTH EAST SURGE 15

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

_

Atlas of South Uk1

_

News of East Kent 2

2.3 South East Surge Damages News _ The compensations scheme for private property damages, is regulated and supervised by Three bodies; The Environmental Agency, ABI and British Parliament. Association of British Insurers (ABI) represents around 300 insurance companies who together sell around 90% of all insurance products in the UK. Under the Statement of Principles, ABI member companies commit to make insurance available to domestic and small business, properties in areas that are not at a significant risk of flooding.


_

News of Sussex3 _

News of Isle of Sheppey4

According UK Government Revised Statement of Principles on the provision of flood insurance in 2014 1 house damage insurance will not be available for properties in flooding areas that were built after 1 January 2009 nor the most expensive at risk homes- that pay the highest rate of council tax-. ABI members agree to continue to offer cover to existing customers if plans are in place to reduce the risk within five years.

_

News of Eastbourne5

_

News of Littlehampton7

In a ten year period, 208,664 homes were built on floodplains in England alone. Some 38,026 of these are in areas of serious flood risk. Anyone unfortunate to have bought a new home built on floodplains since 2009 will not be included in a new insurance scheme to those in the worst-hit areas. 3 More than a million homes and 300,000 businesses are at risk. Homeowners living near rivers and the coast face losing up to 40 per cent of the value of their homes as flood Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

16


CENTRALIZED MODEL 17

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

2.4 South East Realignments _ Image shows proposed realignment Schemes are funded by the central government, but they are not within their first priority. Most of the funding has gone to the populated area such as London.


_ Architectural Association

Atlas of South UK1 Coastal Futures

18


CONVENTIONAL REALIGMENT MODEL (CRL) 19

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

2.5 Conventional Realignment Model (CRL) _ Current Realignment schemes model is sponsored for limited 5 years by the Central Government. Government has to pay a huge amount of compensations to rent the land so the construction can move on. And they are responsible for all the flooding loss during this period. In the long term Projection, this model presents a deficiency in terms its social and economical. We can imagine that hard engineering approach will finally be broken by the increasing sea level.


CRL TIDAL DEFENCE

2.6 Tidal Defences Scheme _ Flooding is a huge issue for Sandwich. Recently, they just began a tidal defences project to prevent the frequent menace from surge and high tide. The current defences in and around Sandwich only provide a 1 in 20 year standard of protection a 5 per cent chance in any one year that flooding will occur. At the Town Quay the standard of defence is lower still and flooding regularly occurs at this location. The scheme will also protect other key assets including Discovery Park, valuable infrastructure such as the main coastal access routes and key tourist and employment areas. The scheme will take 2..5years to construct and will cost approximately 21.7 million pounds. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

20


Natural Coastal Principles of Operation Soft Engineering 1

_

CRL COASTAL ENGINEERING 21

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

2.7 _

Coastal Engineering Management Strategies

Soft engineering is the use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve the stabilization and safety of shorelines and the area surrounding rivers, while enhancing habitat, improving aesthetics, and saving money. 3Soft engineering is achieved by using vegetation and other materials to soften the land-water interface, thereby improving ecological features


Natural Coastal Principles of Operation Hard Engineering 2

_

Hard engineering can cause unintended environmental consequences, such as new erosion and altered sedimentation - sand deposition patterns, that are detrimental to the immediate human and natural environment or along down-coast locations and habitats. Examples of hard engineering are groynes - a wooden wall to prevent longshore drift - and sea walls that deflect waves. 4

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

22


Masterplan 1 _

CRL ALTERNATIVE 23

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

2.8 Alternatives to CRL Netherlands _ As flooding has become a territorial issue, the solution should be more universal, in a larger scale. What is happening to UK has happened to Netherlands. Dutches has accumulated much experience in this area. This project is located in Noordward. This proposal has been approved and is in construction now. They decided to let the river flood the land where it used to be farming land. The state has prepared to buy up everything from the land owner


The Noodwaard is a polder of 45 kilometre squares, east of Dordrecht and north of Biesbosch. It was only converted to large-scale agricultural use in the 1970s, its rich soil and vast lots made it an attractive area for crop farmers. The polder is being opened up to river. Amazingly enough, while this forward looking innovation is happening, the landscape harks back to that of 1905.

According to landscape designer, Robbert de Koning, in this design the designers were trying to achieve a balance between new nature, new water and new ways of living and working. But it had to be robust as well; it had to remain functional as water leeds rise, in 50 or 100 years it really will look different: the emphasis will shift from agriculture to water.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

24


FRAMEWORK

03 TERRITORIAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

26


TERRITORIAL AKNOWLEDGMENT 27

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

3.1 Territorial Acknowledgment _ The Project acknowledges the coastline is losing land, and seeks for the resources to maximize the territorial potential. Geologists take the long view, which can lead to some striking thoughts, and here is one: Britain is shrinking. As the waves crash onto the shores of this island, the rock is worn away or falls off in chunks, and, as the adage goes, they are not making land any more in Britain.


Atlas of UK

1

_

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

28


Conventional and alternative dynamics diagram _

ALTERNATIVE REALIGNMENT MODEL 29

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

3.2 Project Strategy _ The cartography impacts on the conventional image of the UK map, It is challenging the idea of defining the boundary between land and sea as a line. Conventionally hard engineering works as a line to preserve the land ownership patterns. Our approach, allows flooding in a controlled way to make territorial transformations in time.

1


Alternative dynamics approach 1 _

TERRITORIAL ENGINE

3.3 Territorial Instrumentalization _ Time is a concern in our project for the understanding of the process. The project framework aims to redefine the boundary in time. - Firstly is based on a 5 year resource programme sponsored by central government., that can becomes an anchor point for further transformations. -Then the constant tidal force, Enables the creation of regeneration of self sufficient economical entities that can independently evolve in time. -Furthermore, it enables the Coexistence between self multiplying economical entities.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

30


FLOODING

04 COASTAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

32


Atlas of South UK 1 _

33

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


COASTAL EVOLUTION

4.1 Coastal Evolution Before 150BC _ The Coastal boundary, has been always been unstable since the Roman Times. The maps shows the existing coastal line against the coastline back in 150 BC, When it was more intricate than at present, with larger bays and tidal estuaries Project Illustrates Case Studies of Camber East Sussex, Isle of Sheppey, Eastbourne East Sussex, Littlehampton Sussex, East Kent Peninsula. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

34


Flooding map of camber 1 _

LYDD EAST SUSSEX 35

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

4.2 Case Study Camber East Sussex _

The Lydd Marshes are an area on the South Coast of England which lies between Folkestone in the East and Winchelsea in the west. The land used to be marsh land, but over time it has been changed to its current form. We would like to take you down the annals of time to about 10000 BC to see the changes brought about by a mixture of Man and Nature.


Social map of Camber 3

Satellite map of Camber 4

_

_

Lydd Marsh's sea defences have been greatly improved since the North Sea storm surge of 1953. Although there are sea defences along much of the coast, there is still some risk of flooding to the interior of Lydd Marsh owing to gaps in the sea defences and the complexities of internal drainage within the Marsh. Further improvements are being considered by the Environment Agency and other partners.

The coast is continually changing because of erosion, deposition and rising sea levels. By 2100, mean sea level around Lydd Marsh is expected to be 39-49 cm higher than it was in 1990 (source: UK Climate Impacts Programme).fishing.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

36


Flooding map of Sheppey 1 _

ISLE OF SHEPPEY 37

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

4.3 _

Case Study Isle of Sheppey

The Isle of Sheppey is an island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some 46 miles (74 km) to the east of London. It has an area of 36 square miles (93 km2). The island, like much of north Kent, comprises London Clay and is a plentiful source of fossils. The land mass referred to as Sheppey comprises three main islands: Sheppey, the Isle of Harty and the Isle of Elmley.


Social map of Sheppey 3

Satellite map of Sheppey 4

_

_

The Isle of Sheppey has had its share of emergencies: from the floods in 1953, which prompted construction of the sea defences, to the flood of 1978 and the cold snaps of 2010/11. The community has pulled together to cope with these severe weather events in the past. The coast is continually changing because of erosion, deposition and rising sea levels. By 2100, mean sea level on Sheppey is expected to be 39-49 cm higher

than it was in 1990 (source: UK Climate Impacts Programme). With a co-operative approach we could respond to coastal flooding, heatwave and cold snaps in a more organised way. One example is Minster-on-Sea Parish Council, which has developed a Community Emergency Plan to help with the local response in the event of severe weather emergencies. This experience could be shared across the island.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

38


Flooding map of Eastbourne 1 _

EASTBOURNE EAST SUSSEX 39

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

4.4

Case Study Eastbourne East Sussex

Eastbourne (About this sound pronunciation (is a large town, seaside resort, and borough in East Sussex, on the south coast of England, 17 miles (27 km) east of Brighton. Eastbourne is located immediately east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the South Downs National Park.


Social map of Eastbourne 3

Satellite map of Eastbourne 4

_

_

In July 1893, a summer storm over Eastbourne resulted in severe surface water flooding in the town, with fountains of water erupting from the manholes in the street, and the recently installed surface drainage system being completely overwhelmed. Notable flood events have occurred six times in the last 35 years, with the most serious being in March 1995 when 56 properties were flooded in Polegate, Willingdon and Eastbourne and in June 2003 when over 50 properties were flooded in Bexhill and Hastings.

Studies of flood risk management reveals the number of properties at risk, or that can potentially get damaged, to the 1% annual probability event will increase from192 to 264 properties by the year 2100. The majority of these properties are located in Eastbourne, Willingdon and Pevensey.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

40


Flooding map of Littleampton 1 _

LITTLEHAMPTON WEST SUSSEX 41

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

4.5

Case Study Little Hampton Sussex

Littlehampton is a seaside town and civil parish, about eight miles (12 km) south of Chichester, in the Chichester District of West Sussex, within the historic county of Sussex, England. Littlehampton lies at the southernmost point of the Manhood Peninsula, almost cut off from mainland Sussex by the sea


Social map of Littleampton 3

Satellite map of Littleampton 4

_

_

The Littlehampton peninsula, prior to the construction of sea defences in 1956, was one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the country. Protection of the cliffs at Littlehampton Bill from erosion has significantly reduced the supply of shingle to down-drift beaches.

There is no present demand for land reclamation to justify the high costs of advancing the line. Therefore, the. Preferred option is to hold the line by upgrading and extending the existing defences. Management operations must consider impacts on Units to east and west if drift is not maintained. A 1:150 year standard of defence is assumed appropriate.

Economic, social and recreation losses due to do-nothing or retreat the line are not acceptable. Erosion would be ongoing as the headland comprises low lying soft geology and is exposed to severe wave attack. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

42


East Kent Flooding Risk Map

_

EAST KENT PENINSULA 43

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

4.6

Focus on East Kent Peninsula

The 1,200 square kilometres area lies in the county of Kent and covers all or parts of the Ashford, Canterbury, Dover, Maidstone, Shepway, Swale and Thanet Districts. It is home to around half a million people. The Stour has five main tributaries draining the clay headwaters which meet in the large urban area of Ashford. The river then flows through rural chalk downlands into Canterbury where the channel is highly modified with flood defences, sluices, gates and mills controlling the flow. Below Canterbury, the river enters the tidally influenced Lower Stour area and flows through internationally significant wetland habitat areas of the Stodmarsh and Hacklinge Marshes, before flowing out into Pegwell Bay.


East Kent Peninsula Stour River

_

The Nailbourne and Petham Bourne are winterbournes that flow only once every few years. The mall streams around Whitstable and Herne Bay that make up the Oyster Coast Brooks drain a clay area, giving them flashy characteristics. In contrast, the Dour in Dover and the Pent in Folkestone have chalk catchments that respond slowly to rainfall, and are dominated by groundwater levels in the chalk. Over the years, floodplains have been modified creating a series of urban centres interspersed with agricultural areas important for flood storage. Flood storage reservoirs were completed in the

East Kent Peninsula Satellite

_

Upper Stour in the 1990s, offering protection for Ashford. Major changes have occurred over the last few centuries, the most significant being the draining of the Lower Stour which historically met the sea at Stourmouth. Changes in flow regime and the building of defences have modified this to valuable agricultural land. 83% of the area is agricultural land and some is amongst the most productive land in the country. There are a number of historically important sites throughout the catchment.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

44


BACKGROUND

05 SITE


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

46


SANDWICH IN HISTORY 47

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

5.1 History in evolution _

Long time ago, during 150s AD, bewteen Isle of Thanet and the continent, there was a channel, Roman boats landed on Britain from the Point of Richborough fort today. From the channel, they can sail to London. Gradually, the land rises and the sea water falls down due to the beginning of a new ice age. The history of Sandwich the town begin can be dated back to 1028 that King Canute granted a charter to the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury to operate a ferry across the river and collect tolls.2


Sandwich was later to gain significantly from the skills brought to the town by many Flemish settlers, who were granted the right to settle by Queen Elizabeth I in 1560. From the map we can find today, we can see a evolution after 1700. The town keeps its size almost until the industry revolution begins where we can see the transportation network begins to grow.

After the second world war, a significant change takes place because of the establishment of Pfizer's site. This great pharmaceutical factory not only changes the landscape such as enlarge the lake Great Stour, but also facilitate a series of new residential between the industry and old town. Even an expansion of old town begins as some small settlements agglomerates in the south part.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

48


The Wantsum Channel Routes 3

The Wantsum Channel Routes 4

_

WANTSUM CHANNEL 49

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

5.2 The changing coastline of East Kent _ The coastline of East Kent has changed dramatically over the last two thousand years since the Roman Invasion. This explains the location of the early fortifications of Reculver and Richborough which were positioned to guard the north and south entrances to the Wantsum Channel. The Isle of Thanet, an island at that time was not defended. Over time the channel silted up, but it was still possible to sail to Canterbury in the 15th century. All that is now left is the River Stour


Map of Eastern Kent and the Isle of Thanet c.4th C. 5

_

Since Romano-British times there has been a gradual rise in sea-level which has had a marked effect on the coastline of Kent over the intervening two-thousand year period. On the north coast the tidal effects have eroded several hundred yards of the coastline away, including the northern ramparts of the Roman station at Reculver, whereas in the south, large amounts of alluvial deposits have built up over the years to create the Romney Marshes between Hythe and Rye, so that the once flourishing Roman port and Saxon Shore fort at Lympne now lies land-locked, almost 1 miles (2.4km) from the

sea. Eastern Kent has changed considerably since Roman-British times; the Wantsum Channel has completely silted up, connecting the Isle of Thanet to the mainland which has lost almost half of its coastline in the process - and the Claudian bridgehead port at Richborough now lies 2 miles (3.2km) from the sea.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

50


Aerial view of Richborough Roman Amphitheatre 4

_

51

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

_

Panormic view of Richborough Roman Amphitheatre 5


Roman Fort Roman 1

England for Roman soldiers Forts 2

Roman Fort Richborough 3

_

_ 5.3 _

ROMAN FORT

Richborough Roman Fort

In AD 43 the Roman army landed at Richborough which was then on the coast. The port became the entry and exit point to England for Roman soldiers. The fort was built in the mid 3rd century and is now two miles from the sea. A town grew up around the fort and an amphitheatre was built in the late 3rd century. The large hollow where it stood can be seen above the fort in this view. This site is now in the care of English Heritage (2010).

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

52


 1

 1 _

WORLD WAR ONE

5.4 _

WWI Richborough Port

Planned in June 1916 as a base for the expedition of war materials to the armies in France and Flanders, it's primary purpose was to relieve pressure on Dover for this class of transport. The site chosen consisted of an expanse of marshland through which the Stour flowed as an insignificant stream. During World War One, the British Army needed to transport vast quantities of war material to the front in France. With Dover bursting at the seams with the vessels of

53

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


World War One, the British Army,  2 

. 2 _

the Dover Patrol and Folkestone dedicated to transporting the troops, they elected to build a complete new temporary port along the banks of the Stour. The Royal Engineers constructed this enormous complex in short order. With British shipbuilding strained to the limits with the demands of war, great numbers of barges were constructed on site and were towed backwards and forwards to France where they distributed the supplies along the French canal system. 3

By early 1918, a train ferry berth and three train ferries had been constructed and huge quantities of material, including tanks and large guns, could be transported swiftly across to Calais. Almost all this infrastructure was dismantled after the end of WW1. Lake Noth created and dredged to disposed the remaining war ships. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

54


Betteshanger Miners c. 1955

_

Sandwich Railway

Betteshanger Miners'

_

_

MINING HERITAGE

Mining map of east kent _

5.5 East Kent CoalďŹ elds _

Kent Coal fields, which in the early twentieth century was planned to have transformed this area into a hive of industrial activity but the coal here was harder to extract than was imagined. This and other constraints meant that grand vision was never fully realised, but the remnants and history is still very much visible today. Shareholders of the Channel Tunnel Co. declined to allow the company to exploit the

55

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Betteshanger 1930

_

Sandwich Road Halt 2

_

Sandwich Road Halt 2

_

Sandwich Road Halt looking north 2

_

coal and in 1896 Arthur Burr set up the Kent Coalfields Syndicate to buy the mineral rights and then commenced Shakespeare Colliery at the old tunnel workings.

Part of the problem was that the coal was down very deep, in thin undulating seams and was difficult to mine.

During the next 25 years the Kent coalfield came close to being abandoned on numerous occasions. From 1896 more than 45 test bores were carried out in east Kent and at least 10 collieries started yet it took 16 years of continual investment before any commercial coal was raised to the surface. 1

The remainder of the coal had industrial infrastructure, was dismantled along the years, and old railways has returned to nature and agriculture with only a few isolated earthworks remaining although much of the course is still visible as a 'crop mark' across fields in aerial photographs. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

56


PFIZER &SANDWICH 5.6 Interview Andy Rochetti, Estates Manager of Discovery Park _

Great stour and water treatment The Great Stour is a big saline lagoon on the site of Pfizer. It was small as the historical map shows. After the establish of Pfizer, they enlarged the lake and make it in the use of pharmaceutical manufacture use. And the same time, to reduce the impact of environment, the site itself has a waste water treatment system. The purified water won't release into nature river course, but recycle back to great stour again.

Great Stour Lake and Waste Treatment

Donation of Nature Reserve The Monks Wall Nature Reserve, was owned by Pfizer, which covers 69 acres. The company decided to lease it to Sandwich Town Council _ without charge. It is used for educational visits by local schools and colleges. Mr. Rochetti

1

According to Dr Terence Clifford-Amos, mayor of Sandwich Town Council, said that it was "highly important as a place for migratory and non-migratory bird life and for grazing and for flora and various types of fauna".2 Donation of Pfizer - Monks Wall Nature Reserve

Sludge The intertidal land contains high salinity from sea which makes the soil barren. Historically, the soil of grazing fields around Pfizer's site are getting more and more rich remarkably, thanks to the by-product of manufacture, which is a sort of biodegradable sludge.

Water gate, dyke and defenses In terms of flooding management, Pfizer has done some effort to prevent it. Firstly, they set up two gates along the Stour river to let the higher water level inside the site can be released into river once the surface runoff threatens. Secondly, to prevent river tide, they set up a dyke along the river. Thirdly, the construction of tidal defenses which is taking place in Sandwich town is sponsored by Pfizer. Water gate and dyke

Workforces Pfizer is the most important industry of Sandwich. Populations of workers in Pfizer has reached 9000. The departure has seriously affected the town. Pfizer is the biggest employer in this area. According a report from BBC in 2011, "If companies that are ready to take over the site are not found soon, then the 2,400 remaining Pfizer employees will quickly leave the area. Another 1,700 contractors, who work on the site, as technicians and support staff, will also lose their jobs. Along with cleaners, caterers, security staff, and parallel public sector redundancies, the total loss of jobs in the area could be 5,000, according to local MPs." 3

By-product improve the soil quality

Pfizer and landscape 2 _

57

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Timeline of site history 6 _ Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

58


5.7 Energy revolution in the region _

NEW ENERGY STRATEGY

5.7.1 Richborough powerstation History The power station was built by the Central Electricity Generating Board in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and entered service in 1962 as a 342MW coal-fired station, using coal from Kent and other coalfields. It was converted to burn oil in 1971,and further converted in 1989 to burn a proprietary oil and water emulsion called Orimulsion, imported from Venezuela through Port Richborough. The site was also chosen as the site for an experimental 1MW wind turbine, which was at that time the largest ever installed in the UK,with permission given in 1987, and the turbine becoming live in 1989. After growing concerns over the environmental effects of the Orimulsion fuel in the main power station,court action was taken in two separate actions,[8] with both cases settled out of court.the 360MW station ceased generating in 1996.

Demolition Following the plant closure, the majority of the equipment was removed during a strip out programme, which also saw the demolition of a number of the buildings, leaving only a few outbuildings, the office block and the landmark cooling towers and chimney standing. In controlled blasts, the three 97m cooling towers and a single 127m chimney stack were demolished on 11 March 2012. Some locals had campaigned to keep the towers, saying they formed part of the historical landscape and were used as a navigation point by boats wanting to enter the mouth of the river stour known to have a narrow channel of useful depth.

Future The current owner of the site, BFL Management Ltd, plan to bring the site back into use as a 750 million pounds green energy park. The national grid interconnector from the original power station is still in place, and is now the grid link for the offshore Thanet Wind Farm. There are additional plans to create additional recycling and green energy facilities on site, including an anaerobic digester, a waste processing plant, a biomass combined heat and power generator, a pyrolysis plant and a peak demand 30MW diesel generator. When fully operational, the park could provide up to 1,400MW of power, employing 100 full-time equivalent, with up to 500 jobs in the construction phase. [10] National Grid plans to use part of the site for a new interconnector with Belgium. A 1000MW High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) 130 km undersea link with the Belgium transmission operator, Elia, would allow power to flow in both directions. This would be the third link from the UK National Grid to Europe, the others being the Britned 1000MW link to the Neitherlands commissioned in 2011 and the IFA 2000MW link to France commissioned in 1986. The link should be in operation in 2018. 1

5.7.2 CHP Biomass on Discovery Park Estover Energy is proposing to build a local scale biomass Combined Heat & Power (CHP) plant to provide renewable heat and electricity to Discovery Park, one of Europe's leading Science and Technology parks, near Sandwich in Kent. The CHP plant will also supply low carbon electricity to the grid. The biomass plant will use locally sourced wood fuel to generate sustainable heat and power for Discovery Park, significantly reducing its energy costs, carbon footprint and reliance on imported fuel. Electricity that Discovery Park does not use day-to-day will be exported to the National Grid. This supports UK national targets to generate 15% of its energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. 2 Energy revolutioin _

59

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

6


Biomass energy 7

Underground cable 8

NEMO-link 9

5.7.3 NEMO LINK PLAN Nemo Link is proposing to construct an electrical interconnector between the UK and Belgium known as the Nemo Link interconnector.

1000 Megawatts of electricity to be traded between UK and Europe. The sub-sea cables would run approximately 130 kilometres from Richborough to Zeebrugge in Belgium.

Kent already has two interconnectors with Europe. The Interconnetion France Angleterre (IFA) runs between France and Selinge and the BritNed interconnector runs between the Netherlands and the Isle of Grain. It’ s proposed that the Nemo Link interconnector could go into operation by 2018. It would be the first electricity link between the UK and Belgium and would enable

The project is necessary for the implementation of the European and Belgian energy and climate policy. Europe has set itself the goal of cutting energy consumption by 20%, reducing CO2 emissions by 20% and generating 20% of total energy from sustainable, renewable sources by 2020. 10

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

60


FORMATIONS

06 SITE SOCIAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

62


SOCIAL COMPONENTS

6.1 Social Components _ The majority is neutral grassland, varying from semi natural to semi improved, dependent upon the intensity and nature of agricultural activity, and the influence of variable water levels. A total of 15 distinctive land cover classes have been identified within the study area, highlighting the diverse nature of the landscape. These classes can be grouped into 3 broad categories: Agricultural land

63

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Atlas of Social Formation 1 _

- Arable / Horticultural, and - Grazing Pasture Developed land - Urban Settlement, - Urban Public Open Space, - Urban Industrial, and

- Suburban Settlement Natural and semi-natural land - River Channel, - River Mouth, - Coastal Shoreline, and - Golf Links landscape.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

64


OUTSKIRTS

Natur

Arable Hor

Grazing Marsh Arable horticulture grazing Marsh

Grasing Marsh

65

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Grazing Mar


Transport

Industrial Urban Sub Urban

Post / Industrial/ Laboratories Leisure Natural Reserve

Geo Park Energy

ral Reserve

Arable Horticulture Grazing Marsh

rticulture

rsh

6.2 OUTSKIRTS _ This comprises two sub-groups: cultivated arable and horticulture land, and grazing pasture. Arable and Horticulture land - comprises extensively cultivated land, at times with large areas of bare earth, and a highly variable seasonal vegetation cover. It supports predominantly a mix of vegetable crops and arable, with some soft fruit production in the south east of the study area. Grazing Pasture land - comprises a varied mix of improved and semi-improved natural rough grazing marsh/pasture. These areas generally share a common origin historically as areas of coastal and floodplain grazing marsh, and as a result are characterised generally by high ground water levels and the presence of seasonal or permanent surface water-filled hollows or ponds, and wetland plant species such as reeds and sedges. Enclosures are defined by linear boundary drainage ditches, which maintain their water levels, and contain standing brackish or fresh water.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

66


SETTLEMENTS

Natur

Arable Hor

Grazing Marsh Arable horticulture Grazing Marsh

Grasing Marsh

67

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Grazing Mar


Transport

Industrial

Post / Industrial/ Laboratories

Urban

Leisure

Sub Urban

Natural Reserve

Geo Park Energy

Arable Horticulture Grazing Marsh

ral Reserve

rticulture

rsh

6.3 SETTLEMENTS _ Urban Settlement - represented by the original medieval walled town and its historic buildings and structures, which include remaining sections of the town wall and town gates, large numbers of medieval and pre-19th century dwellings, and the surrounding areas of 20th century expansion to the south. Urban Public Open Space - a collection of small linear pocket park spaces associated with sections of the original medieval town wall and defensive ditch which have remained undeveloped and now function as linear green spaces. There are also a number of peripheral recreational grounds and sports pitches and parks. Arable horticulture

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

68


SUB URBAN

Natur

Arable Hor

Grazing Marsh

Grazing Mar

Arable horticulture Grazing Marsh

Bioenergy Park

69

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Energy

Coastal Futures

Natural Reserve


Transport

Industrial

Post / Industrial/ Laboratories

Urban

Leisure

Sub Urban

Natural Reserve

Geo Park Arable Horticulture

Energy

Grazing Marsh

ral Reserve

rticulture

6.4 Sub Urban Activities _

rsh

It is comprising a number of small, scattered rural hamlets, farmstead complexes and isolated dwellings located predominantly in the south and western regions of the study area. These uses create two distinctive areas within the study area; the residential settlement of Sandwich (historic and recent), including associated areas of public open space on the southern bank of the Stour, and the industrial / employment zone located within the Stonar Loop to the north of Sandwich.

Arable Horticulture

Grasing Marsh

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

70


URBAN

Natur

Arable Hor

Grazing Marsh

Grazing Mar

Arable horticulture Grazing Marsh

Urban

Post -Industrial

71

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Sub Urban


Transport

Industrial Urban Sub Urban

Post / Industrial/ Laboratories Leisure Natural Reserve

Geo Park Arable Horticulture

Energy

Grazing Marsh

ral Reserve

rticulture

6.5 Urban Activities _

rsh

Urban Industrial - comprises a large area of industrial development covering the majority of the land within the Stour Loop to the north of Sandwich. This can be divided into three distinct zones of industrial activity. Firstly the Sandwich Industrial Estate, which is located immediately to the north of Sandwich and to the south of the Stonar Lake. This is an area containing older and largely domestic scale industry, relating to an area of historic industrial activity close to the original Stonar Port area. Secondly, Discovery Park, located between the Stonar Lake and A256, characterised by the large scale pharmaceutical and research buildings of the former Pfizer complex. Thirdly, an area of light industry; predominantly waste processing and recycling uses, located on a narrow strip of land between the river channels, either side of the Stonar Cut.

Arable Horticulture

Grazing Marsh

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

72


COASTAL

Natur

Arable Hor

Grazing Marsh Arable horticulture Grazing Marsh

Transport

73

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Post / Industrial/ Laboratories

Grazing Mar


Transport

Industrial Urban Sub Urban

Post / Industrial/ Laboratories Leisure Natural Reserve

Geo Park Energy

ral Reserve

rticulture

Arable Horticulture Grazing Marsh

6.6 Coastal Activities _ Coastal & Floodplain Grazing Marsh - these are areas of natural and semi-natural, rough, permanently wet grassland located predominantly around the mouth of the Stour, in the north east of the study area, with smaller areas along the flanks of the Stour channel. This vegetation type was historically much more widespread throughout the study area, but improved land drainage and intensification and changes in farming practices has resulted in much of the inland areas becoming drier, and these now demonstrate contrasting vegetation properties. As a result many of these areas are now within the agricultural classification Grazing Pasture.

rsh

These areas are characterised by: High ground water levels Presence of seasonal and/or permanent water-filled hollows and ponds of brackish or fresh water Extensive areas of salt water marsh containing hard and soft rush and sedge species. Drainage ditches with permanent water of varying salinity which support a range of rush and sedge communities.

Leisure

Natural Reserve

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

74


PROCESS

07 GEOFORMOLOGICAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

76


3

5

4

1 6

2

Site and sea currents _

SITE VISIT

7.1 Site visit _ During our field trip, we found tidal forces are dominant elements for the land formation in this area. Because of the tidal forces, the low land is largely affected. Many marshes and mudflat has been formed. Along the river course, we have found the tidal creek which is


recognised as an evidence of tide dominant estuary. The tide range is very dramatic these years, it has arrived 4 meters. So a series of salt lagoon, grazing marshes have been formed even they are located far from seaside. We have also discovered the river network is widely existed on the valley where the adja-

cent settlements has suffered flooding during more and more frequently. Farmers have to prepare sand bags near their home to fight against a sudden flooding. Based on those observation, we decide to use tide simulation tools to test the worst scenario .


Simulation Tool: CAESAR-lisflood 1.6a Inlet Setting:

TIDE INLET

Tidal stage: Lowest 0.0m, Highest 4.0m Input Data step: 720 minutes Sediments composition:

FLow Model:

SIMULATION ON SITE 79

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

7.1 Site visit _

Caesar Package is developed by Pro.Tom Coulthard from University of Hull. It has been widely employed in geomorphorlogy academic research in the world. They have proved the code can work very accurate for the tide condition. This package calculates the land formation based on the physical properties of the site, including tide level, inlet position, sediments composition which are scientifically relate to a tidal land formation.


Video in disk ' simulation on site'

Applying Caesar package as tidal simulation tools we have examined the effects of Extreme Tidal flooding in the territory. The data is set as the column at left. The inlet is the river mouth. River as the main spine to distribute tide to the other part in the valley. According to our interview with the engineer in Sandwich tidal defence

scheme, we have got the extreme tidal range can reach 4 meters. So to test the extreme scenario, we put the highest level as 4 meters. And it is the full length which happen twice a day regularly. We also have to set up the sediments composition. According to our impression, the majority earth type is the clay. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

80


1000 days test simulation on small area _

SIMULATION ON SITE 81

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

7.3 Creeks and site _ A rough simulation on our site shows like the pictures above. After nearly 1000 days, the tide gives us a network of creeks. Scientists call this as tidal channel or tidal creek. These creeks are always formed on a flat topography with one point of inlet for tide. This feature is essential for exsistence of salt marsh. We feel this formation could potentially be a carrier of more intricate system.


1000 DAYS site simulation on lager area _ Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

82


CURRENTS VECTORS 83

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

7.4 Current vectors _

Using tidal fluid mechanics, we have exposed the current territory to a worst tidal flooding scenario. Currents from ocean carries different sediments and Floodplain Management (FM) is the only approach that can control excessive runoff and tides in the long term. It is a system for turning floodplains to needed uses 'open' uses such as farms and parks and for either flood-proof buildings in flood zones or


Materials Clay Shingles Sand Altitude Below 0 m 0-2.5 m 2.5-4.5 m Above 4.5 m Infrastructure Waterways Coast Erosion proposal Coastal Erosion Urban Settlements Schemes Proposed Scheme not Funded Scheme Reduction Required

keeping them out of the floodplain. It allows lands to play more appropriate roles, generally does not fight natural water cycles, decreases at-risk populations, deals effectively with flood hazards, tends not to destabilize soil and biological systems,

They are a key to the life-cycles of many living things, and intermittent flooding is a natural part of their own cycle. Humans do not need to wallow in the floodplain to enjoy it, but it makes sense to set aside open floodplains in or near settlements for neighbourhood-shaping, for survival of birds and other animals, for human recreation, and for just having special places around Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

84


INSTRUMENT

08 EXPLORATIONS


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

86


flooding storage diagram1

_

White Cart Water, Flood Alleviation Scheme2

Perth flood storage3

_

_

FLOODING STORAGE

8.1 Flooding reservoir _ A reservoir is a natural or artificial lake, storage pond, or impoundments from a dam which is used to store water. Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete. Reservoir can help flood control also known as an "attenuation" or "balancing" reservoir, flood control reservoirs collect water at times of very high rainfall, then release it slowly over the course of the following weeks or months.7

87

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Medmerry project4_

Medmerry project5

Low tide and high tide scenarios6

_

_

MEDMERRY REALIGNMENT SCHEME

8.1 Flooding reservoir _ The 28m pounds "managed realignment" at Medmerry in West Sussex has seen the building of 7km (four miles) of new sea walls up to 2km inland. By letting the waters in, the Environment Agency says the risk of flooding for hundreds of homes will be reduced. The surrendered land will become a wetland habitat for many species.8 The flood risk manager in EA said , "For us it's a win win, it will encourage visitors to the site, birdwatchers and those interested in nature."

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

88


FLOODING STORAGE SIMULATION 89

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

8.1 Flooding storage _

A series of comparison test have been done to test the effect of flooding storage method. We took our site as the object of experiment, and we have developed a huge reservoir in the southeast of site with keeping the other parameters same. The result shows above illustrated that how the flooding reservoir help delayed the flooding and how it can reduce the flooding impact to the other area such as Sandwich town.


Video in disk ''flooding storage simulation

Informed by this simulation, we understand the flooding reservoir is effect on site and probably can be used as a macros-cope strategy, meaning, we can create reservoirs and let the land be flooded with an intentional planning. So water can be introduced to where it is needed. With an understanding of the land-use and the effect , designers can decide the area to be flooded and make the most advantage from it.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

90


NASA's tidal creek photo 1

_

TIDAL CREEK

8.1 What is tidal creek _ 'Geomorphically the essential characteristics of a tidal creek are that they are relatively long and narrow, are shallow and exhibit tidal water level fluctuations and week tidal currents. They are small-scale landforms with a low hydrodynamic energy environment without significant wave action or strong current action. Tidal creeks can occur in sinuous meandering forms draining extensive intertidal mudflats." from P.950 Encyclopedia of Coastal Science, L. Schwarts, Springer, 2005

91

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


day 1

day 10

day 20

day 30

day 40

day 50

day 60

day 70

day 80

day 90

day 100

day 110

day 120

day 130

day 140

Video in disk 'creek formation'

Formation mechanism3

_

Tidal cycles repeat every day twice, the force excavates the land. The water goes up and down. When water goes up, it begins to resolve the sediments and they are carried in the water. When the water goes back, sediments follow the ebb and are brought to the sea. That's why the tidal forces cause an erosion.

The simulation on the top sector shows a sequence of change of the erosion. We can grab an important message from it, which is that the clean branch at the beginning will branch and the course will be widen with exposing it to tidal force.

The accumulation in time leaves a special erosion pattern. This dentritic landscape is called tidal creek.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

92


MECHANISM 8.2 Factors of land formation _

Many researchers have studied about hydrology, hydraulics and geomorphology in tidal environment. However, the dominant parameter for developing tidal creek remains unclear because these complex network system is the result of long term morhodynamic process. Recently, numerical computations also have been performed to simulate morphological evolution of salt marsh, including development of tidal creek network, by using simplified model (Alpaos et al. 2005) and physically based model (Masuya et al. 2007). In these studies, it is shown that physically-based model can reproduce channel network configuration qualitatively. With this numerical approach, Toshiki Iwasaki and his team made a series of tests. Basically the geological and hydrological charactes case are based on their site, Notsuke marsh. A comparison of different inlet remarkably reveals to us the key fact to produce a tidal creek. The setting and parameters are on the table below

Case 1-1 0 day, 10 day and 100 day _

Case1-2 100 day _

Case 1-1 used a meandering channel as the initial bed shape, as shown in fig.2, after 10 days and 100 days, a dentritic network has been developed. Besides, initial meandering channel migrates toward land due to flow associated with flood phase. From comparison between this result and network configuration in Figure 1, it is found that a model can reproduce channel network which has like actual field characteristics of complex and meandering. With personal observation, the meandering channel caused a erosion on turning point, where the water course begins to branch. According to the researcher, this result suggests that ebb flow with phase lag is key factor for development of tidal channel network. “ This flow migrates the channel and transports sediment to upstream side. It indicates that the flood flow also affects network extension. The result implied that the ebb and flood flow have a different role for geometric change of salt marsh, including formation of channel network. 100 days as a time scale too, the final network is less complicated comparing to case 1. Researchers gave an explanation as This results suggest that the slope of marsh surface is important for channeling process in tidal environments. In sloping bed condition, flooded water on tidal marsh can be drained with decreasing of water level, because the platform slopes from landward to seaward. This effect decreases shallow flow with phase lag which contributes to developing channel network. Moreover, flow velocity associated with flood phase is also reduced by bed gradient which oppose flow direction. The result indicates that the marsh slope restricts the development of channel network. The initial bed shape settings of Case 2 is a random inlet on flat marsh.The result shows as fig.5 below, showing three main meandering and branching channels form from downstream end. The network is less sophisticated than all the Case1 tests. Researchers didn’ t compare results between two cases. From a personal perspective, a more regular and explicit landform should be conducted from the beginning. To sum up, firstly, the tide in meandering channel with different velocities transport sediments result in erosion and deposition at different parts which can trigger a tidal creek evolution. Secondly, a slope from seaward to landward will be restricted to the network formation. The paper has also listed out some other factors affecting the formation, such as vegetation, ebb phase and flood phase, etc. Regarding the intervention of project, we are mainly focus on the topographical influence on this mechanism.

case 2 2867 cycles of tide

93

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


After examining many studies about morphogenesis of tidal channel network from W. Vandenbruwaene , P. Meire, S. Temmerman, they all agree that after a period of time most of models are considered to be frozen, with only minor changes in further development. Consequently they decided to research this with a newly constructed tidal marsh (Scheldt estuary, Belgium), which measure spontaneous formation and evolution of a tidal channel network during a period of 4 years using high-accuracy topographic, in conjunction with survey of a temporal resolution of 1 year at high spatial resolution considering all channels deeper than 0.1 m. To construct a marsh ecosystem in the low-elevation polder by introducing a controlled reduced tide (CRT), 3 major adaptations were necessary: (1) building a ring dyke to protect the surrounding land from flooding (Fig. 6A), (2) lowering the river dyke for temporary storage of storm surge water, and (3) constructing an inlet (high in the river dyke) and an outlet sluice (low in the river dyke) to introduce the daily tidal regime (Fig. 6B). By using a high inlet and a low outlet, the spring-neap variations in tidal flooding frequency and height were successfully installed in the polder, but with a clear longer still water phase as in the estuary (Fig. 6C) . The result is shown as fig.7 and Fig.8. The initial ditches can be clearly seen on fig.7A. After 4 years, some new creeks formed. � After two years, the cross-sectional area of the former ditches was already in equilibrium with the corresponding tidal discharge. By the third year, the mainstream lengths and the channel drainage densities of smaller watersheds attained an equilibrium with the corresponding tidal discharges, demonstrating the rapid headward growth of newly formed channels and tributary channel formation near the channel heads. Conclusion Conclusion is made from this experiment, New channels preferably developed at low elevation sites because flood and ebb flows concentrated towards these low elevated zones, and because relatively thick deposits of fresh unconsolidated sediments enabled fast channel incision there. Within the low elevation zone, vegetation had no significant influence on the channel extension.�

Evolution

Before and after experiments

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

94


pressure

Formation order

without control

Redirect the course

with control

provocation mechanism 1 _

PROVOCATION

8.3 How to provoke the development _ The pressure will be concentrated on the very end of course, if there is no sub branch to share the pressure, it will keep growing without control and it is likely to cause a flood once the water level keeps rising. By building dyke and dredging the creek, can make the other parts at river course to share the water pressure. So a more sophisticated system can stabilize the fluctuated tide and offers a sponge effect to hold the flooding water and reduce the impact from surge.

95

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


_

Managed realignment is a relatively new 'soft' engineering technique (French, 2004) involving designing new intertidal areas, created from formerly flood defended areas of coastal land in order to provide sustainable flood defences, new intertidal habitats or a combination of these.

Noordward project 2

Abbotts Hall Farm Stage 3

erosion by shifting position to a more suitable location in the tidal range, but this is constrained where such migration is impeded by flood defence structures. This erosion has been discovered to not just be a loss of intertidal habitat, but also of serious consequence to flood defence engineering, as salt marshes reduce the erosive force and over topping potential on flood defence structures

In a natural undefended coastline, marshlands would react to changes in sea level or Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

96


09 CATALOGUE


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

98


CATALOGUE LAND FORMATION

9.1 Catalogue of land formation _

The technical catalogue was developed to examine the generic properties of tidal creek , which is informed by 2 factors: 1) the intentional land use, (Aquaculture condition, Town condition, Natural Creek condition, Agriculture) 2) water capacity (from level 1 to level 4) These information can be extracted from the hydrology diagram of our site which we are going to discuss further more in next chapter _ cartogenesis.

99

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Different combination of these 2 factors lead to 16 prototypes. This sub-chapter is to explain each prototype. Each page we show 1 prototype. The land formation at the right side column shows the sequence of change. The two diagram in the right side is to explain how the prototype can be linked to land use and how it can be achieved through executions.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

100


Water Level 101

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

1 2 3 4


SITE ANALYSIS Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

102


103

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

104


105

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

106


107

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

108


109

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

110


111

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

112


113

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

114


115

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

116


117

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

118


119

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

120


CATALOGUE SOCIAL FORMATION

9.2 Catalogue of social formation _ Informed by the hydrology diagram , We have devised 4 mechanisms that respond to the intentional social condition. Equipped with knowledge of the typical social formation for the 4 economies and the tidal mechanism, we can influence the geoformological process to trigger the economical coexistence with water.

121

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Here in this sub-chapter we have selected one representative prototype for each landuse and try to develop a functional zoning according to our study of socal formation. This catalogue is trying to bridge the land formation to particular economical activity.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

122


FISH FARM STUDY

9.2.1 fish farm study _ Having understood the composition of a fish farm respect the work flow of fish raising. Meaning it will go through nursery, rearing, holding ponds and production ponds. Each occupies particular percentage of area. Here we applied the implemented dyke system during landfamation as circulation spine and the implemented bedrock as the facility

123

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM STUDY

9.2.2 Ecological system study _ The ecological system in tidal creek is essential and sensitive. Normally consisted of 4 hierarchies. Creek, low march, hight marsh and upland. Low marsh and high marsh are the ones in the intertidal area and they are important habitat for shellfish and water birds.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

124


COURTYARD STUDY

9.2.3 Courtyard study and town service _ The service community inside a building groups is a form which can be seen in many types of land use. The dimension varies a lot. Here we focus on a medium size group, college courtyard , as the basic point to understand the composition of service community. The conclusion is made from the research of Cambridge. This can be used for not only the college, but also can possibly applicable for all medium size public building with around 1000 people, such as supermarket, government building, cultural complex etc.

125

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


9.2.4 Mixed farming study _

MIXED FARMING STUDY

Mixed farming is an agrarian system that mixes arable farming with the raising of livestock. When on a farm along-with crop production, some other agriculture based practice like poultry, dairy farming or bee keeping etc. is adopted, then this system of farming is known as mixed farming. It is the dominant system in Europe and now in parts of India, where most farms have a mixture of fields and pastures. The referential case is in South Africa with a mixture of agricultural activities and land formation. The economical structure is stable and successful. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

126


CATALOGUE EVOLUTION

9.3 Catalogue of Evolution _ All of these prototypes also have a time-based relationship. By implementing various intervention, we are able to conduct a mudflat to transform differently. We roughly separate the whole phasing guideline into 3 parts on the time-line. For the first 5 years, it can be triggered by governmental investment. It can be the compensation for a realignment scheme as we stated in the second chapter. 127

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Then smaller stakeholders will maintain it or give it some more interventions. The labor intensity is relatively less than the first 5 years which means these interventions are manageable by smaller group. Later some more complex scenarios are going to be developed. It has to be governmental project again as it requires more professional planning and construction.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

128


129

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

130


CATALOGUE CONSTRUCTION

9.4 Catalogue of Construction _ This catalogue is to describe the main 5 methods of interventions - ditch, hard dyke, soft dyke, bedrock and retaining wall in detail by construction drawings and we will also show the materiality and the labor intensity for the each. This catalogue will help to link the land formation and social involvement to be a complimentary material for the time-line diagram.

131

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

132


waterward landward

landward

Existing Ground Level

0.00m

3

1

1

3

-0.80m to -1.00m

Ditch Construction detail

DITCH CONSTRUCTION 133

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Tool and material

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

134


waterward

landward

200 thick compacted type 1 granular material on separation geotextile

Imported claycompacted

Existing land profile 4.00m 4

Locally won topsoil and seeded

1

0.00m

500 mm benching steps into embankment

SOFT DYKE CONSTRUCTION 135

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Hard dyke Construction detail


Tool and material

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

136


waterward landward

5.00 wide 200mm thick campacted type 1 granular material on separation geotextil

Locally won topsoil and seeded

Exsiting top soil be stripped

4.00m 3

3

1

1 Ground level

0.00m

Imported clay material

HARD DYKE CONSTRUCTION 137

waterward

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Hard dyke Construction detail


Tool and material

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

138


waterward

landward 500mm benching steps

Ground level 0.00m

3.00m 3

3 1

500mm benching steps into existing ground

BEDROCK CONSTRUCTION 139

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

waterward

Soil Erosion protection carpet

1

soil type 3 or 4Site won cohesive or granular fill, Compacted

Hard dyke Construction detail


Tool and material

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

140


footpath raised together with all local covers and accss points.New resin bonded gravel surface

Existing buiding face retaining wall

4000

typical

landward

waterward

new aco drainage channel 1.80m (existing ground level)

water level varies

existing river wall (sheet pile and concrete capping)

RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION 141

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Tool and material

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

142


INTERSECTION

12 TERRITORIAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

144


Social formation _

TERRITORIAL INTERSCTION

Geomorphorlogical process _

10.1 Territorial Intersection _ The tidal simulation study was used to inform the behavioural patterns of water. The social formation map offers the information of existing land use. Based on our observations of water capacity and existing land use. With intersecting these two maps, an hydrology diagram was developed to inform the future transformations.

145

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Cartogenesis _

Hydrology diagram _

This hydrology diagram shows the water capacity against the future land use. It is a key drawing works as a bridge between catalogue and site condition. Because here we categorize the water capacity into 4 levels which directly link to the water level in the catalogue. The land use is also classified into

4 types which are the ones in the catalogue. Hydrology diagram is a start point where we begin to develop our cartogenesis. This cartogenesis is a speculation of the territory and all the tidal creek cells are going to coordinate to be the territorial engine.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

146


CARTOGENESIS

10.2 Cartogenesis _ By applying the catalogue, we have developed the territorial engine to trigger the transformation physically and economically. The assemblages and geomorphologic communities of the territorial creole will be retraced, re-described in the light of contemporary forms of cartographic representation in order to fabricate an architectural understanding of territorial space, or alternatively, the territorial description of architectural space. The final aim is to help the generation of an Atlas of similar territories across south UK.

147

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

148


SIMULATION CARTOGENESIS 149

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Video in disk ' cartogenesis simulation'

10.3 Simulation Cartogenesis _ If we generalize the creek cell as water pocket, this video shows a dramatic test with simulation tool to proof the effectiveness of territorial engine. As we can see the water invasion was largely delayed because the pockets enable to redirect flooding to relieve the impact at urbanized area.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

150


EVOLUTION I

12 REGIONAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

152


SITE

11.1 Pond condition site _ The first territorial transformation is the Aquaculture Condition, Site was originally a grazing marsh with a flooding probability of 1/30 years, located at a rural zone. Most have been reclaimed from the sea by drainage and embankments. A network of ditches, for much of the year containing standing brackish or fresh water, allows water levels to be manipulated and the marshes to be kept wet during the drier months. As their name implies, most coastal marshes are grazed, although some are cut for hay or silage.

153

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


1 execution

2 executions

3 executions

11.2 Catalogue application _ In terms of catalogue, P3 is the one which can fit our intention of design and physical condition. It has to go through 3 tectonic interventions before it archives the P3 status. The two prototypes in the process are C1, T3, where the land use will respectively change to a natural creek network and a town service. With the process, the capacity to hold water will be improved, and ponds can be used to regulate the water level. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

154


11.3 Stakeholder management _ 155

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Initially the site tectonic execution is implemented by the central government for a period of 5 years, then for 4.4 years site executions are implemented by a local aquaculture settlement, and lastly Central government intervenes again in the process to stabilize the land formations that reattribute back to the local settlements.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

156


2.5th year Central government ditch construction

EXECUTION

11.3 Execution _ In time 3 tectonic interventions, have been strategically planned with specific dimensions to provoke the optimal use of tidal forces and provoke the generation of tidal ponds for aquaculture use.

157

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


5th year Central government bedrock construction

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

158


159

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Video in disk ' ponds simulation' Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

160


FUNCTIONAL AREA STUDY

11.4 Functional Area Study/ Site retribution _ The study of a fish farm typology informs the intervention process, and establishes the utilization of optimal parameters that contribute towards the creation of an infrastructure that ultimately provides an economical retribution for the local settlement.


SITE RETRIBUTION


PLANNING PHASE I 163

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

11.5 Aquaculture ponds/Strategical planning _ The First tectonic intervention implemented by is central government for a period of 5 years, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke components, and Ditch Components for its Construction. Hard Dyke prevent flooding of the a adjoining countryside and to slows natural course geoformological changes .


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

164


PLANNING PHASE II 165

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

11.5 Aquaculture ponds/Strategical planning _ The Second tectonic intervention is implemented by is local stakeholders this case local aquaculture settlements for a period of4.4 years, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke components, Ditch Components and Bedrock components for its Construction.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

166


PLANNING PHASE III 167

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

11.5 Aquaculture ponds/Strategical planning _ The third tectonic intervention is reinforced by the central government a period of 5 years, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke components, Ditch Components, bedrock construction and Soft Dyke Construction. The Hard dyke Surface protects from erosion, Soft Dyke Construction also involves planting suitable vegetation or installing stones, boulders, weighted matting or concrete revetments. Separate ditches or drainage tiles are constructed to ensure that the foundation does not become waterlogged.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

168


EVOLUTION II

12 REGIONAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

170


Site location _

SITE 171

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.1 Town Condition Site _ The second territorial transformation is the Urban Town condition; located in an existing Grazing Pasture Land at the centre of Sandwich Town it has a flooding probability of 1/30 years. Grazing Pasture land - comprises a varied mix of improved and semi-improved natural rough grazing marsh/pasture. These areas generally share a common origin historically as areas of coastal and floodplain grazing marsh, and as a result are characterised generally by high ground water levels and the presence of seasonal or permanent surface water-filled hollows or ponds, and wetland plant species such as reeds and sedges. Enclosures are defined by linear boundary drainage ditches, which maintain their water levels, and contain standing brackish fresh water.


12.2 Catalogue Application _ In terms of catalogue, T4 is the one which can fit our intention of design and physical condition. It has to go through 4 tectonic interventions before it archives the T4 status. The 3 prototypes in the process are C1, C3, C4, where the land use will be kept as natural reservation before it is totally planned as a urbanized area. With the process, the capacity to hold water will be improved, and creek system can help the improvement of the environmental quality for surrounding residents.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

172


Imp

12.3 Stakeholder Management _ 173

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Initially the site tectonic execution is implemented by the central government for a period of 5 years, then for 2 years site executions are implemented by a local environmental organization, and lastly Central government intervenes again in the process to stabilize the land formations that re attribute services to Sandwich Town.


plemented by multiple stakeholders

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

174


12.4 Executions _ 175

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

In time 5 tectonic interventions, have been strategically planned with specific dimensions to provoke the optimal use of tidal forces and create the generation of a tidal urban creek.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

176


12.4 Executions _ 177

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

In time 5 tectonic interventions, have been strategically planned with specific dimensions to provoke the optimal use of tidal forces and create the generation of a tidal urban creek.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

178


12.4 Executions _ 179

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

The evolution of the geoformological landscape trough the six tectonic interventions triggers the regeneration Self Sufficient economies based in services of knowledge, recreation and conservation for Sandwich Town, these economical entities can independently evolve in time.


Video in disk ' town simulation'

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

180


PLANNING PHASE I 181

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.5 Town condition (services) Strategical Planning _ The First tectonic intervention is implemented by is central government for a period of 5 years, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke , Ditch, Bedrock and Hard water Bank Construction Components. Land use at this point predominantly permanent rough grassland and coastal grazing marsh, with field boundaries defined by a network of open drainage ditches, forming a distinct pattern in the landscape.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

182


PLANNING PHASE II 183

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.5 Town condition (services) Strategical Planning _ The Second tectonic intervention is implemented by 20% of Local District Residents for a period of 1 years, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke , Ditch, Construction Components. The land use at this point has presents consequent alterations to the drainage of this area, creating the generation of Tidal creeks, with predominantly permanent grasslands and coastal grazing marshes.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

184


PLANNING PHASE III 185

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.5 Town condition (services) Strategical Planning _ The Third tectonic intervention is implemented by the 20% Local District Residents for a period of 1 year, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke , Ditch, Construction Components. The land use at this point has presents the creation of generous Tidal creeks, with predominantly boundaries defined by a network of open drainage ditches, forming a distinct pattern in the landscape.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

186


PLANNING PHASE IV 187

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.5 Town condition (services) Strategical Planning _ The fourth tectonic intervention is implemented by the 15% Local District Residents for a period of 1 year, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke , Ditch and Bedrock Construction Components. The land at this point has presents the creation of a narrow tidal river channel and introduces vegetation that contains between the flood defenses earthworks and the areas of extensive development for recreational purposes.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

188


PLANNING PHASE V 189

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.5 Town condition (services) Strategical Planning _ The Fifth tectonic intervention is implemented by the central government for a period of 5 years, Tectonically utilizes Hard Dyke , Ditch and Soft Dyke Construction Components. The land use at this point has presents consequent medium-sized artificial reservoirs are open to the narrow tidal river channel and Urban connections towards the Industrial District, University of Kent and Sandwich District Town.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

190


PLANNING PHASE VI 191

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

12.5 Town condition (services) Strategical Planning _ The Fifth tectonic intervention is implemented by the central government for a period of 5 years, Tectonically utilizes land Stabilization and general site maintenance. The land use at this point has gone through process of stabilization, where large-sized artificial reservoirs are open to the tidal river channel and Urban connections trigger the regeneration of self sufficient economies of knowledge, , recreation and conservation that can independently evolve in time


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

192


Dimension study

FUNCTIONAL AREA STUDY 193

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Town evolution

12.6 Town condition (services) Campus Typology _ At a smaller scale, based on a typological study of Cambridge Campus, we have understood the typical dimension of university courtyard. To reach this criteria, the initial tectonic will be the 220 meters meanderings. So the branch later can keep a distance of 220 meters with will provoke further tectonic qualities for the university landscape.


Evolution of university service Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

194


MODEL 195

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Stage 1

Stage 2

Model box 1

Stage 3

Stage 4

Model box 2

12.7 Physical Model _ The model captured the essential status of the evolution. The model represents the physicality of the geophormological changes of the tidal creek. Darker shades of Blue are associated with deep-lying tidal areas, and light blue with areas of low-lying tidal areas of fluvial deposits. This has been presented to help convey the idea of strategical change as we can clearly read from it how the landform respond to human intervention and process in time. We overlaid these stages vertically on a frame and all the material in the frame is clear so audience can see though it from the top.


Close-up for stage 4

Close-up for stage 4 with currents vecotrs Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

196


RENDER 12.8 Town condition (services) Render Views _ The view represent the Town Condition adaptability for two locations; The skate park and the Urban Extension. At low tide level; land is used as terraces for recreational activities and at high tide level; land is used as water reservoir.

197

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

198


Skate park

University Extension

VIEW 12.8 Town condition (services) Render Views _ The view represents the Tidal Town Condition, where the Urban Linkage landscape offers a unified recreational landscape with a diverse, stimulating environment and high level of human recreation.

199

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Conservation Area


Urban

community

Industry state dock

Industry State

Sandwich Town

Activity lawn

Sport court

tidal ponds

Conservation Area

Conservation Area extension

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

200


Conservation Area

University Extension

VIEW 12.8 Town condition (services) Render Views _ The view represents the Tidal Town Condition, where the Urban Linkage landscape offers a unified recreational landscape with a diverse, stimulating environment and high level of human recreation.

201

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

Urban community extension


Conservation area

Sport Court University Extension

Communal Areas

y n

Skate Park

Skate Park

Skate Park

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

202


Conservation Area

VIEW 12.8 Town condition (services) Render Views _ The view represents the Tidal Town Condition, where the Urban Linkage landscape offers a unified recreational landscape with a diverse, stimulating environment and high level of human recreation.

203

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Kent University

Skate Park

Sport court

University Extension

Industriy State Dock

Industry State Dock

Urban community extension

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

204


Tidal Ponds

sport court

VIEW 12.8 Town condition (services) Render Views _ The view represents the Tidal Town Condition, where the Urban Linkage landscape offers a unified recreational landscape with a diverse, stimulating environment and high level of human recreation.

Urban community extension


Conservation Area

Conservation Area Conservation Area

Urban community extension

Activity Loan

services Recreational

Urban community extension


Conservation area Extension

Conservation Area

Conse A

VIEW 12.8 Town condition (services) Render Views _ The view represents the Tidal Town Condition, where the Urban Linkage landscape offers a unified recreational landscape with a diverse, stimulating environment and high level of human recreation.


Skate park

Kent University

Sports court Industry state dock

ervation Area

public court

Tidal ponds

Activity lawn

Urban community extension

Urban community extension

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

208


COEXISTENCE

13 TERRITORIAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

210


ECONOMICAL ENTITIES 211

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

13.1 Local Coexistence Multiple economies optimize land value _ At a larger extend, we have also explored the element of coexistence with 4 conditions; Tidal Creek, Tidal Pond Creek, Tidal Agricultural Creek and Tidal Town Creek. Physically, each condition serves as reservoir to reduce the future water impact.


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

212


Natural creek

aquaculture ponds

COEXISTENCE EVOLUTION 213

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

13.1 Local Coexistence _ We begin with Tidal creek; it releases pressure from river, then water is introduced to the main spine that controls the water distribution using tidal ponds. The water spine, also regulates the tidal creek for the suburban town, and finally it releases excess of water into the grazing marsh for agricultural use.


Tidal town

Hybrid agriculture Land formation of co-existence _

Economical dynamics in co-existence _

Economically, the integral union reinforces the interaction between each single cell. The coexistence of these 4 economies can influence the land value, and release full economical potential for the territorial engine.

Economically, This integral union reinforces the interaction between each single cell,. The coexistence of this 4 economies can influence the land value, And release full economical potential for the territorial engine. Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

214


ADAPTABILITY

14 TERRITORIAL


Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

216


Sandwich

Lydd

Eastbourne Littlebourne

TERRITORIAL ADAPTABILITY 217

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

14.1 Territorial Adaptability Through our cartography the project challenges the attitude towards the interface between sea and land. The last chapter illustrates the territorial adaptability of our research in function of catalogue guidelines, at four strategic sites that are at flooding Risk from Rivers and sea East Kent, Lydd, Littlebourne and Eastbourne


High

High

Medium

Medium

Low

Low

Very Low

Very Low

East Kent Risk of Flooding from Rivers and Sea

Lydd Risk of Flooding from Rivers and Sea

High

High

Medium

Medium

Low

Low

Very Low

Littlebourne Risk of Flooding from Rivers and Sea

Very Low

Eastbourne Risk of Flooding from Rivers and Sea Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

218


Birchington on Sea

Sandwich Town p C A T

Tidal Pond Typology Tidal Creek Typology Agricultural Creek Typology Town creek Typology

Territorial Adaptability Diagram

14.2 Territorial Adaptability

SANDWICH ADAPTABILITY 219

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

The territorial adaptability diagram for East Kent is represented by a bi coastal linear system, where water transforms territorial entities from the Coast of Sandwich town to Birchington on sea. The methodology takes in consideration, existing land use, Risk of Flooding (Hydrology Diagram) and future land transformations(Catalogue); Tidal creeks C, Tidal Ponds P, Hydrid Agriculture, and Tidal Town interventions T.


Birchington on Sea

Sandwich Town East Kent Catalogue Territorial Application

High Medium Low Very Low

East Kent Land affected by flooding

East Kent Hydrology Diagram

East Kent Catalogue Application Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

220


p C A T

Tidal Pond Typology Tidal Creek Typology Agricultural Creek Typology Town creek Typology

Territorial Adaptability Diagram

14.3 Territorial Adaptability

LITTLEHAMPTON ADAPTABILITY

_ The territorial adaptability diagram for Littlehampton is represented by a parallel linear system, where water transforms territorial entities from two points of coastal entries; Littlehampton coast and Middleton on Sea. The methodology takes in consideration, existing land use, Risk of Flooding (Hydrology Diagram) and future land transformations(Catalogue); Tidal creeks C, Tidal Ponds P, Hydrid Agriculture, and Tidal Town interventions T.


Amberley

Bignor

Arundel

Littlehampton

Littlehampton

Littelbourne Catalogue Territorial Application

High Medium Low Very Low

Littlebourne Land affected by flooding

Littlebourne Hydrology Diagram

Littlebourne Catalogue Application


p C A T

Tidal Pond Typology Tidal Creek Typology Agricultural Creek Typology Town creek Typology

Territorial Adaptability Diagram

EASTBOURNE ADAPTABILITY

14.4 Territorial Adaptability _ The territorial adaptability diagram for Eastbourne is represented by a integrated parallel system, where water transforms territorial entities from two points of coastal entries; Eastbourne bay and Normans Bay. The methodology takes in consideration, existing land use, Risk of Flooding (Hydrology Diagram) and future land transformations(Catalogue); Tidal creeks C, Tidal Ponds P, Hydrid Agriculture, and Tidal Town interventions T.

223

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Hailsham

Bexhill

Polegate

Normans Bay

Eastbourne Bay

Eastbourne

Eastbourne Catalogue Territorial Application

High Medium Low Very Low

Eastbourne Land affected by flooding

Eastbourne Hydrology Diagram

Eastbourne Catalogue Application Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

224


Sandwich

Lydd

Eastbourne Littlebourne

TERRITORIAL OUTLOOK 225

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures

14.5 Territorial Outlook The territories at risk of flooding can be transformed in function the Catalogue methodology, that takes in consideration, existing land use, risk of Flooding and future land typologies. Each transformation responds independently for each site, therefore Cartography represents the variety of system adaptations; East Kent (Bi coastal linear systems), Littlebourne (Dual parallel system), linear parallel system, rich multi linear system. The cartography impacts on the conventional image of Uk map, The coastal transformations challenge the idea of defining the boundary between land and sea a line.


BI Coastal Linear System East Kent Territorial Adaptability Diagram

Dual Parallel System Eastbourne Territorial Adaptability Diagram

linear Parallel System Littlebourne Territorial Adaptability Diagram

Rich Multi Linear System Lydd Catalogue Territorial Adaptability Diagram

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

226


227

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


CONCLUSION 15.0 Coastal futures _ Coastal Futures examines flooding territories, challenging the conventional realignment schemes, and focuses on the development of a territorial instrumentation, as a mean to address territorial disparities caused by centralized governance in UK. The project focuses of 5 different scales, each scale addresses multiple policies; climate change at a European scale, Policies and Strategies towards flooding in UK at a National Scale, The centralized governance model at a Regional Scale, and Economical Territorial entities at a Local Scale. In parallel the project has also developed a Technical catalogue as a guide to examine the Tidal Geoformological Forces for the regeneration of multiple economies. At a European Scale, due to the global warming, the sea level is rising. Storm surges in the southern North Sea pose a complex, persistent and growing threat to the surrounding coastline of North West Europe. United Kingdom is one of the countries that is more affected by the Surge Phenomenon, with more than a million properties at risk from sea and tidal flooding, corresponding to roughly five percent of the population. The compensation Scheme for private property damages is regulated strictly by three main bodies; The Environmental Agency, The association of British Insurers and the British Parliament. In 2015 the policy Flood Re will exclude insurance compensation from properties built on high flooding risk areas. These restrictive insurance policies will completely immobilize the territorial profitability of coastal communities. Furthermore, flooding defences funds are distributed within the centralized governance model, therefore the regeneration of coastal communities becomes an isolated problem. In the UK the largest flooding prone areas are found at the south east coast. During the recent winter of December 2013, the Southern Coast of England was widely invaded by flooding. The proposed realignment schemes funded by the central government are being part of the agenda to compensate damages, but communities at the south east coast are not within the first line of priority. The current model for realignment schemes is initially sponsored by the Central Government, the five year implementation programme suffers a deficiency for the long term projection in terms of its and social and economical retribution. The objectivity of the project acknowledges the coastline is losing land, and seeks for the optimal resources to maximize the territorial potential. Conventionally hard engineering performs as a line for ownership patterns, our approach allows flooding in a controlled way to provoke territorial transformations in time. Time is an important element towards the understanding and development of the project, the methodology aims to redefine the territorial boundary of sea and land in time. The project framework is based on three strategic aspects; firstly on a five year resource programme sponsored by the Central Government that becomes an anchor point for further transformations. Second, uses the constant tidal force to enable the creation of regeneration of self sufficient economical entities that can independently evolve in time, and it enables the coexistence between self multiplying economical entities. At a territorial level, the research operates thought Cartography to challenge the idea of the coast as a dividing line, particularly on the East Kent Peninsula were the coastal boundary has always been unstable since Roman Period 150BC, when landscape was more intricate than present with larger bays and estuaries. At a Local and Regional level, the methodology operates through the implementation of tidal simulations tools that create a `Catalogue' of time-based Land Transformations. The Catalogue informs a territorial engine 'Cartogenesis' that triggers the evolution self sufficient economical entities. The South East Coastal territories at risk of flooding can be transformed through the 'Catalogue' methodology, Each territorial transformation responds independently for each site condition, therefore the resultant Cartography impacts on the conventional image of UK map. Coastal Futures proposes a territorial adaptation to activate and mobilize coastal territories affected by flooding, enabling self sufficient economical entities to create adjustments towards the liberalization of territorial disparities caused by centralization.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

228


BIBLIOGRAPHY Metz, T. (2012), Sweet and Salt: Water and the Dutch, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam Winter,M., Lobely,M.,(2009) What is Land For?:The Food, Fuel and Climate Change Debate [Hardcover],Earthscan,New York Morris, K. and P. Reich (December 2013), Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research,Technical Report Series No. 252 15-33pp. Amiaud, B., Bouzille, J.B., Tournade, F. & Bonis, A. (1998). Spatial patterns of soil salinities in oldembanked marshlands in western France. Wetlands 482-494 pp. Brundage, J. (2010). Grazing as a management tool for controlling Phragmites australis and restoring nativeplant biodiversity in wetlands. Master of Science, Department of Environmental Science andTechnology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Maryland.26pp. Habitats of Wales: a technical guide, edited by P. S. Jones, D. P. Stevens, T. H. Blackstock, C. R. Burrows and E. A. Howe, 2003. 10-45pp. Floodplain Processes Floodplain processes, M. G. Anderson, D. E. Walling, Paul D. Bates Wiley, 1996 - Science 142 pp. Floodplain Management: A New Approach for a New Era By Bob Freitag, Susan Bolton, Frank Westerlund, Julie Clark 106 pp. Floodplains: Interdisciplinary Approaches edited by Susan B. Marriott, Jan Alexander, Geological Society of London 50- 145 pp. Waldheim, Charles. Landscape urbanism reader, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, c2006) Najle, Ciro. 'Convolutedness', Landscape Urbanism: A manual for the Machinic Landscape,(London:AA Publications,2003), Page 160-175 Tom Coulthard Professor of Physical Geography, University of Hull, UK., [Online], Available: http://www.coulthard.org.uk/CAESAR.html [29 Apr 2014]. Duck Unlimited(2005), Wetland Habitat Management: a guidebook fort landowners, Great Lakes/Atlantic Regional Office, Mar.3 2005 Heap, A., Bryce, S., Ryan, D., Radke, L., Smith, C., Smith, R., Harris, P., and Heggie, D., (2001) Australian estuaries and coastal waterways: A geoscience perspective for improved and integrated resource management. AGSO Record 2001/07 Terry R , Encyclopedia of Coastal Science, Edited by M. Schwartz. Berlin: Springer, 2005, P. 949-950 Iwasaki, T., Shimizu, Y. and Kimura, I. (2009.9) Study on initial evolution process of tidal creek network, Proceedings of the 6th IAHR symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM2009), Universidad Nacional Del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, 21-25, September, 2009, p.635-642 Riggs, S. R., Cleary, W. J., and Snyder, S. W., (1995) Influence of inherited geologic framework on barrier shoreface morphology and dynamics. Marine Geology. 126,P.213-234. Vandenbruwaene, W., Meire, P., Temmerman, M.,(2011) Formation and evolution of a tidal channel network within a constructed tidal marsh Geomorphology 151'152 (2012) 114'125, P.115-124 Wells, J. T. (1995) Tide-dominated estuaries and tidal rivers. In: Perillo, G. M. E., Geomorphology and sedimentology of estuaries. Develop-

229

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


ments in Sedimentology 53, P.179-205. Foreign office architects(2003), Phylogenesis : foa’ s ark, Barcelona : Actar, 2003. Goudie, A.,Landscapes and geomorphology Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. Couch,C,. Urban regeneration in Europe, Oxford ; Malden, MA : Blackwell Science, 2003. ERVIN,Stephen M., Landscape modeling : digital techniques for landscape visualization , New York : McGraw-Hill, c2001. Brinckerhoff J., Sense of place, a sense of time, London: Yale University Press, 1994 Gregory, P., Newscapes : territories of complexity, Basel : Birkhauser, 2003. Borden D., Cartography : thematic map design, Oxford : Wm. C. Brown Publishers, c1993. Fawcett-Tang, R., Mapping : an illustrated guide to graphic navigational systems, Mies, Switzerland ; Hove : RotoVision, c2002. Turnbull, D., Maps are territories: science is an atlas, Chicago; Chicago University Press ,1993 Cosgrove E., Social formation and symbolic landscape, Wisconsin : University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. Denis W., Rethinking the power of maps, New York : Guilford Press, c2010. Silver, M., Mapping in the age of digital media : the Yale Symposium, London : Wiley-Academy, c2003. Casey, E., Earth-mapping : artists reshaping landscape, Minneapolis, Minnesota : University of Minnesota Press, 2005. Woodbury, R., Elements of parametric design, London ; New York : Routledge, 2010.

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

230


IMAGE CREDITS PREFACE V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 INTRODUCTION_ Coastal futures V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 INTRODUCTION_ Multiscalar_Diagram V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 1.0

Climate Background

1.1 European Surge   2.V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 1.2 Surge UK     1.3 Flooding Risk UK 1. V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2.The times, 11 Febuarary,2014 3.  2.0

Strategies towards Flooding UK.

2.1 Insurance/ Damage Scheme       2.2 Governance Flooding 1.V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25836084 3.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/292928/geho0609bqds-e-e.pdf 2.3 South East Surge Damages / News 1. V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2. http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/dec/06/east-coast-flood-threat-environment-secretary 3. http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jul/28/severe-storms-cause-chaos-sussex-brighton 4. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/topics/weather/10637990/Floods-storms-and-weather-as-it-happened.html 5. http://www.eastbourneherald.co.uk/news/local/flooding-still-a-risk-to-southern-coast-this-week-1-5854459 6. http://www.chichester.co.uk/news/local/flood-alerts-issued-for-coastal-villages-1-5784373 2.4 South East Realignments 1. V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2.5 Conventional Realignment Model (CRL) 1. V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2.6 CRL Tidal defence     V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014  V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2.7 CRL Coastal engineering management strategies      2.8 Alternatives to CRL Netherlands. 231

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


  3.0

Territorial Framework

3.1 Territorial Acknowledgment V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 3.2 Alternative Realignment Model V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2..V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 3.3 Territorial Engine V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 4.0

South East England Flooding

4.1 Coastal Evolution Before 150BC. 1.V.Garcia, 2013-2014 4.2 Case Study Camber East Sussex V.Garcia, 2013-2014 4.3 Case Study Isle of Sheppey V.Garcia, 2013-2014 4.4 Case Study Eastbourne East Sussex V.Garcia, 2013-2014 4.5 Case Study Littlehampton West Sussex V.Garcia, 2013-2014 4.6 Focus on East Kent Peninsula V.Garcia, 2013-2014 5.0

Site Background

5.1 Sandwich in History    5.2 WATSUM CHANNEL        5.3 Roman Fort        5.4 World war one     5.5 Mining Heritage   5.6 Pfizer and Sandwich      

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

232


 5.7 New Energy Strategy     ¬      6.0

Site Social Formation

6.1 Social components on site V.Garcia, 2013-2014 6.1.1 Outskirt V.Garcia, 2013-2014 6.1.2 Settlements V.Garcia, 2013-2014 6.1.3 Sub Urban V.Garcia, 2013-2014 6.1.4 Urban V.Garcia, 2013-2014 6.1.5 Coastal V.Garcia, 2013-2014 7.0

Geoformological Process

7.1 Site Visit Y.Tang, 2013-2014 7.2 Site Simulation Y.Tang, 2013-2014 7.3 current Vectors Y.Tang, 2013-2014 8.0

Exploration of instruments

8.1 Reservoir Storage Strategy 1.Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2.http://www.fadsdirectory.com/media/dContent/uploads/Flood_Alleviation/Broadland/whitecart_2.jpg 3. http://www.cumbriacrack.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/DSC_0006_7048_2889.jpg 7http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/04/09/3422063/england-town-sea-level-rise/ 5. http://www.chichester.co.uk/webimage/1.5670791.1384163904!/image/3967518914.jpg_gen/derivatives/articleImgDeriv_628px/3967518914.jpg 6. http://coastalnewstoday.com/uk-new-28m-flood-defence-system-set-up-to-help-rare-species/ 7. 'Reservoir' definition in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reservoir 8. Sea surrender plan to ease flood fears on south coast http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24770379 8.2 Tidal Creek  2.Y.Tang, 2013-2014 8.3 Tidal Creek Mechanism Please refer to the appendix Y.Tang's essay 3 8.4 Tidal Creek Provocation 1.Y.Tang, 2013-2014 2 3 4.  9.0

Technical Catalogue

9.1 Catalogue of Land formation Y.Tang, 2013-2014 9.2 Catalogue of Social Formation 233

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


Y.Tang, 2013-2014 9.3 Catalogue of Evolution Y.Tang, 2013-2014 9.4 Catalogue of Construction Y.Tang, 2013-2014 10.0

Territorial Intersection

10.1 Territorial Intersection V.Garcia, 2013-2014 10.2 Cartogenesis A0 V.Garcia, 2013-2014 10.3 Cartogenesis Simulation. V.Garcia, 2013-2014 11.0

Regional Evolution 1

11.1 Pond Condition Site V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 11.2 Strategical Planning V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 11.3 Executions V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 11.4 Functional Are Study/ Site retribution V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 11.5 Construction Details V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.0

Regional Evolution 2

12.1 Town Condition Site V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.2 Strategical Planning V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.3 Executions V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.4 Functional Are Study/ Campus typology V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.5 Construction Details V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.6 Model V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 12.7 Render Views. V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 13.0

Exploration of Coexistance

13.1 Economical Entities V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 13.2 Coexistance Evolution V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 14.0

Territorial Outlook

14.1 Territorial Adaptability V.Garcia, 2013-2014 14.2 Sandwich Adaptability V.Garcia and Y.Tang, 2013-2014 14.3 Littleampton Adaptability V.Garcia, 2013-2014 14.4 Eastbourne Adaptability V.Garcia, 2013-2014 14.5 Territorial outlook V.Garcia, 2013-2014

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

234


APPENDIX CARTOGRAPHIES Please find the attached A0 Panels in the box

235

Landscape Urbanism 13-14

Coastal Futures


APPENDIX VIDEO Please find the attached disk in the box

1.Site Simulation

5.Pons Simulation 2.flood storage simulation

3.Cartogenesis simulation

4.Creek Formation

6.Town Simulation

7.Co-existence Cells

Architectural Association

Coastal Futures

236


AA Landscape Urbanism 2013-14 Coastal Futures  

Coastal Futures is the design thesis of Valeria Garcia and yunya Tang. Abstract: The project examines contemporary flooding scenarios and t...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you