Page 1

ΜΕΡΟΣ ΠΡΩΤΟ PART ONE


∏ ¤Î‰ÔÛË ·˘Ù‹ ۯ‰ȿÛÙËΠÛÙÔ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎfi

Δhis publication is designed by Giorgos Triantafyl-

°Ú·ÊÂ›Ô °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘ & ™˘ÓÂÚÁ¿Ù˜ ηÈ

lou & Partners Architectural Bureau and accompa-

Û˘Óԉ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ ŒÎıÂÛË ÛÙÔ μ˘˙·ÓÙÈÓfi Î·È ÃÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÎfi

nies the exhibition in the Byzantine and Christian

ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô (19 ∞ÚÈÏ›Ô˘-5 ™ÂÙÂÌ‚Ú›Ô˘ 2010)

Museum (19 April – 5 September 2010)

™˘ÓÙÔÓÈÛÌfi˜ ¤Î‰ÔÛ˘: ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ∞‰¿Ì

Production coordination: Kostas Adam

∫·ÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈ΋ ÂÈ̤ÏÂÈ· ¤Î‰ÔÛ˘:

Art Direction: Giorgos Triantafyllou

°ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘ Lay out: °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘, §¤·Ó‰ÚÔ˜ ∫·ÙÛÔ‡Ú˘, ÕÓÓË Ã·ÏÈÎÈ¿ ªÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË ÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ: ¶·ÓÙÂÏ‹˜ π·ÙÚÔ˘‰¿Î˘ www.iatroudakis.gr/cad.

Lay out: Giorgos Triantafyllou, Leandros Katsouris, Anni Halikia Translation into English: Pantelis Iatroudakis www.iatroudakis.gr/cad.

¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ ºÈÏÈ›‰Ë˜

Text editing: Dimitris Philippidis

™¯Â‰È·ÛÌfi˜ Â͈ʇÏÏÔ˘: §¤·Ó‰ÚÔ˜ ∫·ÙÛÔ‡Ú˘

Cover design: Leandros Katsouris

°Ú·ÌÌ·ÙÂȷ΋ ÀÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË-∞Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË ·Ú¯Â›ˆÓ:

Administrative Support-Archives:

§Ô‡Û˘ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘

Lucy Triantafyllou

∂È̤ÏÂÈ· ºˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎÔ‡ ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡: ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ∞‰¿Ì,

Processing of Photographs: Costas Adam,

∫ˆÛÙ‹˜ ∞ÓÙˆÓÈ¿‰Ë˜, °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘

Costis Antoniadis, Giorgos Triantafyllou

¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹: ∫. ∞¢∞ª ∂ΉÔÙÈ΋

Production : K. ADAM publishers

∞ı‹Ó· ∞Ú›ÏÈÔ˜ 2010

Athens April 2010 2nd Edition July 2010 ISBN 978-960-6689-46-8

∂È̤ÏÂÈ· ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ·ÁÁÏÈÎÒÓ ÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ:

B’ ŒÎ‰ÔÛË πÔ‡ÏÈÔ˜ 2010 ISBN 978-960-6689-46-8 Copyright © 2010 ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ˘ÏÈÎfi, Ù· Û¯¤‰È·, ÛΛÙÛ· Î·È Ù· ΛÌÂÓ·: °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘ ∫·Úη‚›ÙÛ· 4, æ˘¯ÈÎfi, ∞ı‹Ó· 15452 ÙËÏ.+30 6944 30 55 12 email: info@triantafyllou.eu ¶ËÁ¤˜ ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ. OÈ ËÁ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÒÓ ·Ó·ÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘. ∞Ó Î·È Î·Ù·‚Ï‹ıËΠοı ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Ó· ÂÓÙÔÈÛÙ› οı οÙÔ¯Ô˜ ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎÒÓ ‰ÈηȈ̿وÓ, Ô Û˘ÁÁڷʤ·˜ ˙ËÙ¿ÂÈ ÚÔηٷ‚ÔÏÈ-

Copyright © 2010 for the photos, sketches, texts: Giorgos Triantafyllou, 4 Karkavitsa str., Psychico, Athens 154 52 Greece. mobile: +30 6944 30 55 12 email: info@triantafyllou.eu Picture sources and credits While every effort has been made to trace all copyright holders, the author would like to apologize in advance for any that may have been inadvertently overlooked.

ο Û˘ÁÓÒÌË ÁÈ· ÔÙȉ‹ÔÙÂ, ·ı¤ÏËÙ·, ·Ú¿‚Ï„Â. ∞·ÁÔÚ‡ÂÙ·È Ë ÔÏÈ΋ ‹ ÌÂÚÈ΋ ·Ó·Ù‡ˆÛË, ·Ó·‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘ÛË ‹ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ‹ Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÔÁÚ¿ÊËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ¤ÁÁÚ·ÊË ¿‰ÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÁڷʤ·.

No part of the text or illustrations of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writting from the writer

ªÂ ÙËÓ Â˘ÁÂÓÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË


ÛÙÔ Ê›ÏÔ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ¿ÓÙÈÔ ¢È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹ ÙÔ˘ μ˘˙·ÓÙÈÓÔ‡ & ÃÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ªÔ˘Û›Ԣ


™ËÌ›ˆÌ· ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÁڷʤ· ∏ Û¯¤ÛË ÌÔ˘ Ì ÙȘ ηχ‚˜ Î·È Ù· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ ¤¯ÂÈ Ó· οÓÂÈ Ì ÌӋ̘ ·fi ÙȘ ·È‰ÈΤ˜ ÌÔ˘ ‰È·ÎÔ¤˜ Î·È ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ. ∏ ÙÛ›ÁÎÈÓË Î·Ï‡‚· ÛÙÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ÙÔ˘ ÌÈÎÚÔ‡ ÎÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ·Ô‡ ÌÔ˘ ÛÙË μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ· ͯÒÚÈ˙ Ì ÙËÓ ·ÏfiÙËÙ· Ù˘, ÙÔÓ ÛÎÂÏÂÙfi ·fi ÂÏÂÎË̤ӷ ͇Ϸ, Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÍÂȉˆÌ¤ÓÔ˘˜ ÙÛ›ÁÎÔ˘˜. ◊Ù·Ó ÊÔÚÙÈṲ̂ÓË Ì ¤Ó· ÛˆÚfi ÈÛÙÔڛ˜ ·fi ÙËÓ Î·ÙÔ¯‹, ÙÔÓ ÂÌʇÏÈÔ, ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÂÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Î·È ÙÔ Ì¿˙ÂÌ· Ù˘ ÛÔ‰ÂÈ¿˜. ΔËÓ ÂÈÛÎÂÙfiÌ·ÛÙ·Ó Ù· ηÏÔη›ÚÈ· Ì ÙÔÓ ·Ù¤Ú· ÌÔ˘, ÓˆÚ›˜ ÙÔ Úˆ› Î·È ¯·ÈÚfiÌ·ÛÙ·Ó Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Û ·ÎfiÌË Ó· Ì·˜ ÚÔÛٷهÂÈ ·fi ÙȘ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ Ù˘ ʇÛ˘, Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÚ·ÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜, ÙÔ˘˜ ΢ÓËÁÔ‡˜, ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÁÚÔʇϷΘ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È Ù· ˙Ò·. ∞ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Û ¤Ó· ÙÔfiÛËÌÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹, Ô˘ ͯÒÚÈ˙ ·fi Ì·ÎÚÈ¿, ηıÒ˜ ÊÙ¿Ó·Ì Ì ÙÔ ÏˆÊÔÚÂ›Ô ÛÙÔ ¯ˆÚÈfi ÁÈ· ‰È·ÎÔ¤˜. flÛÔ˘ ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ‘60 «Î¿ÔÈÔ˜» ¯ÚÂÈ¿ÛÙËΠÙÔ˘˜ ÙÛ›ÁÎÔ˘˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ‰È¤Ï˘ÛÂ. ∫·Ù¿ ¤Ó· ÂÚ›ÂÚÁÔ ÙÚfiÔ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi˜ Û˘ÓÙ¿Ú·Í fiÏË ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·. ∏ ηχ‚· ÙÔ˘ ·Ô‡, ÁÈ· Ì·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ηÙÔ›ÎÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ∞ı‹Ó·˜, ·¤ÎÙËÛ ͷÊÓÈο ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË. º·›ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Ë ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ·˘Ù‹ ¤·ÈÍ ÙÔÓ ÚfiÏÔ Ù˘ ÙËÓ Ë̤ڷ ÙˆÓ ÃÚÈÛÙÔ˘Á¤ÓÓˆÓ ÙÔ˘ 2004. ™Ù· Ï·›ÛÈ· Ù˘ ¯ÚfiÓÈ·˜ Ì·Ó›·˜ ÌÔ˘ Ó· ¯¿ÓÔÌ·È ÛÙ· «‚Ô˘Ó¿ Î·È Ù· fiÚË», Ô‰ËÁÒÓÙ·˜ Û ̤ÚË ·ÚfiÛÈÙ· Î·È Ó· ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›˙ˆ, ‚Ú¤ıËη ÌÚÔÛÙ¿ Û ̛· ·Ó¿ÏÔÁË Î·Ï‡‚· οÔ˘ ÛÙ· ÕÁÚ·Ê·. ∏ ÛÙÈÁÌÈ·›· ·˘Ù‹ Û˘ÁΛÓËÛË ‹Ù·Ó ÌÈ· ·ÊÔÚÌ‹ ÁÈ· fiÙÈ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛÂ. °Ú‹ÁÔÚ· ¤ÓÔȈ۷ fiÙÈ Î¿ÙÈ ÙÂÏ›ˆ˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi ·È˙fiÙ·Ó Ì¤Û· ÌÔ˘, οÙÈ ·Ú¿ÍÂÓÔ, Ó¤Ô Î·È ÂÏȉÔÊfiÚÔ ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ, Ì ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÛÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ. π‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Û ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ fiÔ˘ ›¯Â ϤÔÓ ‰È·Ê·Ó› Ô ÎÔÚÂÛÌfi˜, Ë ·‰È·ÊÔÚ›· Î·È ÙÔ ·‰È¤ÍÔ‰Ô Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Ì·˜ ‰Ú¿Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·. ŒÙÛÈ Û˘Ó¤¯ÈÛ· Ó· ηٷÁڿʈ ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ͯ·Ṳ̂ӷ ‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù· ÌÈ·˜ ·ÓÂÍÂÚ‡ÓËÙ˘, ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì˘ Î·È ·ÏËıÈÓ‹˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. ∞fi ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ Î·È Â›ÌÔÓË Î·Ù·ÁÚ·Ê‹, ¤Ú·Û· ÛÙËÓ ‰È·›ÛÙˆÛË Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ Ì ¤ÚÁ· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ Ù¤¯Ó˘ Î·È ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Ô˘ Ô‰‹ÁËÛ ÙÂÏÈο ÛÙË ÂȂ‚·›ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ fiÚÔ˘ «·Ú¯¤Ù˘·». ∂ÓÒ Á‡Úˆ Ì·˜ fiÏ· ·ÏÏ¿˙Ô˘Ó, Ù· ·Ú¯¤Ù˘· ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔ˘Ó ·Ó·ÏÏÔ›ˆÙ· ̤۷ ÛÙÔÓ ¯ÚfiÓÔ, ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ Ù· ˘ÏÈο, ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Î·Ù·Û΢‹˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÊfiÚÌ·, ÁÈ· Ó· Â͢ËÚÂÙÔ‡Ó ¿ÌÂÛ˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ, οÙÈ Ô˘ Û‹ÌÂÚ· Û ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ ·ÏËÛÙ›·˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Ó¤Ô ˙ËÙÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ. ∏ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙ· Ï·›ÛÈ· Ù˘ ÎÔڇʈÛ˘ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ÎÚ›Û˘, ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓ›Û¯˘ÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÎÙÈÌ‹ÛÂÒÓ ÌÔ˘, Ô˘ ·Ú·Ù›ıÂÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘. ΔˆÓ ÛΤ„ÂˆÓ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó¿ÁÎË Û‡ÓıÂÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÒÓ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÂÙ‡ˆÓ Ì ÙȘ ηٷÎÙ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜. ΔˆÓ ÛΤ„ÂˆÓ Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÌÈ·˜ ‰È·›ÛıËÛ˘ Ô˘ ÂÓ Ì¤Ûˆ Ù˘ ¤ÓÙ·Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ Û¯Â‰È·ÛÌfi ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ, ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯Ô‡Û ‚·Û·ÓÈÛÙÈο ÂÓÙfi˜ ÌÔ˘ Â‰Ò Î·È ÌÈ· ‰ÂηÂÙ›·. Δ· ¢¯¿ÚÈÛÙÔ fï˜ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÏ¿ÓËÛË ·˘Ù‹, Û˘Ó¿ÓÙËÛ· Û˘ÓÔ‰ÔÈfiÚÔ˘˜, Ô˘ Ù·Í›‰Â„·Ó Ì·˙› ÌÔ˘, Ì ÛÙ‹ÚÈÍ·Ó Î·È Ì ·ÚfiÙÚ˘Ó·Ó. £· ‹ıÂÏ· Ó· ÍÂÎÈÓ‹Ûˆ Ì ÙÔÓ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ¿ÓÙÈÔ, ¢È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹ ÙÔ˘ μ˘˙·ÓÙÈÓÔ‡ Î·È ÃÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ªÔ˘Û›Ԣ, ÔχÙÈÌÔ Ê›ÏÔ Î·È Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿ÙË ÛÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ·ÊÈÂÚÒÓˆ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô, ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·Á¿Ë ÙÔ˘ Î·È ÙÔ ¿ıÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ó· ÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ·. ¶ÂÚÈÏ·ÓËı‹Î·Ì ̷˙› Ì ÙÔÓ ÂıÂÚfi ÙÔ˘ °È¿ÓÓË ∫ÚÈÙÛ›ÏË, Û ·ÚfiÛÈÙ˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ Ù˘ μfiÚÂÈ·˜ ∂˘‚Ô›·˜, ÌÔ˘ ¯¿ÚÈÛ ‰ÈËÁ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÔÈËÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÚÔÛˆÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ Î·È Ì ٛÌËÛÂ, ÂÓÙ¿ÛÛÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙ· Ï·›ÛÈ· ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÒÓ ÂÎı¤ÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ªÔ˘Û›Ԣ, ÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿˜. O ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ ∫ˆÓÛÙ¿ÓÙÈÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· Ì·˙› Ì·˜. ΔÔÓ ·Ô¯·ÈÚÂÙ‹Û·Ì Ì ԉ‡ÓË… £· ‹ıÂÏ· ·ÎfiÌË Ó· ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÒ ÛÙÔÓ ·ÎÔ‡Ú·ÛÙÔ Ê›ÏÔ Î·È Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿ÙË ÁÚ·Ê›ÛÙ·, §¤·Ó‰ÚÔ ∫·ÙÛÔ‡ÚË, ÙËÓ ÕÓÓ˘ ÷ÏÈÎÈ¿ ÁÈ· ÙË Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈ΋ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯‹ ÛÙËÓ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘, ÙÔÓ ∫ÒÛÙ· ∞‰¿Ì Ô˘ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ¿Û¯ÈÛ ӷ ÚÔÏ¿‚ÂÈ Ó· ‚ÁÂÈ ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô ÛÙËÓ ÒÚ· ÙÔ˘ Î·È Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔÓ ·ÏÈfi Ê›ÏÔ ∫ˆÛÙ‹ ∞ÓÙˆÓÈ¿‰Ë, ¿ÍÈÔ ‰¿ÛηÏÔ Ù˘ ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜ ÂÈÌÂÏ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÙÔ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ˘ÏÈÎfi. ΔÔÓ °ÈÒÚÁÔ ∫·ÛÙÔ‡Ú· ÛÙÂÓfi Ê›ÏÔ Î·È Û‡Ì‚Ô˘ÏÔ, Î·È ÙÔÓ ¶·ÓÙÂÏ‹ π·ÙÚÔ˘‰¿ÎË ÁÈ· ÙȘ ÂÌÂÚÈÛٷو̤Ó˜ ÌÂÙ·ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘. ΔÔÓ ª·ÓfiÏË ∫ÔÚÚ¤ ÁÈ· ÙȘ ˘ԉ›ÍÂȘ ÙÔ˘, ÙÔÓ ∞ϤͷӉÚÔ ¶·Ó·ÁȈÙfiÔ˘ÏÔ Î·È ÙË μ¿Ó· •¤ÓÔ˘ ÛÙÂÓÔ‡˜ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿Ù˜ Î·È ‰È·ÎÚÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ˘ÔÛÙËÚÈÎÙ¤˜. Δ¤ÏÔ˜ ı· ‹ıÂÏ· Ó· ͯˆÚ›Ûˆ ÙÔÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ·, ηıËÁËÙ‹ Î·È Û˘ÁÁڷʤ· ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ºÈÏÈ›‰Ë Ô˘ Ì ÛÙ‹ÚÈÍ Ì ı¤ÚÌË, Î·È ÚfiÛÊÂÚ ·Ïfi¯ÂÚ· ÙËÓ ÔχÙÈÌË ›ڷ ÙÔ˘, ÙfiÛÔ ÁÈ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô fiÛÔ Î·È ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¤ÎıÂÛË. ΔÔÓ ÂÈηÛÙÈÎfi ∫ÒÛÙ· ΔÛfiÎÏË Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› ¤Ú· ·fi ¤Ó·˜ ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎfi˜ Ê›ÏÔ˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È Î·È ¤Ó·˜ ͯˆÚÈÛÙfi˜ ‰¿ÛηÏÔ˜, Î·È ‚¤‚·È· ÙËÓ §Ô‡Û˘ Î·È ÙËÓ ™ÔÊ›· Ô˘ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ¿ÓÙ· ‰›Ï· ÌÔ˘. ΔÔ˘˜ ¢¯·ÚÈÛÙÒ fiÏÔ˘˜. °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘ ∞ı‹Ó·, 04 ∞ÚÈÏ›Ô˘ 2010


Author’s Note My relationship with huts and sheepfolds is rooted in childhood memories of holidays and wanderings. The tin hut in the middle of my grandfather's small estate in northern Euboea was set apart by its simplicity, its rough hewn timber frame, and its oxidized tin sheets. It was laden with stories from the Occupation, the Civil War, the earthquakes, and the harvest. We used to visit it with my father in the summer, early in the morning, and we were glad it kept sheltering us--along with passersby, hunters, haywards, even animals--from the forces of nature. A regional landmark, it stood out from afar as we approached the village by bus for the holidays. Until, in the early 60s, "someone" needed its tin sheets and tore it down. This event, in a strange way, shocked the whole family. All of a sudden the grandfather's hut acquired for us, the city dwellers of Athens, another dimension. It seems these memories had a role to play on Christmas Day, 2004. Under the influence of my chronic wanderlust for mountains, for driving in inaccessible places and photographing, I happened upon a similar hut somewhere on the Agrapha mountains. This instantaneous emotion triggered what was to follow. Soon I felt that something entirely different was fermenting in my mind, something strange, new, and hopeful for the future, and yet with references to the past. And this in an age when the glut, the indifference, and the impasse of the architectural activity in Greece were already evident. So I went on recording these forgotten samples of an unexplored, anonymous and true architecture. Through this simple and persistent recording, I came to realize affinities with modern art and architecture which gradually corroborated the use of the term "archetypes". While everything around us is changing, the archetypes remain immutable in time--in terms of materials, construction and form--and serve immediate needs, which now, in an time of greed, seems to be the new challenge. The reality which the peak of the financial crisis shapes, becomes an opportune supporting foundation for my assessments, found at the end of the book. Considerations regarding the need for a synthesis of the principles of the archetypes and the advances of technology. Considerations forming the continuation of an intuition which, amid the tension of the architectural practice, held an agonizing sway over my mind for ten years. It was, nevertheless, pleasant to meet, in these wanderings of mine, fellow wanderers who journeyed with me, offering their support and encouragement. I would like to begin with Demetris Constantios, Director of the Byzantine and Christian Museum, a valuable friend and partner to whom I dedicate this book, for his love and his passion in support of this effort. He wandered with me, accompanied by his father-in-law John Kritsilis, to inaccessible areas of northern Euboea; he provided me with stories and poetic references from his personal experience; and he honoured me by including the presentation of this work in the periodic exhibitions of the Museum. Demetrios Constantios is no longer with us today. It was a grievous farewell ... I would also like to mention the tireless friend and associate, the graphic artist Leandros Katsouris; Annie Chalikia for her indispensable participation in the preparation of this book; Costas Adam, who strived at very short notice to get the book ready on schedule and edited the photographic material together with his old friend Costis Antoniadis, a worthy teacher of photography. George Kastouras, a close friend and adviser, and Pandelis Iatroudakis for his translation. Manolis Korres for his directions, Alexandros Panagiotopoulos and Vana Xenou, close associates and discreet supporters. Last but not least, I would like to single out Demetris Philippides, architect, professor and writer, who offered generously his ardent support and his valuable experience for both the book and the exhibition. Costas Tsoclis, artist, who quite apart from a unique friend is a matchless teacher, and of course Lucy and Sophia who are always beside me. I thank them all. Giorgos Triantafyllou,architect Athens, April 4th, 2010


¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ·

Contents

¶ÚfiÏÔÁÔ˜ ∫ÒÛÙ· ΔÛfiÎÏË . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Preface by Costas Tsoclis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

ª∂ƒO™ ¶ƒøΔO

PART I

1. ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. AÓ¿‰˘ÛË ÚÔÛˆÈÎÒÓ ‚ÈˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 H ¤ÌÊ˘ÙË ÁˆÌÂÙÚ›· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 OÈ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 OÈ ÓÂÒÙÂÚÔÈ ŒÏÏËÓ˜ ʈÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔÈ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3. ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 ∞Ó·˙ËÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¢·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈË̤ÓÔ˘˜ . . . . . . . . . 40 O ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 ™ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ¯ÒÚÔ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4. ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓË Ù¤¯ÓË: ÌӋ̘ Î·È ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Emergence of Personal Experiences . . The Inherent Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . Those who searched . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recent Greek Photographers . . . . . . 3. The Architectural Dimension . . . . . . . . . The Concept of "Prehistoricity" . . . . . A Search for the Sensitive Ones . . . . The Greek Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On the International Stage . . . . . . . . . 4. Modern Art: Memories and References

ª∂ƒO™ ¢∂ÀΔ∂ƒO

PART II

Δ· ·Ú¯¤Ù˘· Δ· ÙÛ›ÁÎÈÓ· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Δ· ͇ÏÈÓ· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Δ· ¤ÙÚÈÓ· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Δ· ÏÂÎÙ¿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Δ· Û‡ÌÌÂÈÎÙ· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Δ· ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈο . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 ŒÓÙ·ÍË ÛÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Archetypes Of tin Sheet Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Of timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Of stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Woven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Mixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Interiors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 Landscape Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225

∂¶π§O°O™

EPILOGUE

™Î¤„ÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 ™ËÌÂÈÒÛÂȘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 μÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ ËÁ¤˜ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 ¶ËÁ¤˜ ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Thoughts for the future Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . Illustrations . . . . . . . . .

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1. ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË, ªÂÁ¿ÏË μfiÏ‚Ë 05-11-2005

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1. Costas Tsoclis, Thessaloniki, Megali Volvi, 05-11-2005


¶ÚfiÏÔÁÔ˜

∞! ∑‹Û·Ì ˆÚ·›Â˜ ÛÙÈÁ̤˜ Ì ÙÔÓ °ÈÒÚÁÔ ·fi ÙfiÙ Ô˘ ·Ó·Î·Ï‡„·ÌÂ Î·È ÂÌ›˜, Ô Î·ı¤Ó·˜ Ì·˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÎÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ Î·È Ì ٷ ‰Èο ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘, ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÚÊÈ¿ Î·È ÙË ÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì˘ ·˘Ù‹˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. ∂ÁÒ, ÛÚˆÁ̤ÓÔ˜ ·fi ÙË Ï·›Ì·ÚÁË Î·È ·Ú·Ï·ÓËÙÈ΋ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ Ê›ÏÔ˘˜ ÌÔ˘ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË Ó¤ˆÓ ËÁÒÓ ¤ÌÓ¢Û˘ Î·È Ô °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜, ÓÔÌ›˙ˆ, οو ·fi ÙË ÁÔËÙ›· ÌÈ·˜ ·ÔÎ¿Ï˘„˘, ÌÈ·˜ ·fi £ÂÔ‡ ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ·˜, Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ Â¤ÙÚ„ ӷ ‰ÈηÈÒÛÂÈ Ì ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù·, οÔȘ ·fi„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚ› ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. ∂›‰Â fï˜ Â˘Ù˘¯Ò˜ ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ·ÏÏÔÚfiÛ·ÏÏ· ηٷÛ΢¿ÛÌ·Ù· Î·È Û·Ó ÊˆÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˜. Δ· ›‰Â Î·È Û·Ó ·˘ÙfiÓÔ̘ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ÈηӤ˜ Ó· ˘ÂÚ·ÛÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ·fi ÌfiÓ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ÕÚ· ÙÔ Î¤Ú‰Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ ‹Ù·Ó ‰ÈÏfi. ŒÙÛÈ ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ Û˘ÌÂÚ·›Óˆ, ‰È·‚¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Î·È ÎÔÈÙ¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ Ô˘ ·Ú·ı¤ÙÂÈ. ∫·È ÂÓÒ ÁÈ· ̤ӷ ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ηٷÛ΢¿ÛÌ·Ù· ‰ÂÓ ‹Ù·Ó ·Ú¿ ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ Û˘Ìو̷ÙÈ΋˜ land art, Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈË̤Ó˘ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÔÏÏ¿ ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ, Û·Ó ÛÂÌÓ¿ ·ÏÏ¿ Â˘Ê¿ÓÙ·ÛÙ· ÂÈηÛÙÈο ¤ÚÁ·, ÂÎÙÂÏÂṲ̂ӷ Ì ٷ ÈÔ Â˘ÙÂÏ‹ ˘ÏÈο Î·È Ù· ÈÔ ·ÚÔÏÈṲ̂ӷ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· Î·È ¤ÓÔȈı· ·Á·ÏÏ›·ÛË ÛÙË ı¤·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜, Ô °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ Ù· ¤Î·Ó ‚È‚Ï›Ô Î·È ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· Î·È ¿Ô„Ë. ¶ÚÔÛ¿ıËÛ ̤ۈ ·˘ÙÒÓ Ó· ÂÈ, Ó· ·ԉ›ÍÂÈ, Ó· Ù· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤„ÂÈ ÛÂ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù·, Î·È Ì’ ·˘Ù¿ Û·Ó fiÏÔ Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ ‹ Ó· ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙ‹ÛÂÈ… ∂Ï›˙ˆ, ÛÙ· ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈο ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈο ÙÔ˘ ¤ÚÁ· Ó· ÙÔ˘ Ê·ÓÔ‡Ó ¯Ú‹ÛÈÌ· ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ›‰Â, ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ η٤ÁÚ·„Â, ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ηٿϷ‚Â, ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ÛΤÊÙËÎÂ, ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ›Â Î·È Ó· Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÓÂ¤˜ Ì ٷ ÈÛÙ‡ˆ Ô˘ ÚÔÙ›ÓÂÈ Ì¤Ûˆ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘-Ï¢ÎÒÌ·ÙÔ˜. ∞˘Ùfi ‚¤‚·È·, ‰ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÙÔ˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› ‰ÂÛ̇ÛÂȘ. ∫·Ó¤Ó·˜ ‰ÂÓ ‰ÈηÈÔ‡Ù·È Ó· ÙÔ˘ ηٷÏÔÁ›ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ̤ڷ Èı·Ó‹ ·Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ·. ∏ ˙ˆ‹ ·ÏÏ¿˙ÂÈ Î·È Ì·˜ ·Ú·Û‡ÚÂÈ Ì·˙› Ù˘ Î·È ÂÌ¿˜ Î·È ÙȘ ȉ¤Â˜ Ì·˜, Â˘Ù˘¯Ò˜. ŸÌˆ˜ ÓÔÌ›˙ˆ, fiÙÈ ÙÂÏÈο ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô ·˘Ùfi ı· Ì›ÓÂÈ Û·Ó ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Ù¤¯Ó˘ ·Ó·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÙÔ, ÂÓÒ ÔÈ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙËıÔ‡Ó. £· ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Î·È Û ÂΛÓÔÓ Ô˘ ı· ÙÔ ÎÚ·Ù¿ ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙÔ˘, ÚÒÙ· ÔÙÈ΋ Î·È ·ÙÈ΋ ¯·Ú¿ Î·È ÌÂÙ¿ Ì¿ıËÛË ‹ ¤ÛÙˆ ÏËÚÔÊfiÚËÛË. ∫È ¤ÙÛÈ, Ϥˆ ÂÁÒ, Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ›ӷÈ. °È·Ù›, ·fi ÙË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Ô˘ ÚÔÙ›ÓÂȘ ÌÈ· ÂÈÎfiÓ· Û· Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú›· ÙˆÓ ·fi„ÂÒÓ ÛÔ˘, Ô ÏfiÁÔ˜, Û˘¯Ó¿ ÂÚÈÙÙfi˜ ‹ Ï·Óı·Ṳ̂ÓÔ˜, ÂÓÒ ÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ Ó· ı¤ÏÂÈ Ó· ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ·, Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο ÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈÌ¿¯ÂÙ·È Î·È ÔÏϤ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ ‹ ·fi ›ÛÌ· ‹ ·fi ·ÓÈηÓfiÙËÙ· ÙËÓ Ù·ÂÈÓÒÓÂÈ, ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤ÔÓÙ¿˜ ÙËÓ ·fi ·˘ÙÔÙÂϤ˜ Î·È ·˘ÙÔ‰‡Ó·ÌÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜, Û ˘ÏÈÎfi ‹ Û ÂÚÁ·Ï›Ô. ΔÈ Îڛ̷ Ó· ÌË ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ÂÌÈÛÙ¢ıԇ̠ÙËÓ Â˘Ê˘˝· ÙˆÓ Û˘Ó·ÓıÚÒˆÓ Ì·˜ ·ÏÏ¿ Ó· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÍËÁԇ̠οı ÊÔÚ¿ Ù· ·˘ÙÔÓfiËÙ·! ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘ 08.09.2009 9


Preface Ah! We experienced beautiful moments with Giorgos since we discovered each for his own reasons and with his own tools of inquiry, the beauty and wisdom of this nameless architecture. I, impelled by the ravenous and misleading for my friends pursuit of new sources of inspiration, and George, I think, under the spell of a revelation, a godsend help, which granted him documented support for some of his views on architecture. Thankfully he saw these erratic structures as a photographer. He also saw them as autonomous images, capable of defending their existence on their own. Thus he benefited doubly. At least I gather this much by reading what he writes and by looking at the pictures he chose. Although these structures seemed to me only some kind of incidental Land Art –realized years before the coining of the term– as modest but imaginative works of art, executed with the cheapest of materials and out of use objects, so I felt exulted by viewing them, George made out of them a book, a lesson and a viewpoint. He tried to speak through them, to demonstrate, to formulate them into systems, and with these as a tool to support a statement or a challenge... I hope that, in his future projects, utilizes what he saw, what he recorded, what he understood, what he thought, what he said; and that his work is consistent with the beliefs he puts forward in this book-album. This, of course, does not put him under any obligation. No-one is entitled to charge him one day with possible inconsistencies. Life moves on and, thankfully, sweeps us and our ideas along. But I think this book will ultimately remain as an unquestionable object of art, even if its message may be challenged. It offers to those who would hold it in their hands, first a visual and tactile pleasure and then a lesson or at least some information. And so, I say, it should be. For once you offer a picture as testimony for your views, the word, often unnecessary or wrong, while apparently wants to promote the image, in essence contends with it and often, out of stubbornness or inability, degrades it, turning it from an independent and self-reliant event to a material or a tool. What a pity we can not trust the intelligence of our fellow human beings but to have to explain to them the obvious each and every time! Costas Tsoclis 08.09.2009 10


ΜΕΡOΣ ΠΡΩΤO PART I


2 ÕÁÚ·Ê·, ÛÙȘ fi¯ı˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÙ·ÌÔ‡ ∞ÁÚ·ÊÈÒÙË, ¯ÂÈÌÒÓ·˜ 25-12-2004

1. ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹

2 Agrafa, on the banks of the Agrafiotis, winter 25-12-2004

1. Introduction

«∏ Ù¤¯ÓË ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È Ì¤Û· ÛÙË Ê‡ÛË, fiÔÈÔ˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÙËÓ ·ÔÛ¿ÛÂÈ ·˘Ùfi˜ ÙËÓ ¤¯ÂÈ»

Truly art lies in Nature, he who can extract it has attained art

A. Dürer

A. Dürer

∏ ÂÚÈÏ¿ÓËÛË Û ‰˘ÛÚfiÛÈÙ˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ∂ÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘, ÌÔ˘ ‰›ÓÂÈ ¿ÓÙ· ‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜ Û˘ÁÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ Ô˘ Û˘¯Ó¿ Î·È Â› ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ηٷÁڿʈ ʈÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈο. ΔÔÓ ¯ÂÈÌÒÓ· ÙÔ˘ 2004, Ô‰ËÁÒÓÙ·˜ ̤۷ ÛÙË ‚ÚÔ¯‹, ÛÙ· ÕÁÚ·Ê·, ÌÈ· Í·ÊÓÈ΋ Ï¿ÁÈ· ‰¤ÛÌË ·¯Ù›ÓˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ‹ÏÈÔ˘, ÊÒÙÈÛ ̛· ηχ‚· ‰›Ï· ÛÙÔ ÔÙ¿ÌÈ. ™Ù·Ì¿ÙËÛ· Î·È Î·Ù¤ÁÚ·„· ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ·. ◊Ù·Ó Ë ·Ú¯‹…

Wandering in remote and inaccessible parts of Greece affords exhilarating experiences and images that I photographed often over the years. As I was driving on the Agrapha mountains on a rainy winter day in 2004, an unexpected sunbeam fell on a hut by the river. I stopped and captured this image. It was the beginning...

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3 £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË 1918, ™ÎËÓ¤˜ ·fi ÙÛÈÁÁ¿ÓÈÎÔ Î·Ù·˘ÏÈÛÌfi, ʈÙÔ Leon Busy 3 Thessaloniki 1918 scenes from a Gypsy camp, photo Leon Busy

4 ªÂÛÔÏfiÁÁÈ "ÂÏ¿‰·" ηχ‚· „·Ú¿‰ˆÓ 4 Messologi "Pelada" fishermen’s hut

5 ¶·Ú·ÁÎÔ‡ÔÏË ÛÙËÓ μÔÌ‚¿Ë, πÓ‰›Â˜ 5 India slums in Mumbai

6 ¡·Ì›ÌÈ·, ∫·Ï‡‚· πı·ÁÂÓÒÓ, 2009, ʈÙÔ ÃÚfiÓ˘ ¶Â¯ÏÈ‚·Ó›‰Ë˜ 6 Namibia scences from a refugee camp, 2009, photo Chronis Pehlivanidis

∞fi ÙfiÙ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ ÌÈ· ‰È·Ú΋˜ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË Ù¤ÙÔÈˆÓ ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ, ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ ̤¯ÚÈ ÙfiÙ ÚÔÛÂÚÓÔ‡Û· ۯ‰fiÓ ·‰È¿ÊÔÚ·. ªÈ· ÔÈËÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ¤ÓÔȈ۷ Ó· ·Ó·‰‡ÂÙ·È ·fi Ù· Ù·ÂÈÓ¿ ·˘Ù¿ ηٷχ̷ٷ. ∏ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË ·˘Ù‹ ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚÒıËΠÛÙȘ ηχ‚˜ Î·È ÛÙ· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿. ¢ÂÓ ÌfiÚÂÛ· fï˜ Ó· ·ÔʇÁˆ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Î·È ÙË Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ· Ì ٷ ÚÔÛÊ˘ÁÈο ·Ú·‹ÁÌ·Ù·, Ù· Úfi¯ÂÈÚ· ηٷχ̷ٷ ÙˆÓ ÙÛÈÁÁ¿ÓˆÓ (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 3) Ù· ·˘ı·›ÚÂÙ·, ÙȘ ηχ‚˜ ÙˆÓ „·Ú¿‰ˆÓ ÙȘ ÁÓˆÛÙ¤˜ «ÂÏ¿‰Â˜» ÛÙÔ ªÂÛÔÏfiÁÁÈ Î·È ÛÙÔÓ Œ‚ÚÔ, (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 4), Ù· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· ·Ú·‹ÁÌ·Ù· ÛÙË μÔÌ‚¿Ë, (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 5) ‹ Ù· barriadas Î·È ÙȘ Ê·‚¤Ï˜ ÛÙËÓ ¡fiÙÈ· ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋, ‹ ÙȘ ηχ‚˜ ÙˆÓ Èı·ÁÂÓÒÓ ÛÙËÓ ¡·Ì›ÌÈ· (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 6) ‹ ÛÙËÓ ¡¤· °Ô˘˚Ó¤·. ŸÏ· ·˘Ù¿, Ô˘ ÛÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ Ì ··Û¯fiÏËÛ·Ó Î·Ù¿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ

It gave rise to a constant search for similar images – images previously passed by casually. I felt a poetic dimension emanating from these humble dwellings. This search focused in huts and sheepfolds. I could not, however, avoid their connections and relevance to the refugee shacks, the makeshift shelters of the gypsies (Illustration 3), the unauthorized buildings, the fishermen huts in Messolongi and Evros known as "pelades" (Illustration 4), the contemporary shanties in Mumbai (Illustration 5)or the barriadas and the favelas in Latin America or the natives' huts in Namimbia (Illustration 6) or in New Guinea. All these, which occupied me in the past, during my architectural and social pursuits, began


Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÔ˘ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛˆÓ, ¿Ú¯ÈÛ·Ó Í·Ó¿ Ó· Ì ‚·Û·Ó›˙Ô˘Ó, ‰ÈÂΉÈÎÒÓÙ·˜ ÌÈ· ı¤ÛË ÛÙ· ÙÚ¤¯ÔÓÙ· ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙ¿ ÌÔ˘. °Ú‹ÁÔÚ· fï˜ ‰È·›ÛÙˆÛ· Ì›· ·Ú¿ÍÂÓË ÙÚ˘ÊÂÚfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔ˘˜ «·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÔ‡˜» ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Î·È ÛÙȘ ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ, ÛÙȘ ηٷÛ΢¤˜ Ô˘ ÚÔÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È·ÌÔÓ‹ ÙˆÓ ˙ÒˆÓ, Ô˘ Ù·ÈÚÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ Â˘·ÈÛıËÛ›· ÌÔ˘ Î·È Í¯ˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο ·fi ·˘-

to haunt me again claiming a place in my current interests.

7 Δ‹ÓÔ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ™¿ÓÙ· ª·ÚÁ·Ú›Ù·, 24-08-2005 7 Tinos, on the road to Santa Margarita, 24-08-2005

8 ª·Î‰ÔÓ›·, Ï›ÌÓË ªÂÁ¿ÏË μfiÏ‚Ë, 18-11-2005 8 Macedonia, Lake Megali Volvi, 18-11-2005

Ù¤˜ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜. ªÈ· ÙÚ˘ÊÂÚfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ó· ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÂÈ ·Î¤Ú·È·, Û·Ó ÌÈ· ÛÙ·ıÂÚ‹ ·Í›· ̤۷ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ÂËÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È ·fi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ-ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂȘ, ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÈÙË‰Â˘Ì¤Ó˜ ‰È·ÎÔÛÌËÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ. ŒÙÛÈ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÈÛ· Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ¿, Ó· ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÙÒ ÛÙ· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ Î·È ÛÙȘ ηχ‚˜ ÙˆÓ ÙÛÔ·Ó·Ú·›ˆÓ. ∂›Ó·È ÂÚ›ÂÚÁÔ Î·È Û˘Ó¿Ì· ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ó· ‰È·ÈÛÙÒÓÂȘ Û ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ¯ÂÈÚÔÔ›ËÙ˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜ ¤Ó· ¿ÏÏÔ ‡ÊÔ˜ Î·È fi¯È ÙËÓ ÚÔÎÏËÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ‹ ÙË ¯˘‰·ÈfiÙËÙ·, Ë ÔÔ›· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ Ù· fiÔÈ· Ó¤· «·˘ı·›ÚÂÙ·» Ô˘ ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÔÓÙ·È ‹ ÚԂϤÂÙ·È ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÍÂÏȯıÔ‡Ó, Ó· ÌÂÙ·ÏÏ·¯ıÔ‡Ó ı· ¤ÏÂÁ·, Û ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈË̤Ó˜ ·ÛÙÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜ ÂÓÙfi˜ ‹ ÂÎÙfi˜ ۯ‰›Ô˘. Δ· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿, ·ÚfiÙÈ ¯ÒÚÔÈ ÌÂÏÏÔı·Ó¿ÙˆÓ, Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó

tures meant for humans. A tenderness that remains intact, as a value constant in time, unaffected by socio-economic development, urbanization and pretentious decorative pursuits. So I decided to consciously limit myself to sheepfolds and shepherds' huts.

I quickly hit upon an uncommon tenderness in the handling of "architecture" and the choice of materials in these structures made for the accommodation of animals, which agree with my sensibilities and differ considerably from those found in struc-

It is odd as well as fascinating, to discern in these handmade structures a style quite different from the garishness or the vulgarity which typify the "unauthorized" buildings and which evolve, mutate I might say, into legitimate urban values within or without the limits of the city plan. Sheepfolds, although death rows in actuality, seem to be ves-

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‰Ô¯Â›· ˙ˆ‹˜ ÚÔÛ·ÚÌÔṲ̂ӷ Ì ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ÛÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô, Ì ηÏfi ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi Î·È ·ÂÚÈÛÌfi, Ê˘ÛÈο ˘ÏÈο Î·È ÌÈ· ·ÏfiÙËÙ· ÛÙË ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ¶·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙ· «·˘ı·›ÚÂÙ·» Î·È ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÙÂÏÈο ·fi ÙȘ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ Ù˘ ʇÛ˘, ÙËÓ Â¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÁÈ· ‚ÔÛ΋, ÙȘ ÎÏÈÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ÓÔÌ·‰ÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜. ∫·Ù¿ ·Ú¿‚·ÛË ÙˆÓ Û˘¯Ó¿ ¯˘‰·›ˆÓ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓˆÓ ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÚÊÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ ÌÔχÓÔ˘Ó ·ÓÂ·ÓfiÚıˆÙ· ÙÔ ∂ÏÏËÓÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô, ηχ‚˜ Î·È Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ ·Ó·‰‡ÔÓÙ·È, ‰ÔÌË̤ӷ ÂÚȤÚÁˆ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ›‰ÈÔ˘˜ ÙÂÏÈο ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜, Ì ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ fï˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ Î·È Ì ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ Ê˘ÛÈο ˘ÏÈο. ∂Í·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ‰Â ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÙÔ˘˜, Ó· ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔ˘Ó ·Ó·ÏÏÔ›ˆÙ˜ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ ˘Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¤˜ ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜. ¶¿ÓÙ· Ì ÂӉȤÊÂÚÂ Ô ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÏÈÔ‡ Ì ÙÔ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ, Ì· Â‰Ò ¤¯Ô˘Ì ӷ οÓÔ˘Ì Ì ÌÈ· ·Ú¿ÍÂÓË È‰È·ÈÙÂÚfiÙËÙ· fiÔ˘ ÙÔ ·ÏÈfi ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÂÈ ÛÙ·ıÂÚfi Î·È ·Ó¤·ÊÔ. ™ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ ÂȉÈÒΈ Ó· ·Ú·ı¤Ûˆ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ Ô˘ Ó· ÚÔηÏÔ‡Ó ÙË Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ¢ÎÔÏ›· ÙÔ˘ Ï˘ÚÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ Û˘¯Ó¿ ÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÙÔ›Ô˘. ªÂ ÂÈÌÔÓ‹ ·Ó·˙ËÙÒ ÙËÓ ·Ô˘Û›· ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ Î·È ˙ÒˆÓ ÛÙȘ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ·Ê‹ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ηı·Ú¤˜ ÙȘ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ Ô˘ ÂÁ›ÚÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙȘ ηٷÛ΢¤˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ηı·˘Ù¤˜, Ù· ˘ÏÈο Î·È ÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô. ¢ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Â‡ÎÔÏÔ Â›Û˘ Ó· ÂÎÊÚ¿Ûˆ Î·È Ó· ÌÂٷʤڈ, ̤۷ ·fi ÙȘ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó, fiÏ· fiÛ· ·ÈÛı¿ÓıËη ÛÙȘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜. ΔÔ ÈÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Ô˘ ¤ÓÔȈ۷ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ·Ú¿ÍÂÓË Á·Ï‹ÓË, Ô˘ Û¿ÓÈ· È· ÂÎ¤ÌÂÙ·È ·fi Ù· ¤ÚÁ· ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ ÛÙË Ê‡ÛË, Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙÔÓ Êfi‚Ô Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÁˆÓ›· Ô˘ Ì·˜ ηٷϷ̂¿ÓÂÈ ÚÈÓ Î·Ó ·Ú¯›ÛÔ˘Ó ÔÈ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ·‰¤ÍȘ Î·È ÚÔÎÏËÙÈΤ˜ ÂÂÌ‚¿ÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô. O ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Adolf Loos ‹‰Ë ·fi ÙÔ 1910 ¤¯ÂÈ Û¯ÔÏÈ¿ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ·È‰Â›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ· Î·È ÙË ÛÔÊ›· ÙÔ˘ ¯ˆÚÈÎÔ‡ fiÙ·Ó ÂÂÌ‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô.1 ¶·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· ̤۷ ·fi ÂÈÏÂÁ̤Ó˜ ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂȘ, ı· ÂȉÈÒ͈ Ó· ·Ó·‰Â›Íˆ ÙËÓ Â˘ÚËÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ÙË ÛÔÊ›·, ÙËÓ ·ÏfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÙËÓ Î·ı·ÚfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ηٷÛ΢‹˜, ÙË ‰‡Ó·ÌË ÙÔ˘ ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙÔ˘, ÙË ı·ÏˆÚ‹ ÙˆÓ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎÒÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ. ™Â ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ fiÏ· ‰Â›¯ÓÔ˘Ó Ó· ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Ó ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ «Ê˘ÛÈο». ∞fi ÙȘ ÌÈÎÚ¤˜, ·˘ÙfiÓÔ̘ ÌÔÓ¿‰Â˜ ̤¯ÚÈ ÔÏfiÎÏËÚ· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ì ÛÙ¿Ó˜, Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ Î·È Î·Ï‡‚˜, Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù· ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ‰È¿Û·ÚÙ· Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙÂÈ· Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÛÙȘ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Ì›· ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË ÛÙËÓ ÎÙËÓÔÙÚÔÊ›· Î·È ÛÙȘ ÂÔ¯ÈΤ˜ ÌÂÙ·ÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ ÓÔÌ·‰ÈÛÌfi, ¤Ó· Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ì ·Ú¯·›Â˜ ηٷ‚ÔϤ˜ ÛÙ· μ·ÏοÓÈ· Î·È ÙË ªÂÛfiÁÂÈÔ. OÈ ‚ÈÔÎÏÈÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ˘Ô¯ÚÂÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÈ̤Ó˜ Û ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ÎÔ·‰ÈÒÓ ‰‡Ô

sels of life singularly adapted to the landscape, with good orientation and ventilation, the use of natural materials and a simplicity of structure. While always "unauthorized" buildings, they are ultimately legitimized by the forces of nature, the abundance of pasture, the climatic conditions and the concept of nomadic life. Contrary to the often crass morphological quests of modern Greece which taint irreparably the landscape, huts and sheepfolds, oddly erected by the very same people, emerge built in altogether different ways and with purely natural materials. Their form remains untouched by time, which betokens constant archetypal values. I was always interested in the dialogue between old and modern, but here we are dealing with a strange peculiarity in which the old remains stable and intact. In this book I do not intend to present images evoking the emotional convenience of a lyricism which often characterizes Greek landscape photography. I persistently seek the absence of man and beast from the images, leaving unmitigated the forces which arise from these very structures, materials and landscapes. It is not easy to express and convey, through the images which follow, everything I felt in these wanderings. But foremost was the feeling of a strange serenity, one which hardly emanates any more from the works of man in nature and contrasts starkly with the fear and agony which seize us even before the clumsy and atrocious modern landscape interventions materialize. As early as 1910 the architect Adolf Loos was commenting on the architect's lack of cultural education and the peasant's wisdom when intervening in the natural landscape.1 I will endeavour to highlight through selected details the resourcefulness, the wisdom, the simplicity and purity of construction, the power of the minimal and the warmth of the interior spaces. In these contexts everything seems to come about "naturally". From small independent units to entire complexes of sheepfolds, pens and huts, such buildings are scattered throughout the Greek countryside and particularly in areas with strong tradition in husbandry and livestock transhumance. This is nomadism, a fact of life with ancient roots in the Balkans and the Mediterranean. The climatic conditions force the shepherds to move their livestock twice a year: in the autumn


9 ¶Ú¤Û˜, ·Ô‰ËÌËÙÈο Ô˘ÏÈ¿, 26-03-2005 9 Prespes, migratory birds, 26-03-2005

10 ∫Ô¿‰È· ÚÔ‚¿ÙˆÓ, ¡¤ÁÚÈ, ¶›Ó‰Ô˜ 1976, ʈÙÔ Δ. ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 10 ∞ flock of sheep, Negri, Pindos 1976, photo Takis Tloupas

ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ: ÙÔ ÊıÈÓfiˆÚÔ ·fi Ù· ‚Ô˘Ó¿ ÛÙ· ¯ÂÈÌ·‰È¿ Î·È ÙËÓ ¿ÓÔÈÍË ÙÔ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÚÔÊÔ. ™ÙË ‚¿ÛË ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÙÔ ¤ÓÛÙÈÎÙÔ ·˘ÙÔÛ˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛ˘ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÏ· Ù· ¤Ì‚È· fiÓÙ·. O ÌÂÙˆÚÔÏÔÁÈÎfi˜ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÂÈ ÂÎÙfi˜ ÙˆÓ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÙȘ ÂԯȷΤ˜ ÌÂÙ·ÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·Ô‰ËÌËÙÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ÏÈÒÓ. ªÈ· ·›ÛÙ¢Ù˘ Îϛ̷η˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· Î·Ù·Ï˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È ÛÙ· Ï·›ÛÈ· ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ Ê·ÈÓÔ̤ÓÔ˘. ªÈ· ‰È·Ú΋˜, ÌÂÁ·ÏÂÈ҉˘ Â¤Ì‚·ÛË ÛÙËÓ Ê‡ÛË Ì ˘ÏÈο Ô˘ ·ÔÛÒÓÙ·È ·fi ·˘Ù‹ ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· Î·Ù·Ï˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ ˆ˜ ηٷʇÁÈ· ·fi ÙȘ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ Ù˘ ʇÛ˘. «OÈ ÙÛÔ·Ó·Ú·›ÔÈ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‰‡Ô ËÌÂÚÔÌËӛ˜ Ô˘ ¿Ó ÎÈ ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È, Ë Ì›· Â›Ó·È ÎÔÓÙ¿ ÛÙÔ˘ ÕË ¢ËÌËÙÚÈÔ‡ Î·È Ë ¿ÏÏË Â›Ó·È ÙÔ˘ ÕË °ÈÒÚÁË. ΔÔ˘ ÕË °ÈÒÚÁË ·Ó‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó „ËÏ¿, Î·È ÙÔÓ OÎÙÒ‚ÚË ÎÔÓÙ¿ ÛÙÔ˘ ÕË ¢ËÌËÙÚÈÔ‡, Ï›ÁÔ ÈÔ ÌÚÔÛÙ¿, Ï›ÁÔ ÈÔ ÌÂÙ¿, ηÙ‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙ· ¯ÂÈÌ·‰È¿. Œ¯ÂȘ ·ÎÔ‡ÛÂÈ ÁÈ· Ù· ‰‡Ô ÈÔ fiÌÔÚÊ· ¯ˆÚÈ¿ Ù˘ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·˜ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ™˘ÚÚ¿ÎÔ Î·È ÔÈ ∫·Ï·Ú›Ù˜ ÛÙËÓ ◊ÂÈÚÔ. ¶‹Á· ÂΛ Ì ÙËÓ ¢∂∏ ÙÔ 1977 ÁÈ· Ó· ‰Ô‡Ì Ò˜ ÁÈ· ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ı· ‹Á·ÈÓ ʈ˜ ÛÙÔ ™˘ÚÚ¿ÎÔ. ΔÔ ™˘ÚÚ¿ÎÔ Â›Ó·È Ë ¤‰Ú· ÙˆÓ μÏ¿¯ˆÓ –Ó· Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙ›˜ fiÙÈ Â›¯Â Î·È ‚Ï¿¯ÈÎË ÔÌÔ-

leaving the mountains for the lowland winter quarters and moving back again in the spring. This system is rooted in the instinct of self-preservation that characterizes all living beings. Is it not the meteorological time that dictates, among others, even the seasonal journeys of the migratory birds? During this event a shelter-building of unbelievable scale takes place. A constant, monumental intervention in nature, with materials detached from her to erect shelters as refuge from her forces. "The shepherds have two dates for coming and going, one near St Dimitrios' day and the other on St George's. On St George's they climb higher and in October, near St Dimitrios' day, sometimes a little earlier others a little later, they descend to the winter pastures. You've heard of the two most beautiful villages in Greece, Syrrako and Kalarites, in Epirus. I went there with Public Power Company (PPC) in 1977 to see how we would bring electricity to Syrrako for the first time. Syrrako is the seat of the Vlachs –remember it had a

17


ÛÔÓ‰›· ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ù˘ ΔÔ˘ÚÎÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÂΛ– ™˘ÚÚ¿ÎÔ, ∫·Ï·Ú›Ù˜ ·’ fiÔ˘ ηٿÁÂÙ·È Ô ÔÈËÙ‹˜ Ô ∫Ú˘ÛÙ¿Ï˘, Ô ∫ˆÏ¤Ù˘ Î·È ÙfiÛÔÈ ¿ÏÏÔÈ. §ÔÈfiÓ ÊÙ¿Óˆ Úˆ›-Úˆ› Ì ْ ·˘ÙÔΛÓËÙÔ Ù˘ ¢∂∏ ÂΛ ¿Óˆ, ÂΛ Á‡Úˆ ÛÙÔ˘ ÕË °ÈÒÚÁË Î·È Í·ÊÓÈο ›‰·Ó Ù· Ì¿ÙÈ· ÌÔ˘ οÙÈ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ı· ÙÔ Í·Ó·‰Ò: ÂÚ¯fiÓÙÔ˘Û·Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙˆÓ ΔÚÈÎ¿ÏˆÓ ·fi ÙÔÓ Î¿ÌÔ, ‰È·ÎfiÛÈ· ¿ÏÔÁ· Ì Ì·Ù·Ó›Â˜ Ôχ¯ÚˆÌ˜, Ì Ͽ‚·Ú· ·ÓÂÌ›˙ÔÓÙ· Î·È ›Ûˆ… ‰¤Î· ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰Â˜ Úfi‚·Ù·! fiÏÔÈ ·˘ÙÔ› η‚¿Ï· ÛÙ· ¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ÙȘ Ì·Ù·Ó›Â˜… Î·È Ù· Úfi‚·Ù· Ì·˙› Ì ٷ ÙÛÔ·ÓfiÛÎ˘Ï·, ÂÚ¯fiÓÙÔ˘Û·Ó ÛÙÔ ™˘ÚÚ¿ÎÔ „ËÏ¿ ÁÈ· Ó· ÍÂηÏÔηÈÚÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ó».2 ∏ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ·˘Ù‹ ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ¿ÓÙÈÔ˘ ·ÔηχÙÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÌÈ·˜ ÌÂÁ·ÏfiÚÂ˘ Î·È Û¿ÓÈ·˜ ÛÙȘ ̤Ú˜ Ì·˜ ÙÂÏÂÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ÛÙÔ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô, ÌÈ·˜ ÁÈÔÚÙ‹˜ Ô˘ ÎÚ‡‚ÂÈ Ì¤Û· Ù˘ ÌÈ· ‰‡Ó·ÌË ˙ˆ‹˜. £· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ·ÎfiÌ· ηÓ›˜ Ó· ÂÈÛËÌ¿ÓÂÈ Î·È ÌÈ· ÈÂÚfiÙËÙ· ÛÙ· Ï·›ÛÈ· ÌÈ·˜ ·fiÎÚ˘Ê˘ ÈÂÚÔÊ¿ÓÂÈ·˜ 3 Ô˘ ·Ú·¤ÌÂÈ ÛÙË ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·. ∞‰‹ÚÈÙÔÈ ÓfiÌÔÈ Î·ıÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÂÏÈο ¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· Ô˘ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÂÈ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÈΤ˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÔ‡ Î·È ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ Ì·˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È, ÂȉÈο Û ÂÌ¿˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Ù˘ fiÏ˘, Û·Ó Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ Í¯·ÛÙ›. ∞Ó·˙‹ÙËÛ· ÛÙ· ¢ÂÏÙ›· Ù˘ §·ÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋˜ ∂Ù·ÈÚ›·˜ Û¯ÂÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ· Î·È Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο Â›Ó·È ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ó· ·Ó·Î·Ï‡ÙÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ¿ÚıÚ· Ì ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÁڷʤ˜ Ù˘ ·ÁÚÔÙÈ΋˜ Î·È ÎÙËÓÔÙÚÔÊÈ΋˜ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·˜. ¶ÂÚÈÁڷʤ˜ Î·È ÂÈÎÔÓÔÁÚ·Ê‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÈ̤ӈÓ, ÙˆÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ Ô˘ ηٷÛ··˙·Ó, ÙˆÓ Û΢ÒÓ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Û·Ó, Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Ô˘ ÌÈÏÔ‡Û·Ó, Ì·˙› Ì fiÏ· Ù· Ì˘ÛÙÈο ÁÈ· ÙË ÊÚÔÓÙ›‰· ÙˆÓ ˙ˆÒÓ, ÙËÓ ÂÎÙÚÔÊ‹, ÙȘ ÌÂÙ·ÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÙËÓ Ù˘ÚÔÎÔÌ›·. ∞ÎfiÌ· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ηٷÁÚ·Ê› ʈӤ˜, ÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ, ÚÔÛÙ·Á¤˜ fiˆ˜ Ù· «¯¤ÂÂÈ» Î·È Ù· «Ú›», ÔÈ ·ÚÚÒÛÙȘ Î·È ÔÈ ıÂÚ·›˜ ÙˆÓ ˙ÒˆÓ, ‰Ôͷۛ˜, ηٿÚ˜ Î·È Â˘¯¤˜. ŒÓ·˜ ÔÏfiÎÏËÚÔ˜ ÎfiÛÌÔ˜ Ô˘ ÙÔÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ Ë ·ÏfiÙËÙ· Î·È Ë ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·, ¤Ó· Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ˙ˆ‹˜ ·ÁÓ‹˜ Î·È Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜, ÌÈ· «ÌÂÙ·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓË ÛÔÊ›·» Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· Ì ÌÈÎÚ¤˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ ·fi ÙfiÔ Û ÙfiÔ.

18

Vlach Federation during the Turkish rule– Syrrako, Kalarites which is the birthplace of Krystalis the poet, Koletis the politician, and many others. So I arrive up there on the PPC car early one morning, roundabout St George's day, and all of a sudden I catch a sight of something I won't live to see again: on the plains, out of Trikala, some two hundred horses with colourful saddle blankets, banners waving in the wind... and ten thousand sheep! The shepherds were all riding on the horses with the saddle blankets... and the sheep, together with the guardian dogs, were coming up to Syrrako for the summer".2 This story by Demetrios Konstantios reveals the illustration of a majestic and rare these days rite of the Greek landscape, a fete inhering a life force. One might even suggest a kind of sanctity, within an apocryphal hierophany 3, which connotes religiosity. Inexorable laws establish a system embodying the functional forms of an economic and spiritual culture which these days seems forgotten, especially to us city people. π searched in Laografia (Hellenic Laographic Society Bulletin) for relevant articles and it is really quite interesting to discover detailed descriptions of the agricultural and stock-raising Greece. Descriptions and illustrations of the life of the shepherds, the structures they built, the utensils they used, the language they spoke, along with all the secrets of stock care such as raising, transhumation and cheese-making. Also, records of shouts, calls and orders like "cheeei" and "pri"; of diseases and treatments of animals; of beliefs, curses and blessings. An entire world characterized by simplicity and truth, a life pure and natural, an "itinerant wisdom" found throughout Greece with slight regional variations.

2. ∞Ó¿‰˘ÛË ÚÔÛˆÈÎÒÓ ‚Ȉ̿وÓ

2. Emergence of Personal Experiences

OÈ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜, ̤۷ ·fi ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÏ¿ÓËÛË, ¿Ú¯ÈÛ·Ó Ó· ·Ó·‰‡ÔÓÙ·È ÚÔÛˆÈο ‚ÈÒÌ·Ù·, ÁÓÒÛÂȘ Î·È ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ› ·fi ÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ıÂÌÂÏÈÒ‰Ë Û˘ÛÙ·ÙÈο ÙÔ˘ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎÔ‡ ÌÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘.

These wanderings afforded encounters which began to awaken past experiences, knowledge and reflections, all constituent elements of my inner self.


âˆ? Â¤ĂŒĂŠË˜Ă™Ă‹ Â°Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™Ăšâ€şÂˇ

The Inherent Geometry

âˆ? Ă Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™Ăšâ€şÂˇ ĂŽÂˇĂˆ Ă”Ăˆ ¯¡Ú¿Ă?Ă‚ĂˆËœ ďŁżĂ”Ë˜ ÂŻÂˇĂšÂˇĂŽĂ™Ă‹Ăšâ€şË™Ă”Ë˜Ă“ Ă™ĂˆËœ ΡĂ?â€Ąâ€šĂ‚Ëœ ĂŽÂˇĂˆ Ù¡ ĂŒÂˇĂ“Ă™ĂšĂˆÂż ĂŽÂˇĂˆ Ă‹ Ă‚Ă“Ă›Ă™ĂˆĂŽĂ™Ă’â€°Ă‹Ëœ ¡Ó¡¡Ú¡à ˆà ‚ ÙˆÓ ÛÔÊÒÓ ÂˇË˜Ă™Ă’Ă“ ÚÔÙ‥ˆÓ ÂˇďŁżďŹ ÂˇďŁżĂ?Ă”â€ĄËœ ÂˇĂ“ÄąĂšĂ’ďŁżĂ”Ë˜Ëœ, ĂŒĂ”Ë˜ ¤ÊÂÚ¡Ó ÛÙÔ Ă“Ă”Ë˜ ÙËÓ ÊÚ¿ÛË Ă™Ă”Ë˜ ™ˆÎÚ¿ÙË ÛÙÔÓ ª¤ÓˆÓ¡ Ă™Ă”Ë˜ ÂśĂ?¿ÙˆÓ¡ ďŹ Ă™ÂˇĂ“ Â¤Ă“ÂˇËœ ‰Ô‥Ă?Ă”Ëœ Ă™Ă”Ë˜ ª¤ÓˆÓ¡ ďŁżĂ”Ë˜ ‰ÂÓ ›¯Â â€°Ăˆâ€°ÂˇÂŻÄąĂ‚â€ş Ă Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™Ăšâ€şÂˇ ΡٿÊÂÚ ӡ â€šĂšĂ‚Ăˆ Ă?‥ÛË Û ¤Ó¡ ďŁżĂšďŹ â€šĂ?Ă‹ĂŒÂˇ ďŁżĂ”Ë˜ Ă™Ă”Ë˜ ¤ĹÂÛÂ: ÂŤâˆ? â€žË˜ÂŻâ€š Ă™Ă”Ë˜ ďŁżĂšÂ¤ďŁżĂ‚Ăˆ Ó¡ ΡÙ›¯Â ¡Ó¤Î¡ĹÂÓ ÂˇË˜Ă™â€š ÙË à ÓÒÛ˝. ( EνĎƒÎąÎ˝ δ γξ Îą Ď„ ω ÎąτιΚ Îą δΞιΚ  Îż;).4 âˆ? ÊÚ¿ÛË ÂˇË˜Ă™â€š Ă‚ďŁżĂˆâ€šĂ‚â€šÂˇĂˆĂ’Ă“Ă‚Ăˆ ĂŽÂˇĂˆ ÙË â€°ĂˆÂˇďŁżâ€şĂ›Ă™Ë†Ă›Ă‹ Ă™Ă‹Ëœ Elisabeth Spelke 5 ďŹ Ă™Ăˆ ÂŤâˆ? ÂˇË˜ÄąďŹ ĂšĂŒĂ‹Ă™Ă‹ ĂŽÂˇĂ™ÂˇĂ“ďŹ Ă‹Ă›Ă‹ Ă Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™ĂšĂˆĂŽĂ’Ă“ Ă‚Ă“Ă“Ă”ĂˆĂ’Ă“ ĂŽÂˇĂˆ ¡Ú¯ÒÓ ÛÂ ÂˇďŁżĂ”ĂŒĂ”Ă“Ë†ĂŒÂ¤Ă“Ă‚Ëœ ĂŠË˜Ă?¤˜ ĂŽÂˇĂˆ ĂŽĂ”ĂˆĂ“ďŹ Ă™Ă‹Ă™Ă‚Ëœ ÂˇďŁżĂ”â€°Ă‚ĂˆĂŽĂ“â€ĄĂ‚Ăˆ ďŁżË†Ëœ Ă‹ Ă Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™ĂšĂˆĂŽâ€š à ÓÒÛË Ă‚â€şĂ“ÂˇĂˆ ĂŒĂˆÂˇ ďŁżÂˇĂ ĂŽďŹ Ă›ĂŒĂˆÂˇ Ă›Ë˜Ă“ĂˆĂ›Ă™Ă’Ă›Âˇ Ă™Ă”Ë˜ ÂˇĂ“ÄąĂšĂ’ďŁżĂˆĂ“Ă”Ë˜ Ă“Ă”Ë˜Âť. ÂśĂˆĂ” ¡Ă?Âż â€°ĂˆÂˇďŁżĂˆĂ›Ă™Ă’Ă“Ă‚Ă™ÂˇĂˆ Ă?Ă”ĂˆďŁżďŹ Ă“, Ă‹ Â¤ĂŒĂŠË˜Ă™Ă‹ ĂˆĂŽÂˇĂ“ďŹ Ă™Ă‹Ă™Âˇ ĂŽÂżďŁżĂ”ĂˆË†Ă“ ¡ÓĹÚÒˆÓ Ó¡ â€°Ă”ĂŒĂ”â€ĄĂ“ ĂŒĂ‚ ¤Ó¡Ó Ă‚Ă“Ă›Ă™ĂˆĂŽĂ™Ă’â€°Ă‹ Ă™ĂšďŹ ďŁżĂ” Ρ١Ă?â€ĄĂŒÂˇĂ™Âˇ ďŁżĂ”Ë˜ ÂŻÂˇĂšÂˇĂŽĂ™Ă‹Ăšâ€şË™Ă”Ă“Ă™ÂˇĂˆ ÂˇďŁżďŹ ĂŒĂˆÂˇ Î¡Ĺ¡Ú‚ Ă Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™Ăšâ€şÂˇ ÛÙË â€°Ă”ĂŒâ€š Ă™Ă”Ë˜Ëœ. ÂśĂšďŹ ĂŽĂ‚ĂˆĂ™ÂˇĂˆ Ă ĂˆÂˇ ĂŒĂˆÂˇ ÂˇĂ™Âˇâ€šĂˆĂ›Ă™ĂˆĂŽâ€š à ÓÒÛË. âˆ? Ă Ă‚Ë†ĂŒĂ‚Ă™Ăšâ€şÂˇ ÂˇË˜Ă™â€š Ă‚Ă?¡ÛÊ¡Ă?â€şË™Ă‚Ăˆ ÙËÓ ĂŽÂˇĂ™ÂˇĂ›ĂŽĂ‚Ë˜ÂˇĂ›Ă™ĂˆĂŽâ€š Ă™Ă”Ë˜Ëœ ÂˇĂšĂ™ĂˆďŹ Ă™Ă‹Ă™Âˇ Ă ĂˆÂˇ ÙËÓ ¡ÛÊ¡Ă?‚ ¤ÓÙ¡Ă?‚ Ă™Ă”Ë˜Ëœ ÛÙË Ê‥ÛË, ďŹ ďŁżË†Ëœ ÂˇË˜Ă™â€š ÙÂĂ?ĂˆĂŽÂż Ă™Ă”Ë˜Ëœ â€°Ăˆâ€°ÂżĂ›ĂŽĂ‚Ăˆ Ă™Ă”Ë˜Ëœ â€°Ă‹ĂŒĂˆĂ”Ë˜ĂšĂ Ă”â€ĄËœ. ÂŞĂˆÂˇ ĂˆĂŽÂˇĂ“ďŹ Ă™Ă‹Ă™Âˇ ďŁżĂ”Ë˜ ĂŠÂˇâ€şĂ“Ă‚Ă™ÂˇĂˆ Ó¡ ďŁżĂšĂ”Â¸ďŁżÂżĂšÂŻĂ‚Ăˆ ĂŒÂ¤Ă›Âˇ ÛÙËÓ Ă›Ë˜Ă“Ă‚â€şâ€°Ă‹Ă›Ă‹ ÙˆÓ ¡ÓĹÚÒˆÓ, ÂˇďŁżďŹ Ă™Ă”Ë˜Ëœ ďŁżĂšĂ”ËšĂ›Ă™Ă”ĂšĂˆĂŽĂ”â€ĄËœ ÂŻĂšďŹ Ă“Ă”Ë˜Ëœ.

The geometry, the layout, the instinctive use of wise standards by ordinary people, all of which characterize the huts and the sheepfolds, brought to my mind the words of Socrates in Plato's "Meno", when an uneducated slave of Meno succeeds in solving a geometry problem he was given: "His soul must have always possessed this knowledge". ( EνĎƒÎąÎ˝ δ γξ Îą Ď„ ω ÎąτιΚ Îą δΞιΚ  Îż;).4

11 âˆŤÂˇĂ?¡ĹÔĂ?Ă‚ĂŽĂ™ĂˆĂŽâ€š ʈÙÔ Î”ÂżĂŽĂ‹Ëœ ΔĂ?Ă”â€ĄďŁżÂˇËœ

12 œ¡Ô‥¡, ¥¤¡ Â°Ă”Ë˜ĂˆĂ“Â¤Âˇ, ʈÙÔ Â°ĂˆÂżĂ“Ă“Ă‹Ëœ ĂŚĂˆĂ?Ă?ÂżĂŽĂ‹Ëœ 12 Papua, N. Guinea, photo G. Psilakis

This phrase confirms Elisabeth Spelke's 5 finding that "the spontaneous understanding of geometrical concepts and principles in isolated tribes and communities shows that the geometric knowledge is a universal component of the human mind" To put it simply, one finds in some people an inborn ability to build instinctively dwellings of a pure structural geometry –an atavistic knowledge. This geometry guarantees their structural integrity and their sound integration into nature, the ultimate teacher. This skill seems to pre-exist in the minds of people since prehistoric times.

19 11 Basketry, photo Takis Tloupas


13 £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·, §¿ÚÈÛ·, ¢. £ÂÔ¯¿Ú˘, "¡ÂÔÏÈıÈÎfi˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi˜", MIET, ∞ı‹Ó· ÛÂÏ.11 13 Thessaly, Larissa, D. Theoharis, "Neolithic Civilization", MIET p.11

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14 ¡¤· ¡ÈÎÔÌ‹‰ÂÈ·, ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎÔ‡ ÔÈ΋̷ÙÔ˜ ηٿ R. J. Rodden 14 Nea Nikomedia, Neolithic hut reconstruction, by R. J. Rodden

OÈ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜

Those who searched

∞Ó·˙‹ÙËÛ· ÛÙË ‚È‚ÏÈÔı‹ÎË ÌÔ˘ ÙȘ ÂΉfiÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈÎfi˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi˜ 6 fiÔ˘ Ô ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚÈÔ˜ £ÂÔ¯¿Ú˘ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ Ù˘ °ÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ·Ú·ı¤ÙÂÈ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·Ê›· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ηχ‚·˜ ·fi ÙËÓ £ÂÛÛ·Ï›· (ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ §¿ÚÈÛ·˜), Ô˘ Èı·ÓÒ˜ ·Ó‹ÎÂÈ ÛÙÔ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ Δ¿ÎË ΔÏÔ‡· Î·È ˘ÔÛËÌÂÈÒÓÂÈ fiÙÈ «Ù· ·Ú¯·Èfiٷٷ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈο Û›ÙÈ· ‰ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‹Ù·Ó Ôχ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο» (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 13). Œ¯ÂÈ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ó· Í·Ó·ı˘ÌËıԇ̠fiÙÈ Ë ¿ÛÎËÛË Ù˘ ÁˆÚÁ›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÎÙËÓÔÙÚÔÊ›·˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÍ·ÛÊ¿ÏÈÛË Ù˘ ‚·ÛÈ΋˜ ÙÚÔÊ‹˜ Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ Ë ÌfiÓÈÌË Î·ÙÔ›ÎËÛË ÍÂÎÈÓ¿ ÛÙËÓ ∞Ú¯·ÈfiÙÂÚË ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ô˘ ÙÔÔıÂÙÂ›Ù·È ÛÙËÓ 6Ë ¯ÈÏÈÂÙ›· .Ã. ™ÙË ı¤ÛË Ù˘ ÛËÏÈ¿˜ ÛÙ‹ÓÂÙ·È ÙÒÚ· ÙÔ ¯ˆÚÈfi, ÔÈ ÁÓˆÛÙÔ› ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎÔ› ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ› Ô˘ Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ·ÚÈıÌfi ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÓÙÔÈÛÙ› Î·È ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·: ÛÙË £ÂÛÛ·Ï›· ÛÙÔ ™¤ÛÎÏÔ, ÛÙÔ ∞¯›ÏÏÂÈo ÙˆÓ º·ÚۿψÓ, ÛÙË ¡¤· ª¿ÎÚË ∞ÙÙÈ΋˜, ÛÙËÓ ¶·Ï·È¿ ∫fiÚÈÓıÔ Î·È Û ÔÏÏ¿ ¿ÏÏ· ̤ÚË. ∂˘Ú‹Ì·Ù· ·fi ÙȘ ·Ó·Ûηʤ˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ Ì·˜ ‰›ÓÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· Û·Ê‹ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙˆÓ Î·Ù·Ï˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó. ∞Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙ· ÁÓˆÛÙ¿ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù·, ı· ÛÙ·ıÒ ÛÙËÓ ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË Ù˘ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ·Ú¯·ÈfiÙÂÚÔ˘ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎÔ‡ ÔÈ΋̷ÙÔ˜ ·fi ÙȘ ·Ó·Ûηʤ˜ ÙȘ ¡¤·˜ ¡ÈÎÔÌ‹‰ÂÈ·˜ ÛÙË ª·Î‰ÔÓ›· ÙÔ˘ R. J. Rodden (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 14).7

I looked through my books for Neolithic Civilization 6 by Dimitrios Theocharis where he includes a photograph, probably by Takis Tloupas, of a contemporary hut in Thessaly and notes "the ancient Neolithic houses could not have been all that different". (Illustration 13) It is interesting to recall that the practice of agriculture and husbandry for subsistence and especially the provision of a permanent residence begin in the Early Neolithic period, around the 6th millennium BCE. Instead of caves we now have villages, the well known Neolithic settlements which have been found in large numbers in Greece: Sesklo in Thessaly, Achilleia in Farsala, Nea Makri in Attica, Old Corinth in the Peloponnese and many others. Excavation findings in these settlements give us a clear picture of the shelters comprising them. Among the better known examples I will focus on is a drawing by R. J. Rodden reconstructing the oldest Neolithic house from the excavation in Nea Nikomedeia, Macedonia. (Illustration 14)7 The similarities with modern huts are evident, especially in the


15, 16 ∞Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÛÎÂÏÂÙÔ‡ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜ ηχ‚·˜, ¡¤· ª¿ÎÚË, ∞ÙÙÈ΋, (ª. ¶·ÓÙÂÏ›‰Ô˘ - °ÎfiÊ·) 15, 16 Reconstruction of the frame work of a neolithic hut from Nea Makri, (M. Pantelidou -Gofa)

∂›Ó·È ÚÔÊ·Ó›˜ ÔÈ ÔÌÔÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ì ÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ηχ‚˜, ÂȉÈο ÛÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ ¿ÚıÚˆÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ͇ÏÈÓÔ˘ ÛÎÂÏÂÙÔ‡ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÎ¿Ï˘„˘ Ì ÎÏ·‰È¿ Î·È ¯fiÚÙ· Ô˘ ϤÎÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ͇ÏÈÓÔ˘˜ ·ÛÛ¿ÏÔ˘˜. ΔÔ Í‡ÏÔ Ô ËÏfi˜ Î·È Ë ¤ÙÚ· ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó Ù· ÙÚ›· ‚·ÛÈο ‰ÔÌÈο ˘ÏÈο Ô˘ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔÓ Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ· ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌfi, Î·È ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÙÔ ‰ÔÌÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÙˆÓ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ ÎÙÈÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ fiˆ˜ ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ Û ۯÂÙÈÎfi ¿ÚıÚÔ Ù˘ Ë ∫Ï·›ÚË ¶·Ï˘‚Ô‡.8 ™Â ÔÏϤ˜ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‚ÚÂı› ηٿÏÔÈ· ·ÛÛ·ÏfiËÎÙˆÓ Î·Ù·Û΢ÒÓ Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó Ï›ÁÔ Ò˜ Ôχ ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ Î·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈÎfi ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ, Ì ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÙËÓ ¿ÚÈÛÙ· ‰È·ÙËÚË̤ÓË ÛÙ¤ÁË ·ÛÛ·ÏfiËÎÙ˘ ηχ‚·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ¶Úfi‰ÚÔÌÔ˜ ∫·Ú‰›ÙÛ·˜, Ô˘ ‚Ú¤ıËΠ¤ÙÛÈ fiˆ˜ η٤ÂÛ ÛÙÔ ¤‰·ÊÔ˜. ∞ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙÔ Û¯¤‰ÈÔ (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ.15, 16) ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÛÎÂÏÂÙÔ‡ ηχ‚·˜ ·fi ÙË ¡¤· ª¿ÎÚË ∞ÙÙÈ΋˜ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›˙ÂÈ Î·Ù·ÎfiÚ˘ÊÔ˘˜ ÛÙ‡ÏÔ˘˜ ·Îو̤ÓÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ ¤‰·ÊÔ˜ Ó· ηٷϋÁÔ˘Ó Û «‰›¯·ÏÔ» Ô˘ ·Ú·Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÔÚÈ˙fiÓÙÈ· ‰ÔÎfi, ÙÔ ÊÔÚ¤· Ù˘ ÛÙ¤Á˘.9 ¶¤Ú· ·fi Ù· ·Ó·Ú›ıÌËÙ· Û¯¤‰È· ÙˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ Î·Ù·Ï˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ, Ô˘ ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο ¤Ó· ÌfiÓÔ ÌÈÎÚfi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰Â›ÁÌ· ·Ú·ı¤Ùˆ ‰Ò, ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Î·È ÔÈ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁˆÓ ÁÈ· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ. ™Ù·

articulation of the timber frame and its twigs and thatch cover weaved into the timber posts. Timber, clay and stone are the three basic building materials making up the bearing structure, and the structural system in general, of prehistoric buildings according to Claire Palyvou.8 Remains of pile structures following more or less the same structural model have been found in many Neolithic sites throughout Greece, like the perfectly preserved roof of a pile hut in Prodromos, Karditsa, found exactly as it fell on the ground. Or like the reconstruction drawing of a hut frame from Nea Makri, Attica, showing vertical posts embedded in the ground which bifurcate at the top to receive the horizontal beam bearing the roof.9 (Illustrations 15,16) Apart from the numerous reconstruction drawings of prehistoric dwellings, only sampled here, of special interest are archaeologists' efforts for experimental full-scale reconstructions. The construction phases of a Neolithic hut in Thrace, part of project Melina,10 were photographically documented. (Illustrations 17,18)

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17, 18 ¶ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÎÙÈ̷ۛÙÔ˜ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎÔ‡ ÛÈÙÈÔ‡ ÛÙË £Ú¿ÎË, ¶ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· “ªÂϛӷ” π£ ∂¶∫∞ 17, 18 Experimental reconstruction of a neolithic hut in Thrace, “Melina project” 19th EPCA

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Ï·›ÛÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜ ªÂϛӷ 10 Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËÎÂ Ë Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜ ηχ‚·˜ ÛÙË £Ú¿ÎË Ô˘ ηٷÁÚ¿ÊËΠʈÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈο ηٿ Ê¿ÛÂȘ. (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 17, 18) ΔËÓ Î·Ù·ÁÚ·Ê‹ ·˘Ù‹ Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›˙ˆ Ì ¤Ó· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ Ì·ÓÙÚ› Ô˘ ʈÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÈÛ· ÙÔÓ ∞‡ÁÔ˘ÛÙÔ ÙÔ˘ 2005 ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ¶·¿‰Â˜ - ∫Ú‡· μÚ‡ÛË ÛÙË μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·. «ªÔÚԇ̠ӷ Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙԇ̠ÙÔÓ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfi ÎÙ›ÛÙË», ÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Ë ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˜ ª·Ú›· °ÎÈÚÙÛ‹ «Ó· ÍÂÎÈÓ¿ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÔ›¯Ô˘˜ Ù˘ ÙÂÙÚ¿Ï¢Ú˘ ηχ‚·˜ ÙÔ˘. ¶ÚÒÙ· Ì‹ÁÂÈ ·ÛÛ¿ÏÔ˘˜ Û ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¤˜ ·ÔÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Î·È Î·Ï‡ÙÂÈ Ù· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÂÓ¿ Ì ÏÂÁ̤ӷ ÎÏ·‰È¿. ŒÂÈÙ· ÂÂÓ‰‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ Ì ËÏfi… Œ¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÔÏÔÎÏËÚÒÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÙÔȯԉÔÌ›· ·Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ù·È Ì ÙËÓ ÛÙ¤ÁË, Ë ÔÔ›· ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Û ¤Ó· ‹ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ˘˜ ¯ÔÓÙÚÔ‡˜ ·ÛÛ¿ÏÔ˘˜, Â›Ó·È ÂÈÎÏÈÓ‹˜ Î·È Î·Ù·Û΢¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì ‰ÔοÚÈ· Î·È ÏÂÁ̤ӷ ÎÏ·‰È¿, ÂÂӉ‰˘Ì¤Ó· Ì ËÏfi… ΔÔ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎfi Û›ÙÈ ¤¯ÂÈ Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ¤Ó· ÌfiÓÔ ¿ÓÔÈÁÌ· Ô˘ ηχÙÂÙ·È ·fi fiÚÙ· ÊÙÈ·Á̤ÓË ·fi ͇ÏÔ ‹ ÏÂÁ̤ӷ ÎÏ·‰È¿…Ô˘ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› ˆ˜ Ô‰fi˜ ʈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÂÍ·ÂÚÈÛÌÔ‡…».11 OÏÔÎÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·˜ ·˘Ù‹ ÙË Û˘ÓÔÙÈ΋ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Ì ÙȘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜, ‰ÂÓ ı· ·Ú·Ï›„ˆ Ó· ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÒ ÛÙÔÓ ¶ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfi §ÈÌÓ·›Ô OÈÎÈÛÌfi ÛÙÔ ¢ÈÛËÏÈfi ∫·ÛÙÔÚÈ¿˜ Ô˘ Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ‰ÈÂÚ¢ӋıËΠ·fi ÙÔÓ Î·ıËÁËÙ‹ Ù˘ ¶ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ °ÈÒÚÁÔ ÃÔ˘ÚÌÔ˘˙È¿‰Ë Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ÂÎÙÈÌ¿Ù·È fiÙÈ ·Ó‹ÎÂÈ ÛÙË Ì¤ÛË ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÂÔ¯‹ Î·È Î·ÙÔÈ΋ıËΠ·fi ÙÔ 5500 ¤ˆ˜ ÙÔ 3500 .Ã. ™‹ÌÂÚ· ÛÙÔ ¢ÈÛËÏÈfi ÌÔÚ›˜ Ó· ‰ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡, ÌÂÙ¿ ÙË ÌÂϤÙË Ô˘ ¤ÁÈÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ· ¡¿ÛÈ· ÃÔ˘ÚÌÔ˘˙È¿‰Ë Ì ‚¿ÛË Ù· ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈο

I juxtapose this documentation with a contemporary sheepfold I photographed in Papades-Krya Vrysi, North Euboea, in August 2005. "We can picture the prehistoric builder", writes archaeologist Maria Gkirtsi, "starting from the walls of his quadrilateral hut. First he drives posts in the ground at fixed distances and weaves branches inbetween. Then he covers the structure with clay... Having completed the walls he turns to the roof, which rests on one or more thick posts, is inclined, and is put together with beams and woven branches covered with clay... The neolithic house usually has a single opening, covered by a door made of timber of woven branches, which provides lighting and ventilation...".11 Concluding this brief review of the prehistoric connections I should not fail to mention the lakeside settlement in Dispilio, Kastoria: it was systematically studied by George Chourmouziadis, Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology, and believed to belong in the middle Neolithic Age, inhabited from 5500 to 3500 BCE. One can see today in Dispilio a full scale reconstruction of the settlement, designed by the architect Nassia Chourmouziadi according to archaeological data, which confirms the direct relationship with contemporary huts. (Illustrations 20, 21)


19 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¶·¿‰Â˜, ∫Ú‡· μÚ‡ÛË, ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi Ì·ÓÙÚÈÔ‡, 03-05-2005 19 North Euboea, Papades, Kria Vrisi, sheepfold interior, 03-05-2005

‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Î·È Ó· ‰È·ÈÛÙÒÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ¿ÌÂÛË Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ηχ‚˜. (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 20, 21) ™ÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÔÈ ÛΤ„ÂȘ ÌÔ˘ ÌÂٷʤÚÔÓÙ·È ÛÙ· ÓÂÒÙÂÚ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· fiÔ˘ ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÓÂÒÙÂÚˆÓ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ Ì·˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·Ó·‰Â›ÍÂÈ, Ô Î·ı¤Ó·˜ ·fi ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ ÙÔ˘, Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ Û˘Ó¯È˙fiÌÂÓ˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Î·Ù·Ï˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ. ∫·Ï‡‚˜ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ Î·È Î·Ù·ÁÚ·Ê‹˜ ÛÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÏÏ‹ÓˆÓ ÌÂÏÂÙËÙÒÓ.

My thoughts travel next to more recent years when a series of younger researchers highlight, each from his own vantage point, aspects of the ongoing shelter-building. Huts and sheepfolds become objects of research and documentation in the work of significant Greek scholars.

20, 21 ∞Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË Î·Ï‡‚·˜ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡ ÏÈÌÓ·›Ô˘ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÔ ¢ÈÛËÏÈfi ∫·ÛÙÔÚÈ¿˜, ʈÙÔ ∂. ƒÈ˙fiÔ˘ÏÔ˘ 20, 21 Reconstruction of a prehistoric lakeside settlement, Dispilio, Kastoria, photo E. Rizopoulos

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24.

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22, 23, 24, 25 £ÂÛÛ·ÏÈΤ˜ ηχ‚˜ Î·È Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ ÛΛÙÛ· ·ÔÙ˘ÒÛˆÓ, 1941, ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ °ÂÒÚÁÈÔ ∞. ª¤Á· Î·È ¶¤ÙÚÔ˜ μ·Ï·‚·Ó›‰Ë˜ 22, 23, 24, 25 Sketches of huts and sheepfolds, Thessaly 1941, by Georgios A. Megas and Petros Valavalidis


24. O °ÂÒÚÁÈÔ˜ ∞. ª¤Á·˜12 ·fi ÙÔÓ ª¿ÈÔ ÙÔ˘ 1940 ÚÔ¯ˆÚ› Û ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ ÁÈ· ÙË «§·˚Î‹Ó OÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ›·Ó» Î·È Î·Ù·ÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ηχ‚˜ Î·È Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ΔÔ 1946, Û ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ Ô˘ Ë ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ‚Á·›ÓÂÈ ·fi ¤Ó· fiÏÂÌÔ Î·È Â›Ó·È Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ÌÂÙ¤ˆÚË, Ô °. ª¤Á·˜ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÂÈ, Ì ÙËÓ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÀÊ˘Ô˘ÚÁÔ‡ ∞ÓÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹Ûˆ˜ ∫. ∞. ¢ÔÍÈ¿‰Ë, ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÂÚ¢ÓÒÓ. OÈ ÂΉfiÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ Â›Ó·È ÏÔ‡ÛȘ Û ÂÈÎÔÓÔÁÚ·Ê‹ÛÂȘ Î·È Î·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈο Û¯¤‰È· Ô˘ Û˘ÓÔ‰Â‡Ô˘Ó Ù· ΛÌÂÓ·. ¢Â›ÁÌ·Ù· ·fi ·˘Ù¿ ·Ú·ı¤Ùˆ ÛÙËÓ ÂfiÌÂÓË ÛÂÏ›‰·. Δ· ˘ÏÈο ηٷÛ΢‹˜ Î·È ÔÈ ¯ÒÚÔÈ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·È Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ÙÔÈ΋ ÔÚÔÏÔÁ›·. (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 22, 25) ∏ Ï·ÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˜ ∞ÁÁÂÏÈ΋ ÷Ù˙ËÌȯ¿ÏË Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔÓ ™‡ÚÔ ¶··ÏÔ˘Î¿, ÙÔÓ ºÒÙË ∫fiÓÙÔÁÏÔ˘ Î·È ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ‰È·ÓÔÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˘˜ ÁÂÓÈ¿˜ ÙÔ˘ ’30, ÍÂΛÓËÛ·Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË Ù˘ ·˘ıÂÓÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜ Ù¤¯Ó˘ ÛÙ· ÌÂÙ·‚˘˙·ÓÙÈÓ¿ ¯ÚfiÓÈ·, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÛÙËÓ ΔÔ˘ÚÎÔÎÚ·Ù›·. ∏ ÷Ù˙ËÌȯ¿ÏË ·Û¯ÔÏ‹ıËΠԢÛÈ·ÛÙÈο Ì ÙË ÓÔÌ·‰È΋ ˙ˆ‹ ÙˆÓ ™·Ú·Î·ÙÛ¿ÓˆÓ. ª·˜ ·Ú¤‰ˆÛ ÙÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ¤ÚÁÔ «OÈ ™·Ú·Î·ÙÛ¿ÓÔÈ» ÙÔ 1957, fiÔ˘ ÙÂÎÌËÚÈÒÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfiÙËÙ· ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ «ÌÂÈÔÓfiÙËÙ·˜» Î·È ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ ÙȘ ηχ‚˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Î·Ù·Û΢‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÂӉȷʤÚÔ˘Û˜ ÂÈÎÔÓÔÁÚ·Ê‹ÛÂȘ. (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 26)

26 ∏ ÙÔÌ‹ Ù˘ ™·Ú·Î·ÙÛ¿ÓÈ΢ ηχ‚·˜, ∞ÁÁÂÏÈ΋ ÷Ù˙ËÌȯ¿ÏË 1957 26 Section of a Sarakatsans hut, Angeliki Hatzimichali, 1957

From May 1940 onwards George A. Megas12 undertakes a series of studies on "Folk Construction" and systematically records huts and sheepfolds covering much of the Greek countryside. In 1946, at a time when Greece comes wavering out of a civil war, G. A. Megas, supported by the Secretary for Reconstruction K. A. Doxiadis, publishes a series of books rich in illustrations and construction drawings. Some of these illustrations are reproduced on the next page, where the materials and spaces are described in the local terminology. (Illustration 22, 25) The folklorist Angeliki Chatzimichali –along with Spyros Papaloukas, Fotis Kontoglou and other intellectuals of the 1930s– explored the authenticity of Greek Art in the postByzantine, that is Ottoman, period. She studied deeply the nomadic life of the Sarakatsani shepherds delivering in 1957 a seminal work, "Sarakatsani", which establishes the Greek lineage of this "minority" and brings out the construction of their huts with interesting illustrations. (Illustration 26) 25


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O ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤Ï˘ ∑¿¯Ô˜ Û˘Ó‰¤ıËΠ̠ÙËÓ ∞ÁÁÂÏÈ΋ ÷Ù˙ËÌȯ¿ÏË Î·È ÂÓÙ¿¯ıËÎÂ Î·È ·˘Ùfi˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÚˆÙÔfiÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ’30, Ô˘ ·ÔÎ¿Ï˘„·Ó ÛÙ· ·ÓÒÙÂÚ· ÛÙÚÒÌ·Ù·, ÙËÓ ·Í›· Ù˘ ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì˘ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛ˘ Î·È ›ÛÙ„·Ó ÛÙËÓ ·Ó¿ÁÎË «ÂÈÌÈÍ›·˜» ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÔ‡ Ì ÙÔ ·ÛÙÈÎfi.13 ™ÙÔ ÔχÙÈÌÔ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯Â›Ô Ô˘ ·ÍÈÔÔ›ËÛ ÙÔ ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô ªÂÓ¿ÎË Ì ÙËÓ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¤Î‰ÔÛË ◊ÂÈÚÔ˜-£ÂÛÛ·Ï›·-ª·Î‰ÔÓ›·. ª¤Û· ·fi ÙÔÓ Ê·Îfi ÙÔ˘ ∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤ÏË ∑¿¯Ô˘, ·Ó·Î·Ï‡ÙÂÈ, ηÓ›˜ ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· Ì ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÁÚ·Ê‹ ‰ÂÈÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋˜ Ì·˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜, Û¿ÓȘ ʈÙÔÁڷʛ˜ ·fi ™·Ú·Î·ÙÛ¿ÓÈΘ ηχ‚˜ Û ¤Ó· ηٷ˘ÏÈÛÌfi Û ¯ÂÈÌ·‰Èfi ÎÔÓÙ¿ ÛÙËÓ ∞Ù·Ï¿ÓÙË Ù˘ ºıÈÒÙȉ·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ 1915 Î·È 1931. (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 27) ∂›Ó·È ÁÓˆÛÙ‹ Ë ÚÔۋψÛË ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ¶ÈÎÈÒÓË ÛÙ· ı¤Ì·Ù· Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ Ù¤¯Ó˘ Î·È ÛÙÔ Ó‡̷ Ù˘ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛ˘ ̤۷ ·fi Ù· ¤ÚÁ· Î·È Ù· ΛÌÂÓ¿ ÙÔ˘. ª·˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ê‹ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ÔχÙÈÌË ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿ Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ó· ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÙ› ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÛΤ„Ë. ¢ÂÓ ı· ÂÂÎÙ·ıÒ Î·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· Û ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜. £· ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÙÒ ÌfiÓÔ Û ¤Ó· ÌÈÎÚfi ·fiÛ·ÛÌ· ·fi ÙÔ «∞ÙÂϤ˜ ÃÚÔÓÔÏfiÁÈÔ» ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË º·ÙÔ‡ÚÔ˘14 Ô˘ ıˆÚÒ fiÙÈ ·ÔηχÙÂÈ ÌÈ· Û¿ÓÈ· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ÙÔ˘ ¶ÈÎÈÒÓË Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ Ì ÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ì·˜: «O º·ÙÔ‡ÚÔ˜ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ¢Èψ̷ÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔÓ ¶ÈÎÈÒÓË ·›ÚÓÂÈ ÙÔ ‰›ψ̿ ÙÔ˘ Î·È ÙÔ Î·ÏÔη›ÚÈ ÙÔ˘ 1952 ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¢ÂÏÊÔ‡˜, Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÌÊÔÈÙËÙ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ¡Ù›ÓÔ ªÈ¯·ËÏ›‰Ë Î·È ªÈ¯¿ÏË ¶··‰fiÔ˘ÏÔ, fiÔ˘ ‰Ô˘ÏÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÁÈ· ÔÎÙÒ-‰¤Î· ̤Ú˜ ‰›Ï· ÛÙÔÓ ¢. ¶πÎÈÒÓË ÁÈ· Ù· ¯ÚÒÌ·Ù· ÛÙÔ ÍÂÓÔ‰Ô¯Â›Ô ÙÔ˘ ∂OΔ. ∞ÚÁ¿ Ù· ‚Ú¿‰È· οÓÔ˘Ó Ì ÙÔÓ ¶ÈÎÈÒÓË ÂÚÈ¿ÙÔ˘˜, ¤Íˆ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ¢ÂÏÊÔ‡˜, ÛÙÔÓ ‰ÚfiÌÔ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ πÙ¤·, ÛȈÔ‡Ó ·ÎÔ‡ÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ‹¯Ô˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÁÚÔÙÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘. Δ· ·˘ÙÔΛÓËÙ· Â›Ó·È ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ·. O ¶ÈÎÈÒÓ˘ Ì ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ˜ ϤÍÂȘ ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ÙÔ «Û‡Ì·Ó» Ù˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. ΔÔ˘˜ ÌÈÏ¿ÂÈ ÁÈ· Ù· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿, Ì ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÙÔ ÂÎÙÂٷ̤ÓÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ Ï›ÁÔ ÚÈÓ ÙËÓ ∞Ú¿¯ˆ‚· ÛÙÔ ‰ÚfiÌÔ ÚÔ˜ b ÙÔ˘˜ ¢ÂÏÊÔ‡˜ (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 28) . ∞fi ÙfiÙ ÁÈ· ÔÏÏ¿ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÙÔ Í·Ó·‚ϤÂÈ, fiÙ·Ó Ù·Íȉ‡ÂÈ ÁÈ· ¢ÂÏÊÔ‡˜. À¿Ú¯ÂÈ ¿Ú·Á ·ÔÙ‡ˆÛË; °È· ÔÏϤ˜ ‰ÂηÂٛ˜ Ù· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔ˘Ó Û ÔÏÏÔ‡˜ ÙfiÔ˘˜, fiˆ˜ ÛÙË §‹ÌÓÔ, ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù· ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ Î·ÙÔÈÎÈÒÓ. ªÂÙ¿ ·Ú¯›˙Ô˘Ó Î·È ·ÏÏ¿˙Ô˘Ó, ÂÚÂÈÒÓÔÓÙ·È ‹ ¯¿ÓÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÚˆÙÔÁÂÓ‹ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜, ÌÂÚÈΤ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ Û˘Ó·ÓÙ¿˜ ÌÈ· ÂӉȷʤÚÔ˘Û· χÛË Ì ¿ÏÏ· ˘ÏÈο, fiˆ˜ Ì Ϸ̷ڛÓ˜».

The architect Aristotle Zachos worked with Angeliki Chatzimichali and joined the pioneers of the 1930’s who exposed the upper classes to the value of folk tradition and believed in the need of an "intermarriage" between folk and urban.13 In his valuable photographic archive, utilized by the Benaki Museum in its latest edition Epirus-Thessaly-Macedonia. Through the lens of Aristotle Zachos, one discovers, along with instances of our traditional architecture, rare photographs of Sarakatsani huts in a winter pasture settlement near Atalanti in Fthiotis, between 1915 and 1931. (Illustration 27) The commitment of Dimitris Pikionis on matters of folk art and the geist of tradition in his works and writings are both well known. He handed down to us a valuable legacy which continues to nourish architectural thought. I will, therefore, go into no more details here. Barring a small excerpt from "Unfinished Timeline" by Dimitris Fatouros 14 which I think reveals a rare moment of Pikionis pertinent to our subject. "Fatouros, after his diploma thesis under Pikionis, is awarded his degree and in the summer of 1952 visits Delphi, along with his fellow students Dinos Michaelides and Michael Papadopoulos, where they work for some ten days under Pikionis for the colouring of the hotel of the National Tourist Organisation of Greece. Late at night they go on walks with Pikionis outside Delphi, on the road to Itea, silently listening to the sounds of the countryside. Cars are scarce. Pikionis in few words describes the "universe" of Architecture. He tells them about the sheepfolds, having as example an extensive complex just before Arachova on the road to Delphi. He revisits it many years later when travelling to Delphi. Is there anywhere a survey drawing? For decades the sheepfolds remain in many places, as in Lemnos, examples of prehistoric dwellings. Later they start to change, they lay waste or lose their primary identity, but occasionally you come across an interesting solution using other materials, such as corrugated sheet metal".


27 ºıÈÒÙȉ· 1929, ™·Ú·Î·ÙÛ¿ÓÔÈ Ù˘ ∞Ù·Ï¿ÓÙ˘, ʈÙÔ ∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤Ï˘ ∑¿¯Ô˜ 27 Fthiotida, Sarakatsans of Atalandi, photo Aristoteles Zachos 28 ¶·Ï·Èfi ÂÎÙÂٷ̤ÓÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ·fi Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿, Ï›ÁÔ ÚÈÓ ÙËÓ ∞Ú¿¯ˆ‚· ÛÙËÓ ‰ÂÍÈ¿ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙÔ˘ ‰ÚfiÌÔ˘, 18-06-2006 28 Old sheepfolds on the right side of the road, just before Arahova, 18-06-2006

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29 ∞ÁÚ›ÓÈÔ, ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›· ∞ÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙÈÓ›‰Ë ·fi Ù· "£Âfi¯ÙÈÛÙ·" 29 Agrinio, photo Aris Konstantinidis, "Theoktista" 31 §‹ÌÓÔ˜ "ª¿ÓÙÚ·" ÛÙËÓ ∞Ú¯‹ ∑ÂÌ·Ù¿, ʈÙÔ ¡›ÎÔ˜ ™ËÊÔ˘Ó¿Î˘ 31 Limnos "Mandra" on Archi Zemata beach, photo Nikos Sifounakis

30 ∫‡ÚÔ˜ ÚÔ˜ ∞Û›ÓÔ˘, ʈÙÔ ÕÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙÈÓ›‰Ë ·fi Ù· "£Âfi¯ÙÈÛÙ·" 30 Cyprus to Asinou, photo Aris Konstantinidis, "Theoktista" 32 £ÂÛÛ·Ï›· ™¤ÛÎÏÔ, Ë ·ÎÚfiÔÏË Ù˘ ª¤Û˘ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜, ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË, ª. ∫ÔÚÚ¤ (·fiÛ·ÛÌ·) 32 Thessaly Middle Neolithic Sesklo Acropolis, reconstruction drawing by M. Korres


O ÕÚ˘ ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙÈÓ›‰Ë˜ ‹Ù·Ó ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ ‰›Ï· ÌÔ˘ Û ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ, Ì ÛÙ‹ÚÈÍ ı¿ÏÂÁ· Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔÓ ∫ÒÛÙ· ΔÛfiÎÏË, Î·È ÙÔÓ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ¿ÓÙÈÔ ÛÙÔ Ó· ÂÁηٷÏ›ˆ ÙȘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈΤ˜ Â·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÌÔ˘ ˘Ô¯ÚÂÒÛÂȘ Î·È Ù· «ÂÈÊ·Ó‹ ¤ÚÁ· Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ Î·È ˘ÂÚÊ›·Ï˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ Ì·˜» Î·È Ó· ÛηÚÊ·ÏÒÓˆ, ÛÂ Û˘¯Ó¿ ·ÚfiÛÈÙ˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ Î·È Ó· ·Ó·˙ËÙÒ Î·Ï‡‚˜ Î·È Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿, ÙÔ ÚˆÙfiÁÔÓÔ Î·È ÙÔ ·ÓÒÓ˘ÌÔ, Ô˘ ÙÂÏÈο Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÚÔηÏ› Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ·ÔÛÙÚÔÊ‹ Î·È ·‰È·ÊÔÚ›·. ∞˘Ù¿ Ù· «‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ·Ú·ÎÌ‹˜ Î·È ·Ó¤¯ÂÈ·˜»,15 (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 29, 30) Ô ÕÚ˘ ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙÈÓ›‰Ë˜ Ù· ¤¯ÂÈ ‚·ÊÙ›ÛÂÈ £Âfi¯ÙÈÛÙ· ÔÏÏ¿ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÚÈÓ. À‹ÚÍ ›Ûˆ˜ Ô ÚÒÙÔ˜ ŒÏÏËÓ·˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ·˜ Ô˘ η٤ÁÚ·„Â Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ¿, ·Ó¤‰ÂÈÍÂ Î·È ·ÍÈÔÔ›ËÛ ̤۷ ·fi Ù· ¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘ ÙËÓ ÂÌÙÔ˘Û›· ÙˆÓ Ù·ÂÈÓÒÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ Î·Ù·Û΢ÒÓ. °È· ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ·˘ÙÔÛ¯¤‰È˜ Î·È ·fi ·Ó¿ÁÎË ÊÙÈ·Á̤Ó˜ ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜, ¤ÁÚ·„ Î›ÌÂÓ·, ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ ÂÎı¤ÛÂȘ, ηχÙÔÓÙ·˜ ‚¤‚·È· ¤Ó· ¢ڇÙÂÚÔ Ê¿ÛÌ· ÎÙÈÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È Ì›ÏËÛ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÏËıÈÓ‹ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ˆ˜ ÌÈ· ηٷÛ΢‹ Ô˘ ‰›ÓÂÈ ÌÔÚÊ‹ Û ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ ˙ˆ‹˜. ∞Ó·ÌÊ›‚ÔÏ· Ë Ô˘Û›· ÙˆÓ ıÂfi¯ÙÈÛÙˆÓ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎfi ÙÔ˘ ¤ÚÁÔ.16 ΔËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 1990 Ô ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ¡›ÎÔ˜ ™ËÊÔ˘Ó¿Î˘ 17 ‰ÈÂÚ¢ÓÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ∞ÈÁ·›Ô Î·È ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿ ÙÔ˘, ηٷÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Î·È ·ÔÙ˘ÒÓÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÁÂÈÙÔÓÈ΋ §‹ÌÓÔ Ù· ·ÁÚÔÙÔ-ÎÙËÓÔÙÚÔÊÈο Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹Ì·Ù·, Ù˘ ÔÓÔÌ·˙fiÌÂÓ˜ ¤ÙÚÈÓ˜ «Ì¿ÓÙÚ˜». ΔÔ ˘ÏÈÎfi ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ 1993 Û˘Ì˘ÎÓÒÓÂÙ·È Û ÌÈ· ¤Î‰ÔÛË Ì ٛÙÏÔ «OÈ ª¿ÓÙÚ˜ ÛÙË §‹ÌÓÔ». ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÌÈ· «·ÁÓÔË̤ÓË ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋» ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ, «Ô˘ ÂÚÈÎÏ›ÂÈ Ù· ·ÔÙ˘ÒÌ·Ù· ÂÓfi˜ ·Ú¯¤ÁÔÓÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ·fi Ù¯ӛÙ˜ Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÌÈ· ¤ÌÊ˘ÙË ·›ÛıËÛË Ù˘ ·ÚÌÔÓ›·˜ ÙˆÓ Û¯ËÌ¿ÙˆÓ». ÿÛˆ˜ Ë «¤ÌÊ˘ÙË» ·˘Ù‹ ·›ÛıËÛË Ó· Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Î·È Ì ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË ÛÙÔ ‰˘ÙÈÎfi ÙÌ‹Ì· ÙÔ˘ ÓËÛÈÔ‡, ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ƒË¯¿ ¡ÂÚ¿, ÙÔ˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Ù˘ ª˘Ú›Ó·˜. ∏ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ·fi ÙËÓ ÛÙÂÚ¤ˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÏÂÈ„¿ÓˆÓ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ Î·ÙÔÈÎÈÒÓ Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÂΛ, Ì ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›· Ù˘ ∫´ ∂ÊÔÚ›·˜ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔًوÓ, Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È ¿ÌÂÛ· Ì ÙȘ ¤ÙÚÈÓ˜ Ì¿ÓÙÚ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÓËÛÈÔ‡. ¢ÂÓ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û· Ó· ·ÔʇÁˆ Î·È ÙÔ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi Ì ÙËÓ Û¯Â‰È·ÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ª·ÓfiÏË ∫ÔÚÚ¤ Ù˘ ∞ÎÚfiÔÏ˘ Ù˘ ª¤Û˘ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜ ÛÙÔ ™¤ÛÎÏÔ Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙË £ÂÛÛ·Ï›· 18 ·ÏÏ¿ Û˘Ì˘ÎÓÒÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÓÈ·›· Ù¯ÓÈ΋ ÌÈ·˜ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋˜ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘. OÈ Ì¿ÓÙÚ˜ Ù˘ §‹ÌÓÔ˘ Ô˘ η٤ÁÚ·„Â Ô ™ËÊÔ˘Ó¿Î˘ ÚÔÛÔÌÔÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÔÏÔÊ¿ÓÂÚ· Ì ÙȘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ηχ‚˜ ÛÙÔ ™¤ÛÎÏÔ (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 31, 32).

Aris Constantinidis was constantly beside me in these wanderings; supported me I might say, along with Costas Tsoclis and Demetrios Konstantios, in laying aside my professional obligations and the "prominent works of our modern and conceited time" and climbing on often inaccessible areas in search of huts and sheepfolds, of the primitive and the anonymous, which generally cause aversion and indifference today. Aris Konstantinidis had christened "theochtista" (god-built) these "samples of decline and deprivation" 15 many years ago (Illustration 29, 30). He was perhaps the first Greek architect who deliberately documented, highlighted and utilized in his work the quintessence of these humble structures. For these makeshift and necessity-driven nameless structures, he wrote texts, put together exhibitions –covering of course a wider range of buildings– and talked about true architecture as an artefact giving form to life functions. His architectural oeuvre undoubtedly embodies the essence of the "theochtista" 16 In the 1990s the architect Nikos Sifounakis 17 explored the architectural heritage of the Aegean recording and documenting the agricultural and stock-raising complexes of stone on the island of Lemnos called "mandres" (stockyards). He condensed this material in 1993 in the book "Mandres on Lemnos", where he notes that this is a "disregarded architecture containing traces of a primordial folk culture of craftsmen who had an innate sense for the harmony of shapes". Perhaps this "innate" sense is related with the presence in Richa Nera, on the western side of the island, of the prehistoric settlement of Myrina. The image from the restoration of the building remains of prehistoric dwellings, carried out at the initiative of 20th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, is directly related to the stone "mandres" of the isle. I could not finally avoid the connection with the reconstruction drawing, by Manolis Korres, of the Middle Neolithic Sesklo Acropolis which, while located in Thessaly,18 epitomizes the unified technique of an important period. The "mandres" of Lemnos recorded by Sifounakis, plainly resemble the prehistoric huts of Sesklo. (Illustrations 31, 32)

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33 ∞ÁÈfiηÌÔ˜ 1975, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜

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33 Agiokambos 1975, photo Takis Tloupas

OÈ ÓÂÒÙÂÚÔÈ ŒÏÏËÓ˜ ʈÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔÈ

Recent Greek Photographers

∂ÎÙfi˜ fï˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Ï·ÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘˜, Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ ÓÂÒÙÂÚÔÈ ŒÏÏËÓ˜ ʈÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔÈ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ¢·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó Î·È Î·Ù¤ÁÚ·„·Ó ʈÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈο ηχ‚˜, Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ù· ÌÔÓ·‰Èο ÊÚ·ÁÎÈ¿Ù·.19 ÕÓıÚˆÔÈ Ô˘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ıËÎ·Ó ÛÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ‡·ÈıÚÔ Î·È Â˘·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ·fi Ù· ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù·. O Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜, Ô ÚÔÈÎÈṲ̂ÓÔ˜ £ÂÛÛ·Ïfi˜ ʈÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˜, «ÂÚ·ÛÙ‹˜ Ù˘ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÛÙË ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋ Ù˘ Ô˘Û›·», ˘‹ÚÍÂ Û˘-

Apart from the archaeologists, the folklorists and the architects, Greek photographers also seem to have become aware of the huts, the sheepfolds, and the unique "frangkiata",19 all of which they recorded on film. These people roamed the Greek countryside and were influenced by such buildings. Takis Tloupas, the gifted Thessalian photographer, "lover of truth in its philosophical essence" was a colleague of Theo-


34 ¶ÚÔÛ‹ÏÈ· 1989,§ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜

34 Prosilia 1989, Detail photo Takis Tloupas

ÓÂÚÁ¿Ù˘ ÙÔ˘ £ÂÔ¯¿ÚË ¢ËÌËÙÚ›Ô˘ Î·È Ï¿ÙÚ˘ Ù˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜.20 O ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ §¤ÙÛÈÔ˜ ‹Ù·Ó ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙÔ˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÈÛıËÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË. ∂›¯Â ÌÈ· ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈ΋ Û¯¤ÛË Ì fi,ÙÈ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÈ˙Â. ∏ ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›· ‹Ù·Ó ÁÈ’ ·˘ÙfiÓ Û·Ó ·ÓÙ›‚·ÚÔ ÛÙË ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÙÔÔÈÔ‡, ·fi ÙË ÔÔ›· Î·È ˙Ô‡ÛÂ. ªÂ ¤‰Ú· ÙÔÓ μfiÏÔ, ›¯Â ·ÎÙ›Ó· ‰Ú¿Û˘ ÙÔ ıÂÛÛ·ÏÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ Î·È ÙËÓ Â˘Ú‡ÙÂÚË ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙÂÈ· Î·È ¯ÚÔÓÈÎfi ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ· Ô˘ ˘ÂÚ‚·›-

charis Dimitriou and an enthusiast of prehistoric archaeology.20 Dimitris Letsios was spontaneous in his choice of subject matter and its aesthetic treatment. He had an experiential relationship with everything he photographed. Photography was for him a counterbalance to the baker's work he earned his living with. Based in Volos, his range covered Thessaly and much of the rest of Greece and his activity spanned more than half a

31


35 ºˆÙÔ ºÒÙ˘ ∫·˙¿˙˘ 35 Photo Fotis Kazazis

32


36 ª¤ÙÛÔ‚Ô, 1960, ʈÙÔ ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ª·Ï¿Ê·˜ 36 Metsovo, 1960, photo Costas Balafas

37 ∫·Ï‡‚˜ „·Ú¿‰ˆÓ ÛÙË Ï›ÌÓË ∫¿ÚÏ·, ª·ÁÓËÛ›· 1953, ʈÙfi Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 37 Fishermen’s huts. Lake Karla, Magnisia 1953, photo Takis Tloupas

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34

ÓÂÈ ÙÔ ÌÈÛfi ·ÈÒÓ·. À‹ÚÍ ·ÎÔ‡Ú·ÛÙÔ˜ ÂÚÈËÁËÙ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ÙfiÔ˘, ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÒÓÙ·˜ ¤Ó· ÔχÙÈÌÔ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ·Ú¯Â›Ô Ô˘ ‰È·Ó¤ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙË ‚·ıÈ¿ ÂÈı˘Ì›· Ó· ÎÔÈÓˆÓ‹ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ·ÍÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ÙfiÔ˘ ÙÔ˘. £· ‹ıÂÏ· Ó· ·Ú·ı¤Ûˆ οÔȘ ÂÈÏÂÁ̤Ó˜ ʈÙÔÁڷʛ˜ ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ·˘ÙÒÓ ÊˆÙÔÁڿʈÓ, Ì·˙› Ì ÂΛӘ ÙÔ˘ ºÒÙË ∫·˙¿˙Ë, Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÙËÓ Â˘·ÈÛıËÛ›· Ó· ηٷÁÚ¿„Ô˘Ó ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ Û¿ÓȘ È· ÂÈÎfiÓ˜.

century. He was a tireless wayfarer of the Greek terrain and created a valuable photographic archive inspired by his deep desire to communicate the natural and cultural values of his land.

38 £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·, ∞ÌÂÏÒÓ·˜ §¿ÚÈÛ·˜, ÙÛ·Ú‰¿ÎÈ - ‰Ú·Á·ÛÈ¿, 1960, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 38 Δhessaly, Ambelonas Larissas, "Tsardaki-Dragasia" 1960, photo Takis Tloupas

39 £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·, ∞ÌÂÏÒÓ·˜ §¿ÚÈÛ·˜, ÙÛ·Ú‰¿ÎÈ - ‰Ú·Á·ÛÈ¿, 1970, ÙÔ˘ Δ¿ÎË ΔÏÔ‡· 39 Δhessaly, Ambelonas Larissas, "Tsardaki-Dragasia" 1970, photo Takis Tloupas

I would like to present some selected pictures of these two photographers, alongside some by Fotis Kazazis, who were sensitive enough to capture these now rare images.


40 £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·, ΔÛ·Ú‰¿ÎÈ-¢Ú·Á·ÛÈ¿, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 40 Δhessaly, Tsardaki-Dragasia, photo Takis Tloupas

41 Δ‡ÚÓ·‚Ô˜ ΔÛ·Ú‰¿ÎÈ-¢Ú·Á·ÛÈ¿ ‹ ºÚ·ÁÎÈ¿Ù·, 1959, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 41 Tyrnavos Tsardaki-Dragasia or Frangiata, 1959, photo Takis Tloupas

42 ¶ÚÔÛ‹ÏÈÔ, 1989, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 42 Prosilio, 1989, photo Takis Tloupas

43 °ÎÈÔ‡ÏÌÂÚË ÊˆÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 43 Gioulberi photo Takis Tloupas

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3. ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË…

3. The Architectural Dimension

™ÙȘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ›¯· ¿ÓÙ· ÛÙËÓ ÙÛ¤Ë ÌÔ˘ ¤Ó· ÌÈÎÚfi ÛËÌÂȈ̷ٿÚÈÔ. ∞ÚÎÂÙ¤˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÚÈÓ ÍÂÎÈÓ‹Ûˆ ÙË ÊˆÙÔÁÚ¿ÊËÛË, ¤Î·Ó· Û ·˘Ùfi ÁÚ‹ÁÔÚ· ÛΛÙÛ·, ηÙfi„ÂȘ (‚Ï. ÂÈÎ. 44,47) Î·È ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂȘ Ô˘ Ì ‚ÔËıÔ‡Û·Ó Ó· ·ÓÙÈÏËÊıÒ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Î·È Ó· ÂÈϤ͈ Ò˜ ı· ÎÈÓËıÒ ÁÈ· ÙȘ Ï‹„ÂȘ. °Ú‹ÁÔÚ· Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÔÔ›ËÛ· ̤۷ ·fi ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ÁÚ‹ÁÔÚ˜ ·ÔÙ˘ÒÛÂȘ fiÙÈ Ù· ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù· ·˘Ù¿, Ù· ·ÓÔȯٿ ˘fiÛÙÂÁ·, ÔÈ ·˘Ï¤˜ ·ÚfiÏË ÙËÓ ·ÏfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘˜, Û˘ÌÌÂÙ›¯·Ó Û ÌÈ· ·Ú¿ÍÂÓË ÏÔ΋ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘.21 ∞˘Ù‹ ˘ËÚÂÙÔ‡Û ÙÂÏÈο ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ·fi ¢·›ÛıËÙ˜ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ¤˜ Î·È ÂԯȷΤ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ô˘ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙË ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÂÓfi˜ ȉÈfiÙ˘Ô˘ «Î·ÙÔÈΛӻ.22 ∞fi ÙË Û‡ÏÏË„Ë, ÙË Á¤ÓÓËÛË, ÙËÓ ÂÎÙÚÔÊ‹ ÙÔ ¿ÚÌÂÁÌ·, ÙÔÓ Â˘ÓÔ˘¯ÈÛÌfi, ̤¯ÚÈ Î·È ÙË ÛÊ·Á‹ ÙˆÓ ˙ÒˆÓ, ÙË ‰È·‚›ˆÛË ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ, ÙËÓ ·Ôı‹Î¢ÛË ÙÚÔÊÒÓ, ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÍ·ÛÊ¿ÏÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÎ‡ÏˆÓ Ô˘ ÚÔÛÙ·ÙÂ‡Ô˘Ó ¿ÓÙ· Ù· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿, ÚԤ΢Ù·Ó ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ› Î·È ÌÈ· ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ Ì ÂӉȷʤÚÔ˘Û· ÏÔ΋, ¿ÁÓˆÛÙË ÛÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Ù˘ fiÏ˘ Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÌÈ·Ó ¿ÏÏË ÂÓÙ‡ˆÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÙÔ˘ «ÎÙ›˙ÂÈÓ». ŸÛÔ ‰Â ÏËÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜, ÌÔÚ› Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο Ó· ·Ó·Î·Ï‡„ÂÈ ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ÌÔÓ·‰È΋ Î·È Û˘¯Ó¿ ·Ú¿‰ÔÍË «‡Ê·ÓÛË» ÙˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ. ªÈ· ‡Ê·ÓÛË Ô˘ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÂÈ ÙÔ ÙÚ˘ÊÂÚfi ÓÂÔÁ¤ÓÓËÙÔ, ÙËÓ Ì¿Ó·, ÙÔÓ ıËÏ·ÛÌfi, ÙÔÓ ‡ÓÔ, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ÙÔ Êfi‚Ô, ÌÂ Ê˘ÛÈο ˘ÏÈο. ªÈ· ‡Ê·ÓÛË ÙÂÏÈο ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ, Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ·Ó·ÁÎÒÓ. ∫·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈΤ˜ χÛÂȘ Î·È ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂȘ Ô˘ Û ·Ê‹ÓÔ˘Ó ¿ÊˆÓÔ ·fi ÙËÓ ·ÏfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÌÈ· ¢ÚËÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ë ÔÔ›· Â͢ËÚÂÙ› ÙÂÏÈο ÌÈ· ·Ó·ÁηÈfiÙËÙ·. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÙÂÏÈο ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ͯ·Ṳ̂ÓË ÏÂ˘Ú¿ Ù˘ ∞ÓÒÓ˘Ì˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜, Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ó· Û˘Ó˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ì ÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜, ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜. ∞Ó ‰Â¯ıԇ̠̿ÏÈÛÙ· Î·È ÙËÓ ·Ï·ÈfiÙÂÚË ¿Ô„Ë, fiÙÈ Ù· ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì· ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù· ·ÓÙÈηÙÔÙÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ·Í›Â˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÔÛÌÔıˆڛ· Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ô˘ Ù· ‰ËÌÈÔ‡ÚÁËÛÂ, Â‰Ò Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ÂÁ›ÚÂÙ·È ¤Ó· ı¤Ì·. ΔÈ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ·, Ô‡ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ÎÚ˘Ì̤Ó˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ ·Í›Â˜ Î·È ÁÈ·Ù› ÙÂÏÈο Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ·ÍÈÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙȘ ηχ‚˜ Î·È ÛÙ· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿; ΔÂÏÈο Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ fiÏË ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÁÓÒÛË Î·È Ë Â˘·ÈÛıËÛ›· ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ·ÎfiÌË ÎÚ˘Ì̤ÓË, ı·Ì̤ÓË ÂÓÙfi˜ Ì·˜, ÛÙÔ DNA ÙÔ˘ ŒÏÏËÓ· ·ÁÚfiÙË Î·È ‚ÔÛÎÔ‡ Î·È ÌÂٷʤÚÂÙ·È ·fi ÁÂÓÈ¿ Û ÁÂÓÈ¿. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ͯˆÚÈÛÙ‹ Î·È ·Ú¿‰ÔÍË «˘·ÎÔ‹»,23 Û ·Í›Â˜, Ô˘ ·Ú¿ ÙȘ ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÚԤ΢„·Ó ÛÙÔ ¤Ú·ÛÌ· ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘, ‰È·ÙËÚÔ‡Ó ·Ó·ÏÏÔ›ˆÙË ÙËÓ ·Ú¯¤ÁÔÓË Ô˘Û›· Ù˘ ÌÔÚÊ‹˜.

In these wanderings I've always carried in my pocket a small sketchbook. Several times, before I started to shoot, I made quick sketches, plans (Illustrations 44, 47) and details, which helped me understand the site better and plan the shooting. I soon realized through these quick sketches that despite their simplicity these buildings, the open sheds, the yards, participated in a strange interlacing of space,21 which ends up serving a number of subtle daily and seasonal activities contained in the concept of a singular "dwelling".22 From conception and birth, through breeding, milking, and castrating even to slaughtering of the animals; from human habitat, food storing, and even the safe keeping of guardian dogs which always protect the sheepfolds, there results a design gestures and an organization of space uniquely intricate, unknown to the city people that have a different take on the notion of "building". And as one comes closer, one can truly discover this unique and often paradoxical "weaving" of materials. A type of weaving meant to protect the tender newborn, the mother, the suckling, the sleep, and even the fear, with natural materials. A weaving, ultimately, involved in materials, feelings and needs. Construction solutions and details which leave one speechless with their simplicity and ingenuity, geared to necessity. This forms a forgotten aspect of anonymous architecture which still coexists with Modern Greek structures. If one accepted the older concept that anonymous buildings reflect the values and worldview of the society creating them, then an issue is raised: what exactly is happening today, where are these values buried, and why do they seem to be utilized only in huts and sheepfolds? In the end it is apparent that all this knowledge and sensitivity is still lying low, buried inside us, in the DNA of the Greek farmer and shepherd, to be transmitted from one generation to the next. This is a unique and enigmatic form of "obedience" 23 to values which, despite the transformations resulting in the passage of time, keep the primordial essence of form unchanged.


44 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∞Á›· ÕÓÓ·, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ¢Ú›ÙÛ·, ª·ÓÙÚ› ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ∑Ô‡ÙÛÔ˘, 18-08-2005 44 North Euboea, Agia Anna, Dritsa area, the sheepfold of Dimitris Zoutsos, 18-8-2005


45 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¶·¿‰Â˜, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ªÂÏ›ÛÛÈ, ª·ÓÙÚ› ∞Ó¤ÛÙË §›ÙÛ·, 18-08-2005 45 North Euboea, Papades, Melissi area, the sheepfold of Anestis Litsas, 18-08-2005

47 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫ÂÚ·ÛÈ¿, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ μÔ‡ÏÁ·ÚË, ª·ÓÙÚ› ™‡ÚÔ˘ ∞ÁÁ¤ÏÔ˘, 17-08-2005 47 North Euboea, Kerasia, Voulgari’s area, the sheepfold of Spyros Agelou,17-08-2005

46 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∞Á›· ÕÓÓ·, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ °ÂÚfi‚Ô˘ÓÔ, ª·ÓÙÚ› ™Ù·Ì¿ÙË ΔÛÈÚÔÁÈ¿ÓÓË, 17-08-2005 46 North Euboea, Agia Anna, Gerovouno area, the sheepfold of Stamatis Tsirogiannis, 17-08-2005


OÈ ÌÔÚʤ˜, ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ÚÒÙË ‡ÏË Ô˘ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Î¿ı ÂÚÈÔ¯‹, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ó Ó· ÂÓÙ·¯ıÔ‡Ó Û ÌÈ· ÛÙÔȯÂÈÒ‰Ë Ù˘ÔÏÔÁ›·: Ù· ¤ÙÚÈÓ·, Ù· ͇ÏÈÓ·, Ù· ÙÛ›ÁÎÈÓ·, Ù· ϯٿ… «ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù· Ô˘ ‚Ï·ÛÙ·›ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ÁË ˆ˜ ÏÔ˘ÏÔ‡‰È·» fiˆ˜ ÛËÌÂÈÒÓÂÈ Ô ÕÚ˘ ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙÈÓ›‰Ë˜ Î·È ÚÔÛı¤ÙÂÈ «ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù·, ÌÈ·˜ ·ÈÒÓÈ·˜ ·ÏËıÈÓ‹˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Ôχ Û˘¯Ó¿ ÙfiÛÔ "ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓ·" Î·È "Ó¤·", fiÛÔ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Î·ıfiÏÔ˘ Ô‡Ù ÙÔ ÈÔ ÙÔÏÌËÚfi "Á˘¿ÏÈÓÔ ÎÔ˘Ù›" Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ Ì·˜».24

Depending on each region's available raw materials, forms could fall into distinct categories: stone, timber, tin, fabrics... "buildings that sprout from the earth like a flower" according to Aris Konstantinidis, who adds "buildings of a timeless true architecture which is very often so 'modern' and 'new', as none of the most daring 'glass boxes' of our time could be".24 The relationship of such buildings with the natural landscape

48 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ∫Ú‡· μÚ‡ÛË, ª·ÓÙÚ› ¡›ÎÔ˘ ¶··ÎˆÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˘, 17-08-2005 48 North Euboea, Kirinthos, Krya Vrysi, the sheepfold of Nikos Papakostantinou, 17- 08-2005

∏ Û¯¤ÛË ÙˆÓ ÎÙÈÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ Ì ÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô Â›Ó·È Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ÌÔÓ·‰È΋. OÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ ·˘ÙÔ› ¯Ù›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ‚ÔËıfi Î·È Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿ÙË ÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô. ªÈ· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ¿Û¯ÂÙË ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ Ô˘ ÎÙ›˙ÂÈ Ë ›‰È· Ë Ê‡ÛË. ™˘¯Ó¿ ›¯· ÙËÓ ÂÓÙ‡ˆÛË ˆ˜ Â¿Óˆ ÛÙ· ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÚÈ˙· ÙȘ ÁÚ·Ì̤˜, ‹ Ù· Û¯‹Ì·Ù· ‹ ÙË ÌÔÚÊÔÏÔÁ›· Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÂÓÙ·Á̤ӷ, ‹ οÔÈÔ ¿ÏÏÔ ÙÔ›Ô. ¶·Ú·Ì¤ÓÂÈ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο Â›Î·ÈÚË Î·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ Ë ÊÚ¿ÛË ÙÔ˘ ∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤ÏË fiÙ·Ó ¤ÁÚ·Ê Ò˜ «·Ó Ù· Û›ÙÈ· Ù· ¤¯ÙÈ˙Â Ë Ê‡ÛË, ı· Ù· ¤ÎÙÈ˙ fiˆ˜ ÙÔ Î¿ÓÂÈ Ë Ù¤¯ÓË» ‰ËÏ·‰‹ fiˆ˜ οÓÂÈ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ Ô ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜ (∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤Ï˘, º˘ÛÈ΋˜ ∞ÎÚÔ¿Ûˆ˜ μ).

is truly unique. These people build their architecture having the natural landscape as assistant and associate. An architecture so close to that built by nature herself. I often had the impression I recognized the lines, shapes or forms of these buildings in the surrounding or some other landscape. Aristotle's phrase "if a house had been a thing made by nature, it would have been made in the same way as it is now by art" [i.e. architecture] (Physics II), remains truly relevant. 39


40

∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜

The Concept of "Prehistoricity"

∏ ÏÈÙfiÙËÙ· ÛÙË ‰È¿Ù·ÍË, Ë Î·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈ΋ ÂÈÏÈÎÚ›ÓÂÈ· Î·È Ë ÔÈfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ‰¤ÓÂÈ ÙÔ ÎÙ›ÛÌ· Ì ÙÔ Ó‡̷ Î·È ÙËÓ Ï·ÛÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ÙÔ›Ô˘, Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ÌÈ· ·ÈÒÓÈ· ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔ ·ÓÒÓ˘ÌÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ Î·È fi¯È ·fi Ù· Â͈ÙÂÚÈο ÙÔ˘ ÁÓˆÚ›ÛÌ·Ù·. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ «ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜» 25 fiˆ˜ ÙËÓ ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÈ Ô ¢. º·ÙÔ‡ÚÔ˜, ¤ÓÓÔÈ·˜ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ¯Ú‹ÛÈÌ˘ ÁÈ· ÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ Ô˘ ·Ú¯›˙ÂÈ Ó· Â·ÓÂÍÂÙ¿˙ÂÈ ÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘ Ì ÙÔ ¿ÌÂÛÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ ÙÔ˘ Î·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ·Ó·˙ËÙ¿ ÙË ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË Û ·-ÈÛÙÔÚÈο Î·È ÌË ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ˘ÏÈο. ∏ ηٷÛ΢‹ Î·È Ù· ˘ÏÈο ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ‰Â˘ÙÂÚÔÁÂÓ‹ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Î·È Ë Ô˘Û›· ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÙÚfiˆÓ Î·È ˘ÏÈ΋˜ Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘. ∏ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙË ÌË-ÂÈıÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ÙËÓ ·›ÛıËÛË Ù˘ ·ÛÊ¿ÏÂÈ·˜, ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÂȘ Ì ÂχıÂÚ˜ ÌË Î·Ù·ÈÂÛÙÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ‰È·‚›ˆÛ˘ Î·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ηıËÛ˘¯¿˙ÂÈ. ™Â η̛· ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ‰ÂÓ ·ÔÎÏ›ÔÓÙ·È Ù· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· ˘ÏÈο, Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ Î·È ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÈ Î·Ù·Û΢‹˜, ¤ÛÙˆ Î·È ·Ó ·ÔÌ·ÎÚ‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ «ÂÈÎÔÓÔÁÚ·Ê›·» ÙÔ˘ «ÚˆÙÔÁÂÓÔ‡˜». ™ËÌ·Û›· ¤¯ÂÈ Ë ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÔÈ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Ì ÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ. ™‹ÌÂÚ· Ô ÌÔÓÙÂÚÓÈÛÌfi˜ Â›Ó·È ·ÚÒÓ. ™Â ÌÂÚÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· «˘Ê‹» ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÓÙ¿Ù·È Ì ÚÔÁÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚÔ˘˜ Î·È ÌÂÙ·ÁÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚÔ˘˜ ·fi ·˘ÙfiÓ Ù‡ˆÓ ÙÔ˘ «Î·ÙÔÈΛӻ. ∏ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ· Â›Ó·È ÎÔÈÓ‹ ÎÔ›ÙË ÁÈ· ÔÏϤ˜ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ ÙÔ˘ ÌÔÓÙÂÚÓÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· Ù˘ ÓˆÙÂÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜.

The sparing layout, the structural honesty and the quality that ties the building to the genius loci and the plasticity of the Greek landscape, constitute an eternal truth characterising the anonymous work according to its internal rather than its external features. This truth relates to the concept of "prehistoricity" as put forward by Dimitris Fatouros,25 a concept especially useful to contemporary architecture which attempts to reinterpret the relationship between man and his immediate environment by seeking a connection to a-historical and non-historical evidence. The construction and the materials would then be of secondary importance as the essence would lie in devising methods and means of spatial composition. Prehistoricity in architecture is associated with non-aggression, with a sense of security, allowing correlations to evolve with free, non-oppressive living conditions, while providing a sense of reassurance. As for the materials, contemporary ones are in no way excluded, even if they depart from the "iconography" of the "primary". Their treatment and their relationship with the environment is all that counts. Today’s modernism occasionally displays a "texture" of prehistoricity, at an intersection with both earlier and later types of "habitat". "Prehistoricity" thus forms a common ground for many pursuits and processes related to modernism and modernity in general.

∞Ó·˙ËÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¢·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈË̤ÓÔ˘˜

A Search for the Sensitive Ones

™Â fiϘ ÙȘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ ÌÔ˘, Â¤ÏÂÁ· ÙÔ ı¤Ì· ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙ· Î·È ·ÚÁ¿ ‹ ÁÚ‹ÁÔÚ· ·Ó·Î¿Ï˘Ù· ÙË Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ· Î·È ÙË Û¯¤ÛË Ì ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂȉÈ΋ ηÙËÁÔÚ›· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓˆÓ ¤ÚÁˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ¤ÚÁ· ¢·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ Î·È Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ›Ûˆ˜ ÌÈ· ·ÈÛÈfi‰ÔÍË ÚÔÔÙÈ΋. £· ‹ıÂÏ· Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· Ó· ·Ó·‰Â›Íˆ ÙËÓ Í¯ˆÚÈÛÙ‹ ·˘Ù‹ Ù¿ÛË Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ¤ÚÁ·, Û ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ Ô˘ ÎÈÓԇ̷ÛÙ ·fi ÙË ·ÚfiÛˆË ‰ÈÂÎÂÚ·›ˆÛË ·Û‹Ì·ÓÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÙ¿ÛˆÓ, ÛÙËÓ ÂÛˆÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÙfiÔ˘ Ì·˜, ̤¯ÚÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ‚ÔÏ‹ Î·È ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˘ ÔÌ¿‰·˜, ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ «‰ÈÂıÓÔ‡˜ jet set ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ». ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡˜ «ÌÈ·˜ ·fiȉÂÔÏÔÁÈÎÔÔÈË̤Ó˘, ·ÙÔÈ΋˜, ·ÓÙÈ-·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜», Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÌÔÚÊÔÏÔÁÈο ÂÓÙ˘ˆÛȷ΋ Ì ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ˘„ËÏfi

In my wanderings I chose my subject completely spontaneously but sooner or later I was to discover the affinity and relationship with the work of sensitive architects, this unique category of contemporary architecture as a portent of a potentially optimistic outlook. I would like, indeed, to highlight this noteworthy trend of a distinct form of architecture in contrast to our times when we oscillate between the impersonal processing of insignificant architectural proposals and the introspection of our land following the invasion and dominance of a group of "international jet set architects". Those were the perpetrators of "a de-ideologized, atopic, anti-human architecture" formally impressive


ÎfiÛÙÔ˜. ŒÓ·˜ ·Ú¿‰ÔÍÔ˜ Î·È ·ÚfiÛˆÔ˜ ÂÎÛ˘Á¯ÚÔÓÈÛÌfi˜ ˘ËÚÂÙÂ›Ù·È ·fi οÔÈ· «¿Ù·ÎÙ· ·È‰È¿ ÙˆÓ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÒÓ ‰ÈÂıÓÒÓ Î¤ÓÙÚˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜» 26 Ô˘ Û·Ó Â›‰ÔÍÔÈ ¶¿˜ Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜, Â͢ÌÓÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·fi Ù¯ÓÔÎÚÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ‰È‰·ÎÙÈο ÛÙ· ̤۷ Ì·˙È΋˜ ÂÓË̤ڈÛ˘, ÛÙ· ÂȉÈο Î·È ÌË ¤ÓÙ˘· Î·È Ê˘ÛÈο ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈΤ˜ Û¯ÔϤ˜. ™ÙÔÓ ÙfiÔ Ì·˜ Ù¤ÙÔȘ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜, fiÙ·Ó Î·È fiÔ˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È, ·ÔÌ·ÎÚ‡ÓÔ˘Ó ÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ·fi ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚˆÔÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Ù˘ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Î·È ÚÔÛ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ‰È·ÚΤ˜ Á›ÁÓÂÛı·È, Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ‰È·ÔÙÈṲ̂ÓÔ ·fi ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ Î·È ·Í›Â˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙËÓ Îϛ̷η ÙÔ˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ÙÔ›Ô˘. ™‹ÌÂÚ· ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ÂÍ·Ê¿ÓÈÛË Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜, ÙË ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓË «Ú¢ÛÙÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜» 27 Ô˘ ‰È·Ï‡ÂÈ Î·È ‰È·¯¤ÂÈ ÙȘ ÙÔÈΤ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜ Ì ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ franchising. ™Â ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· Ô˘ Ë ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Û ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· Îϛ̷η Î·È Ù›ÓÂÈ Ó· Ô‰ËÁËı› ÛÙËÓ ÏÔÁÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ delivery Úfi¯ÂÈÚˆÓ Â‰ÂÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ, Ì ·ÔÎÔڇʈ̷ ÙËÓ ÚfiÛÊ·ÙË ¤ÎıÂÛË ÛÙÔ ªOª∞ ÛÙË ¡¤· ÀfiÚÎË ÙÔÓ πÔ‡ÏÈÔ ÙÔ˘ 2008 Ì ٛÙÏÔ Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling, Ë ÂÈÌÔÓ‹ Û ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜ ›Ûˆ˜ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘. π‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· fiÙ·Ó ÔÈ ·Í›Â˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ Ô˘ ÙÂÏÈο ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ÎÔÈÓ¤˜ ηٷ‚ÔϤ˜ ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Î·È Û˘Ó˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó Ì ÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ fiÏÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘. ™ÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ı· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿Ûˆ οÔÈ· ÂÈÏÂÁ̤ӷ ¤ÚÁ· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ, Ô˘ ηٿ ÙËÓ ÚÔÛˆÈ΋ ÌÔ˘ ¿Ô„Ë Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ÌÈ· ·ÈÛÈfi‰ÔÍË ÚÔÔÙÈ΋, fiˆ˜ ·˘Ù¿ ·Ó·‰‡ıËÎ·Ó Î·È Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÙËÎ·Ó Ì¤Û· Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÏ¿ÓËÛ‹ ÌÔ˘ ∏ ·Ú¿ıÂÛË ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ ·fi ÙȘ ÚÔÛˆÈΤ˜ ÌÔ˘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ, ‰›Ï· ÛÙ· ¤ÚÁ· ·˘Ù¿ ÙˆÓ ÂÒÓ˘ÌˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ, ·Ï¿ ÂȉÈÒÎÂÈ Ó· ·ԉ›ÍÂÈ ÌÈ· Û˘ÁÁ¤ÓÂÈ·. ÿÛˆ˜ ËıÂÏË̤ÓË, ›Ûˆ˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋, ›Ûˆ˜ ¢ÎÙ·›·… £· ‹ıÂÏ· Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· Ó· ÂÈÛËÌ¿Óˆ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ·ÏÔ˚΋ Û˘Û¯¤ÙÈÛË Û Â›Â‰Ô ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ Î·È ¯ÚˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ ‹ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È Ù¯ÓÈÎÒÓ. ∞ÈÛı¿ÓÔÌ·È fiÙÈ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÎÔÈÓÔ› ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ› ÛÙË ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ÎÙÈÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ÙË Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ¯ÒÚˆÓ, ÈÔ ·Ï¿ ÛÙËÓ fiÏË ·›ÛıËÛË Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÂȂ‚·ÈÒÓÂÈ ÌÈ· ÛÙÂÓ‹ Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙÔÓ ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈÎfi ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ô˘ ·Ó·‰‡Ô˘Ó ÔÈ Î·Ï‡‚˜ Î·È Ù· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿. £¤Ïˆ Ó· ÈÛÙ‡ˆ fiÙÈ Î·Ù·Áڿʈ οÙÈ Ô˘ ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯ÂÈ ·ÏÏ¿ ¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È Î·È ¿ÏÈ, ÈÔ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈο fï˜, Î·È ÂÏ›˙ˆ Ó· ·ÓÙÈ·Ú·ÙÂı› Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÎÏËÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÙË ‚·Ú‚·ÚfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ Ì·˜ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ.

and excessively costly. A paradoxical and impersonal modernization ministered by certain "enfants-terrible of the mighty international centres of power" 26 who, like aspiring arbiters of architecture, are glorified by critics and promoted by the media and the schools of architecture. Whenever and wherever such events takes place in the country, contemporary architecture is removed from its anthropocentric and social perspective and the ongoing Greek cultural process, still imbued by cultural references and values as well as by the scale of the Greek landscape, is cruelly abused. Today we are witness to the disappearance of architectural identity, the so-called "liquefaction of contemporary architecture" 27 which dissolves and diffuses local cultural values with the logic of franchising. Indeed, at a time when architecture is commoditized on a world scale and tends to be driven by the logic of fast food delivery –the apogee of which was the recent exhibition "Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling" in New York's MOMA, July 2008– persevering on archetypal values may form a kind of resistance. Particularly when these values, which constitute common bedrock, are recognized as such and coexist with the diversity of the people in today’s world. I will presently single out a few architectural projects that emerged and interconnected in my mind throughout my wanderings and in my opinion support an optimistic outlook. The juxtaposition of these specimens with images borrowed from my personal wanderings is ample proof of an affinity between them – perhaps intentional or real, or even just desirable... I would like to suggest that this is not based on a simplistic association of materials, colours or techniques. I feel there are common processes in structure and spatial layout, simply in the overall aspect, which seems to confirm a close bond with the archetypal character of huts and sheepfolds. I would like to think I am recording something pre-existing which now makes a comeback, yet more forcefully this time; I also hope it confronts the garishness and brutality that surround us.

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49 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¶·¿‰Â˜, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ªÂÏ›ÛÛÈ, ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi Ì·ÓÙÚÈÔ‡ ∞Ó. §›ÙÛ·, 18-08-2005 49 North Euboea, Papades, Melissi, Ènterior of the Anestis Litsas sheepfold, 18-08-2005

50 ¶·È‰ÈÎfi˜ ΋Ô˜ ÛÙË ºÈÏÔı¤Ë, ∂›ÛÔ‰Ô˜, ∞ı‹Ó· 1965, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ¢.¶ÈÎÈÒÓ˘ 09-09-2005 50 Filothei Playground (entrance), Athens 1965, architect D. Pikionis 09-09-2005

O ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˜

The Greek Stage

™ÙÔÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ, ¤¯ÂÈ ‹‰Ë ÂÈÛËÌ·Óı› Ë ÚÔۋψۋ ÛÙȘ ·Í›Â˜ ·˘Ù¤˜, ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ¶ÈÎÈÒÓË Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÕÚË ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙÈÓ›‰Ë Ô˘ Ì ٷ ¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔ˘Ó Â›Î·ÈÚÔÈ Î·È Ó· ˘Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡Ô˘Ó ‰ÚfiÌÔ˘˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË ÌÈ·˜ ·ÏËıÈÓ‹˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. ∞fi Ù· ÔÏ˘Û˘˙ËÙË̤ӷ ¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘˜ ı· ÛÙ·ıÒ ÛÙÔÓ ·È‰ÈÎfi ΋Ô Ù˘ ºÈÏÔı¤Ë˜ 28 Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› Î·È Ó· ‰È·ÙËÚÂ›Ù·È Û¯Â‰fiÓ 45 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÌÂÙ¿ ·fi ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·Û˘. O ¶ÈÎÈÒÓ˘ ·Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÚÔÊËÙÈÎfi˜, ÁÈ·Ù› ¤¯ÂÈ ‹‰Ë ÚÔ·Ó·ÁÁ›ÏÂÈ ÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ·ÁˆÓ›· Ì·˜ ÁÈ· ÙË Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙË Ê‡ÛË. ¶·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· Â‰›ˆÍ ӷ ÏÔ˘Ù›ÛÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ ÙˆÓ ·È‰ÈÒÓ Ì ÙËÓ Î·ı·ÚfiÙËÙ· Î·È ·ÏfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ Ù˘ ηχ‚·˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ‰‡Ô Ù˘Èο ‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù· ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÙÔ˘ ΋Ô˘. ª›· ΢ÎÏÈ΋ Î·È Ì›· ‰›ÚÚȯÙË Î·Ï‡‚· ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó Ì¤¯ÚÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ·, Ó· ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ ·È¯ÓȉÈÔ‡ Î·È ÚÔÛÙ·Û›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÌÈÎÚÒÓ ÂÈÛÎÂÙÒÓ. ¢ÂÓ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û· Ó· ÌËÓ ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÒ ÛÙËÓ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÛÙÔÓ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË º·ÙÔ‡ÚÔ Ô˘ ÂÎÙfi˜ ·fi ¤Ó·˜ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi˜ ‰¿ÛηÏÔ˜,29 ‰È·Î·-

The commitment of Dimitris Pikionis and Aris Konstantinidis to the above values has already been noted. Through their work they remain ever pertinent, pointing out ways towards a true architecture. From their renowned works I single out the Filothei playground by Pikionis 28 which is still open to children, almost 45 years after its construction thanks to an extensive restoration effort. Pikionis proved prophetic, for he anticipated the contemporary anxiety about our relationship with nature. He also endeavoured to enrich the children's world with the clarity and simplicity of hut construction by designing two typical examples for the playground: a circular and a gabled one which, to this day, continue to provide play and shelter to their young visitors. I would turn next to Dimitris Fatouros who, apart from being an exceptional mentor,29 is driven by a "persistence" in these very architectural values; (Illustrations 52, 53)and to Dimitris


51 ¶·È‰ÈÎfi˜ ΋Ô˜ ÛÙË ºÈÏÔı¤Ë (∂ÛˆÙÂÚÈο), ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ¢.¶ÈÎÈÒÓ˘, ∞ı‹Ó·, 1965, ʈÙÔ °. ª·˘ÚfiÔ˘ÏÔ˘. 51 Filothei Playground (Ènside view), Athens 1965, architect D. Pikionis, photo G. Mavropoulos

53 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· Û ·ÁÚfiÎÙËÌ·, ª·ÚÎfiÔ˘ÏÔ, ∞ÙÙÈ΋, 1990-93 ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ º·ÙÔ‡ÚÔ˜ 53 Farm house, Markopoulo, Attiki, 1990-93 architect Dimitris Fatouros

52 §¤Û‚Ô˜, ∞Á›· ¶·Ú·Û΢‹, 17-02-2008 52 Lesvos, Agia Paraskevi, 17-02-2008


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54 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜, 06-06-2005. 54 North Euboea, Kirinthos, 06-06-2005.

55 ∂ÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ˙ˆÁÚ·ÊÈ΋˜ ÛÙËÓ ∞›ÁÈÓ·, 1993, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ Î·È ™Ô˘˙¿Ó· ∞ÓوӷοÎË, ʈÙÔ ¢. ∞Óوӷο΢ 55 Art Studio, Aegina, 1993,architects Dimitris and Suzana Antonakakis,photo D.Antonakakis

Ù¤¯ÂÙ·È ·fi ÌÈ· «ÂÈÌÔÓ‹» ÛÙȘ ·Í›Â˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË Î·È ™Ô˘˙¿Ó· ∞ÓوӷοÎË (∂ÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ 66) 30 Ô˘ ·Ê‹ÓÔ˘Ó ¿ÓÙ· Ó· ‰È·Ê·Ó› Ë ÚÔۋψۋ ÙÔ˘˜ Û ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜ ¤ÛÙˆ Î·È Û Û·Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· ÙÔ˘ ¤ÚÁÔ˘ ÙÔ˘˜.

and Susana Antonakakis (of Atelier 66)30 who always allow their commitment to archetypal values to shine through even if only in fragments of their work.

O ∫˘ÚÈ¿ÎÔ˜ ∫ÚfiÎÔ˜ ·fi Ù· ÚÒÈÌ· ¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘ Ì·˜ Û˘ÁÎÈÓ› Ì ÙËÓ Â˘·›ÛıËÙË ·ÏfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÒÓ Ô˘ ÙÔÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ Û ÔÏfiÎÏËÚË ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘, Ì ÎÔڇʈÛË ÙÔ μ˘˙·ÓÙÈÓfi ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔӛ΢. O ª¿ÓÔ˜ ¶ÂÚÚ¿Î˘ 31 ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÂÈ ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¿ ηı·Ú¤˜ ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈΤ˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜.

Kyriakos Krokos, ever since his early projects, moves us by the delicate simplicity of his architectural treatment which characterize his entire work and culminate in the Museum of Byzantine Culture, Thessaloniki. Manos Perrakis 31 is equally consistent in his use of pure archetypal forms.


56 Δ‹ÓÔ˜, ∫¿ÌÔ˜, 15-08-2009 56 Tinos, Kambos, 15-08-2009

57 ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô ∫ÒÛÙ· ΔÛfiÎÏË, ∞Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ª¿ÓÔ˜ ¶ÂÚÚ¿Î˘, Δ‹ÓÔ˜, ∫¿ÌÔ˜, 15-08-2009 57 Costas Tsoclis Museum, Architect Manos Perrakis,Tinos, Kambos, 15-08-2009

58 Δ‹ÓÔ˜, ∫¿ÌÔ˜, 24-08-2005 58 Tinos, Kambos, 24-08-2005

59 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· Salvari ÛÙËÓ ∞›ÁÈÓ·, 1983, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ∫˘ÚÈ¿ÎÔ˜ ∫ÚfiÎÔ˜ 59 Salvari House Aegina, 1983, architect Kyriakos Krokos

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ªÂ ÙË ‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· fiÙÈ Û›ÁÔ˘Ú· οÔÈ· ¤ÚÁ· ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÏÈfiÙÂÚÔ˘˜ ÌÔ˘ ‰È·Ê‡ÁÔ˘Ó ı· ‹ıÂÏ· Ó· Û˘Ó¯›Ûˆ ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Ì ¤ÚÁ· ÓÂÒÙÂÚˆÓ ∂ÏÏ‹ÓˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ. O ∞ÚÈÛÙ›‰Ë˜ ∞ÓÙÔÓ¿˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· ͯˆÚÈÛÙ‹ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË. O ∞ÓÙÔÓ¿˜ ·Ó·˙ËÙÒÓÙ·˜ ̤۷ ·fi ÙȘ ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ‰ÈÂÈÛ‰‡ÛÂȘ ÙËÓ Ô˘Û›· ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Á›ÁÓÂÛı·È, ¤¯ÂÈ ‰È·Ù˘ÒÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ÚÔÛˆÈ΋ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÁÚ·Ê‹, ··ÏÏ·Á̤ÓË ·fi Ù· «„‡ÙÈη Î·È Ù· ··ÙËÏ¿». ªÈ· ÁÚ·Ê‹ Ô˘ ÙËÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÌÈ· ÔÈËÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Î·È ·ÊÔÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ·ÏfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ÌÂ Û˘ÁÎÈÓ› ÁÈ·Ù› ÎÈÓÂ›Ù·È ÛÙ· fiÚÈ· Ù˘ Ô˘ÙÔ›·˜ Î·È Ì·˜ ˘ÂÓı˘Ì›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ¿ıÏÈ· Î·È Êχ·ÚË ·Ú·Ï¿ÓËÛË ÙˆÓ Î·ÈÚÒÓ Ì·˜. £· Û˘Ó¯›Ûˆ Ì ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ¤ÚÁ· Ù˘ ÔÌ¿‰·˜ DECA Architecture, ÙÔ˘ ¡›ÎÔ˘ ∫·ÏÔÁ‹ÚÔ˘, ÙˆÓ KLMF §·ÌÚÈÓfiÔ˘ÏÔ˘ Î·È º·ÚÌ¿ÎË Î·È Ù˘ ŒÏÂÓ·˜ ™Ù·˘ÚÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘ Ì ÙÔÓ °ÈÒÚÁÔ ™ÎÔ‡ÚÙË, ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ Ì ÙË ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÓÙ¿¯ıËÎ·Ó ÛÙȘ ÛΤ„ÂȘ ÌÔ˘ Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÌÔ˘ ÛÙÔ ‚·ıÌfi Ô˘ Ì ‰ÂÈÏ¿ ‚‹Ì·Ù· ‰Â›¯ÓÔ˘Ó Ó· ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙Ô˘Ó ÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË. £· ‹ıÂÏ· ·ÎfiÌË Ó· ÂÈÛËÌ¿Óˆ Î·È Î¿ÔÈ· ¤ÚÁ· ÓÂÒÙÂÚˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ ÂÎÙÈÌÒ fiÙÈ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÌÈ· ‰Â˘ÙÂÚÔÁÂÓ‹ Û¯¤ÛË, Ì ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÂÒÓ ÌÔ˘, fiˆ˜ ·˘Ù‹ ‰È·ÈÛÙÒıËΠÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·Ê‹ÛˆÓ. ∂›Ó·È ¤ÚÁ· Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ‹Úı·Ó ·˘ÙfiÌ·Ù· ÛÙËÓ ÌÓ‹ÌË ÌÔ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÙˆÓ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎÒÓ ÌÔ˘ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÂˆÓ Ì ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ¿ÙÈÛ·Ó Î·È ‰È¤ÎÚÈÓ·, ›Ûˆ˜ ËıÂÏË̤ӷ, ÌÈ· Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ· Ì ÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ì·˜. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘ ¡›ÎÔ˘ ∫ÙÂÓ¿, ÙÔ˘ μ·Û›ÏË ªÔÛÎfi˙Ô˘ Î·È Ù˘ ¢‹ÌËÙÚ·˜. ΔÛ·ÁηڿÎË (ªOμ ∞Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜), ÙÔ˘ ÃÚ‹ÛÙÔ˘ ¶·Ô‡ÏÈ·, ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÓÙÂÏ‹ ¡ÈÎÔÏ·ÎfiÔ˘ÏÔ˘, ÙˆÓ ¡›ÎÔ˘ ™ÎÔ˘Ù¤ÏË - ºÏ¿‚ÈÔ ∑·ÓfiÓ, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ÙˆÓ ª¤ÌÔ˘ ºÈÏÈ›‰Ë Î·È ª·Ú›Ù·˜ ¡ÈÎÔÏÔ‡ÙÛÔ˘. ΔÔ ÔÛÔÛÙfi ÙˆÓ Â˘·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈËÌ¤ÓˆÓ Â›Ó·È ÌÈÎÚfi, ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙÔ ı· ¤ÏÂÁ· Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙÔ Û˘ÓÔÏÈÎfi fiÁÎÔ ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ¤ÚÁÔ˘ Ô˘ ·Ú¿ÁÂÙ·È Ù· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÛÙÔÓ ÙfiÔ Ì·˜. ™Â Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙÔÓ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ·ÚÈıÌfi ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‹ ‰ÂÓ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹, Û ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÔηٷÛ΢ÒÓ, ÙËÓ ·ÏËÛÙ›· ÙˆÓ ÂÚÁÔÏ¿‚ˆÓ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÓÂÔ¤ÏÏËÓ· ȉÈÔÎÙ‹ÙË Î·È ÙËÓ ·Û‡ÛÙÔÏË ‰È·ÏÔ΋. ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ÈÛÙ‡ˆ fiÙÈ ¤¯ÂÈ ϤÔÓ ËÙÙËı› ηٿ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜, Î·È Ë ‰È·›ÛÙˆÛË ·˘Ù‹ ·Ó·ÁηÛÙÈο Ô‰ËÁ› ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË ¤ÛÙˆ Î·È ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙˆÓ ÂÏ›‰ˆÓ….

Although I am sure that some significant works by my seniors have slipped my mind, I would like to continue discussing such associations with certain younger Greek architects. Aristide Antonas is a distinctive case. Seeking, through his philosophical inquiries, the essence of the architectural process, he has formulated a personal style disengaged from the "false and deceptive". His style, characterized by a poetic dimension and a disarming simplicity bordering on utopia, moves me and reminds us of the miserable and garrulous beguilement of our times. One could move on with references to the DECA Architecture team, Nikos Kalogirou, KLMF Lambrinopoulos and Farmakis, Elena Stavropoulou and George Skourtis. To the extent their tentative steps indicate a course in the above direction; they all seem to interconnect with my architectural thinking and the associations I explore. I would also like to mention the work of some younger architects which I consider as having rather a secondary connection to the issues here discussed, as I concluded after I finished shooting those photographs. Such projects did not automatically spring to mind, but in the course of my research in the relevant literature they puzzled me and I detected, perhaps wilfully, an affinity to our subject. These were designed by Nikos Ktenas, Vassilis Boskozos and Dimitra Tsagaraki (MOB Architects); Christos Papoulias, Pandelis Nikolakopoulos, Nikos Skoutelis and Flavio Zanon, even by Memos Philippides and Marita Nikoloutsou. They represent but a slight percentage, an infinitesimal portion I might say, of the total volume of architecture recently produced in the country. Compared to the large number of architects mostly involved in this type of production characterized by the predominance of building contractors in the field, the latter’s greed but also that of property-owners, coupled with a blatant corruption. Architecture in Greece, I believe, has been soundly defeated. The recognition of this fact leads perforce to a quest for the slightest sign of hope...


60 ∏ÁÔ˘ÌÂÓ›ÙÛ·, 01-05-2007 60 Igoumenitsa, 01-05-2007

62 Δ‹ÓÔ˜, ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ™¿ÓÙ· ª·ÚÁ·Ú›Ù·, 24-08-2005 62 Tinos, on the road to Santa Margarita, 24-08-2005

61 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· ÛÙÔÓ °ÎÚÂÌfi, "¶ÚÔÊÔÚÈο ∫Ù›ÛÌ·Ù·", 2004, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ∞Ú. ∞ÓÙÔÓ¿˜ 61 House on a Cliff, "Oral architecture", 2004, architect Aristidis Antonas

63 "∫Ú·Ù‹Ú·˜" ηÙÔÈΛ· ÛÙËÓ ∞ÓÙ›·ÚÔ, 2004, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ Deca architecture, ʈÙÔ. Kyle Gudsell 63 Krater House on Antiparos, Cyclades islands, 2004, architects Deca architecture, photo Kyle Gudsell

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64 ™›ÙÈ ÁÈ· ‰È·ÎÔ¤˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ Úfiԉ˜ ÙÔ˘ μÂÚÌ›Ô˘, 2008, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ¡›ÎÔ˜ ∫·ÏÔÁ‹ÚÔ˘, ʈÙfi ¡. ∫·ÏÔÁ‹ÚÔ˘ 64 Vacation house, Mount Vermion, Naoussa, 2008, architect Nikos Kalogirou, photo N. Kalogirou

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66 ∫Ù›ÚÈÔ ÁÚ·Ê›ˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ∞ı‹Ó·, 2001, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ KLMF, ʈÙfi ª. §Ô˘È˙›‰Ë˜ 66 Office building, Athens, 2001,architects KLMF, photo B. Louizidis

65 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫ÂÚ·ÛÈ¿, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ μÔ‡ÏÁ·ÚË, ª·ÓÙÚ› ™‡ÚÔ˘ ∞ÁÁ¤ÏÔ˘, 18-08-2005 65 North Euboea Kerasia, Voulgari area, the sheepfold of S. Agelou, 18-08-2005

67 ¶Ú¤Û˜, 06-11-2007 67 Prespes, 06-11-2007


68 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· ÛÙË ¡. ºÈÏÔı¤Ë, ∞ı‹Ó· 2006, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ ŒÏÂÓ· ™Ù·˘ÚÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘, ʈÙÔ ∫. £ˆÌfiÔ˘ÏÔ˘ 68 House in ¡. Filothei, Athens, 2006, architect Elena Stavropoulou, photo K.Thomopoulos

69 °Ú‚ÂÓ¿, ∫ËÔ˘ÚÁÈfi, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 06-11-2007 69 Grevena, Kipourgio, Detail, 06-11-2007

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70 MËٿٷ ÛÙËÓ ∫Ú‹ÙË 70 Mitata, Crete

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72 ª·ÓÙÚ› ÛÙÔ ¯ˆÚÈfi ∫ËÔ˘ÚÈfi ÙˆÓ °Ú‚ÂÓÒÓ 28-04-2007 72 Sheepfold, Kipourgio, Grevena, 28-04-2007

71 ∏Ïȷ΋ ΢ÎÏÈ΋ ηÙÔÈΛ· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ˙‡ÁÔ˜ ∏.Jacobs, Middleton, ™ÈοÁÔ, ∏¶∞, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Frank Lloyd Wright 71 Solar Hemicycle House for Mr & Mrs Herbert Jacobs, Middleton, Chicago, USA, architect Frank Lloyd Wright


™ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ¯ÒÚÔ

On the International Stage

™ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ¯ÒÚÔ Â›Ó·È Û·Ê‹˜ ϤÔÓ Ë ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ Ù¿Û˘, Ô˘ Ê˘ÛÈο Û˘Ó‰˘¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÔÈÎÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ Î·È ‚ÈÔÎÏÈÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜. ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓ˘ Ú¿ÛÈÓ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ‹‰Ë ÈηÓfi ·ÚÈıÌfi ¤ÚÁˆÓ Ô˘ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙Ô˘Ó ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ Ù¿ÛË. O ÎÏÈÌ·ÙÈÎfi˜ ۯ‰ȷÛÌfi˜ ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Û οÔÈÔ˘˜ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ˘˜ ‚·ÛÈÎÔ‡˜ ηÓfiÓ˜ Ì· ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Û ÂÚÈÔ¯‹, ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ÙȘ ÙÔÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜, ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ¤Ó·Ó ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙ· ÏÔ˘Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi Î·È ÌÈ· ÚÔÛ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ ÛÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô. ŒÙÛÈ ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÙ·È ¤Ó· ¢ڇ ‰›Ô ÂχıÂÚ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜.32 ∞˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÁÈ· ̤ӷ ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ÛËÌ·Û›· Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÒÓÙ·˜ Ù· ÂÈÙ‡ÁÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ÛÙȘ ÂΉfiÛÂȘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Î·È ÛÙ· Ù·Í›‰È· ÌÔ˘ Ù· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ·, ͯÒÚÈÛ· Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ˘

The above trend is by now clearly present on the international stage, obviously combined with ecological and passive energy aspects. The concept of green architecture already defines a sufficient number of projects gravitating towards this direction.

73 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· Van Midleton-Dupont, Oudenburg, μÂÏÁÈÔ, 2001, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Alvaro Siza, ʈÙfi R. Halbe

73 Van Midleton-Dupont House, Oudenburg, Belgium, 2001, architect Alvaro Siza, photo R. Halbe

Although climatic design derives from certain underlying global rules, it varies regionally depending on local conditions, thus ensuring a diverse pluralism and an adaptation to the landscape. This sets the foundation for a wide ranging, free architectural output.32 What to me is important is that watching the achievements of architecture, in print and in recent travelling, I singled out such works that deviate from world architecture, works that

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74 ªÈÎÚ‹ ηÙÔÈΛ· ÛÙËÓ §›ÌÓË Simcoe, Taylor Smyth architects, ∫·Ó·‰¿˜, ʈÙÔ Ben Rahn/A-Frame Inc 74 Sunset cabin, Lake Simcoe, Canada Taylor Smyth architects, photo Ben Rahn/A-Frame Inc

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›‰Ô˘˜ ¤ÚÁ· Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ÂÍ·ÈÚ¤ÛÂȘ ̤۷ ÛÙËÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·, ¤ÚÁ· Ù· ÔÔ›· ·Ú·‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÁÓˆÛÙ¤˜ Û˘ÓÙ·Á¤˜ Ô˘ Â͢ËÚÂÙÔ‡Ó Û˘¯Ó¿ ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓË Ì·Ù·ÈÔ‰ÔÍ›· ‹ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÊfiÚËÙË ·‰È·ÊÔÚ›· Î·È ÙÔ Û˘ÓÙËÚËÙÈÛÌfi. π‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ·fi ÙÔ 2004, ÌfiÏȘ ›¯Â ÔÏÔÎÏËÚˆı› Ë ‰Ú·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ·Ó˘·ÚÍ›· Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ÛÙ· ·ÚfiÛˆ· OÏ˘Ìȷο ŒÚÁ· ÛÙËÓ ∞ı‹Ó·, ¿Ú¯ÈÛ· Ó· ·ÈÛı¿ÓÔÌ·È ÙË ‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· fiÙÈ Î¿ÙÈ Ó¤Ô Á›ÓÂÙ·È. ¡ÂÒÙÂÚÔÈ Î·È ·ÏÈfiÙÂÚÔÈ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜, οو ·fi ηٿÏÏËϘ ¢ηÈڛ˜, Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ¤ÚÁ· Ô˘ ͯˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó. ∞¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈıÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÙÔÓ ÂÊ‹ÌÂÚÔ ı·˘Ì·ÛÌfi, ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È Û ÌÈÎÚfi ‚¤‚·È· ÔÛÔÛÙfi ·fi ¿ÎÚË Û’ ¿ÎÚË Û fiÏÔ ÙÔÓ Ï·Ó‹ÙË, ¤ÚÁ· Ô˘ Û¤‚ÔÓÙ·È ÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô Î·È ·ÓÙÏÔ‡Ó ·fi ·˘Ùfi ÛÙÔȯ›· Ô˘ ηıÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ∞˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ·›ÛıËÛË ÁÈ· ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ «Î¿ÙÈ Ó¤Ô», Ô˘ ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ıËΠ۠fiÏË ÙËÓ ‰È·‰ÚÔÌ‹ ÌÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘, ı· ‹ıÂÏ· ·Ï¿ Ó· ÌÂٷʤڈ Â‰Ò Ì¤Û· ·fi ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂȘ Î·È Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ¤ÚÁˆÓ Î·È ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ η٤ÁÚ·„·. £¤Ïˆ Ó· ÂÏ›˙ˆ fiÙÈ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ¤Ó·˜ Ôχ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ˜ ·ÚÈıÌfi˜ ¤ÚÁˆÓ ·fi fiÛ· ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο ·Ú·ı¤Ùˆ ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·. ¶ÈÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÔÈ Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ı· ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛÔ˘Ó ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÂÈÏÂÁÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ ÛÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ¯ÒÚÔ, Ô˘ ηٷӤÌÔÓÙ·È Ì ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈÔ Ù· ˘ÏÈο Ô˘ ˘ÂÚÈÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó ÛÙȘ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜.

75 ∞ӷηٷÛ΢‹ ηχ‚·˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎfi §ÈÌÓ·›Ô OÈÎÈÛÌfi ¢ÈÛÈÏÈfi ∫·ÛÙÔÚÈ¿˜, ʈÙÔ ∂˘·Á.ƒÈ˙fiÔ˘ÏÔ˜ 75 Reconstrucion of a prehistoric lakeside settlement at Dispilio, Kastoria, photo E.Rizopoulos

disregard known recipes which often serve human vanity, or even unbearable indifference and conservatism. Particularly since 2004, when the tragic absence of architecture from the impersonal projects of the Athens Olympics had just been consummated, I began to feel a conviction something new was afoot. Older and younger architects, given an opportunity, can undertake projects which stand out. Promulgated throughout the globe, against hostility and ephemeral worship, is a small number of designs which respect the landscape and extract from it definitive spatial principles. I would presently like to convey, by exploiting the affinity of certain illustrations to images I recorded, this hunch of mine for "something new", as confirmed in the process of writing this book. I would like to think there exist a much greater number of projects than those I present as tokens below. More specifically the associations that follow, involving a number of selected international architects, are sorted according to the prevailing use of materials.


76 ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎfi ∫¤ÓÙÚÔ Jean-Marie Tjibaou, ÛÙË ¡Ô˘Ì¤·, ¡¤· ∫·ÏˉÔÓ›· 1992-1998, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Renzo Piano Building 76 Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center, Noumea, New Caledonia, 1992-1998, architect Renzo Piano Building

77 OÏ˘ÌÈ·Îfi ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ ÛÙÔ ¶ÂΛÓÔ, 2008, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ Herzog & de Meuron 77 Olympic stadium, Beijing, 2008, architects Herzog & de Meuron

78 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ºˆÏÈ¿ Ô˘ÏÈÒÓ, 05-10-2005 78 North Euboea, Birds nest, 05-10-2005

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79 ∂ÚÁ·ÙÈΤ˜ ηÙÔÈ˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Carabanchel, Foreign Office Architects, ª·‰Ú›ÙË, ʈÙÔ F. A. Garcia - A. G. Gonzalez 79 Carabanchel Social Housing, Foreign Office Architects, Madrid, Spain, 2009, photo F. A. Garcia - A. G. Gonzalez

80 μÔȈٛ·, ∞Ï›·ÚÙÔ˜, ™·Ú·Î·ÙÛ¿ÓÈÎË Î·Ï‡‚· ‚ÔÛÎÔ‡, 01-07-2005 80 Boeotia, Aliartos, Sarakatsanic shepherd's hut, 01-07-2005


81 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, º·Ú¿ÎÏ·, 06-11-2007 81 North Euboea, Farakla, 06-11-2007

82 ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô Î·È ΔÔ˘ÚÈÛÙÈÎfi ∫¤ÓÙÚÔ ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ, ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, S. Kempsey, ∞˘ÛÙÚ·Ï›·, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ G. Murcutt, ʈÙfi M. Dupain 82 Museum and Tourist Information Center, Detail, S. Kempsey, Australia, architect G. Murcutt, photo M. Dupain

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83 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜, 06-06-2005 83 North Euboea, Kirinthos 06-06-2005 84 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· Redelco, ∫·ÏÈÊfiÚÓÈ·, ∏¶∞, 1994, Pugh & Scarpa architects, ʈÙÔ Marvin Rand 84 Redelco Residence, California, USA, 1994, Pugh & Scarpa architects, photo Marvin Rand


85, 87 ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô Guggenheim, ªÈÏÌ¿Ô, πÛ·Ó›·, 1997, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Frank O. Gehry, ʈÙfi David Heald 85, 87 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, 1997, architect Frank O. Gehry, photo David Heald

86 BfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫Ô˘ÚÎÔ˘ÏÔ›, 29-04-2005 86 North Euboea, Kourkouloi, 29-04-2005


88 μÔȈٛ·, §ÂÈ‚·‰È¿, 18-06-06 88 Viotia, Livadia, 18-06-06

89 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· ÛÙËÓ Zachary, §Ô˘˚˙È¿Ó·, ∏¶∞, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Stephen Atkinson, ʈÙÔ Chipper Hatter 89 ∏ouse in Zachary, Louisiana, USA, architect Stephen Atkinson, photo Chipper Hatter


90 £ÂÚÌÔ‡Ï˜, 16-11-2007 90 Thermopylae, 16-11-2007

91 Lofts ηÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÒÓ, Bergamot, ™¿ÓÙ· ªfiÓÈη, ∏¶∞, 1999, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ Pugh & Scarpa, photo Marvin Rand 91 Artist's lofts, Pugh & Scarpa architects, Bergamot, Santa Monica, USA, 1999, photo Marvin Rand


92 M-House, Canterbury, ∏ӈ̤ÓÔ μ·Û›ÏÂÈÔ, 2002, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙˆÓ Tim Pyne 92 M-House, Canterbury, U.K., 2002, architect Tim Pyne

94 ªÈÎÚ‹ ηÙÔÈΛ· ÛÙËÓ fiÏË Kobe, π·ˆÓ›· 2005.Schuhei Endo Architectural Institute, ʈÙÔ Yashiharu Matsumura 94 Small house Roof texture S, Kobe, Japan 2005, Schuhei Endo Architectural Institute photo Yashiharu Matsumura

93 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¶·¿‰Â˜, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ΔÛÔ˘Áηӿ, ηχ‚· ÛÙÔ Ì·ÓÙÚ› ÙÔ˘ ∞Ó.§›ÙÛ·, 18-08-2005 93 North Euboea, Papades, Tsougana area, hut in the sheepfold of An. Litsas, 18-08-2005

95 §¤Û‚Ô˜, ∞Á›· ¶·Ú·Û΢‹, 20-05-2007 95 Lesbos island, Agia Paraskevi, 20-05-2007


96 £ÂÚÌÔ‡Ï˜, 16-11-2005 96 Thermopylae, 16-11-2005

97 ∫·ÙÔÈΛ· GA, ΔÈ¯Ô˘¿Ó·, ªÂÍÈÎfi, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ Graciastudio, ʈÙÔ Pablo Mason 97 GA House, Tijuana, Mexico, architects Graciastudio, photo Pablo Mason

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98 •ÂÓÔ‰Ô¯Â›Ô Bluemoon, Croningen, OÏÏ·Ó‰›·, 2001, Foreign Office Architects, ʈÙÔ C. Richters 98 Bluemoon Aparthotel, Croningen, The Netherlands, 2001, Foreign Office Architects, photo C. Richters

99 £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË, ªÂÁ¿ÏË μfiÏ‚Ë, 05-11-2007 99 Thessaloniki, Lake Megali Volvi, 05-11-2007


100 ¡¤Ô ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô ∞ÎÚfiÔÏ˘, ∞ı‹Ó·, ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ˜ B. Tschumi, M.ºˆÙÈ¿‰Ë˜, 15-03-2009 100 New Acropolis Museum, Athens, architects B. Tschumi, M.Fotiadis, 15-03-2009


101 ∞ÎÚÈı¿Î˘ "μ·Ï›ÙÛ·" ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 1973 101 Akrithakis "Suitcase" detail, 1973

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4. ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓË Ù¤¯ÓË: ÌӋ̘ Î·È ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜

4. Modern Art: Memories and References

£· ‹ıÂÏ· Ó· ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÒ Î·È ÛÙË Û¯¤ÛË ÌÔ˘ Ì ÙËÓ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË Δ¤¯ÓË. ¶ÈÛÙ‡ˆ fiÙÈ Ë Δ¤¯ÓË Â›Ó·È Î¿ÙÈ Â˘Ú‡ÙÂÚÔ Ô˘ ¿ÙÂÙ·È Î·È ¿ÏÏˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ Î·È ÂÎÊ¿ÓÛˆÓ. ªÂ ÂӉȷʤÚÂÈ ¿ÓÙ· ¤Ú· ·fi Ù· ÂÈηÛÙÈο Î·È Ë ÔÚ›· Ù˘ Δ¤¯Ó˘ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙÔ ı¤·ÙÚÔ, ÙËÓ ÌÔ˘ÛÈ΋, ÙË ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·Ê›·, ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ‚‚·›ˆ˜ (·ÓÒÓ˘ÌË Î·È ÂÒÓ˘ÌË) Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜, Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂȘ. ¶ÈÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ Ì ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·Ù›˙ÂÈ Ë ¿Ô„Ë ÙÔ˘ Heidegger fiÙÈ Ë Ù¤¯ÓË ÎÚ‡‚ÂÙ·È ·fi ·Ï·È¿ ÛÙÔ ÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎfi ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô Ù˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜. °È· ÙÔ˘˜ ŒÏÏËÓ˜ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ·, ÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Ô Heidegger, «Ë ϤÍË Ù¤¯ÓË ‰ÂÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ Ô‡Ù ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ηÏÏÈÙ¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô‡Ù ÂÈÙ¤ÏÂÛË Î·ÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈÎÔ‡ ¤ÚÁÔ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· Ë ÔÔ›· ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ Î¿ÙÈ Ó· ÂÌÊ·ÓÈÛÙ› ˆ˜ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ ‹ ÂΛÓÔ, ¤ÙÛÈ Ë ·ÏÏÈÒ˜, ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ·ÚfiÓÙˆÓ. OÈ ŒÏÏËÓ˜ ÓÔÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ Ù¤¯ÓË, ÙÔ ·Ú¿ÁÂÈÓ, ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ˆ˜ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›· ÙÔ ÂÓ¤ÚÁËÌ· ‰È· ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ·Ê‹ÓÂÙ·È Î¿ÙÈ Ó· ÂÌÊ·ÓÈÛÙ›».33 ∞fi ÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ’70 ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÒ ÛÙÂÓ¿ Ù· ηÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈο Î·È ÂÈηÛÙÈο ‰ÚÒÌÂÓ· ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· Î·È ÛÙÔ Â͈ÙÂÚÈÎfi

I would also like to refer to my relationship with contemporary art. I believe art to be far-ranging, bearing on science and other intellectual manifestations. My interest reaches beyond the visual arts to art as related to theatre, music, photography, architecture (signature and anonymous) and particularly to social organization. I contemplate M. Heidegger's view that art has been concealed in the tectonics of architecture since ancient times. "To the Greeks", writes Heidegger, "techne means neither art nor handicraft but rather: to make something appear, within what is present, as this or that, in this way or that way. The Greeks conceive of techne, producing, in terms of letting appear".33 Since the early 1970s I watched closely the developments in art, at home and abroad, and was privileged to be close to


102 ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, "Δ·˚ÛÙÚ·", 1991 102 Costas Tsoclis, "Nose Bag", 1991

103 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¢·ÌÈ¿, 03-05-2005 103 North Euboea, Damia, 03-05-2005

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Î·È Â›¯· ÙËÓ Ù‡¯Ë Ó· ‚ÚÂıÒ ÎÔÓÙ¿ Û ÁÓˆÛÙÔ‡˜ ηÏÏÈÙ¤¯Ó˜-‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡˜, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È Ó· Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·ÛÙÒ Ì·˙› ÙÔ˘˜. ∫·Ù¿ ¤Ó·Ó ÂÚ›ÂÚÁÔ ÙÚfiÔ Ì¤Û· ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ·˘Ù‹, ÙȘ ÂÎı¤ÛÂȘ, ÙȘ ÂΉfiÛÂȘ Î·È ÙȘ ÚÔÛˆÈΤ˜ Â·Ê¤˜, ¿ÓÙ· ͯÒÚÈ˙· Ù· ¤ÚÁ· ÂΛӷ Ô˘ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·, ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ Û ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜, Ù· ¤ÚÁ· Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ˘ÔÓÔ› Ô ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘ Ì ÙËÓ ÊÚ¿ÛË: «ΔÒÚ· È· Â›Ì·È ÂÂÈṲ̂ÓÔ˜ Ò˜ fiÏË Ë Ô›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ηÈÚÔ‡ Ì·˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ·ÙÂÏ›ˆÙÔ, ÙÔ ·Û·Ê¤˜, ÙÔ ‹‰Ë Êı·Ṳ́ÓÔ, ÙÔ ‹‰Ë ¿¯ÚËÛÙÔ».34 O Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi˜ Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ Δ¤¯Ó˘ Ì ٷ Ù¯ÓÔ˘ÚÁ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ÚˆÙfiÁÔÓ˘ Ù¤¯Ó˘ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ˘fiıÂÛË Ô˘ ‰ÈÂÚ¢ӋıËΠ·ÚÎÂÙ¤˜ ‰ÂηÂٛ˜ ÚÈÓ. ∏ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ¤ÎıÂÛË Primitivism in Twentieth Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern, Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÛÙÔ ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô ªÔÓÙ¤ÚÓ·˜ Δ¤¯Ó˘ Ù˘ ¡¤·˜ ÀfiÚ΢ (ªOª∞) ÙÔ 1984, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ë ¤ÎıÂÛË Ì ٛÙÏÔ ∏ ªÔÚÊ‹ Ù˘ ·Ú¯‹˜ ÛÙÔ ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô ∫˘ÎÏ·‰È΋˜ Δ¤¯Ó˘ ÛÙËÓ ∞ı‹Ó· ÙÔ 2006 Â›Ó·È ‰‡Ô ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ ı¤Ì· ·˘Ùfi. º·›ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ Í·Ó·‚ڋη ÙË Û˘ÁΛÓËÛË Ô˘ ·ÈÛı¿ÓıËη ηٿ ηÈÚÔ‡˜ Ù·Íȉ‡ÔÓÙ·˜ Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· Î·È ·ÓÙÈÎÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ Ù· ¤ÚÁ·, ηٷÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·˜ ʈÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈο Ù· Ì·ÓÙÚÈ¿ Î·È ÙȘ ηχ‚˜. ∏ ʈÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ ηٷÁÚ·Ê‹ ·˘Ù‹ ÂËÚ¿ÛÙËΠ¿ÏÏÔÙÂ Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ¿ Î·È ¿ÏÏÔÙ ·Û˘Ó›‰ËÙ· ·fi ·ÈÛıËÙÈΤ˜ Û˘ÁÁ¤ÓÂȘ. ΔÔ Î·‰Ú¿ÚÈÛÌ· Ù˘ ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜, Ë ÁˆÓ›· Ï‹„˘ Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ Ô Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏÔ˜ ʈÙÈÛÌfi˜ Ô˘ ÂÈϤ¯ıËΠ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó Û˘¯Ó¿ ÌÈ· ·Î·Ù·Ì¿¯ËÙË ‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ›Ûˆ˜ ËıÂÏË̤ÓË Û˘ÁÁ¤ÓÂÈ· Ì ¤ÚÁ· Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ Δ¤¯Ó˘ Ô˘ ˘‹Ú¯·Ó «ÂÓÙfi˜ ÌÔ˘». OÈ ÊˆÙÔÁڷʛ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜, ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÌÈ· Ó¤· Û˘ÁΛÓËÛË, ÁÈ·Ù› ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ·˘Ù‹ ÌÔÚ› ¤ÌÌÂÛ· Ó· Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘Ó Î·È Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó Û˘ÁÁ¤ÓÂȘ, ·ÏÏ¿ ·˘Ù¤˜ ηı·˘Ù¤˜ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰È΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·. ΔÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓfi ÙÔ˘˜ ÈÛÙ‡ˆ fiÙÈ ÙȘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ˆ˜ ·˘ı‡·ÚÎÙ· ¤ÚÁ·, Ô˘ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÛÔÓÙ·È Î·È ·˘Ù¿ Ì ÙËÓ ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔÓ Â˘Ú‡ÙÂÚÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ Δ¤¯Ó˘. •·Ó·‚ڋη ÏÔÈfiÓ ÙËÓ Δ¤¯ÓË Û ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ηٷχ̷ٷ. ∞˘Ùfi ÙÔ Â›‰Ô˜ Ù˘ «ÊÙˆ¯‹˜ Ù¤¯Ó˘» Ô˘ ¿ÓÙ· ÌÂ Û˘ÁÎÈÓÔ‡ÛÂ, Î·È Ì¤Û· ·fi ‰È·ÚΛ˜ Û˘ÓÂÈÚÌÔ‡˜ η٤ÁÚ·„· Û˘ÁÎÈÓË̤ÓÔ˜ ÛÙȘ ʈÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ ÌÔ˘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ. ∞ÙÂÏ›ˆÙ· ο‰Ú· ̤۷ ÛÙË Ê‡ÛË, ÊÙÈ·Á̤ӷ ·fi ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ ¯¤ÚÈ Ì ·ÌÂÛfiÙËÙ· Î·È Â˘·ÈÛıËÛ›· Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ Ì ÙËÓ «ËÁ·›· ηÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈ΋ ÛˆÊÚÔÛ‡ÓË Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ŒÏÏËÓ˜».35 ÕÏÏÔÙÂ Û·Ó ÌÈ· ÙÔÈ΋-ÂÁ¯ÒÚÈ· Land Art (Ô˘ ÙfiÛÔ ·Ô˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ) Î·È ¿ÏÏÔÙÂ Û·Ó ·ÔÛ·ÛÌ·ÙÈο «¤ÚÁ·» Ô˘ ·ÎÔ˘ÌÔ‡Ó Ì ¢·ÈÛıËÛ›· ÛÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÊfiÓÙÔ ÙÔ˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ÙÔ›Ô˘.

distinguished artists and even work with them. During this experience –exhibitions, publications and personal contacts– I somehow always favoured those works which reflect the truth, refer to archetypal values; works which Costas Tsoclis suggests by the phrase: "I am convinced now that all the poetry of our time lies in the unfinished, the unclear, the already damaged, the already useless".34 The affinity of contemporary art with artefacts of primitive art is under study for several decades now. The important exhibition Primitivism in Twentieth Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern, held at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York in 1984, and the exhibition Shaping the Beginning: Modern artists and the ancient eastern Mediterranean held at the Museum of Cycladic Art in Athens in 2006 are two approaches to this theme. The emotion I felt occasionally at the sight of such works seems to have been recaptured by me while travelling all over Greece to photograph sheepfolds and huts. This photographic documentation was shaped, sometimes consciously and sometimes not, by aesthetic similarities. The framing of the image, the shooting angle and particularly the choice of suitable light often create an irresistible certainty of a relation, perhaps deliberate, with works of contemporary art that existed "within me". These photographs create a newly felt emotion because on one hand they indirectly suggest connections and affinities and on the other they emanate their own truth. Their content I think qualifies them as works on their own right which, in turn, find their place the wider world of art. By such means I rediscovered art in these shelters; that type in particular of "arte povera" that always moved me and which, through constant associations, I recorded in my photographic wanderings. Such was the essence of unending series of manmade frames in nature, with directness and sensitivity and, above all, the "innate artistic wisdom that characterizes the Greeks".35 Sometimes like an indigenous form of Land Art (so markedly absent from Greece); sometimes like fragmentary "works" leaning delicately on the natural setting of the Greek landscape.


104 ™Ù·Ïfi˜ ÚÔ‚¿ÙˆÓ, ʈÙÔ Δ¿Î˘ ΔÏÔ‡·˜ 104 Sheep pen, photo Takis Tloupas

106 ªËٿٷ ÛÙËÓ ∫Ú‹ÙË 106 Mitata, Crete

105 Richard Long, "K‡ÎÏÔ˜ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÊÚÈ΋", Mulanje Mountain, Melavie, 1978 105 Richard Long, "Circle in Africa", Mulanje Mountain, Melavie, 1978

107 Richard Long, "∫‡ÎÏÔ˜ ÛÙËÓ ™ÎˆÙ›·", 1986 107 Richard Long, "A Circle in Scotland", 1986


108 ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘, ¡›ÎÔ˜ •˘‰¿Î˘, "∞ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏ¿ÛÂȘ". ŒÓÙ·ÍË Ù˘ ͇ÏÈÓ˘ ‰È·‰ÚÔÌ‹˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÔÈÎÈÛÌfi. Δ‹ÓÔ˜, ªÔÓ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈ·, 2006 108 Costas Tsoclis, Giorgos Triantafyllou, Nikos Xidakis "Reflections". The wooden path around the settlement. Monastiria, Tinos, 2006

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™ÙÔ ‰È¿ÛÙËÌ· ÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ·Û›·˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ Î·È Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÙÔ Î·ÏÔη›ÚÈ ÙÔ˘ 2006, ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›Û·ÌÂ, Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔÓ ÂÈηÛÙÈÎfi ∫ÒÛÙ· ΔÛfiÎÏË, Ì ȉÈfiÙ˘Ô ÙÚfiÔ ¤Ó· ·fi ·˘Ù¿ Ù· «¤ÚÁ·» ÛÙË Ê‡ÛË Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÊÙÈ·Á̤ӷ ·fi ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ ¯¤ÚÈ. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ¤Ó· ÌÈÎÚfi Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ·¤ÚÈÙÙˆÓ ¤ÙÚÈÓˆÓ ÂÁηٷÏÂÈÌÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·Ù·Ï˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÓ‰Ô¯ÒÚ· Ù˘ Δ‹ÓÔ˘ Î·È Ì ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË Ì·ÙÈ¿ ·Ú·¤ÌÂÈ Û ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡˜ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡˜. ∏ ÂÈηÛÙÈ΋ Î·È ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ·Ú¤Ì‚·ÛË, Ì ٛÙÏÔ ∞ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏ¿ÛÂȘ, Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹Û·ÌÂ, ÛÙÔ ÌÈÎÚfi ·˘Ùfi ÔÈÎÈÛÌfi, Ù· ªÔÓ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈ·, ›¯Â ÛÎÔfi Ó· Í·Ó·˙ˆÓÙ·Ó¤„Ô˘Ì Ì ¤Ó·Ó ·Ú¿‰ÔÍÔ ÙÚfiÔ, ÙÔ ÂÁηٷÏÂÈÌ̤ÓÔ ¯ˆÚÈfi,36 ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ηıÚ¤ÊÙ˜ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Ô ‰¿ÛηÏÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ˙ˆÁڿʈÓ. Δ· ÂÚ›È· ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ·Ó ÙËÓ ‚¿ÛË, ÙÔÓ Î·Ì‚¿ ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ‡Ê·ÓÛË ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ·Ú¤Ì‚·Û˘, Ô˘ ÂÌÏÔ˘Ù›ÛÙËΠ̠ÙÔ˘˜ ‹¯Ô˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ¡›ÎÔ˘ •˘‰¿ÎË Î·È ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ ¤Ó· ¤ÚÁÔ ÌÂÁ¿Ï˘ Îϛ̷η˜, ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ Land Art, ÛÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô Ù˘ Δ‹ÓÔ˘. ∏ ·Ú¤Ì‚·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ ‹Ù·Ó ÙÂÏÈο ÌÈ· Ó¤· ¿Ô„Ë, ¤Ó·˜ ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ ¤ÚÁˆÓ Ù¤¯Ó˘ ̠ͯˆÚÈÛÙÔ‡˜ Î·È È‰ÈfiÙ˘Ô˘˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ Î·È ÛÙfi¯Â˘Â Û ÌÈ· Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ÚfiÙ·ÛË ÌÂÁ¿Ï˘ Îϛ̷η˜ Î·È Û˘ÁΛÓËÛ˘. ∏ Ó¤· ·˘Ù‹ ¿Ô„Ë ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ıËΠÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Î·È ·fi ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ÂÈηÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Û ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÔ‡˜ fï˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜.

During the preparation of this book, on the summer of 2006, together with the artist Costas Tsoclis we approached in a singular way one of these "works" in nature, made by human hands. It was a small group of spare, derelict, stone dwellings in the hinterland of Tinos Island which at first glance reminds one of prehistoric settlements. The artistic and architectural intervention Reflections we carried out together in this small settlement, called Monastiria, aimed to reanimate the deserted hamlet,36 paradoxically by the use of mirror, the perennial artist's teacher. The ruins became the basis, the canvas for the overall weaving of this intervention, which was graced with the music of Nikos Xydakis and formed a large-scale work, some sort of Land Art, on the landscape of Tinos. The intervention was, retrospectively, a new outlook, a dialogue between works of art and unique, unusual spaces, aimed to be a comprehensive proposal of a grand scale and emotional intensity. This new outlook was later picked up by other artists in different places.


109, 110 ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ΔÚÈ·ÓٷʇÏÏÔ˘, ¡›ÎÔ˜ •˘‰¿Î˘, "∞ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏ¿ÛÂȘ", Δ‹ÓÔ˜, ªÔÓ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈ·, 2006 109, 110 Costas Tsoclis, Giorgos Triantafyllou, Nikos Xidakis, "Reflections", Tinos, Monastiria, 2006


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¶·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ·, Ë Â¤Ì‚·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ Î·È ÌÈ· Ó¤· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÚfiÙ·ÛË, ÁÈ· ¤Ó·Ó ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌfi ÙˆÓ ÂÁηٷÏÂÈÌÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È Û˘¯Ó¿ ÂÚÂÈˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÎÙÈÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì˘ ΢ڛˆ˜ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙÂÈ·. Èڛ˜ ÔÏϤ˜ ÂÂÌ‚¿ÛÂȘ, ‰È·ÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ Û‡ÓÔÏ· ‹ Î·È ·˘ÙfiÓÔÌ· ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù·, ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ·Ô‡Ó Û «ÌÔ˘Û›· ÙÔ˘ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘˜», ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÂÊÈÎÙ‹ Ë ÔÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜. Ÿˆ˜ Î·È ÛÙ· ªÔÓ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈ· Ù˘ Δ‹ÓÔ˘ ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ÌfiÓÔ Ë Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÚfiÛ‚·Û˘-‰È·‰ÚÔÌ‹˜ Î·È Ë Ì¤ÚÈÌÓ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÛÊ·Ï‹ Â›ÛÎÂ„Ë ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓÔ‡ ÛÙ· ÂÁηٷÏÂÈÌ̤ӷ ·˘Ù¿ ÎÙ›ÛÌ·Ù· Ô˘, ¤Ú· ·fi ÙËÓ ÁÔËÙ›· ÙÔ˘ ÂÚ›ÈÔ˘, Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ¤ÓÓÔȘ ÙÔ˘ «Î·ÙÔÈΛӻ Î·È ÙÔ˘ «ÎÙ›˙ÂÈÓ» ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈο ÛÙÔÓ ÙfiÔ Ì·˜. ªÈ· ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Î·È ·Ó¿ÏÔÁË Â¤Ì‚·ÛË ÛÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô Ù˘ Δ‹ÓÔ˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ë ÂÈηÛÙÈ΋ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓÔÌ›· ÙÔ˘ ∫ÒÛÙ· ΔÛfiÎÏË Û ¤Ó· ¯·ÚÈÛÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÎÙ‹Ì· Ô˘ ·Ú·ı¤ÚÈ˙·Ó ÔÈ Ó·ڤ˜ O˘ÚÛÔ˘Ï›Ó˜, ÛÙÔ ¯ˆÚÈfi ∫Ô˘Ì¿ÚÔ˜. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙÔ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi ÂÓfi˜ ηٷÚ¿ÛÈÓÔ˘ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÛÎÏËÚÔ‡ ÙÔ›Ô˘, Ì ¤ÓÙÔÓË ÎÏ›ÛË, ıËÚÈÒ‰ÂȘ ‚Ú¿¯Ô˘˜, ¤ÙÚÈÓ˜ ηχ‚˜, Ì¿ÓÙÚ˜ Î·È ·ÈˆÓfi‚Ș ‚ÂÏ·ÓȉȤ˜. OÈ ÎÂÎÏÈ̤ÓÔÈ ‚Ú¿¯ÔÈ ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¿ËηÓ, Ì ÌfiÓÔ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÙÔÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ Ìfi¯ıÔ, Û ·ÌÊÈı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ¤ÙÚÈÓ˜ Â˙ԇϘ-ÎÂÚΛ‰Â˜, Ô˘ ÛÙË Ô˘Û›· Ê˘ÙÚÒÓÔ˘Ó ·fi ÙË ÁË Î·È Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ¤Ó· ÚˆÙfiÁÓˆÚÔ ı·ÙÚÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ. ∫·Ù¿ ·Ú¿‚·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÁÓˆÛÙÒÓ ·˘ÛÙËÚÒÓ ÁˆÌÂÙÚÈÎÒÓ ¯·Ú¿ÍÂˆÓ Ô˘ Â› ·ÈÒÓ˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ˘·›ıÚÈ· ı¤·ÙÚ· Ù˘ ªÂÛÔÁ›Ԣ, ÛÙÔÓ ∫Ô˘Ì¿ÚÔ Ë ÌÔÚÊÔÏÔÁ›· ÙÔ˘ ‰¿ÊÔ˘˜ Î·È ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô ˘·ÁÔÚÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎÔ‡ ı·ÙÚÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘. OÈ ÎÂÚΛ‰Â˜ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ÙȘ ÂχıÂÚ˜ ηÌ‡Ï˜ ÙÔ˘ ÙÔ›Ô˘, ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÛÙ·ıÂÚfi Ï¿ÙÔ˜ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÌÈ·Ó È‰ÈfiÙ˘Ë ÛÎËÓ‹, ÛÙÂÁ·Ṳ̂ÓË ·fi ÌÈ· ‚ÂÏ·Óȉȿ Ô˘ ÍÂÂÚÓ¿ÂÈ Ù· ¯›ÏÈ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ˙ˆ‹˜. ŒÓ·˜ Á˘¿ÏÈÓÔ˜ Ô‚ÂÏ›ÛÎÔ˜ ÛÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÓÂÈ ÙË ÌÔÓ·‰È΋ ÁÈ· Ù· ÂÏÏËÓÈο ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ ηÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÈ΋ Â¤Ì‚·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ΔÛfiÎÏË.37 £· ‹ıÂÏ· ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ó· ηٷÁÚ¿„ˆ ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο ÙȘ ·Û˘Ó·›ÛıËÙ˜ Î·È ·‚›·ÛÙ˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÂȘ Ì ¤ÚÁ· ηÏÏÈÙ¯ÓÒÓ Ô˘ ‚›ˆÛ· Û ·˘Ù¤˜ ÌÔ˘ ÙȘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ó‹ÛÂȘ. £· ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÙÒ ·Ï¿ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¿ıÂÛË Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜, ·ÔʇÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÔÔÈÔ˘Û‰‹ÔÙ ۯÔÏÈ·ÛÌÔ‡˜. ∂ÎÙÈÌÒ fiÙÈ, ·fi ÙȘ fiÔȘ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ (Ô˘ ÙȘ ·Ê‹Óˆ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡˜), Â›Ó·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚÔ Ó· ÂȉÈÒ͈ Ó· ÚÔ·„ÂÈ ·‚›·ÛÙ· ÛÙÔÓ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÙË ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÂÁÒ Ô ›‰ÈÔ˜ ·ÈÛı¿ÓıËη Î·È ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÙ·È ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ·fi ÙÔÓ ¢. ¶ÈÎÈÒÓË ÛÙÔÓ ¶ÚfiÏÔÁfi ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Ï·˚΋ Ù¤¯ÓË: «ªfiÓÔ Ë Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙˆÓ ÓfiÌˆÓ Ù˘ Ù¤¯Ó˘ Î·È ÙˆÓ ™¯ËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ı· Û’ Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙ˘ Ù¤¯Ó˘ ÙÔ˘ ÙfiÔ˘ ÛÔ˘, Î·È ÙfiÙÂ Ë ÚÔÛÎfiÏÏËÛ‹ ÛÔ˘ –·fi Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜– ÛÙËÓ Ï·˚΋ ÛÔ˘ Ù¤¯ÓË ı· Û ԉËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Δ¤¯ÓË».38

In addition, this intervention forms a new architectural proposition for a different treatment of abandoned and often dilapidated buildings of vernacular architecture throughout Greece. With minimal intervention, distinguished complexes or independent buildings can be converted into "museums of themselves", provided they are deemed beyond repair. Just as in Monastiria on Tinos, the only requirement is the establishment of an access route, and the care for the safe movement of visitors among these abandoned buildings which, beyond the charm of ruins, highlight the concepts of "dwelling" and "building" in the country over time. A second and comparable intervention on the natural landscape of Tinos is the artistic gesture by Costas Tsoclis on the captivating estate where the young Ursulines used to spend their summer, close by Koumaros village. The landscape is austere but at the same time lushly green, with a steep slope, ruthless rocks, stone huts, stockyards and ancient oaks. The sloping rocks were converted, only by manual labour, to amphitheatric terraces growing out of the earth and forming an unprecedented theatrical space. Disregarding the strictly geometrical layout always in use for outdoor theatres all over the Mediterranean, the topography and the landscape itself dictate the architecture of this unique theatrical space in Koumaros. The terraces follow the free curves of the landscape, with no fixed width, and surround an extraordinary stage, roofed by an oak more than a thousand years old. A glass obelisk on the stage completes this, unique in Greece, artistic intervention by Tsoclis.37 Finally I would like to list examples of the unconscious and flowing associations with artists' works I experienced in my wanderings. I will confine myself merely to their presentation and interrelations, avoiding any other comments. More important than any theoretical approach –which I leave to the experts– is in my opinion to leave the reader feel spontaneously what I myself felt and is aptly described by Pikionis in his "Preface to Folk Art": "Only the understanding of the laws of art and of her forms will lead you to the understanding of the spontaneous folk art of your land, and then your attachment –for sentimental reasons– to your folk art will lead you to Art".38


111, 112, 113 ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, ∂¤Ì‚·ÛË ÛÙÔ ÙÔ›Ô, ∞ÓÔÈÎÙfi £¤·ÙÚÔ ÛÙÔÓ ∫Ô˘Ì¿ÚÔ Δ‹ÓÔ˜, 16-08-2009 111, 112, 113 Costas Tsoclis Open Air Theatre, Koumaros, Tinos, 16-08-2009


114 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, ª·ÓÙÚ› ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ· fiÚÙ·˜, 30-09-2005 114 Meteora, eastern side, Sheepfold hut, Detail, 30-09-2005

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115 ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, "ªÂÁ¿ÏÔ Î·ÛfiÓÈ", 1968 115 Costas Tsoclis "Grande caisse", 1968


116 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, ∫·Ï‡‚· Û ̷ÓÙÚ› ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 30-09-2005 116 Meteora Sheepfold hut, eastern side, Detail, 30-09-2005

117 ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ΔÛfiÎÏ˘, "H ‚¿Úη" 1982 117 Costas Tsoclis, "Boat" 1982

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118 Antoni Tapies "ªÂÙ·ÏÏÈΤ˜ ÂÈÊ¿ÓÂȘ" 1972 118 ∞ntoni Tapies "Metal sheeting"1972

119 BfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜ 06-06-2005 119 North Euboea, Kirinthos, 06-06-2005 121 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 30-09-2005 121 Meteora, eastern side detail, 30-09-2005

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120 Antoni Tapies "™‡ÌÏÂÁÌ·" 1972 120 ∞ntoni Tapies "Assemblage with Graffiti" 1972


122 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜, 05-05-2005 122 North Euboea, Kirinthos, 05-05-2005

123 °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ÷Ù˙ËÌȯ¿Ï˘ "EÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ∂ÈÎfiÓˆÓ Û ÎÚ›ÛË" §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 1996, ʈÙÔ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË Δ·Ì‚›ÛÎÔ˘ 123 Giorgos Hatzimichalis"Atelier of images in crisis", Detail, 1996, photo Dimitris Tamviskos

124 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¢·ÊÓÔ‡Û·, 09-04-2007 124 North Euboea, Dafnousa, 09-04-2007

125 ∞ÎÚÈı¿Î˘ "™Ê‹Ó·", 1978 125 Akrithakis "Feather key", 1978

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126 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, ∂ÛˆÙÂÚÈο Ì·ÓÙÚÈÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿, 30-09-2005 126 Meteora, Eastern side, Sheepfold interior, 30-09-2005


127 °È¿ÓÓ˘ ∫Ô˘Ó¤ÏÏ˘ "Chateau de Plieux", 1995 127 Jannis Kounellis "Chateau de Plieux", 1995

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128 ª·Î‰ÔÓ›· ªÂÁ¿ÏË μfiÏ‚Ë, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 05-11-2005 128 Macedonia Lake Megali Volvi, Detail, 05-11-2005

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129 °È¿ÓÓ˘ ∫Ô˘Ó¤ÏÏ˘ "Èڛ˜ Ù›ÙÏÔ", 2004, ʈÙÔ Aurelio Amendola 129 Jannis Kounellis "Senza Titolo", 2004, photo Aurelio Amendola

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130 ºıÈÒÙȉ·, ∞Á›· ΔÚÈ¿‰·, §ÔÎÚ›‰·, ™Ù¿ÓË ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË ª·ÚÁ·Ú›ÙË, 06-11-2005 130 Fthiotis, Agia Triada, Lokris, The sheepfold of Dimitris Margaritis, 06-11-2005

131 °È¿ÓÓ˘ ∫Ô˘Ó¤ÏÏ˘ "XˆÚ›˜ Ù›ÙÏÔ",1999, Galleria de Arte Moderne e contemporanea, ΔÔÚ›ÓÔ 131 Jannis Kounellis "Senza titolo", 1999, Galleria de Arte Moderne e contemporanea, Torino

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132 ª·ÁÓËÛ›· §›ÌÓË ∫¿ÚÏ· ∫·Ï‡‚˜ „·Ú¿‰ˆÓ, ʈÙÔ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ §¤ÙÛÈÔ˜ 132 Magnesia Lake Karla Fishermen's huts, photo Dimitris Letsios 133 °È¿ÓÓ˘ ∫Ô˘Ó¤ÏÏ˘ ,"Èڛ˜ Ù›ÙÏÔ", 1999, ª∞∫, μȤÓÓË 133 Jannis Kounellis, "Senza Titolo", 1999, ª∞∫, Vienna

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134 °È¿ÓÓ˘ ∫Ô˘Ó¤ÏÏ˘ "Èڛ˜ Ù›ÙÏÔ", 1985. 134 Jannis Kounellis "Senza Titolo", 1985.

135 ΔڛηϷ ÃÚ˘ÛÔÌËÏÈ¿, 30-9-2005 135 Trikala Chrysomilia, 30-9-2005

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136 ∫ÔÚÓ‹ÏÈÔ˜ °Ú·Ì̤ÓÔ˜, "™¿ÚÌ·Ù·", §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, °Î·ÏÂÚ› 3, 2007 136 Kornilios Grammenos, "Sarmata", Detail, Gallerie 3, 2007

137 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿, 30-9-2005 137 Meteora, eastern side, 30-9-2005

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138 MÂÙ¤ˆÚ· (·Ó·ÙÔÏÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿), 30-9-2005 138 Meteora (eastern side), 30-9-2005


139 Richard Greaves "ΔÔ ÛÙÚÔÁÁ˘Ïfi Û›ÙÈ", ∫·Ó·‰¿˜, 2001, ʈÙÔ Mario del Curto 139 Richard Greaves "The round house", Canada, 2001, photo Mario del Curto

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140 ™ˆÙ‹Ú˘ ™fiÚÔÁη˜ "Èڛ˜ Ù›ÙÏÔ", §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ· 140 Sotiris Sorogas "Untitled" Detail

141 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¢¿ÊÓË, 05-05-2005 141 North Euboea, Dafni, 05-05-2005

142 ªÈ¯¿Ï˘ ∫·Ù˙Ô˘Ú¿Î˘ "¡ÂÎÚ‹ ʇÛË/Vodolas", 1995, ʈÙÔ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ Δ·Ì‚›ÛÎÔ˜ 142 Michalis Katzourakis "Nature morte/ Vodolas", 1995, photo Dimitris Tamviskos

143 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¶·¿‰Â˜, ¶ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ •ÂÚÔfiÙ·ÌÔ˜, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 18-08-2005 143 North Euboea, Papades, Xeropotamos area, Detail, 18-08-2005


144 Robert Raushenberg First Landing Jump, MOMA, 1961

145 ∫·Ú‰›ÙÛ·, ¶Úfi‰ÚÔÌÔ˜, ª·ÓÙÚ›, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ· fi„˘, 29-09-2005 145 Karditsa, Prodromos, Sheepfold, Elevation detail, 29-09-2005

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146 Chris Drury "K¿ÛÔ˘Ï· ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘", 2002., μÔÙ·ÓÈÎfi˜ ΋Ô˜, ¡fiÙÈ· ∫·ÚÔϛӷ, ∏¶∞ 146. Chris Drury "Time capsule inside large woven trees, rummed earth", 2002, South Carolina Botanical Garden, USA

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148 Nils-Udo "Hommage a Gustav Mahler", 1973, Chiemgau Alps, Upper Bavaria

147 μÔȈٛ·, ∞Ï›·ÚÙÔ˜, ∂ÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi ηχ‚·˜, 01-07-2005 147 Viotia, Aliartos, Shepherd's hut interior, 01-07-2005

149 ª·ÁÓËÛ›· §›ÌÓË ∫¿ÚÏ· ∫·Ï‡‚˜ „·Ú¿‰ˆÓ, ʈÙÔ ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚË §¤ÙÛÈÔ˘ 149 Magnesia, Lake Karla, Fishermen's huts, photo Dimitris Letsios


150 Δ‡ÚÓ·‚Ô˜ ΔÛ·Ú‰¿ÎÈ-¢Ú·Á·ÛÈ¿,1959, ʈÙÔ Δ¿ÎË ΔÏÔ‡· 150 Tyrnavos, Tsardaki-Dragasia, 1959, photo Takis Tloupas

151 N›ÎÔ˜ ∞ÏÂ͛Ԣ, ª¿ÚÙÈÔ˜ 1994 151 Nikos Alexiou, March 1994

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152 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, º·Ú¿ÎÏ·, 30-04-2005 152 North Euboea, Farakla, 30-04-2005


153 μ¿Ó· •¤ÓÔ˘ "AÍÔÓ·˜", ∂ÁηٿÛÙ·ÛË ÛÙÔ Palais Royal, ¶·Ú›ÛÈ, 17-10-2007 153 Vana Xenou "Axis" Installation, Palais Royal, Paris, 17-10-2007

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OÈ ÊˆÙÔÁڷʛ˜ Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó Ì Ì˯·Ó¤˜ NIKON D70 & D300 ·fi ÙÔ ¢ÂΤ̂ÚË ÙÔ˘ 2004 Î·È Û˘Ó¯›˙ÔÓÙ·È...

The photographs were taken with NIKON D70 & D300 cameras starting on December 2004 and continuing...


ΜΕΡOΣ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟ PART 2

·Ú¯¤Ù˘· ARCHETYPES


154 ∫·Ù·Û΢‹ ʇÏÏˆÓ Î˘Ì·ÙÔÂȉԇ˜ Á·Ï‚·ÓÈṲ̂Ó˘ Ï·Ì·Ú›Ó·˜, ÛÙȘ ÂÁηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Lysaght & Co., ÛÙËÓ ¡¤· O˘·Ï›·, 1940 154 A painting of Lysaght & Co. plant in New South Wales showing employees corrugating galvanized iron with fluted rollers. c.1940s


ΤΑ ΤΣΙΓΚΙΝΑ OF TIN SHEET METAL


155 £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË, M·ÓÙÚ› ÛÙË ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Ù˘ ªÂÁ¿Ï˘ μfiς˘, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ· ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎÔ‡, 05-11-2005

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155 Thessaloniki, Megali Volvi, Detail, 05-11-2005


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156, 157, 158 £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË, ª·ÓÙÚ› ÛÙË ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Ù˘ ªÂÁ¿Ï˘ μfiς˘, 05-11-2005 156, 157, 158 Thessaloniki, Megali Volvi, Detail, 05-11-2005


159, 160 ¢ÔÌÔÎfi˜ 29-09-2005

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159, 160 Domokos 29-09-2005


161 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∞Á›· ÕÓÓ·, °ÂÚÔÔ‚Ô˘Ófi, ª·ÓÙÚ› ÙÔ˘ ™Ù·Ì¿ÙË ΔÛÈÚÔÁÈ¿ÓÓË, 16-08-2005 161 North Euboea, Ag. Anna, Gerovouno, St. Tsirogiannis sheepfold. 16-08-2005

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162 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜ ∫Ú‡· μÚ‡ÛË, ª·ÓÙÚ› ÙÔ˘ ¡. ¶··ÎˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˘, 17-08-2005 162 North Euboea, Kirinthos, Kria Vrisi, N. Papakonstantinou sheepfold, 17-08-2005

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163, 164, 165 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜ ∫Ú‡· μÚ‡ÛË, ª·ÓÙÚ› ÙÔ˘ ¡. ¶··ÎˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˘, 17-08-2005 163, 164, 165 North Euboea, Kirinthos, Kria Vrisi, N. Papakonstantinou sheepfold, 17-08-2005


166 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¢¿ÊÓË, 29-04-2005 166 North Euboea, Dafni, 29-04-2005

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167 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¢¿ÊÓË, §ÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ· 29-04-2005 167 North Euboea, Detail, 29-04-2005

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168 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, º·Ú¿ÎÏ·, 30-04-2005 168 North Euboea, Farakla, 30-04-2005

108


170, 171 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ¶·¿‰Â˜, ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ΔÛÔ˘Áηӿ, ™Ù¿ÓË ™Ù. §›ÙÛ·, 18-08-2005 170, 171 North Euboea, Papades, Tsougana area, 18-08-2005


172, 173, 174 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫ÂÚ·ÛÈ¿, ¶·¿‰Â˜ 18-08-2005 172, 173, 174 North Euboea, Kerasia, Papades area, 18-08-2005


175, 176 μÔȈٛ·, ∞Ï›·ÚÙÔ˜, fi„Ë Î·È ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 18-08-2005 175, 176 Viotia, Aliartos, elevationa and detail, 18-08-2005


177, 178 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫ÂÚ·ÛÈ¿, ªÂÏ›ÛÛÈ, fi„Ë Î·È ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ·, 18-08-2005 177, 178 North Euboea, Kerasia, Melissi area, elevation and detail, 18-08-2005


179, 180, 181 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, 30-09-2005

179, 180, 181 Meteora, 30-09-2005


182 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, 30-09-2005 182 Meteora, 30-09-2005


183 ªÂÙ¤ˆÚ·, 30-09-2005

122

183 Meteora, 30-09-2005


184 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜, 06-06-2005

124

184 North Euboea, Kirinthos, 06-06-2005


185,186 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫‹ÚÈÓıÔ˜, 06-06-2005 185,186 North Euboea, Kirinthos, 06-06-2005


187,188 °Ú‚ÂÓ¿, ∫ËÔ˘ÚÈfi, 28-04-2007

128

187,188 Grevena, Kipourio, 28-04-2007


129


189, ıÂÛÛ·ÏÔÓ›ÎË, ªÈÎÚ‹ μfiÏ‚Ë, ƒÂÓÙ›Ó· area, 05-11-2005 189 Thessaloniki, Mikri Volvi, Rentina area, 05-11-2005


190 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, º·Ú¿ÎÏ·, 23-04-2005 190 North Euboea, Farakla 23-04-2005


191,192 μfiÚÂÈ· ∂‡‚ÔÈ·, ∫Ô˘ÚÎÔ˘ÏÔ›, 29-04-2005 191,192 North Euboea, Kourkouli, 29-04-2005

132


133


193,194 ∫·Ú‰›ÙÛ·, ¶Úfi‰ÚÔÌÔ˜, 29-09-2005

134

193,194 Karditsa, Prodromos, 29-09-2005


195,196 §¤Û‚Ô˜, ∞Á›· ¶·Ú·Û΢‹, 20-05-2007 195,196 Lesvos, Agia Paraskevi, 20-05-2007


137


ΤΕΛΟΣ ΠΡΩΤΟΥ ΜΕΡΟΥΣ END OF PART ONE

αρχέτυπα* | αrchetypes* PART 1  

Το βιβλίο αυτό και η ομότιτλη έκθεση του αρχιτέκτονα Γιώργου Τριανταφύλλου που πραγματοποιήθηκε το 2010 στο Βυζαντινό και Χριστιανικό Μουσε...

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