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BUZZ ©YPP YEAR 2018 VOLUME 28

COOL AND CONNECTED: Planning Bod Ø through Urban Flows

ISOCARP Young Planning Professionals’ Workshop Bod Ø, 2018


54th ISOCARP WORLD PLANNING CONGRESS 2018 27 September – 1 October YOUNG PLANNING PROFESSIONALS’ WORKSHOP, BODØ, NORWAY

COOL AND CONNECTED Planning Bodø through Urban Flows

Lead Editor: Associate Editors:

Mahak Agrawal Jennilee Kohima Nawaar Adam Sarah Mahadeo

Design and layout:

Yuliia Khairullina Tjark Gall


ISOCARP VICE PRESIDENT YPP: Zeynep Gunay BODØ WORKSHOP COORDINATORS: John Echlin (USA, Switzerland) Rolf Schütt (Bolivia, Germany) YPP BODØ GROUP LEADERS: Tjark Gall (Germany, Netherlands) Marcin Sliwa (Poland, Norway) BODØ WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS (YPPs): Amalie Bernhardine Storli (Norway) Nawaar Adam (South Africa) Jennilee Kohima (Namibia) Marie. L. Holmqvist (Norway) Jakob Schackmar (Germany) Pierre Renault (France) Mario Shllaku (Albania) Gerald Paragas (Philippines) Mahak Agrawal (India) Pinar Bilgic (Turkey, Germany) Piotr Zelaznowski (Poland, Netherlands) Sarah Mahadeo (Trinidad and Tobago) Yuliia Khairullina (Russia) Anna Oursler (USA, Uganda) Özge Çelik (Turkey) Mariana Fiúza (Brazil) Mthobisi Masinga (South Africa) Ida Marie Granmo (Norway) Xiaoyu Wang (China)


Kristoffer Larsen SeivĂĽg

Annelise Bolland

Marianne Siiri


LOCAL COORDINATORS: Kristoffer Larsen Seivåg, Bodø Kommune LOC Chair of the YPP Annelise Bolland, Bodø Kommune Head of the Urban Planning Office Marianne Siiri, Bodø Kommune Urban Planning Office Mats Marthinussen, Bodø Kommune Urban Planning Office

Image 1

Mats Marthinussen

Anders M. Coucheron

Anders M. Coucheron, Director of Development, Hundholmen.


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CONTENT FOREWORD

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MEMORIES OF A CITY

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PREFACE

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COOL AND CONNECTED: PLANNING BODØ THROUGH URBAN FLOWS INTRODUCTION CASE STUDY BRIEFS PROCESS AND VALUES OUTSIDE PERSPECTIVES

44 46 48 52 56

CASE STUDY PROPOSALS CASE 01 CASE 02 CASE 03

62 64 72 88

COORDINATORS’ CONCLUSIONS

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AFTERWORD

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YPPS' AND COORDINATORS' CONTACTS

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PROGRAMME PARTNERS

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HOW TO READ THIS REPORT A GUIDE FOR OUR READERS:

The content of this report, and parts thereof, is produced by the YPP Bodø team, unless stated otherwise. This Report is written for:

TECHNICAL READERS such as urban planners

who are looking for detailed proposals, methodology, and technical details of the workshop. This information preferably is marked by the orange coloured tags.

LAY READERS

such as a resident of Bodø, or perhaps someone who just came across this report and knows very little about urban planning? Marked in pink, you will find insights on the workshop, personal experiences of workshop participants, and a little about the city of Bodø itself. If you are curious about these intangible and personal aspects of the workshop, follow the pink tags.

ALL READERS are invited to experience the whole

document from start to finish. Our experiences, findings and technical proposals are all documented for you in a chronological flow. Feel free to read this report from beginning to end, step by step and learn everything! All the participants had their own perspectives, learning, and takeaways on the workshop, city, and the tasks. These reflections are dispersed throughout the document, often supplementing different topics with personal perspectives. 11


Taking part in the 2018 YPP workshop in Bodø was a remarkable experience for me. Meeting a multitude of people from different countries, climate and cultures needs no further praising. During the workshop and the Congress, I realised that the whole discourse around climate change is a much bigger deal than I anticipated. It is happening and needs to be solved now, not later. After the Congress, I had a chance to experience a simple backpacker’s life at the Lofoten Islands, while allowing myself the time to digest the entire content of the 54th Congress as well as the YPP workshop. While I was hiking up in the mountains, often struggling to move against the wind, exposed to harsh elements and severe weather conditions, it really made me wonder about Earth’s reactions to our actions. After my experience of true Nordic lifestyle and the unbelievable hospitality of Norwegian people, my message to the world would be to make an effort, climb a mountain or a hill, look back and behold the view of the world below. Think of what you can give back to the Earth so that it remains our partner, not a slave or enemy. Piotr Zelaznowski, Poland, Netherlands 12


“Never let the things you want make you forget the things you have.” In a week full of spectacular sights and sounds, gastronomic delights and friendly people from all over the world, the trek up the Keiservarden holds a special place in my heart. Along the way, many treasures were revealed, but what has remained with me is this little message, unassumingly nailed onto a tree along the path and a poignant reminder for all of us: “Never let the things you want make you forget the things you have”. I share this with the leaders, planners, and people of Bodø, who together will guide the city into a future filled with tremendous opportunities. The message is that, in planning with the lofty ambition of being “the capital of the North” and developing a new airport along with other spaces, the essence of Bodø which lies in its history, culture, and people, should never be side-lined or forgotten. Perhaps the most photographed beach of Trinidad and Tobago, Pigeon Point embodies tranquillity amidst vibrant colours of the sun, sand, sea and nature. I hope I brought these “cool” characteristics, through my serenity and splashes of creativity, to ISOCARP YPP Bodø, 2018. Sarah Mahadeo, Trinidad and Tobago 13


The YPP workshop in Bodø was inspirational in many ways and personally the most profitable element of the ISOCARP Congress. While many interesting topics were discussed during the congress, I felt that something was often forgotten – Questioning! Years in the field of urban planning can make one partially-blind to sometimes apparent realisations and use words like resilience as sole terms instead of questioning and incorporating their meaning. And this was nearly overcompensated in the workshop – questioning the tasks itself. For instance, the need for a new airport, the importance of economic growth and regional dominance versus inclusive and local planning, and lastly the meaning of climate change for Bodø and sustainability in general. For me, this critical thinking is a crucial element to tackle today’s pressing tasks and one, which each and every young planner brought from their home and professional background – a combination which led to creative, and more importantly, innovative results for Bodø, but also to take back to places around the globe. Tjark Gall, Germany, Netherlands


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Image 2

Manly Beach, Australia

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Image 3

Saranda Beach, Albania


It’s not easy to go, knowing that along comes the melancholy of leaving. It’s not easy to see something small die, although something better will be born. It’s not easy to change anyone, while not accepting that you’re wrong. It’s not easy to be on the road and discover that you don’t want to travel. It’s not easy to look at a better world after all. But you know what, everything is possible, even believing that there is a better world out there. You just have to be free, though it may leave you with a few regrets. With a and-half, and the warm days, with the moon and sun, love and hate, in simple words - you have to fight for it. Take control of the life you want and you will never regret. At the end of the day, impeccable has been my experience in Bodø, as can be transcribed from lyrics of a Norwegian Folksong. Mario Shllaku, Albania, Australia

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Two Young Planning Professionals’ Workshops were offered this year as part of the 54th ISOCARP World Planning Congress – one in Bodø (27 September – 1 October) and the other in Kristiansand (24 – 29 September), Norway. Both workshops have been structured responding to a very timely and challenging vision of “Cool Planning”.

Zeynep Gunay, Vice President of Young Planning Professionals’ Programme, ISOCARP

As defined in the agenda of the Congress, the future of civilisation now more than ever depends on the way we plan and manage our cities and towns. While this agenda calls for aggregate efforts to rethink sustainability, mitigation, resilience and adaptation, how we perceive urbanity appears as the major strategic fields of action in navigating the challenges of our urban future. Thus, the Young Planning Professionals’ Workshops of 2018 not only offered the potential to navigate planning through a ‘cooler’ urbanity, but they also manifested innovative and creative approaches to our 27 years old programme by introducing new modes of methodology such as “Urban Lounges” and “Pecha Kucha Nights”, through which the workshop results were shared with the public, while the YPPs had a chance to share their individual creative spirit and lead their own professional progress. This unique publication is the product of this intense urban laboratory towards a challenging path of inspiring the Cool Bodø, solely delivered by the Young Planning Professionals who participated in the 45th Workshop within 54 years of ISOCARP’s history and the only Arctic one! ISOCARP, since 1965, gets its strength from the motto, Knowledge for Better Cities and it has become

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Foreword


FOREWORD the leading global network of planning – the hub of knowledge – by bringing a society into life of unmatched wealth and diversity of professional expertise, knowledge, and experience through its members from over 80 countries across the world. Among the wide array of activities including technical assistance, advisory teams, training programmes, congresses, and publications, the Young Planning Professionals’ Programme is a crucial component of ISOCARP’s dedication to promote and enhance the planning profession and commitment to facilitate knowledge for better cities with the young generations, the future leaders of our profession. Since 1991, it has facilitated a unique creative spirit within the Society, and it has become a source of new ideas, innovation and rejuvenation not only for the Society but also for our partners; and has made a huge impact on participants’ professional lives, in the name of the universal vision of promoting and enhancing the planning profession. It has also contributed towards making life-long friendships beyond borders, languages, cultures and professional backgrounds. The 45th ISOCARP Young Planning Professionals’ Workshop has been structured following this unique vision, under the theme of ‘Cool and Connected: Planning Bodø through Urban Flows’. The three case study areas of the workshop offered the potential to rethink urban flows based on connections and mobilities for a cooler and more connected Bodø. The questions responded to, are: How to connect the sea with the mountains while preserving and linking the trail with its surroundings for future Bodø, wherein the area functions on different levels as a green, urban and sustainable addition to the

town as a whole? How can the mega-projects be an opportunity for rest of the city/region, while making a liveable city without barriers that is sustainable, accessible, and climate-friendly? How to rethink planning for more connected, resilient, diverse, and unique communities reflecting changing dynamics of the climate? Through the great hospitality and commitment of Ida Pinnerod, the Mayor of Bodø, Annelise Bolland, Bodø Kommune Head of the Urban Planning Office, Hundholmen Byutvikling, and the great guidance of Marianne Siiri, Mats Marthinussen, Bodø Kommune Urban Planning Office, and particularly Kristoffer Larsen Seivåg as the Chair of the Bodø Young Planning Professionals’ Programme, ISOCARP Experts John Echlin and Rolf Schütt contributed extensively to share their valuable expertise and knowledge with incredible enthusiasm, commitment and energy. The Bodø team as the driving force for co-creation consisted of the world itself with 21 highly qualified young planning professionals from 17 countries and as an amalgam of diverse sectors. The expectations were high! And I had the highest belief that we would fulfil these expectations with the greatest commitment and success, and through the most crucial fundamental that makes ISOCARP unique: A team with creative power. I thank all of you for your creative spirit and becoming part of our ISOCARP World! I hope this unique project will make an influential and inspiring impact on the way to rethink and reinvent planning for a cooler urban future.

Foreword

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A LOVE LETTER TO BODØ Dear Bodø, I am writing to thank you for a fantastic week. Between September 27 and October 5, I received less than five hours of sleep, spent long days debating complex issues with people I had never met, over things I didn’t fully understand myself, caught the flu, struggled to build consensus within our team, felt under-dressed and fundamentally questioned my own work process and values as an urban designer. All of this happened on my vacation! I’m thanking you because I could not have had these experiences anywhere else in the world. You proved to be a city that was thermally cold, yet full of warm, welcoming people. You invited ISOCARP, who brought hundreds of creative, international,

urban thinkers to discuss pressing global challenges. You coordinated with the ISOCARP in organizing a diverse group of YPPs into a petri dish for a week to study your urban future in a world of changing climate and economies. Bodø, my experience in your city was like reading a book for the first time. I want to do it over, but never can. Stay cool! With love Anna Oursler, USA, Uganda


These photographs were taken in Lamu, Kenya. They are pictures of door and window carvings, a traditional craft that Lamu has been working hard to preserve as part of its urban identity. The city faces pressures to build in cheaper, more modern ways and is struggling to keep their cultural and architectural heritage alive while growing and competing with other urban areas. They recognise this heritage is part of their urban competitive advantage. For this, Lamu is training its new residents in architectural wood carving.

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Tjark Gall

As part of our YPP workshop we asked the city to have a look at its diary – memories of over 200 years with the tremendous transitions it went through – growing from a small fishermen’s village to a military stronghold for NATO during the cold war. While it is impossible to share all interesting events of the past, a few excerpts of the diary were chosen to showcase key milestones of the city’s development. It leads us to question: How will it continue? Will the future keep Bodø’s identity?

Diary Entry 20 May, 1816 Today was a great day. I was given the official status of a town – a good reason to start a diary! About 200 people are living here now, and more and more boats come through, exploring the Lofoten, mainly fishing, selling and buying them, and transporting them further south. I am wondering what being a town means? Will more people come? Will it change me? Will they start liking me more? Diary Entry 17 December, 1900 Same story as always… Fishermen, boats, and fish everywhere. Since the herring was found here four decades ago, there are more people coming all the time, everyone just seems to be searching for ways to become richer?! Questioning if things go in the right direction… Ah, nearly forgot, I heard today that the population was counted: 4877! 22

Memories of a City


MEMORIES OF A CITY Diary Entry 3 February, 1923 I feel that the important people from the South start to notice me! They want to improve the connections with other cities – a railway, new national road, and even the Hurtigruten will stop here. Good to have more than fisherboats, but I guess it invokes a lot of changes… Excited! Diary Entry 27 May, 1940

A pictures someone took of me recently; I feel like a real city now! And they are finally building a barrier against the sea – no more fighting against the waves!

Faen i helvete! Everything is burning! The Germans bombed everything! I didn’t start a war – I didn’t do anything! I knew that the attention will come back at me one day… I can’t see everything due to all the smoke, but I think half of my beautiful wooden buildings are gone! I feel horrible. And 15 people died. What will happen next? I see the Germans coming – I am lost!!

Diary Entry 18 August, 1955 Not sure what to think… Sure, the Americans and the NATO helped to get rid of the Germans. But after years of war and numerous fights…becoming a military city? I thought it was over… I heard it’s due to my location – perfect to defend the North from the Russians. I would prefer to go back to complaining about the smell of fish…

Found an old picture today. Taken a couple months after the bombing. The Swedes sent houses to help the rebuilding!

Memories of a city

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Diary Entry 18 August, 1955 And the new airport is nearly finished. They plan to be done by next year. And more and more NATO personnel and planes are stationed here. I understand why they are scared, but I would love to forget about the last 15 years. And a new airport means again more importance and attention – didn’t do much good recently…

Diary Entry 27 September , 2018 More good news! I heard that the municipality invited planners from all around the world to think about my future! Looking forward to their ideas! And the airport seems to be in focus, again! The NATO will finally leave in three years, and they are planning to build a new one. Reminded me of this old picture with the first and second runway. What will it be – a step forward or change me forever? Let’s see what the visitors come up with.

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Memories of a City


As a planner working and living in a small Norwegian municipality, located further north of Bodø, I am used to following the steps and measures undertaken by another, and not scare off prospective developers. During the workshop, I constantly questioned myself – what am I doing here? How can I contribute? Instantly, I realized that it did not matter where I come from or where I work. The idea of the workshop was to challenge ourselves, put our differences aside, focus on our similarities, and finally get the job done. Looking back, I wish we could be more creative, push more boundaries, and challenge ourselves as well as the planning field. That being said, I loved the workshop. It was like a missing puzzle piece in my life as a ”professional” planner that reminded me of creative space that we sometimes need. Ida Marie Granmo, Norway

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rience been a unique expe s ha p ho ks or w e Th a because it provided for me, especially rent planners from diffe ith w k or w to rm fo plat as city governments cultures, European na, . Coming from Chi well as developers le of sed me was the ro es pr im ly al re t ha w d well as planners an local developers as cal lo working with the on si es of pr ng ni plan municipality. e of the event includ For me, highlights ith w ances organized the concert, perform le d the Nordic lifesty reception dinner an as a dic way of living w or N is Th l. ra ne ge in t again. one I’d like to revisi novel experience, le ion of Nordic lifesty ct fle re ’s dø Bo ve I belie pique entice visitors’ and is strong enough to d ing the city over an or pl ex in s st re te their in again. e g the workshop w Several times durin night, often finding worked till late at the uctive than during ourselves more prod tiple nning, we had mul day. From the begi e last ng fell in place in th hi yt er ev t bu s, ea id d was hat we really misse few hours alone. W orking methodology on w or k or ew m fra c si a ba one step at a time. through our ideas d ent, I surely learne At the end of the ev r ch member of ou a great deal from ea of that the importance team. I also realised t of ar kshop lies at the he or w P YP ’s RP A C ISO fore selfself-hypothesis be critically thinking, negation. emical milar to a cyclic ch si is p ho ks or w e Th you ical process where reaction. It is a mag at sk ex issues of the ta understand compl eas. id t ly develop grea hand and eventual Xiaoyu Wang, China

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Being a part of such a strong network of society’s young planners was extraordinary, to say the least. In a workshop of this calibre, it’s not just about the outcomes that matter, but also how different people from across the globe can come together and function as a team, build relationships, challenge each other and create a masterpiece in its own way. However, it’s not always smooth sailing, but sometimes a rather steep learning curve!

Image 4

It teaches you a lot about yourself and your capacity to work with others. No one ever said that anything worth having in life comes easy, and that’s the beauty of it. At the end of the day, the experience I had in Bodø was a once in a lifetime one, and I’d do it again, over and over if I had the chance, nothing different. So, to my future ISOCARP YPP colleagues, I’ll see you soon!

The Ushaka beach front in Durban

The beautiful waves in Margate along the South coast

Nawaar Adam, South Africa

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Image 5

The gorgeous mountainous terrain of Drakensburg


The YPP program in Bodø was an intense, educational and empowering experience for me. The workshop unravelled innovative and communitybased planning solutions for a city, foreign to me. It made me wonder about the implementation and response of these great ideas and planning innovations, by local decision-makers, planners and the local population. Retrospection of disaster-hit Tacloban city in 2013 reveals composite efforts and interventions initiated by foreign humanitarian and development actors. The scene taught us one great lesson, which is – planning will always revolve around communities and their sense of ownership.

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With the Bodø-ISOCARP engagement, I brought home a lot of reflections and lessons. I am happy to have gained a family and a few pounds. My heart is full, and I will always be thankful for the opportunity ISOCARP provides through YPP to work with some of the best young planners in the world, in a challenging yet inspiring environment. Gerald Paragas, Philippines

Image 7 Tacloban City gained the attention of the international humanitarian and development community in 2013 - as ground-zero of supertyphoon Haiyan.

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Knowing Bodø as the city where I grew up and all the values it gave me was my entry to the workshop. Through participation, I discovered several new aspects of planning and of Bodø as a city. Opinions of people from different parts of the world gave me valuable and inspiring perspectives. I think being able to learn and discuss with people of different educational and cultural backgrounds is the most beneficial part of the workshop. It was a special experience working with talented people on issues regarding my hometown and learning diverse methods of planning. I saw the value in bringing different people together and how the ISOCARP YPP workshop gives an

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opportunity to connect with other young professionals. Working on a large-scale project, in a short time with people you only just met can be challenging, but also a learning process providing room for several interesting ideas. It was incredible that the work focused on the true spirit of Bodø as a city, which in my opinion, is the most important part of planning. I believe that ISOCARP provides an opportunity to plan in the true spirit of places all over the world, and I feel very lucky in being a part of it. Amalie. B. Storli, Norway

It was my first participation in a high-level workshop on such exciting issues that try to relate climate change to development ambitions of a city like Bodø. Beyond this topic, I will say that I learned a lot about myself during the three intensive days of work, especially on how to make a group “work» with persons of differing personalities, ages, sensibilities, and professional and academic backgrounds.


The group is by nature more than the sum of the individuals. From each group, leadership emerges to organize, synthesize and present. With good intention, leadership is important for the proper conduct of the group and for achieving shared results. Leadership is not meant to impose ideas onto others, rather contribute to the emergence of a common ground and transmission of knowledge and skills. Leaving one’s place and listening is sometimes much more rewarding than wanting to take it.

Pierre Renault, France

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zilian t was a Bra n o m u D s Santo ioneer. re an aviation p shop, whe rk o w is th of During nd future a rt o p ir a nse upcoming pics of inte ut to re e w n lot abo aviatio thought a I , n io s s , u disc for science e v lo is h is a him and nature. He d n a n o ti a innov resents ro and rep e h l a n o d ti na silience an re n ia il z the Bra nce. persevera

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From the top of the Keiservarden mountain, I could see the entire city of Bodø – including the city’s streets, buildings, trees, and river. Observing how everything seemed so small and fragile, made me think about the delicate balance of nature. As a Brazilian, traveling from a city referred as “daughter of the Equator Sun”, after its own anthem, to Bodø seemed daunting. I thought I’d live for coming days as “Gateway to the Arctic”, but I did not. Bodø caught me off-guard- the city and its weather were sunnier than I expected. This Norwegian town blessed us with crystal clear sky throughout the workshop. The Congress was a reminder for urban planners like us, of the huge challenge climate change poses to the world. At the same time, this collaborative experience made me realize that we are not alone in this global quest- we have an opportunity and responsibility to learn from each other’s diverse backgrounds, expertise and come together to protect our planet.

Mariana Fiúza, Brazil Image 8

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Bodø‘s representation Looking back the first day I visited the pier of Bodø – I saw the sunset, heard sounds of boats bobbing on water and their hulls crashing against each other, gentle lapping of waves, cry of gulls and view of our hotel through masts at the coastline. It was our house for the coming week in Bodø and a space for creative work in a team of young and advanced urban planners from around the world. At that moment, I experienced a strong emotion, delight, and a feeling of some native place, when an image that has been haunting you for a long time, suddenly comes to life and becomes your best present! This spirit of place helped me to see the city and to live my small life in it open to everything new, with pleasure, benefit, and desire for action. Bodø is a unique city with outstanding characteristics of extrovert and introvert. One unique attribute of Bodø is its density and compact urban form, allowing easy movement of pedestrians and public transit, in and around the city. The city’s location on the rocky mainland, surrounded by sea and high mountains, provides picturesque views from streets and windows of all buildings, and also from the trail which connects sea to the mountains. Bodø’s vibrant landscape is also blessed with good space orientation, proximity to nature and accessibility to outdoor recreational activities. 34

Another unique feature of Bodø is its location and vision for development, which envisions Bodø as ‘capital of the North’. As already mentioned, the city provides a canvas for co-existence of modern and traditional culture. At one end, it is the administrative centre of Nordland attracting big development projects and ambitions to develop one of the largest regional multimodal hubs. At the other end, it is a cosy humanscale city characterized by a typical Norwegian lifestyle of small cities where humans live in harmony with nature. As a YPP member, I found it interesting that our case studies questioned and explored ways of maintaining this balance, retaining uniqueness while adding new qualities for more sustainable development in response to changing climate. Participation in international events inspires me incredibly, as they provide tremendous opportunities to become acquainted with different visions, work methods and professional experiences of architects and planners, and to meet new people from different parts of the world. For me, it was a unique and in some cases, difficult experience of communication and participation in the work process, having to express my point of view in an international team as a young planner in a short time frame.


To an extent, I was able to master this experience – an achievement I can now share with possible thanks to my colleagues’ attentiveness and support. In this precious short time, I valued more than ever the need to make the best use of available resources, coordination, and communication – to create something new through productive engagement. Attention, concentration, confidence, open -mindedness, positivity and calmness were key qualities that helped me to adapt well and interact with new people in unfamiliar surroundings with ease. What I brought home from this trip are my thoughts and interests in Bodø’s future development, additional teamwork skills, modern and global trends along with features in small cities and unique places, a desire to continue working together with new colleagues, and a sense of belonging to the city and the event, where I lived and worked with the soul of the city. I would advise everyone to visit this city and similar international events, to explore the world, to revise your activities otherwise. Visit to hear, see and try to understand other people and offer something in return. Taking part in international events is a good push in preparing for other such arrangements. Benefit from the time spent and provoke A hand drawn sketch of Bodø’s pier.

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yourself to further development and new endeavours. Discoveries: • Inspired by the unique culture of Bodø, I enjoyed the seafood prepared by professional chefs and pastry chefs and was enlightened and entertained by traditional Norwegian folk music. In addition, I enjoyed the whole exhibition of unique works of street artists around Bodø. But, the Shepard Fairey’s picture on the transformer booth remains a mystery to me. Walking through the streets, I found interesting examples of public spaces, harmonious combination of local – simple and coloured, and modern – light and tectonic-like icebergs in city architecture. • Touched by the wild nature of Norwegian fjords, I made my first climb uphill to Keiservarden. Albeit a small height, the discovery was worth every sweat and step. I was jogging every day at the pier and chasing northern lights of the Arctic Circle. • Found my mentor amongst urban planners and took part in testing the “Smarticipate” platform.

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• Experienced new professionals’ perceptions and creative work approaches. Thanks to Mariana Fiúza, I learned a practical recipe for working in the city of Teresina. Thanks to Rolf Schütt, I practiced the “Bodø (Buddha) rules” in the workflow at the workshop: to listen, to work, to talk, to design, and to deliver deadline. Thanks to my colleagues, I received excellent emotions and pleasure from joint fruitful work on the project! Summing up my experiences of the event and the land I visited, I can say that I saw a place in Bodø that I had always imagined and wanted to live in. Yuliia Khairullina, Russia


Lovely Bodø embankment with a pier and marina

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It is our great pleasure to share with you a story of Bodø, a small municipality and regional capital of Nordland county, located north of the Arctic Circle. This year, the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP) organised two Young Planning Professionals’ workshops and welcomed young planners from different parts of the world, to learn, contribute, re-invent ideas and solutions to diverse projects and problems, for two municipalities of Norway – Kristiansand in the south and Bodø in the north. Bodø is part of the landscape and region called Salten, which comprises nine municipalities. Though a small municipality, Bodø is a dynamic city, where nearly 85% of the population is living in the urban development area. With an approximate population density of 2500 persons per square kilometre, Bodø is Norway’s fifth most densely populated urban centre, ahead of the larger cities of Bergen, Kistiansand and Drammen. The municipality’s urban development area is located on the Bodø Peninsula, surrounded by mountains and farmlands in the east. It is one of the rarest cities in the world, where the city’s core is located within walking distance to nature and the airport. Nestled in the heart of coastal Nordland, is this charming, laid-back town with a modern feel and colourful past. It is home to spectacular natural landscapes, delectable gastronomy and a small local population, 38

Preface


PREFACE embodying the true essence of Nordic lifestyle. The very essence of this Nordic lifestyle in its most idyllic setting makes it impossible to leave Bodø. In 2014, the City Council adopted an overall strategic plan named ‘Bodø 2030’. The plan envisages Bodø as an attractive capital in the North by 2030. It also identifies six different, interconnected focus areas, one of which issustainable city development. The plan also presents planners with an opportunity to reimagine Bodø’s urban future and functionality, to rethink connectivity and transport modalities to and from the airport. Since 2015, the City Council of Bodø has approved numerous ambitious plans, while attracting developers and boosting the city’s construction industry. Plans for new or improved transportation networks, new development areas, expansion of the city core and redevelopment of the waterfront, are in talks. In 2016, another proposal was put forth by Avinor and other transport agencies to relocate Bodø airport to the south of the peninsula for multiple reasons. Having received a nod of approval from the City Council in February 2018, the proposed relocation will not only unlock a significant area of land for regeneration and development but will also be the biggest land-based construction project ever undertaken in northern Norway.

Preface

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One of the key challenges the city council and Bodø Kommune has before it is the planning for the city’s growth in a changing climate while connecting with the abundant cultural and natural resources. In this regard, the Bodø Kommune organised and invited 21 young planners from 17 countries, to be a part of the Young Planning Professionals’ workshop, having the theme of “Cool and Connected: Planning Bodø through Urban Flows”. The 4-day intensive workshop was organised in the week preceding the ISOCARP 54th World Planning Congress, reflecting the theme of the Congress “Cool Planning: Changing Climate and our Urban Future”, in both process and practice. The Bodø Kommune together with the ISOCARP, identified three different yet interconnected project areas for the young planners to engage, aggregate and develop ideas for the urban future of Bodø. On the first day of the workshop, despite long distances and in some cases multiple time zones traversed by the young planners and the coordinators, we were all eager to get started. We were joyously welcomed by Annelise Bolland, the Urban Planning Director of the Bodø Kommune, as well as a team of urban planners from the Kommune, which included Kristoffer Larsen Seivåg, Marianne Siiri and Mats Marthinussen. They introduced to us the three case study 40

Preface


areas dealing with the airport relocation and redevelopment, the urban waterfront infill area and the urban trail that follows the Bodø river. From day one till the end of the workshop, we had their constant support, guidance and most importantly time and patience in organising an enlightening field trip to each case study area, and clarifying our plethora of doubts and concerns. Following the site visits, the YPP team sat down to record their observations, brainstorm ideas and develop strategies, simultaneously engaging with the coordinators and the municipality planners, across groups as well as with the developers of the waterfront. In this report, we present you with the findings, solutions, perspectives and key takeaways of the workshop in the form of “A Story of Bodø”. The Story begins with a brief introduction of the workshop by our coordinators John Echlin and Rolf Schütt. This is followed by a brief introduction of the three case study areas. In the next segment of our Story, the coordinators highlight the process and values which guided the workshop, followed by outside perspectives on the three case projects. These perspectives highlight key principles and elements for planning and design of airport developments, urban waterfronts and urban trails. The Story then elaborates the three case studies, which includes the analysis, proposed strategies and Preface

41


Mahak Agrawal

solutions developed by their respective groups. But the Story doesn’t end here. At the end of each case study, the groups present a narrative of the future. It concludes with key findings of the workshop and a perspective note on post-airport Bodø.

Jennilee Kohima

Nawaar Adam

Sarah Mahadeo

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Last, we want to express our deepest gratitude to Zeynep Gunay, for welcoming us with a bright smile and warm hugs, and spearheading the YPP Programme and Bodø workshop, that has left us with countless fond memories. We are thankful to the Bodø Kommune Head of the Urban Planning Office – Annelise Bolland, for inviting us with open arms to her lovely home, treating us to an authentic Norwegian lunch. We are also thankful to Kristoffer Larsen Seivåg, Marianne Siiri and Mats Marthinussen for generously contributing their time, experiential knowledge and for their gracious hospitality. We would also like to thank our senior coordinators, John Echlin and Rolf Schütt, for not only their time and extensive knowledge-based insights, but also for much patience, guidance and encouragement throughout the process, keeping us on course and helping us maintain our sanity. We are also thankful to Marcin Sliwa and Tjark Gall, for sharing their insights and experiences of prior workshops, ensuring that each team had access to necessary resources, information and for keeping their cool in connecting, coordinating with groups. We are deeply indebted to the


entire team of planners, organisers and agencies for generously contributing their time and talent to the workshop. We would also like to acknowledge the wonderful assistance provided by the ISOCARP headquarters’ staff, members of the ISOCARP 54th Congress’ Local Organising Committee and the Bodø Kommune. Finally, we hope that readers find our Story of Bodø interesting and enlightening. We encourage and invite your suggestions, comments and (even) your criticisms regarding the workshop and publication. Your suggestions should be sent to gunay@isocarp.org and marked to the attention of the YPP Bodø team.

Mahak Agrawal, Jennilee Kohima, Nawaar Adam, Sarah Mahadeo, Editors Preface

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44


COOL AND CONNECTED: PLANNING BOD ø THROUGH URBAN FLOWS

Introduction, Case Study Briefs, Process and Values, Outside Perspectives

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‘IMPOSSIBLE!’ ‘The word kept cropping up during the Young Planning Professionals’ (YPP) workshop held as part of the 54th World Planning Congress of the International Society of City and Regional Planners in Bodø, Norway. First, it was a task itself to assemble in one room twenty-one young planners from around the world, who had never met before but travelled long distances to re-imagine a sustainable future for Bodø, a small but strategic city farabove the Arctic circle. Then, to ensure over three days of intensive discussion and reflection that innovative and smart solutions are delivered for Bodø’s existing and most pressing challenges! Not only that, but also enabling the young planners to reflect upon the Congress theme of ‘Cool Planning: Changing Climate and our Urban Future’ and rethink the buzzwords: ‘sustainability’, ‘resilience’, ‘mitigation’, ‘adaptation’, with a purpose of redefining ways in which urban planners can use both urban form and urban flows to navigate the challenges of an uncertain future. In essence, exploring, reimagining and reinventing methods by which urban planners can and should help to ‘save the planet’! In a word, it was anything but a small task – an ’impossible’ task!

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INTRODUCTION We present the outcomes of this workshop as a daring rebuke to ‘impossibility’. Like the workshop itself, this document reflects the nonlinear nature of the workshop process, form and flows. A non-linearity which sometimes leads forward, occasionally backwards, is frequently fragmented, intermittently evident, often personally intense, but finally leads to group consensus.

All in all, “Cool and Connected: Planning Bodø through Urban Flows” summarises and demonstrates the intention, through different levels of personal and group perspectives, that changes in the built environment, and can contribute to a ‘cooler and more connected’ Bodø while addressing the ‘impossible’. We encourage our readers to follow their own storyline to get there.

A complete story which often unfolds only in the end, if ever, shall form in the mind of each reader. Because of the broad target audience, this compilation has been designed to offer multiple ways of reading. The entire report may be read in a traditional linear manner, or the reader may browse in fragments to contemplate figures, images, personal reflections or concentrate on one or more of the case studies. For the technical reader, who is interested in looking at the results from a strictly professional perspective, we have marked the book contents accordingly. The lay reader may follow a summary of the results, highlighted in a storyline. In essence, the reader is free to customise and enjoy a suitable personal storyline. The goal is to create an open publication that is appealing to a variety of readers, particularly the non-technical audience.

WHAT TO DO WITH THE WATERFRONT? WHAT TO DO WITH THE AREA OF THE AIRPORT?

WHAT TO DO WITH THE OPEN SPACES AND CULTURAL RESOURCES? CASE 02

CASE 03

CASE 01 NEW AIRPORT

Figure 1: Distribution of case study areas in Bodø Municipality.

Introduction

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The young planners, with the support and guidance of programme coordinators, developed a set of planning and design solutions, strategies and interventions by the end of three intensive days of collaboration, coordination and communication. But the task was not as easy as it seems. Each group dealt with three different yet interconnected case studies, with an opportunity to rethink urban flows based on connections and mobilities for a cooler and more connected Bodø. While each group was allocated a specific case area, they expanded their limits of re-imagination, exploring beyond their site boundaries to examine how each site works as part of the whole. Before proceeding further, we introduce you to the three case study areas and key questions thereof. CASE STUDY 1: HOW TO CONNECT THE AIRPORT WITH THE CITY? In 2016, a proposal was put forth by Avinor and other transport agencies to relocate Bodø airport (indicated in Figure 2). Located at a walkable distance from the city centre, the proposed relocation to the south of the Bodø peninsula was affected by various reasons, including the outdated runway, relocation of most military activity to Orlandet and a scarcity of land within the municipality. The proposed move will not only unlock a significant area of land for regeneration and development, but also presents planners with endless opportunities to re-imagine Bodø’s future. Therefore, the first team of young planners in their spatial approach aimed to address the following four key questions: • How to connect the existing built environment with the new? • How to make a liveable city without barriers? • How to commute in an accessible, climate friendly way 48

Case Study Briefs


CASE STUDY BRIEFS between the existing and expanding city? • How to respond to the harsh northern climate? CASE STUDY 2: WHAT TO DO WITH THE OPEN SPACES AND CULTURAL RESOURCES? Meandering from the mountains to the sea (indicated in Figure 3), the Bodø river flows intermittently through a large belt of green fields, heritage sites and private properties. Along the river runs a popular hiking trail, interrupted at several places by highway systems, a railway line and other existing or upcoming developments. Amidst these proposed developments, the future of the trail system is a subject of local debate. However, it is desirable to preserve this trail for its cultural and ecological significance as well as the connections to nature it provides in the hearts and minds of Bodø citizens. Its strategic location, proximity to the town centre and new development areas, provides a highly interesting opportunity to transform the area into an urban greenbelt and re-imagine its connections to sea and mountains in Bodø’s urban future. Considering the above, the second team explores potentials of these open spaces and cultural resources with the aim to address four key questions in their spatial approach and interventions:

WHAT TO DO WITH THE AREA OF THE AIRPORT?

CASE 01

NEW AIRPORT

Figure 2: Location of Case area 1 – Bodø airport.

CASE 02

WHAT TO DO WITH THE AREA OF THE AIRPORT?

CASE 01

WHAT TO DO WITH THE OPEN SPACES AND CULTURAL RESOURCES?

NEW AIRPORT

Figure 3: Location of Case area 2 – Urban Trail along Bodø river.

Case Study Briefs

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• • • •

How to connect the sea with the mountains? How to preserve the trail in the future? How to link the trail with surrounding areas? How can this area function on different levels as a green, urban and sustainable addition to the town as a whole?

CASE STUDY 3: WHAT TO DO WITH THE WATERFONT Water is integral to Bodø’s past, present and future. While Bodø first grew as a fishing town, it has become less dependent on fisheries. While it is still an important industry, the focus has shifted toward professional services and administrative enterprises. Presently, the city’s waterfront in the north of the Bodø Peninsula (indicated in Figure 4) is an industrial site. Amidst increasing population growth of the city, vacant land scarcity, infrastructural insufficiencies for growing industrial businesses and proposed plans for expansion of the city core, the municipality is collaborating with local stakeholders to develop 50 square metres of the waterfront area, southwest of the city core. This project area borders the existing city core with a marina, a recreational area in the southwest and a large residential area in the southeast. Aligned with the proposed plan to transform this industrial site into a place for new housing, shops, offices and more, the third team of young planners focused on design strategies for a new development at the waterfront. This new development should enhance the city centre, while exploring ways to connect to the existing city core, taking into account climate change and the ambitions of a zero-emission neighbourhood. Hereafter, the story of Bodø unfolds in the three case studies, wherein the elements of analysis, vision and spatial approach, are common. 50

Case Study Briefs


The analysis includes background, problem statement, key issues and challenges at micro and macro scale, emergent from SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis. Following this, principles for cool and connected future are envisioned. Aligned with the vision and principles, a spatial approach to planning and design solutions, strategies and interventions, are elaborated. Following this, each group presents a narrative of the future, in the attempts to discern the experience of their proposed interventions.

WHAT TO DO WITH THE WATERFRONT? WHAT TO DO WITH THE AREA OF THE AIRPORT?

CASE 02

CASE 03 CASE 01

NEW AIRPORT

WHAT TO DO WITH THE OPEN SPACES AND CULTURAL RESOURCES?

Figure 4: Location of Case area 3 – Bodø waterfront.

Case Study Briefs

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PROCESS How does one develop a workshop’s process and approach, while addressing the ‘impossible’ in three days? To answer this question, we first need to look back in the past. ISOCARP has been organising Young Planning Professionals’ workshops for 27 years now. Since the initial workshops, the methodology and quality of deliverables have consistently evolved and changed to reflect the diverse input from young professionals and coordinators, coming together from around the globe to contribute and learn in a multi-cultural setting. Each workshop has benefitted from the experience and documentation left by the workshops before. For the Bodø workshop, besides the Congress theme ‘Cool Planning: Changing Climate and our Urban Future’, the starting point was the need to address pressing growth and development challenges that the city is facing in the form of three case study areas (indicated in Figure 1). The first case study deals with land area unlocked from Bodø airport’s relocation, while the second case study deals with the urban trail along the Bodø river flowing from mountains to the sea, and the third case study focuses on the urban waterfront, situated along the northern shoreline and southwest of city core. Before the workshop, the coordinators tried to allocate the participants to a case study to best benefit from their individual professional 52

Process and Values

experience and accommodate their preferences. Each of the three teams held six or seven participants, while balancing diverse disciplines and interest areas. To enhance the knowledge and discussion on the local problem-solving tasks, the coordinators presented outside case-studies on the three main planning topics: airport development, urban waterfronts and urban trails. Key points noted for the workshop are documented in the following section of the report. Despite jet-lag and having never worked together before, the three case-study teams quickly bonded.


PROCESS AND VALUES We defined the successful outcome of the workshop as ‘EN – HA – N – CING’, that is an outcome with: Engaging results, a Happy client, pleased YPP Newcomers, and meeting the expectations of the Congress’ International Guests, if not exceed. The goal of the workshop was to keep the process organic, international and a down to earth activity that we liked to call a ‘real, global, short & sweet ISOCARP bonding exercise”. In our approach to the workshop, we emphasised on working in diverse teams, facilitating cross-communication, providing a clear daily framework and focussing on the tasks and deliverables, rather than stressing on how to get there. The ‘Buddha Rules’ guided the teams, while also reminding us of the correct pronunciation of Bodø:

Image 9

“Buddha Rules” Be attentive when people talk, U will learn around the clock, Deliver, don’t hesitate Design, create, innovate! Have overall a good time As far as you meet the Deadline!


Day 1 - Sites’ exploration

John Echlin

Day 2 - Brainstorming

Rolf Schütt

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Process and Values

Day 3 - Developing, Discussing and Presenting


VALUES Following the site visits on the first day, the teams dove into the initial brainstorming exercise, producing a summary of their key observations, critical issues, analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and also the priorities. The second day, after a late night, was all about developing strategic priorities and drafting initial solutions. This day was perhaps the hardest – testing individual perceptions and understandings against the need to arrive at group consensus and direction. Following an even later night, the third day was intended to focus on the implementation of ideas in word and graphic form. Despite impending deadline, serious discourse was running high, with the need to resolve multiple competing raw ideas. Each day concluded with an early evening pin-up, discussion and feedback, including a presentation of progress with our Kristiansand YPP colleagues on the third day. Following this, another round of presentation was made by the YPP Bodø waterfront group to the site’s commercial developers. Literally working till last seconds prior to the full Congress Plenary, the teams polished and refined their ideas in an artful presentation, as though it were all so easy, so professional to imagine and eventually achieving what seemed unimaginable just days before.

As always it is this intense kind of intercultural cooperation, with individuals challenged to be willing and ready to propose their ideas, while also incorporating others’ suggestions as a team, that leads to the best results. To ask and respond, to request and provide – is not always easy. The young planners collaborated with drive and professionalism. Most importantly, the process emphasised giving the young planners freedom to develop their ideas and not forcing them in a certain direction. Not only did this strengthen their creative spirit, but hopefully also left them with a sense of confidence that they too have the skills and tools needed to address the uncertainties of climate change and achieve the ‘impossible’.

John Echlin and Rolf Schütt, Coordinators Process and Values

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Following field visits of the three case study areas and an experience of the Norwegian spirit, hospitality and culture, the coordinators put together two short lectures on airport developments, post-industrial urban waterfronts and trails. The purpose of these lectures was to provide an outside perspective to principles and strategies in planning for the three distinct yet interconnected case studies or projects of the programme – airport developments, urban waterfront and trails. Key points of these lectures are discussed here. Image 10 Inner courtyard of the square at the airport city of Frankfurt

Due to the wide-ranging impacts of Bodø’s airport relocation and its importance in the context of the first case study, this introductory lecture touched upon the role of airports in today’s urban planning profession and practice. This topic while being too complex to be covered in one lecture, only a summary of elements, current trends of airport design and their role in cities, micro and macro-regions was presented.

Site plan of the airport city of Frankfurt

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Outside Perspectives

Airports are vital, for they act as gates to the world, interconnecting cities and regions, which are nodes in a “global village”. Because of airports, long gone are the times when nations competed for economic advantage. Today, calculations for global competition revolve around cities. Incidentally, great cities of today do not necessarily have the largest airports, rather the largest airports are airport cities, characterised by multimodal, intermodal and


OUTSIDE PERSPECTIVES Airport Developments CONTEMPORARY AIRPORT CITIES SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WITH REGARDS TO FOLLOWING KEY PRINCIPLES AND ISSUES: PLANNING PRINCIPLES:

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:

• • • •

Integrate non-aeronautical functions (business, shopping, working, trading) Accompanying regional development. Synergise regional growth with master plan development. Flexible process with continuous re-design Multimodal, trans-modal systems.

• • •

Passenger kilometre growth per year from 1992–2005 was 5.2%, associated aviation emissions grew 87% from 1990 to 2006. Each return transatlantic flight equals 5 square metre Arctic ice melting per passenger. Of the total anthropogenic “radiative forcing”, aviation contributes 3.5%. Lack of international kerosene taxes give aviation an unfair competitive advantage.

trans-modal systems. This airport cities’ structure resembles cities – spatially and functionally. The largest structures encompass businesses, shopping, working, trading, meeting and entertainment activities. In some of the largest airports of the world, such as Atlanta, Dallas, Hong Kong, Frankfurt and Schiphol, two-thirds of airport revenue is generated in non-aeronautical operations.

incompatible with the global CO2 budget of 1,000 gigatons (UNEP, 2014).

The airports provide the chance to deliver strong positive impacts in the cities they serve, for example, radically improving their mobility strategy. But they also pose significant environmental challenges, as they interfere with the rights and interests of individuals affected by their growth and operations. Presently, aviation alone contributes nearly 5% of global greenhouse emissions. Scientists forecast a 270% growth of emissions from the aviation sector, between 2010 and 2050, making the industry

Therefore, a key challenge for the future of the aviation industry is to achieve the advantages of air traffic with technologies whose footprint does not compromise environmental stability. In this regard, the case group working on Bodø’s airport relocation, while developing its spatial approach, solutions and strategies, should respond to the fundamental question of: “What role can Bodø play in addressing climate change?”

The latter is the amount of global CO2 equivalent that can be emitted into the atmosphere, to keep the global temperature rise in this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels (Paris Agreement, 2015).

Outside Perspectives

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As an urban laboratory, Bodø possesses all the elements of a compact coastal city with extraordinary shoreline and natural resources. The Bodø workshop Case Studies 2 and 3, respectively dealt with the specific challenges of integrating an urban trail system and a new waterfront development into the existing urban context. Therefore, the second lecture offered an outside perspective of relevant examples from similar climates or situations, with the intent to provide food for thought for the teams to consider in their deliberations.

Bodø waterfront, Norway

Each instance of ‘Place’ highlighted a particular ‘Principle’ of best practices in waterfront or trail planning that could be regarded as universal, however responsive and reflective of the local needs and conditions. Many of these places are examples of post-industrial infrastructure being re-purposed to serve new community needs.

Inner Harbor, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Outside Perspectives

For example, as a place, the Inner Harbour of Copenhagen can be seen as an excellent example of the principle of ‘linking land-water uses and activities’, despite the loss of water-based commercial boat traffic from the demise of the small-scale industrial port. Obsolete port functions have been taken over by incremental development, a clean-up of the polluted waters, a return of public to the water’s edge and a corresponding increase in waterfront property values. Recreational boating, kayaking, swimming, sunbathing, event spaces and an extensive pedestrian


Post-Industrial Urban Waterfronts and Trails URBAN WATERFRONTS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WITH ATTENTION TO SIX KEY PRINCIPLES: PRINCIPLES:

PLACES:

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

Link land - water uses & activities. Preserve, connect and frame open spaces. Optimize public shoreline access. Understand the shoreline environment. Envision specific waterfront urban form. Consider the changing climate.

and bicycle circuit at the water’s edge, have replaced the former thicket of ship masts, barrels, cranes, and stevedores. In a similar vein, the move to integrate urban trails as part of a city’s linkage to nature has driven the redevelopment of former railroad’s right-of-way and stormwater drainage canals into vibrant and active public spaces. These post-industrial artefacts are frequently located in dense urban areas and have outlived their singular engineered purpose to be reborn for a variety of new uses. Because they are often flat and can extend for miles, their proximity to high-density neighbourhoods allows these new urban trails to function as alternative linkages for pedestrian, bicycle, sport and recreation, and even commuters. Critical to their success, is their essential connections with the surrounding network, enabling people to move where they want to go, and their

Inner Harbor, Copenhagen, Denmark. Western Harbor, Malmö, Sweden. Dominos Sugar Factory, New York. Hunter’s Point Park, New York. Olympic Village, Vancouver, Canada. West Palm Beach, Florida.

ability to create an outstanding user experience. With a changing climate and the need to mitigate volumes of urban flooding higher than what they were designed for, former hard-edged concrete canals are being dismantled in favour of a more nature-based approach to flood control. With these new urban trail interventions, opportunities to engage and educate public for a better understanding of their local environment ensue, while providing options to get close to wild open spaces and be a part of natural flows. This particularly resonates in Bodø, as the Norwegian culture is intimately connected with an appreciation and desire to live close to nature. This inseparable identity with nature will help Bodø further respond and adapt to the challenges of a changing climate.

Outside Perspectives

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UNDERSTAND THE USER

Image 11 Baana Bike Trail, Helsinki

Wadi Hanifa Wetlands, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

RESOURCES:

AIRPORT CITIES

• •

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Outside Perspectives

Ashford, Norman J., Saleh Mumayiz, and Paul H. Wright. 2011 Airport engineering: planning, design, and development of 21st century airports. John Wiley & Sons. Nevins, Joseph (2010, 13-Dec), Kicking the Habit: Air Travel in the Time of Climate Change. http://www.yesmagazine. org/planet/kicking-the-habit-air-travel-in-a-time-ofclimate-change. IPCC, Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1999), Cambridge University Press http://www.grida.no/climate/ ipcc/aviation/index.htm. Average passenger aircraft emissions and energy consumption per passenger kilometre in Finland 2008 http://lipasto.vtt.fi/yksikkopaastot/henkiloliikennee/ ilmaliikennee/ilmae.htm. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission http://science.sciencemag.org/ content/354/6313/747.


Post-Industrial Urban Waterfronts and Trails URBAN TRAILS SHOULD BE PLANNED ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES: PRINCIPLES:

PLACES:

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

Engage and educate the community. Understand the user. Connect the systems. Understand the local environment. Create an outstanding user experience. Consider the changing climate.

URBAN TRAILS

URBAN WATERFRONTS • • • • • •

https://urbanlifecopenhagen.weebly.com/. http://www.special-eu.org/assets/uploads/G%C3%B6ran_ ROsberg_Malm%C3%B6_Western_Harbour.pdf. https://ny.curbed.com/2018/8/9/17667488/new-yorkdomino-park-hunters-point-south-photo-essay. https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/ plans-studies/sustainable-communities/climate-resilience/ urban_waterfront.pdf. https://vancouver.ca/docs/sefc/public-realm.pdf https://www.vanalen.org/content/ uploads/2017/04/170426_VAI-Final-Doc-version_keyfindings.pdf.

Qweensway, Rockaway, New York. Baana Bike Trail, Helsinki, Finland. Shoal Creek, Austin, Texas. Wadi Hanifa, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Green Trail, Copenhagen, Denmark. Alameda Creek, San Francisco, California.

• • • • • •

https://thequeensway.org/. https://www.myhelsinki.fi/en/see-and-do/activities/ cycling-in-helsinki-three-routes. https://shoalcreekconservancy.org/trailplan/ https://www.akdn.org/architecture/project/wadi-hanifawetlands https://www.kobenhavnergron.dk/place/den-gronnestinorrebroruten/?lang=en http://www.resilientbayarea.org/final-team-reports/

UNEP (2014) Emissions Gap Report 2014. United Nations Environment Programme: Nairobi, Kenya. 2 UNFCCC (2015) Paris Climate Agreement. Conference of Parties. 21, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: New York City, U.S.A. 1

John Echlin and Rolf Schütt, Coordinators. Outside Perspectives

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CASE STUDY PROPOSALS Project Background, Analysis, Proposals and Discerning the Future

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Case Study Proposals


CASE 01 HOW TO CONNECT THE AIRPORT WITH THE CITY? Team: ............................................ Amalie Bernhardine Storli Nawaar Adam Jennilee Kohima Marie. L. Holmqvist Jakob Schackmar Pierre Renault Mario Shllaku ..............................................

Case Study Proposals

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"Den Arktiske Ånd" The story of the Arctic Spirit ANALYSIS OF PRESENT SITUATION In 2012, the Norwegian parliament arrived at a decision to close down the NATO base in Bodø, which has severe impacts on the city. However, the Bodø Kommune decided to take this as an opportunity to relocate the current airport and reinvent the appearance of the city. The space of old unused airport would provide Bodø with an opportunity to expand and double in size. The new location of airport will change the balance of the city. When developing an area, it is vital to formulate a plan which does not segregate the old city from the new, but instead integrates them in a manner that does not create any disjuncture. Additionally, planning for extraordinarily long terms in the context of pressing challenges our world faces today, sustainability in planning practice becomes a top priority and calls for exploration of methods and principles of sustainable transportation. In doing so, we also questioned the future of our case area and argued – whether the needs for an airport will persist in the coming 100 years.

WHAT TO DO WITH THE AREA OF THE AIRPORT?

T NEW AIRPOR

Figure 5: Location of Case area 1 – Bodø airport

Challenging assumptions: We are assuming that the marine industry, especially the fish farming and fishing industry is a key for future economic development, aligned with municipality’s forecasts. It can expand strategically if sufficient logistical linkages are provided. These are the advantages of a multimodal hub, encompassing new air, sea, rail and road systems within Bodø. These developments, along with dedicated infrastructure, will also attract industries to the city and create conditions for our concept of “Sili - cool Valley” city to thrive. Our concept to connect the old airport with the city developed on three main axes – the economy, the city and a green axis.

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Case Study Proposals

CASE 01

2_the city axis

1_the economic axis

3_the green axis


Strengths

Weaknesses

• •

The “old airport” is well serviced and therefore, installation of completely new underground services, such as water and electric pipes, would not be required, saving cost and time. Bodø airport and city center are strategically located, which is unique in the Arctic. It is a strength to build upon. The city center is located at 10 minutes walking distance from the airport gate.

With relocation of the military base, there would be a significant loss of employment. No clear strategy by the city so far.

Opportunities

Threats

To reinvent the image of Bodø, with e consideration of its regional status (Business development, fishery). The city of Bodø is predicted to expand in size and population. With relocation of the old airport, significant land area would be unlocked for future development, comprising a mix of land uses and residential living quarters. The new airport will be a pilot for electric aviation - with this, the idea of creating a «Sili-cool valley» to retain the youth of Bodø, came into play.

01

In essence, cutting out well paid jobs in the economy often has a ripple effect and negatively impacts lower level jobs. Unclear future development initiatives

Figure 6: Developing Strategies from the Vision

Case Study Proposals

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At a macro scale, Bodø wants to attain the status of being the “Gateway to the Arctic”, which aligns with the vision of the municipality. In doing so, Bodø needs to attract a large volume of people on an annual basis, for the influx of population has an integral role in the development of possible strategies. While on a micro scale, it is always important to take into account the population for whom you are planning. To perfectly capture the essence of Bodø, we need to focus on its inhabitants and their values. Some of the values that were picked up for developing our solution and strategies, include the close connections of Bodø’s citizens with nature and their love for adventure.

Thus, we need to deal with the new location of the airport as well as take into consideration the future of Bodø, its transportation and connection at regional level, urban extension and places that need preservation. The future development should place more emphasis on the sustainable transportation network. For instance, railway transportation on a regional city scale could help to compensate for the high consumption of planes. It can also be assumed that in years to come, the entire transportation network and modes of transport will transform completely, and the need for airports may cease to exist. Jet backpacks or flying cars could be the future or a greater reliance on high speed rail, could become preferred modes of commute. While the future is unpredictable, as planners we have the difficult task to plan for a future with long horizon, based on forecasts and predicted changes, which may or may not occur.

In this regard, the team in its analytical framework emphasized on two critical questions: How can the new location of airport be an opportunity for rest of the city/ region? What can be done with the old airport area?

Figure 7: Technological Innovations of Transport Modes

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Case Study Proposals


01

Figure 8: Proposed strategies for Bodø.

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Keeping this and the spirit of Bodø in mind, we developed a number of urban strategies that should be considered prior to development of the old airport. Three possible interventions were developed, which can be utilized at any stage in development or could even be the end result. In our first intervention, we explore the “flipped” side of life. In the second intervention, extreme sports while the last reimagines the area as the city’s backyard. The illustrations explain our proposed ideas and the reasoning behind them.

Case Study Proposals

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Fully urbanised

PROVOCATOUR 1 Fully Urban

This concept is inspired from the trend of cities, replicating other places in the world in a kitsch way. But, we raised a provocative question, which is “Why not copy Bodø? Flip the city on the other half?”

A place for future experimentation A balanced system of exchange of population, information, material, energy, water and capital will flow in a steady stream along the spine, efficiently distributing stocks to solve predicted shortages of specific regions. High-speed magnetic levitation and other emerging technologies will be implemented to transport people and stocks along the spine and adjoining subsystems.

Garden city The idea behind this proposal stems from inspiration attained from the site visit, whereby we relished that almost every household in Bodø has a beautiful, lush backyard with pretty flowers and fresh produce. Our train of thought led us to another question, which is – “Why not upscale this backyard image?”. Consequently, we explored the concept of transforming Bodø’s backyard into a garden itself. 70

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PROVOCATOUR 2 Norwegian Spirit

PROVOCATOUR 3 City’s Backyard


FUTURE SITUATION It is well established that master plans are not always the end result. Sometimes, it becomes necessary to challenge oneself and think of the possibilities lying right outside the box. In order to provoke your thoughts as readers, or possibly planners, we present three likely options for the study area along with a few urban strategies and orientation of developments, planned for the rest of the city.

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The future of Bodø can go whichever you like. Could Bodø replicate itself? Would that be feasible? Will it be a sustainable city? Or will we end up creating a situation like New York City, where high rise buildings stand vacant on most days. Could Bodø be the new “Sili-cool valley”, characterized as a testing ground for new innovation and technology? Could it retain the youth? Could it provide new grounds to explore and create new experiences? Or could Bodø be a garden city, with farms and fields of sunflowers, orchids and fresh produce? Ideas and innovations shaping our cities do not require replication of great ideas of other cities. These should come from within the city. Finding key elements which are representative of the city and capturing them in a way that embraces this uniqueness, is vital and shall be the guiding principle for planners in practice. Fundamentally, no two cities are alike and they shouldn’t be! That’s what makes these cities unique. That’s what makes Bodø unique.

Figure 9: Illustrations of proposed alternative ideas

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CASE 02 WHAT TO DO WITH THE OPEN SPACES AND CULTURAL RESOURCES? Team: ............................................. Gerald Paragas Mahak Agrawal Pinar Bilgic Piotr Zelaznowski Sarah Mahadeo Yuliia Khairullina ..................................................

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Blue Green Bodø – Grow • Protect • Connect The story of the capital of the North with a green heart and soul CONNECTING THE SEA WITH THE MOUNTAINS: PRESENT ANALYSIS Bodø, a town located north of the Arctic Circle, conjures up images of a place so inviting that it makes you want to stay. In fact, Bodø in English translates to – live (Bo) or die (dø). Nestled in the heart of coastal Nordland, this charming, laid-back town with a modern feel and colourful past, is home to spectacular natural landscapes, delectable gastronomy and a small local population embodying true essence of Nordic lifestyle. The very essence of this Nordic lifestyle in its most idyllic setting makes it impossible to leave Bodø.

Defining the problem Water is integral to the story of Bodø. The town’s history and culture is intertwined with the element of water. It was integral in the genesis of Bodø as a fishing town with a bustling waterfront, exhibiting its past exploits in fisheries and trade. Bodø later became a strategic port town with a major military base during the Second World War. Surrounded by sea on three sides, Bodø’s urbanscape is marked by a spectacular green belt along Bodø river, stretching from the Norwegian sea in the south to the Keiservarden mountains (illustrated in Figure 11). This belt, the green heart and soul of Bodø, tells the story of Bodø through snapshots of past colliding with the present, whilst its location and linkages across Bodø provide great opportunities for the future. 74

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Elements of culture and heritage, such as military bunkers, Gåtefulle Bautasteiner (Norwegian term for marvellous standing stones) of the Iron Age and the city cemetery, share space with mid-summer activities, farming and places of recreation. The trail stretching along the river, is desired for preservation by the local population due to its cultural significance and association with the Nordic lifestyle. This study area, which the team dubs as ‘Blue Green Bodø’, is also significant for its unique location. Its proximity to city centre, the new development area and the new airport, provides an interesting opportunity for the area. This leads us to defining the problem: How to connect the sea with the mountains while preserving and linking the trail with its surroundings for future Bodø, wherein the area functions on different levels as a green, urban and sustainable addition to the town as a whole?

Key Issues Several issues concerning urban flow and connectivity within the case study area and with its surroundings, were explored during the workshop. Four key issues have been identified specific to the problem.


1. Patchwork of spaces CASE 02

WHAT TO DO WITH THE OPEN SPACES AND CULTURAL RESOURCES?

Figure 10: Location of Case area 2 – Urban Trail along Bodø river

Meandering from the mountains to the sea, the Bodø river flows through a patchwork of spaces, which includes a large belt of green fields, parcels of farmland with a hiking trail along the river. In the south, where the Bodø river meets the sea, is an important heritage site where a new museum is underconstruction. From here onwards, the trail continues northward along the river, passing through parcels of private properties, farmlands and other heritage sites.

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2. Discontinuity in flow

Continuity of this trail system is impeded at several locations by various transportation networks of Bodø. The trail is disrupted by the old and new highways as well as a railway line that cuts through it and a few private properties, flanking the trail. Beyond the highway system, the trail meets with Bodømarka mountain and Sjunkhatten National Park in the east, eventually leading to Keiservarden mountain.

3. Identity of Place

The river, its trail system and the surroundings are more than mere physical entities. They exude metaphorical attachments to the Nordic lifestyle, connections of the town and its citizens with the nature.

4. Uncertain future

The trail holds significant value in the hearts and minds of Bodø citizens, but its future is debatable in the context of upcoming developments in the area. As the population of Bodø is expected to grow, there is significant pressure from private developers to open this protected area for construction. Figure 11 : Location of Site (in green) and its contextual linkages across Bodø, Norway

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STRENGTHS

OPPORTUNITIES

WEAKNESSES

THREATS

Figure 12: SWOT Analysis

What is Missing? A resilient system is also reflective of its past. The trail system along Bodø river has always held significant cultural value and qualities for the town and its citizens. What is missing, however, is its continuity and a clear direction in envisioning the future of Bodø. The system does not require any radical changes, rather it requires small scale interventions to make the system better as a whole, than the sum of its parts.

SWOT Analysis To determine principles guiding the vision and interventions for the green heart and soul of Bodø, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and 76

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Threats) analysis was conducted (as indicated in Figure12). The analysis reinforces the argument for small interventions, reflective of the area’s cultural values and significance, whilst at the same time responsive to key threats and weaknesses associated with conflicting interests, uncertainties and discontinuity. The guiding principles emerging from the analysis are: Grow, Protect and Connect. These principles form the foundation of the proposed solutions and interventions throughout planning and design phase, permitting the team to harness the strengths and opportunities, while working around the threats and weaknesses.


Challenges:

The proposed interventions based on the principles of ‘Grow, Connect, Protect’ will also attempt to address key challenges that the case area, as an integral part of Bodø, faces in connecting the sea to the mountains.

Challenges at the Macro scale One of the key challenges for Bodø relates to its vision. The planning authorities and local government have drawn a vision for Bodø as the ‘capital of the North’. Yet the challenge for the town is how will it become a capital of the North, when its demographic projection forecasts a population increase of 30,000 by 2030, while there is continuous emigration of the youth to bigger cities. It thus becomes pertinent for Bodø to tap its economic potential while aligning with the national goal of increased exports from fisheries. Bodø also needs to optimally utilise the inflow of money for the town’s dynamic construction sector and its workers commuting from the suburbs and neighbouring towns on a daily basis, usually by car, as frequency of the bus service remains insignificant. This preference and prominence of private vehicle use also raises demands for parking spaces. With the building codes supporting underground parking structures, growing and preserving urban greens becomes another challenge. With climate change being one of the key challenges to Bodø, its weather pattern characterised by high wind speeds, precipitation and warm periods in winters, has high probability of becoming erratic. Here, Bodø’s greenbelt and Bodø river along with its scattered still-water ponds and greens spaces become more valuable for their resilient character, whereby these natural buffers regulate stormwater flow and localised flooding At the same time, the greenbelt is one of the primary reasons for detachment of the city centre and the suburbs, imposing a barrier between the Sentrum and the students at Nord Universitet

located on the periphery of Bodø. Measures of expanding public transportation, investment in student housing and development of offices, needs due support and coordination to ensure that the area where we connect sea to mountains, continues to be the soul of Bodø.

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Challenges at the Micro scale The case area contains large parcels of agricultural land with fertile soil. In the context of a national goal limiting the consumption of open land and protecting agricultural activities, enhanced use of farmland becomes a key priority. However, this objective is challenged by multifaceted uncertainty. The first challenge relates to development pressures in and around the case area. It is uncertain whether the arable land would be converted to non-agricultural uses or cleared off for speculation. If the agricultural use is to be preserved – will it be used for farming, livestock, allotment gardens or any other use that ensures sustainability of greens and efficient use of soil fertility. The third-dimension questions the potential of agricultural land in connecting the area with citizens of Bodø as well as the sea to the mountains. It is uncertain whether the land can support potential business plans, which include seasonal and perennial activities varying at different levels of the trail, transforming the agricultural lands from green capital to catalysts of reinforced connections.

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Bodø’s water edge has a history of bustling fish trade and the potential for sustainable aquaculture industry. However, emigration of skilled youth from the town poses a challenge. The potential lies with the Nord Universitet, which has a dedicated research centre to aquaculture and marine planning. Optimal utilisation of the collaboration might reap economic and social benefits, attract specialised workforce back to Bodø, assist in the diversification of jobs and most importantly render the south end of the trail with a vibrant character. Also, it is not certain whether the military bunkers scattered throughout the site can be used for other purposes or not. Lying unutilised they can be put to multi-functional uses of farm nursery or heritage tourism. But, their ownership and utility rest with the military. Thus, envisaging any change of use or function poses a challenge. Finally, the most significant challenge pertains to the flow and continuity of the system. The river, in its course from mountains to sea, encounters various physical barriers. At some point, the trail diminishes near private properties and then reappears somewhere down the slope. But the system has inherent values throughout its course. We build on this strength and incorporated the values in proposed solution and planning strategies.

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Image 12

Water edge bustling with fishing and trade activities

Image 13

Artist’s impression of the new Norwegian Jekt-trade museum

Grow • Protect • Connect: The Proposed Solution Every city has a story. What is Bodø’s story? Take a walk with us as we explore the scope of interventions through innumerable shades of blue and green of Bodø.


Story of Blue Green Bodø Commencing from Bodø’s water edge in the south, the blue reservoir of the Norwegian Sea is composed of layers of history, embodying the cultural heritage of the town and its citizens. The edge marks the origin of Bodø as a fishing town, bustling with trade. By 2019, this story of origin and traditions will be immortalised with the Norwegian Jekt-trade museum. The museum will offer an authentic experience of a vibrant life in 18th century Bodø, whereby its outdoor space will be used for a number of local, traditional boats called nordlandsbåt, a café, gift shop, temporary exhibitions, annual mid-summer festivities, theatrical performances as well as art and craft demonstrations. This water edge and the surrounding sea, however, continue to offer expansive opportunities for a blue growth of Bodø. The potential of aquaculture is already being explored and tested. It is envisioned that in the future, Bodø’s proximity to the Norwegian Sea and the mountains will lead to a booming industrial sector, characterised by the trade of seafood products and an influx of tourists for recreation and youth for education. From the water edge, glimpses of green fields and traditional architecture entice you to explore further inland. Trailing the course of Bodø river up north, to the mountains from the sea, leads us to a spectacular belt of urban greens resonating the green soul of Bodø. Here, the story of Bodø unravels before

our eyes through snapshots of the past persisting in harmony with the present. Along the course, one can easily sense the essence of the Nordic lifestyle with its rife values providing opportunities for growth, protection and connection.

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Continuing our chase for the source of Bodø river up north leads us to the foot of Keiservarden mountain. A trek up the natural monument of Bodø is punctuated by sights of picturesque lakes, ethereal forests and greetings of friendly locals making the climb, which appears to be a regular fad for all age groups. A climb to the summit rewards us with stunning views of Bodø and its environs. Trekking downhill to Sentrum, Bodø awaits further exploration. A stroll around the city introduces us to various cultural spaces. While each has its own character, together they coalesce to reflect and add value to Bodø’s unique identity. This story of Bodø however, has no end. It evolves with the vision of Bodø, a town for which the whole is surely greater than the sum of its parts.

Image 14

A sea of opportunities (from left to right) for blue green growth of Bodø: ranging from seasonal activities to education, from aquaculture to arts and crafts.

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Image 15 NORDIC LIFESTYLE “KOSELIG”

A warm embrace that provides people with a positive emotional support in everyday life and communication through the natural environments like textures, materials, forms and even smells, directly surrounding the person.

“UT PÅ TUR ALDRI SUR”

Whenever you go outside it will give you a happy spirit. People are always greeting each other during outdoor activities, and it’s an unwritten rule that you are greeting people even if you don’t know them.

“IKKE DÅRLIGE KLÆR, BARE DÅRLIG VÆR”

Never any bad clothing, only bad weather. One would dress for the weather in a very practical way, and the weather should never stop the Norwegians from outdoor activities.

Image 17: The Nordic lifestyle, its essence and key values

Envisioning Bodø

Spatial Approach: Principles and Strategies.

A clear vision for Bodø is reflective of the town’s rich history, culture and lifestyle along with innovation, creativity and boldness necessary to realise its ambitious goal of becoming ‘the capital of the North’. Inspired by magnificent aurora borealis and Bodø’s natural assets, our vision for Bodø encompasses shades of blue and green. Harnessing eminent values of the Nordic lifestyle, the proposed strategies and interventions are guided by three key principles of - Grow, Protect, Connect.

Formulating strategies for connecting the sea to the mountains was essentially an exercise, questioning and brainstorming ideas on scale and extent of spatial interventions (indicated in Figure13).

The first principle envisions the growth of population and economy. The second aims at the protection of heritage and the natural environment, while the third emphasises reestablishing connections of people of Bodø to spaces and experiences. 80

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The primary approach for spatial organization of the trail system along Bodø river aims at combining existing zones, nodes and elements of the system, in the context of the directions of development, the location of components within the recreational zone, preservation of floodplain, climate change impacts and development scenarios thereafter. At a macro scale, the spatial approach aims at reinforcing the trail system’s recreational character, connecting the main recreational nodes with functional areas and links within and beyond the system. At the microscale, interventions will differ across key components and functional differences of the nodes.


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Figure 13: Ideas on the extent and scale of spatial interventions

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Spatial Approach and Strategies at Macro Scale The trail system along Bodø river, to begin with, is disrupted at several locations, but also shares linkages to four key nodes (indicated in Figure 14a) bordering and connecting the bluegreen system with the urban fabric. The four existing nodes have different characteristic functions, structures and activities. At the same time, they are organised in a manner which allows a minimal spatial intervention, harnessing the infrastructure and utility of existing node, to transform them into multi-utility nodes (indicated in Figure 14b), adding to recreational and economic values of the node and its surroundings. For instance, farms can also function as education centres for children or urban gardens, outdoor cafés or farmers’ markets. That is, a farm can function as green capital as well as a catalyst connecting and bringing the community closer to nature. In ensuring connectivity of the sea to the mountains, continuous flow of movement and interactions within and beyond the system was imperative. This has been achieved through proposed multimodal connectivity (indicated in Figure 14c). Internal movements will cater to pedestrians, with parts of the system open to horse riding. External movements will be supported through automobiles, bus service, rail, ferry and cable car transportation. This diversity of modes across routes will not only reinforce and expand the connectivity of the system but also render vibrancy to the area. Embarking on this trail, all visitors and locals will get acquainted with the cultural past and present of this green soul of Bodø, and experience the energy and spirit of the culturally rich and physically diverse region. Figure 14 (from top to bottom): 14a: Nodes and networks cutting across the case area and linking it to surroundings. 14b: Multifunctional use of nodes. 14c: Multimodal connectivity within and beyond the system

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Figure 15: Connecting the Sea to the Mountains: Spatial Interventions at Macro Scale

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Summing up, these spatial interventions at macro scale synthesise the local history and culture into one inspiring trail of experiences (indicated in Figure 15), encompassing new spaces as well as new uses for existing spaces.

Strategies and Interventions at the Micro Scale: Interventions at the microscale emphasise preserving and linking the trail with its surroundings for future Bodø, wherein the area functions on different levels as a green, urban and sustainable addition to the town as a whole. The trail is delineated into three areas, for the sole purpose of elaborating a scheme of interventions at the microscale (indicated in Figure 16). These include: Solfjorden, Rønvik Jordence, and Keiservarden.

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Figure 16 (From Top to Bottom): Proposed interventions for Keiservarden, Rønvik Jordence and Solfjorden


1. KEISERVARDEN extends from the railway line to the summit of the trail. Minimal interventions in this area are proposed to protect its ecological sensitivity. Only a few activities such as mountain farming, a cable car station, and paragliding are proposed in addition to its current utility as a viewpoint and summit of hiking trails. 2. RØNVIK JORDENCE extends from the main highway system to the railway line. The area shall include activities and elements of a social community centre, multifunctional open spaces for events like summer food festival, music festival and bicycle festival. Other proposed elements include family farm apartments, educational farm clubs, marketplace, salmon fishing farms, observation tower, shelters for bird watching and camping sites. Military bunkers will be retrofitted to support an art and crafts village. The trail in this area will also serve as a path for enhanced experiences of spirituality with churches, monuments and a cemetery dotting the area. The path will connect to bus service and infrastructure of parking and information centre for navigating through the trail as well as spaces of skiing and horseback riding. 3. SOLFJORDEN extends from the water edge to the main highway system. Spatial interventions for the area aim at connecting and expanding functional uses of pre-existing spaces through activities and elements of – aviation museum, fishing museum, military museum park, Jekt Trade Museum, ethnographic village, fishing farms, still water ponds and channels for seasonal flooding. Summing up, a vision of ‘Blue Green Bodø’ is achievable through small-scale interventions at different levels, ensuring connection of the sea to the mountains. The project in terms of implementation can be carried out in three non-exclusive stages (indicated in Figure 17). In the first stage, a primary network of mobility will be established,

to improve continuity of the hiking trail for pedestrians and non-motorized transport with checkpoints interspersed throughout the functional zones. Next, supporting infrastructure will be developed. It shall include a pathway adjacent to the main trail network, connecting different areas of the city to the main trail system running along the river.

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At this stage, diversification of the existing spaces along the trail and re-purposing of existing structures will commence. Subsequently, park activities and nature areas, cross-pedestrian pathways, green corridors connecting the site to city and green measures for reducing vehicle load on the network, will be defined. In the last step, regulations for use, sustainability and resilience of the region will be finalised.

BLUE GREEN BODØ: DISCERNING THE FUTURE/ A REVERIE3 Grow, protect, connect- What can we achieve by applying these principles through minimal interventions? Imagine the year is 2030. It has been 12 years since the Young Planning Professionals’ workshop took place in Bodø. The population is growing. The Bjorge family moved to the city in 2025 and lives in one of the apartments recently developed on the waterfront. They are a new generation of people living the true Nordic lifestyle. Case Study Proposals

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Ole and Marit have two kids: Jan and Ida. They are in kindergarten, where they learn with other children about local produce and culture. Introduced in 2020, this unique program runs with great zeal in all kindergartens of Bodø. Amongst other activities, kids are taught to grow and take care of edible plants as well as different kinds of meals they can prepare. They are encouraged to eat local, seasonal crops and get actively involved in the preparation of lunch from what they grow. Ole works at the university, where he is conducting a unique research on sustainable food in a harsh climate. As a new gateway to the Arctic, Bodø became a city where Nordic lifestyle is being promoted through a combination of sustainable tourism, education and research. Tourists are encouraged to experience the trail, connecting the Norwegian Sea in the South to the mountains in the North, and stay over at one of the eco-farms along the trail system. Marit works for a consulting start-up, founded and based outside of Bodø. The group strives to share the Nordic ideas and help other municipalities incorporate the values in plan formulation. As part of her work, Marit often travels to Oslo, and thanks to the new Hyperloop station next to the airport, she can now commute easily and within a reasonable time. Often on weekends, the entire family spends time outdoors, either hiking in the mountains or skiing. They meet a lot of tourists that also came to Bodø to experience a different way of life. Some of the tourists are in fact considering a move to Bodø in the coming years, to start a business or undertake research. 3 Fictional characters used to express future narrative and experiences of Nordic lifestyle from different perspectives.

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Figure 17a: Development of Primary Mobility network.


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Figure 17b: Supporting infrastructure development

Figure 17c: Connecting parks and other greens

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CASE 03 WHAT TO DO WITH THE WATERFONT? Team: ................................................ Anna Oursler Ozge Celik Mariana Fiúza Mthobisi Masinga Ida Marie Granmo Xiaoyu Wang ................................................

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“Bølgen” The story of the Wave of Change for Bodø’s Future Waterfront Development ANALYSIS OF PRESENT SITUATION The premise of case study 3 focused on an area along Bodø’s waterfront, as depicted in Figure 18. We were tasked to think strategically at district and neighbourhood scale, argue through design and plans about: how should Bodø develop its waterfront? What is the ideal concept that the community would like? Throughout the process, values and ideas of Bodø Kommune and developers were kept at the back of our heads. These questions were imperative in the formulation of the concept, as the area had become redundant, inaccessible and lacked an aesthetic appeal. The site is currently being used for a range of recreational and industrial activities, which hinders full public access and pedestrian flow along the waterfront and linkages to the castle from the pier. Based on SWOT analysis illustrated in Figure 19, the strategic location of the waterfront was acknowledged as a key strength of the area, for the location marks Bodø’s establishment, and is essentially Bodø’s heart and epicentre, from where development of the city through its fishing industry initiated. Moreover, it is located at a 10-minute walking distance from the city Sentrum as well as the airport. More than its physical feature, the site has a long history and heritage, which provides an opportunity to enhance Bodø’s identity. 90

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WHAT TO DO WITH THE WATERFRONT? CASE 03

Figure 18: Location of Case area 3 – Bodø waterfront

We are at a point in time, where climate change is a critical issue for humans, animals and plant life. Cognisance of the changing climate, depleting natural resources, and an exponential rise in human demands, calls for planners and policy makers to rethink their policies, strategies and planning interventions affecting land use, land development and consequently the natural environment. We need to acknowledge the severity of changing climate and various roles a planner can play in this equation, as underlined in the theme of ISOCARP’s 54th Congress: “Cool Planning: Changing Climate and Our Urban Future”.


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Figure 19: SWOT Analysis

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Proximity to water and presence of water sports activities, like sailing, are primary sources of attraction to the site. However, gentrification is a recurring threat that urban development projects face and it should be considered while designing strategies for the future development of Bodø’s waterfront. In a global context of unprecedented climate change, cities are facing considerable stress, from shifting weather patterns, to rising sea levels that increase their vulnerability. Keeping this in mind, the weather of Bodø is another important factor that should be taken into consideration, for the site is exposed to natural conditions of strong wind, waves, and uncertainties associated with rising sea level. It thus becomes imperative to achieve an environmental and human-friendly development, using a low carbon approach and sheltering the site from local extreme weather conditions, whilst strengthening resilience and robustness of the site.

Missing linkage to the castle from the pier

Furthermore, the proposed developed plan and design for the area shall respond to physical obstacles of topography, fences, et cetera as well as its negative image of being an inaccessible waterfront.

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Bishop’s house - local heritage


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Boats - local culture

Proximity to the water - exposure to the natural conditions

Fence hinders accessibility to the site

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PROPOSED SOLUTION

Figure 20: Four guiding principles

The area was named ‘Bølgen’ which translates to the wave in Norwegian tongue. The name reflects changing dynamics in Bodø’s climate, as well as its outward focus on future developments for the city. We saw developments through waves of change, similar to changing the weather pattern. The area’s landscape is continually sculptured by waves and thus, we defined the catchphrase for our case study as ‘a wave of change’. The team explored ways to make a more connected, resilient, diverse, and unique neighbourhood (indicated in Figure 20), which reflect a sense of identity, human interactions with climate, at the centre of its design solutions. These four principles were developed using the strengths and opportunities offered by, the site while thinking about kind of changes Bodø envisions for its future (reflected in Municipality’s and developer’s vision). These principles also intend to reflect on nature of approach, the world requires from Bodø and other municipalities around the globe, to tackle climate change. Elaborated hereafter are the four underpinning principles which guided our design work:

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Figure 21: Strategies to improve Resilience


Resilience:

Figure 22: Strategies to improve Connectivity

We wanted an area that would be resilient to local climate, adaptive through its public spaces, and could be used all year round. For instance, we propose the development of a tide park which is accessible during high as well as low tides, along with a series of sheltered spaces such as covered walkways which can be deployed in harsh weather conditions. (see Figure 21).

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Connectivity: The strategic location of the site provides an opportunity for easy accessibility from all around the city, including its waterfront, the heart of Bodø, however, it is not. That is why the project proposes transformation of the area into a new mobility hub between Moloveien and Prinsens gate while extending Bodø’s car-free zone along the waterfront. We also propose completion of a pedestrian path around the peninsula, extending to the castle on opposite side, expanding connectivity and flow of pedestrians, aligned with the theme of 54th ISOCARP Congress, and an imperative principle of planning and design (see Figure22).

Figure 23: Strategies to increase Diversity

Diversity: A successful neighbourhood is a diverse neighbourhood, with people from all walks

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of life, ages, races, income levels, living and working in a development characterised by a multitude of land use and activities. In addition, the idea was to challenge the current waterfront development trends by showcasing local production within mixed -use neighbourhoods and providing activities for all of the inhabitants in Bodø to practice their trade. In doing so, a boost in local economic development becomes realistic, supported by the integration of people which starts mushrooming along the waterfront, instilling vibrancy in currently passive space (see Figure 23).

Figure 24: Strategies to preserve Identity

Identity: Bølgen lies at the heart of Bodø. The neighbourhood has a rich history and heritage, which is fundamental to its strategic location and establishment of its prime local economy of the area at the time. It is pivotal to draw historic as well as contemporary identities of the city by connecting people to the waterfront throughout Bølgen. Considering and questioning our design strategies and solutions for developing Bodø’s waterfront, it is important to plan for highquality spaces which do not turn its back to the waterfront or rest of the city. Accounting the city’s local climate, history and diversity, one can attain a better understanding of complex relationships existing between the city and the ocean, creating ‘a wave of change’ (see Figure 24).

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Figure 25: A more connected, resilient, diverse and unique Bodø’s waterfront


BØLGEN - A WAVE OF CHANGE

DISCERNING THE FUTURE

We believe the new seafront site will become a human-oriented, inclusive place for all, with solutions for a pleasurable stay on site during winter time when the weather is not comfortable outside, which will also make Bølgen a “place for all time”. Bølgen will become the new economic engine of the city, attracting young talents from the local university to stay, work and live, a life by the bay. History and memory of the city will be reflected either through its preserved and gentrified heritage buildings, or preserved shoreline, which will tell tales of its past, of

After the waves, the wind and the sea level had settled and there was not much left of the old waterfront. As the water came creeping up towards the pier, inhabitants of Bodø started to move the city towards the mountain. The waterfront is now feared as much as it was once loved. Houses were the first victims of extreme climate. Buildings that were once highly attractive due to the panoramic view of ocean they offered, now have still water ponds or pools in their basements, a feature no one asked for. Salt from waves has hurried the decay of concrete walls, and power never came back after the last wave hit.

its transformation as the seafront, as well as the transformation of activities along the seafront (see Figure 25).

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Of course, Bodø still has space for urban development, the old airport field is still there. The inhabitants of Bodø have slowly started to re-urbanize the place with small wooden houses that can withstand the sudden shifts of winds. Here we are today, looking at Bodø from a distance, telling ourselves: “We told them to do better”

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YPP BODØ WORKSHOP FINDINGS The prevailing consensus of the participants at the YPP workshop is that Bodø possesses an extraordinary wealth of history, culture, ideas, natural resources, human capital and energy, and is ideally poised to face the challenges of future growth in a changing world. Our key conclusions and priority recommendations from the three case studies for the City of Bodø fall into four broad categories, each an outline to guide the development of follow-up actions.

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Coordinators’ Conclusions

John Echlin and Rolf Schütt


COORDINATORS’ CONCLUSIONS

Priorities and Recommendations

1. Preserve and celebrate local culture:

3. Pursue economic innovation:

The Nordic culture and lifestyle is a renewable but threatened resource. In all new developments reject homogenous and monotonous international influences and emphasise local values, principles and relationships. It should be seen as an indigenous stratagem for shaping new growth and innovation. Preserving buildings and landscapes is not just saving the physical resource, but also retaining and perpetuating local identity.

While Bodø possesses a rich history, it has always held strong ambitions for the future. This collision of the past and future is a vital part of experiencing Bodø’s identity. The airport represents not only this link to the future but also the opportunity and challenge of eliminating, reducing and mitigating the impacts of all transport modes on the changing climate. Bodø’s priority should be on economic innovation, education, future technologies and climate-friendly mobility. The new airport should use the opportunity to become the ‘model’ airport of the future.

2. Establish linkages and multiple connections:

4. Integrate climate resilience strategies in all development:

Bodø possesses a wealth of isolated natural and cultural resources, and landmark heritage sites of international significance. Currently, the opportunity to experience them is fragmentary and disconnected, the only chance to experience them is available by car. Bodø’s priority should be on connecting these detached resources, whether it be along the shoreline, the river or to the mountain tops, creating a cohesive network for all ages, abilities and mobility modes, including by water. Establishing linkages to create a rich continuous experience within the city will further reinforce priority 1.

Climate change, while an existential challenge for the entire world, is fortunately or unfortunately an advantage for Bodø. The city is in an ideal position to become the transportation ‘Gateway to the Arctic’. To offset potential climate change impacts, Bodø needs to consider mitigation strategies such as green energy and reforestation as well as adaptation strategies such as emphasising local agriculture for food security and building more resilient shorelines to anticipate the impacts of changing weather patterns and a rising sea.

Coordinators’ Conclusions

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The post-airport city is a cool city From the very first day of the workshop, we were debating and reflecting upon different issues that relate to the future of our profession and the challenges we will need to face in the tasks presented to us by the planners from the kommune, as well as in our (hopefully) long careers. Consequently, we did not limit ourselves to the concrete tasks. Rather, we were thinking far beyond. We not only discussed alternative research methods, but also the philosophical approaches and time frame for our interventions. Saying that ‘sky’s the limit’ would not be an exaggeration at all, especially in the context of the given tasks. Marcin Sliwa

It was very clear to us that the workshop should be much more than just a design charrette – we should think and consider both the intermediate and short-term implications of our proposals, and at the same time explore the different longterm scenarios and possibilities of evolution of our societies and environments. The airport relocation process is one example to illustrate this. The easy way of approaching the task would be to propose a schematic land use proposal and design concept, supplemented with “good practice” examples from different cities around the world (some consultant groups before us actually did exactly that). We, however, wanted to pose a greater challenge to the local planning department, the congress participants, and perhaps most importantly, to ourselves. Our point of departure was stating some general questions during an intensive group brainstorming: Why airport? Do we need to plan our cities around their airports? How would our society function after the era of aviation? There are three considerations to be made here. The first is the pace of technological advancement in transportation. Commercial aviation has been around for less than 100 years, yet we are asked to guide city development for about the same timeframe or even beyond that. But, how can we be sure that Coordinators’ Conclusions

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a few decades from now we will still move around by airplanes? And if so, would airplanes require similar kinds of ports to land and depart? While teleportation is rather unlikely, other sorts of transportation may take over. Will space travel be commercialised? Are jetpacks going to be a thing? Will bullet trains achieve travel times comparable to long-distance flights? All this requires rethinking ways in which mobility is organized, both between, and within cities. The fundamental question, therefore, is – how will we travel in the future? One thing we can say for sure – advancement in transportation technology will require further coordination of infrastructure between cities. This brings us to the second point – global connectivity of cities by different modes of transportation, be it via air corridors, waterways, roads or rails. For many of us, moving around has become a lifestyle. Regardless of whether we travel voluntarily or because we have to, our thoughts follow us. On one end, there are armies of inspired consumers coming back home from our trips creating demands for exotic food or home decorations in our hometowns. On the other end, there are professionals and investors constantly borrowing ideas from other cities and making different places look the same. As a result, you can now find the same architecture, the same public spaces, the same restaurants, the same brands and the same jobs, pretty much everywhere you go. 104

Coordinators’ Conclusions

Why do we keep traveling then? Why move around, if you can find more of the same everywhere? In anticipation of your next thought about the importance of the weather, and the estimate of how many people simply travel to get to somewhere where it is warm and sunny, let me introduce the third, and perhaps the most important consideration – climate change. Scientists keep reminding us that commercial aviation contributes significantly to global warming and if we want to stop this harmful process, we should drastically reduce unnecessary air travels. At the same time, the increasing frequency, instability and magnitude of extreme weather conditions, such as wildfires, tropical storms and droughts, might discourage people from traveling and make popular travel destinations unattractive. Such are the consequences of our irresponsible behaviour and transportation patterns. Unless a new, environmentally sustainable mode of longdistance mobility is invented, we will need to get used to the thought that in the future, we will spend more time locally and forget about frequent weekend trips abroad. What do we do if we cannot travel anymore, then? This is where we – as city and regional planners- come into the picture. We need to challenge ourselves to imagine and plan cities beyond what they are now. In this context, we need to imagine what a city after the airport or commercial aviation altogether shall be. What then, is the post-airport city we are talking about? The post-airport city is a cool city – in both senses of the meaning of ‘cool’. On one hand, it is a city that cools down the environment by reducing its contribution to global warming. On the other hand, it is a cool city that offers spaces and opportunities to spend good quality time, so that its residents would not think about having to go elsewhere. How, then, do we make cities cool?


1. First and foremost, we need to pay more attention to small and medium-size cities, like Bodø. Coolness should be abundant, not scarce. 2. We need to make sure that all these places get better education and job opportunities. Consolidation of a university and continued support for research activities in Bodø are steps in the right direction. 3. We need to invest in and treasure culture. The breathtaking music, delicious food, and fantastic art we have experienced during our short stay in Northern Norway indicates that the potential of the region in this sense is enormous. 4. We need to shape good public spaces and open up access to waterfronts, mountaintops and farmlands. Our proposals for the three sites in Bodø reflect that very well. 5. We need to respect the local climate and get the best out of it. Nordic people know very well how to cope with their harsh weather conditions. Saunas, for example, can bring some warmth even to the coldest of places. 6. We need smart application of technology that is available to us. For example, not all meetings need to be done face to face. In the Bodø congress, different ways of online and long-distance participation were

successfully tested, allowing those living far away to take an active role, and even present their ideas while still in their pajamas and flip flops, which saved tons of GHG emissions. 7. In all this, we need to find a balance between “importing” ideas that would bring the best of the far away places we dream of, and enhancing the best of the local heritage and expertise we are proud of. 8. The last and most important principle is the need of involving the community members and recognizing them as the local experts who know best what kind of ‘cool’, and what kind of ‘city’ they want. It is the local residents who should identify the priorities and needs for government intervention. We, urban planners, should always follow the desires of the people, not the money or the machines. To sum it up, cool planning is about creating cool places where people want to be, and from which people wouldn’t want to go, which then enables an unintended side effect of cooling down the environment and saving our planet. Yet, as it often happens, one question leads to another or several other questions. Elaborating on the ideas and proposals discussed here, and in all other sections of this report requires a lot more time than what we were given in Bodø. For us, this is just the beginning, not the end. To continue our journey, however, we need you to join the debate. How do you imagine the future of cities and mobility?

Marcin Sliwa, YPP Group Leader Poland, Norway Coordinators’ Conclusions

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AFTERWORD The theme for this workshop was ‘Cool and Connected’, and a connection between urban areas is critical in shaping more effective and sustainable cities. In Bodø, we have several different areas that need to be transformed, developed or strengthened. They also need to be connected with their surroundings and the city.

Kristoffer Larsen Seivåg

It was our great pleasure to host the 54th ISOCARP Congress as well as organize and host a young planning professionals’ (YPP) workshop in Bodø. The workshop gave us an opportunity to gain an outside perspective of 21 young and talented city and regional planners from 16 different nations all across the world. This was a lifetime opportunity for our little municipality and provided an immense pool of valuable inputs to the planning issues we are dealing with. Though the YPPs came from different countries, small and big cities, it was interesting to note that urban planners around the world face many of the same issues regarding climate change. No matter where they live or work, all are working to develop effective cities with shorter travel distances, compact, dense built form, as well as to improve resilience and adaptation in response to the changing climate.

For the workshop, we identified three diverse case study areas, all in a state which calls for enhancing their connection to existing urban areas through new ideas. All three case study areas are at an early stage of planning, and the proposal of new ideas and strategies from the young planners was exactly what the areas yearned to kick-start their planning processes. The YPPs produced a tremendous amount of work during the workshop days, also the deliverables had a very high standard, especially considering the short time allocated for this workshop. The posters had a great design, and we were surprised to see the magnitude of local content and knowledge the YPPs managed to absorb and incorporate in their plans and designs. For me personally, as a young planner, it was fantastic to invite and gather so many talented people working with the planning issues from all around the globe. It gave me great value to discuss our local planning issues with the YPPs and learn of their diverse backgrounds and perspectives. Getting to know this group of young planners has widened my planning network and creates possibilities for future cooperation.

Kristoffr Larsen Seivåg, Urban Planner, Bodø Kommune Afterword

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Image 16

Ankara

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Image 17

Frankfurt


From Ankara to Frankfurt, from Bodø to Keiservarden. Since I have spent all of my life in metropolitan city regions with different characteristics, I am always charmed by the beauty and uniqueness of middle-sized towns. When I started walking the short distance from the airport to Bodø’s centre, all I really knew were some pieces of information regarding Bodø’s past, current, and potential future urban challenges. It is true that compared to its size, Bodø’s urban issues are quite multi-layered and complex. However, through the eyes of an urbanist, I tend to observe challenges as opportunities. My visit to the Arctic region represented a personal once-in-alifetime experience as I have never been so far up north before. Along with that, Bodø brought some other first-time culinary experiences, too – from fish for breakfast, to whale, reindeer – even for a borderline vegetarian like myself. But Bodø has much, much more to offer to its passers-by. A very fulfilling experience for nature lovers would definitely be a late afternoon walk to Keiservarden, surrounded by silence and a spectacular scenery where the two oceans meet. Keiservarden, Bodø

Pinar Bilgic, Turkey, Germany

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e itud t a r y g y to be P, m R d A t n OC exte portuni r IS y l a d e p D o kin ith an o t e k li w uld ing me odø. o w d I war e YPP B a r fo of th a part sing a M i obis h t M

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I am grateful to have been a part of this international ambit of experts. Though the time frame was short, I will always remember the knowledge and experiences earned through the YPP workshop and the ISOCARP Congress.

Ima

Ima

ge

19

ge

18

ISOCARP and its YPP programme provided opportunities to expand my network of friends, colleagues and business opportunities. It has allowed me to connect with people from all walks of life, culture, and ethnicities. One of the highlights of my stay in Norway was the country’s climate, cuisine, and people. Whilst, I did not get the chance to experience the northern lights, Bodø’s cold, rain and strong winds made up for it. Some of the key lessons I learned from the YPP include; collaborating and planning with a diverse group of people, coming from different countries, speaking different languages and varied levels of experience. Furthermore, I learned conflict management and Norwegian humour from new friends. Lastly , I look forward to seeing everyone in Jakarta, Indonesia and continue my participation in ISOCARP events to further my career and associated network. Sincerely, Mthobisi Masinga, South Africa

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It’s a very special opportunity to work in a group of seven individuals from seven different educational, national, personal and philosophical backgrounds. We had some heated discussions throughout the workshop, and I think we all got our views tested and challenged on our road to the final project output. I also think we all learned something along the way. Or rather, I think we all learned a lot, not just about Bodø and planning, but about other people, the world, cooperation and ourselves. Without discussion and friction, comes little passion or innovation. Being challenged required us to listen and reflect. I would argue that trying to see the other side of an argument, is one of the best exercises to learn something new. Therefore, I cherish every discussion we had and know that this experience will stay with me for years to come. Marie. L. Holmqvist, Norway

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A community garden in Trondheim

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Lycian Way, Olympos, Antalya

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Owners of TaskÄąsla


Apart from everything in Norway costing an arm and a leg, I reminisce the joyful days spent in Norway. I wasn’t expecting such a good experience. Even though I was feeling under the weather, I continued to work and be a part of team efforts. They kept me motivated to work and challenged me. In my attempts to find further motivation to work, Bodø’s ambience and atmosphere proved challenging to draw from. As an academician and a young planner, I define cool planning as a successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. It begins with creative ideas. From this perspective, the creativity of individuals and teams is a starting point and a necessity for cool planning, but not sufficient. We all learned the difficulties and privileges of teamwork. However, I believe as the YPP Bodø team, we managed to give something more than a mere generation of a new idea or an insight. In the context of challenges and multiple problems associated with population growth, urban sprawl, and redevelopment, we needed to create more flexible ideas for our common future, the latter being affected by global warming and demands of society. We questioned these demands, wondering how these demands compare to the needs of society.

In the end, I learned that even if you have “cool” ideas and solutions for such problems, you cannot claim that the work is done until it touches someone’s heart. My primary emphasis was to engage further with the “smart” society in a general process of creation and progressive thought. In my endeavour to remain conciliatory throughout the process, personal uniqueness was often a challenge. In the end, did we change their minds? I have no doubts. Cheers from Turkey! Ozge Celik, Turkey

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“Communication is key”, is what I take home from this YPP workshop. Not only is communication important to express your own ideas, but also to listen and understand the opinions of others. As planners, we are tasked with communicating our goals and visions clearly to the public and all professionals involved, in a known environment. However, this workshop put me in unknown waters, to work in an extraordinary group comprising people from four continents and multiple countries of origin including various cultural backgrounds. I learned that it doesn’t matter what profession you pursue or what language you speak, as long as you work in a respectful way as a team to reach the group’s goal. I wish we had more time to pull even more creative and visionary concepts. Looking back, I think that the specific outcome of our group work was a challenge of its own: Questioning the communication of future developments using the language of today. Jakob Schackmar, Germany

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My experience in Bodø, especially the YPP workshop was exceptional, surpassing my expectations. I am glad to be a part of the ISOCARP YPP family and recommend to all young planners. All the YPPs are remarkably well-read in their respective planning backgrounds, willing to share and guide others, which makes the whole approach unique. I consider myself fortunate to have been a part of the 2018 Bodø YPP workshop and learn as well as share with such great minds. The experience provided me with the opportunity to strengthen and build my skills as a planner, in order to streamline and expand my passion, which is land use management. The practicality of the case studies we worked on made the experience interesting and valuable. Bodø is a fascinating city, radiating warmth despite being north of the Arctic circle, rich in nature and providing a sense of place with a true Norwegian feel. Jennilee Kohima, Namibia

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Brukkaros Mountain in Berseba, Namibia

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Nama-people dancing the traditional dance, dressed in cultural attire

Image 21

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Breaking the ice Growing up in an international family gave me the chance to experience multicultural environments since early childhood. The side effect was that it made it difficult for me to understand my real identity. Eventually, after talking to an older member of the family I realised that this mix of backgrounds is my identity. Living and working away from home has taught me how important it is to represent own identity while at the same time respect others’. The workshop in Bodø challenged a group of talented young planners, who had never met before, to do this and deliver results based on common sense. For the coordinators, it was also a challenge, one we dealt by not intervening too much, and often letting it go. In real global politics, this is what we do. We observe how the largest economies elect their leaders and shake our own concerns. Climate change is a consequence. We continue breaking the ice in a bad sense. While Bodø was a chance to break the ice in a good sense. In doing so, we came up with the “Bodø (Buddha) rules”: to listen, to work, to talk, to design, to deliver, to enjoy but also to meet the deadline. I think we all hope that everyone will follow these rules, especially our leaders, who must meet the deadline. Rolf Schütt, Bolivia, Germany 120

Copacabana, Titicaca lake, Bolivia


To me, the YPP workshop in Bodø was an opportunity to step back from daily practice and participate in an intense laboratory that uses the tools of urban planning in fresh new ways. When you take 20+ young professionals from around the globe who are the best in their field, from different cultures, backgrounds, languages, and interests, put them together in an unusual place, provide a problem to solve and a deadline, magic happens. One throws out the rulebook and begins to see the world differently. Very quickly, each team must get to know their peers. A site visit and quick overview provide the rawest of data from which to define and question key issues. Huge differences in individual personalities and interpretations give way to a strong desire to communicate, to find a common language and achieve something authentic as a group. There is creativity in abundance and the results are far greater than the sum of individual contributions. The YPP workshops are an act of defiance. In a time when climate change is the new paradigm shaping cities, when nationalism, misinformation, denial of science and lack of social cohesion are the norm, YPP workshops are a chance to test new ways of thinking and collaborating. They demonstrate that the future is multi-cultural, multi-lingual, full of shared responsibility, optimistic, holistic and hopeful. I am confident that all of us will take this experience home to our practice, where we can be active drivers of positive change. John Echlin, USA, Switzerland

Lucerne, Switzerland

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As a planner, each one of us is moulded to work and learn in a multicultural environment. We study, conduct fieldwork, discuss and formulate plans and policies for different spatial levels across the world, with classmates coming from different parts of the country and at times, the world. Even when a planner starts doing a 9 to 7 job, a planner continues to work with and learn from colleagues with varying educational, social or economic background. Before embarking a 22-hour journey, I was nervous-excited to meet “young” planners from across the world and experience the Aurora. Once we started working on case studies as part of the workshop, I realised differences in priorities and points of discussions/ arguments. But at the end of the day, they were constructive discussions where you could speak and listen to diverse ideas. What was really interesting for me was learning more about a plethora of opportunities and interesting projects fellow planners were working on. It was also interesting to note differences in the role of planning profession and professionals coming from 14 countries. I found it interesting because opportunities for planners, especially female planners in India are minimal. The profession itself is misconstrued for architecture, engineering, management and for that matter even event planning. Basically, everything except planning.

Overall, the Programme has been an enlightening and memorable experience. Being hosted by Bodø was simply cherry on the top. Before coming to the city, I had some preconceived notions of Bodø, from what I could gather through travellers’ blogs or YPP information package. But upon arrival and a short detour post-Congress to other cities, south of the Arctic circle, experiences were drastically differentin terms of city character, hospitality, walkability, and the surrounding environment. Coming from a country where you seek peace, serenity in a temple or a stupa or a hill station, Bodø is a town which is an embodiment of tranquillity. One can find serene, clean, calm environment all arounda sensation not easy to come by in any similar sized town in India, let alone Delhi. If there is anything, I could use a time turner for, it would definitely be for better interaction and probably bottling some fresh air to breathe back home. Mahak Agrawal, India

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A view of Bodin Kirke from the trail along Bodø river

Peace Pagoda of Darjeeling in West Bengal, India

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Name

Given Name

Country

Role

Adam Agrawal Bilgic Celik Echlin Fiuza Gall Granmo Gunay Holmqvist Khairullina Kohima Larsen Seivag Mahadeo Masinga Oursler Paragas Renault Schackmar Schütt Shllaku

Nawaar Mahak Pinar Ozge John Mariana Costa Marques Tjark Ida Marie Zeynep Marie Langsholt Yuliia Jennilee Kristoffer Sarah Mthobisi Anna Gerald Pierre Jakob Rolf Mario

South Africa India Germany Turkey Switzerland Brazil The Netherlands Norway Turkey Norway Russia Namibia Norway Trinidad and Tobago South Africa Uganda Philippines France Germany Germany Australia

YPP, Associate Editor YPP, Lead Editor YPP YPP ISOCARP Workshop Coordinator YPP YPP Group Leader YPP ISOCARP VP YPP Programme YPP YPP, Design Lead YPP, Associate Editor Bodø Municipality Coordinator YPP, Associate Editor YPP YPP YPP YPP YPP ISOCARP Workshop Coordinator YPP

Sliwa Storli Wang Zelaznowski

Marcin Amalie Bernhardine Xiaoyu Piotr

Norway Denmark China The Netherlands

YPP Group Leader YPP YPP YPP


YPPs' AND COORDINATORS' CONTACTS E-mail

Working/Studying in field of:

nawaar.adam@gmail.com mahakagrawal2016@gmail.com pinarbilgich@gmail.com ozgecelik187@gmail.com john@echlinadvisory.com mari.fiuza@hotmail.com tjark.gall@urban-framework.com idamarie.granmo@vefsn.kommune.no gunay@isocarp.org marie.l.holmqvist@gmail.com j.khairullina@gmail.com jkohima@gmail.com Kristoffer.Larsen.Seivag@bodo.kommune.no sarah.mahadeo@gmail.com masingamthobisi@gmail.com aoursler@bbbarch.com gvparagas@upd.edu.ph pierrenault@hotmail.fr jakob.schackmar@ru.uni-kl.de rolf.schuett@systemarchi.com mshllaku@hassellstudio.com

Town and Regional Planning Urban Planning and Public Policy Urban Development Urban and Regional Planning Urban Planning and Architecture Urban Planning Urban Management and Development Urban Planning Urban and Regional Planning Urban Planning and Architecture Urban Planning, Urban Design and Architecture Spatial Planning Urban Planning Maritime Spatial Planning Urban and Regional Planning Urban Design Urban and Spatial Planning Urban Panning and Urban Design Urban Planning Urban Planning and Architecture Urban Planning

marcin.w.sliwa@gmail.com amaliestorli@hotmail.com xiaoyu.wang119@gmail.com piotr.zelaznowski@mlaplus.com

Urban Planning Architecture Urban Planning and Urban Design Urban Planning and Architecture 125


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PROGRAMME PARTNERS ABOUT ISOCARP

PARTNERS

ISOCARP is a global network of recognised and highly-qualified planners, which was founded in 1965. The Society brings together individual and institutional members from more than 80 countries worldwide covering a vast geography of UNESCO regions of Africa, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and North America, Latin America and the Caribbean. As a nongovernmental organisation, it is recognised by the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHCS/ UN-HABITAT), and the Council of Europe. The Society also has a formal consultative status with the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). The objectives of ISOCARP are to improve cities and territories through planning practice, training, education and research. ISOCARP promotes the planning profession in all its aspects. ISOCARP keeps its focus on being a politically and commercially independent network of professional planners. The main tools of ISOCARP are the yearly congresses, symposia, workshops and publications.

Bodø Kommune is the local government, and is responsible for most of the public services such as primary schools, local health care, culture institutions, and technical infrastructure. In addition, Norwegian Kommunes are also the planning authorities. Bodø kommune is the biggest employer in Bodø with over 4000 employees that provides the daily services to its 52 000 inhabitants. The County Council of Nordland has a regional governmental role. In terms of area, Nordland is the second largest of the 19 counties of Norway, and has 240 000 citizens in total with Bodø as the regional capital city. Nordland County Council provides services such as upper secondary education, public transport, business development and cultural experiences. Hundholmen Byutvikling Hundholmen is a local developer driven by the Jakhelln family. The Jakhelln family has been in the development business in Bodø since 1807, and Hundholmen Byutvikling develops both housing projects and commercial properties in the city centre. They focus on offering something extra through their projects for the buyer, the neighborhood and the city.

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Takk for din oppmerksomhet Bli med ISOCARP! Thank you for your attention Join ISOCARP!

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FIGURES Figure 1, 3, 4, 10, 18:

Based on data and imagery from Nordkart (2018) and Bodø Kommune (2018).

Figure 2, 5:

Based on data and imagery from Nordkart (2018), Avinor (2017) and Bodø Kommune (2018).

REFERENCES Background images used in the layout are designed and sourced from Freepik.

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IMAGE CREDITS All images provided by YPP participants and coordinators except as noted below. Image 1:

Bodø Kommune

Image 2:

Artur Malinowski

Image 3:

Tim J Keegan

Image 4:

M. Asiff Ebrahim

Image 5:

Hassina Seedat

Image 6-7:

G.Paragas/T.Lim, City Government of Tacloban

Image 8:

The Aviation Museum in Bodø

Image 9:

Yan Wei (顔なし)

Image 10:

Michael Busch

Image 11:

Moriyama & Teshima buro

Image 12:

Bodø I Bilder

Image 13:

Visit Bodø

Image 14:

Visit Bodø, Nord Universitat

Image 15:

Visit Bodø

Image 16:

Murray Foubister

Image 17:

Marco Verch

Image 18:

Unknown author. License: PD-1923, PD-Old-70

Image 19:

South African Tourism

Image 20:

Dr Thomas Wagner

Image 21:

Namibia Daily News

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COOL AND CONNECTED: Planning Bodø through Urban Flows © ISOCARP 2018 BUZZ ©YPP Year 2018 Volume 28 ISBN: 978-94-90354-57-2

Lead Editor:

Mahak Agrawal

Associate Editors:

Jennilee Kohima, Nawaar Adam, Sarah Mahadeo

Design & layout:

Yuliia Khairullina, Tjark Gall

Reviewers:

John Echlin, Rolf Schütt

BUZZ Editor-in-Chief:

Zeynep Gunay

Published by:

ISOCARP

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Profile for ISOCARP | Young Planning Professionals

ISOCARP BUZZ ©YPP Year 2018 Volume 28: COOL AND CONNECTED: Planning Bodø through Urban Flows  

ISOCARP Young Planning Professionals' Workshop Publication on the occasion of the 54th ISOCARP World Planning Congress "Cool Planning", Bod...

ISOCARP BUZZ ©YPP Year 2018 Volume 28: COOL AND CONNECTED: Planning Bodø through Urban Flows  

ISOCARP Young Planning Professionals' Workshop Publication on the occasion of the 54th ISOCARP World Planning Congress "Cool Planning", Bod...

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