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Volume 4 Issue 48

12 April 2007

Women In Cambodia Due to Women Day a group of students from our school made a briefly interview with Ministry of Women’s Affairs. A few interesting questions were asked by students and answered by H.E Dr. Ing Kantha Phavi, Minister of Women’s Affairs. Q: What is the situation of Cambodian women in the society? Do women have right to participate in social affairs, organizations and other works? How many percentages of women are participating in social affairs? In order to protect women's rights, does Cambodian law system have any punishment for the ones who violet and abuse the women? Due to the fact that the government has got a policy to support women, which was ZAMAN NEWSPAPER Zaman, Publisher Mustafa Dur, Editor-in Chief Gurkan Cil, Editor at Large

Prepared By 10-B

them to generate their own incomes and know how to manage those incomes on their own.

clearly defined in the first term of the national election, we've got the national procedure to support the women's status. Since then, the Ministry of Women's Affairs, institutions concerned, and the procedure of the government have supported the women's status in a better way. All of these performances have encouraged various institutions to focus on the women's issue. As a result, the women in Cambodia today are living in a better and healthier situation. We also have collaborated with many institutions concerned to work on the health issue, such as the Ministry of health and many other NGOs. Also, we have collaborated with the Ministry of Education to find the solution of schooling enrollment for the girls in order to encourage them not to give up school. In the primary schools, the number of the students between girls and boys enrolled in school is equivalent, but for the secondary school, the number of the girls is always decreased by 15% compared

with the number of the boys. Moreover, in the higher education, there is less number of girls who are able to go on studying. Due to the social customs in Cambodia, parents always quit their daughters in order to help them to gain their incomes. Therefore, the Ministry of Women's Affairs, as well as many other government institutions, is willing to increase the number of girls at school—secondary school, high school and the university—So the educational sector will be improved to a great extent. It is a fact that the number of the girls at school is less at the higher education. By using the policy of the government, the Ministry of Wo m e n ' s A ff a i r s h a s b e e n encouraging the Ministry of Education to collaborate with civil institution in order to motivate parents to allow their daughters to go on studying in the higher education as the boys do. To support the women to live in the high standard of living and in a respectful way compared to the men, we have to encourage

L o o k i n g forward to the economic sector, we have established many training centers to train those girls and women to obtain essential skills, which are required in various jobs. We also have worked with the private sector as a partner to encourage and motivate those girls and women, especially for those who have graduated to get first priority to work in any employments. As we have seen today, many female workers in the garment factories, as well as many other enterprises, work without using their brain capacities but their physical strengths, so we have to contribute to the institutions concerned—the Ministry of Social Affair, the Ministry of L a b o r, a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f Education—to encourage girls to be at school in the number that is equal to the number of the boys. Since the ancient time, many kinds of work have been considered belonging to the women, such as: weaving, sewing. Therefore, all those women have been able to earn only a small amount of income to support their families day by day. In other words, they merely have abilities to sale only a bucket of water grass, shells, or snacks, and they have never had even a chance to work as a director, a leader, or a high level position in any remarkable businesses. Mostly, 80% of the women work by using their physical strengths more than brain abilities. continued on page 2

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GENERAL However, nobody realizes that women work over their limited strengths. Therefore, the ministry has its own strategy to encourage women to have well paid job and to establish the women association to continue promoting their own economic sector. We have collaborated with the Ministry of Health, Development Partner, donors, and many other NGOs to work on health issue because if the women live in the worse situation caused by their health problems, they will never be able to attend to school or work for income as they are sick. The reason why we focus on the health of the women is that we think it is the main issue which is required to be solved.. There is a high rate of mother deaths while giving birth in Asia, as they don't know how to take care themselves. In addition to this, they don't know how to have clean water, nutrition food to maintain their pregnancies. Sometimes they don't even go to have health checked because they don't want to pay, or the hospital is far from their houses. Although the Ministry of Women's Affairs is not specialist related to these issues, it still sends its staff to coordinate with the institutions concerned to work on these issues as much as possible to deduct the mother and baby death rate while giving birth. Other than that, the government is worried about Malaria, especially in the remote areas. According to the research of many international organizations, in one family, 30% of debt is caused by their health problems especially because of the women. It doesn't mean that women are weaker than man, but as women always want their children and husbands to have good foods without thinking of their own selves. This is the reason that we have to change the behaviors of those women. It means that when the women are sick, their husbands have to help them to look after the children.By doing so, they don't need to save their money only for the purpose of curing their illnesses. We, therefore, have been encouraging all institutions to think about the health issue of the women. Also, we have to provide the chance for the women to make decisions and to work in Gender analysis. At the beginning, we have supported the women, but

we haven't thought of how the women should work with the men to be supported by those men, so we have to encourage those women to work in a high position. Therefore, Gender analysis is important, but it has to be collaborated with the other sectors in order to give opportunities to those women to work in the good position. Today, we can see that the number of women w o r k i n g i n th e g o v e r n m e n t institution is greater than before. However, they still work at a low level staff, meaning that they are not the department director, team leader, director-general, secretary of state, or officers. Among 27 institutions of the Royal Government of Cambodia, there are only 2 women who are

does, she should also have a high position in the government institutions. There is no woman serving as a provincial governor except Steoung Treng, which has only one woman who is serving as a deputy provincial governor. According to this figure, we can see that there is a big difference between men and women who are serving in the provincial level. However, the women also have got the abilities as all those men do. Therefore, we have to find the way to send those women to work or to make a decision in the government institutions. For the following week, the local elections will be held. Many parties have started to do their electoral campaigns. During this

working as officers, and 8 others are working as the secretary of state, but 5 of them are working in the Ministry of Women's Affairs, as this ministry involved working with the women. And as far as I know, but I'm not sure, there are 3 more women who've just been assigned to serve as the director-general in the ministry. It is still the less number of the women. Since this Ministry has to work with the women, the other two women are assigned, but there is no women working in the other institutions. Now there is a woman who is serving as a deputy director-general in the Ministry of Information. The Ministry of Women's Affairs, therefore, has to monitor on the Gender analysis in the aim of helping the women not to work in the low position. It means that if she has the ability as the man

time, we will be playing an important roll to collaborate with one of the NGOs (Get), which has the skill related to this issue to encourage all those parties to assign the women to be the applicants for their parties in order to provide the opportunities to those women to be a commune leader, first level officer, second level officer, or staff in the commune level. We saw that there were more than 1000 of women who were serving as the election officers during the commune election in which was held in 2002. It was just the first time that we got such a result like that, and also in the second time, we expect that the number of women who will serve in the same position will be increased. Because of the women's issue, the women have to find the solution on their own by attend-

ing to every commune level. Many women thought that if they go to work, they will find difficulty in the house work such as: the way to take the water out of the well because the well is far away from their houses, so we have plan to drill the well nearby their house to facilitate them to be more available to access in using that well. Not only these difficulties, but also many other problems that we need to find the solution for and so we can empower the women to have their own rights balance to the men. Today the women have got enough opportunity to work in the commune level because the Ministry of Women's Affairs, the commune chief, and many other institutions concerned provided them the chance to work as the village chief, deputy village chief. We have seen that at least 3 women who are assigned as the officers in the commune level, and in some villages, there are two women working with only one man in the commune office. The women support policy has encouraged the women to have a chance to make better decisions. We believe that the next commune election that will be held on April 1st, 2007, the number of women who will stand for the applicant will be increased. Although we have seen the great number of women in the applicant list, 5 men would be in the first priority number in order to become a commune leader in the previous years. Now the new rule was set that if there are 3 men working in the commune level, there must be one women working with; and if there are 5 men, there must be 2 women, meaning that we have to put the two women in the first priority. Why we do so, because if it is a big commune needed 7 people to work, nothing would be the problem; but if it is the small commune needed only 5 people, and the women are in the 7th priority, the women would never have the chance to work at that commune. That is why we have set that among 3 men, there must be one woman; and among 5 men, there must be 2 women. It means that between these two choices, at least one of them will be selected. In some communes, the women are in the first priority, meaning that if their parties win the election, they will become a commune leader. continued on page 3

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GENERAL The Gender analysis has Women's Affairs?" encouraged the women to participate in the position of The Ministry of Women's Affairs making decision. We also have works to help women,Even if we trained many female officers are not specialists on that issue, from different ministries and w e a r e a b l e t o w o r k a s a institutions to work with this coordinator. It means that when issue. UNDP has spent its own the women face with a problem, fund to pay for TNK and many they can come to us, and then we other institutions to teach those will send them to the various female officers. Because we N G O s . We h a v e s e e n t h a t don't want somebody to say that CWCC and ASK have provided being a woman is always lack of hostage to those women facing ability. We ourselves have to with a problem." We have collaborated with the struggle it by improving our abilities to work in the position as Ministry of Health to help those the men do. One more thing that pregnancies who lack of nutrition we have to state is the Law on f o o d . W e j u s t w o r k a s t h e Protection of Women. The Royal information providers for those Government of Cambodia has w o m e n . B e f o r e p r o v i d i n g initiated this law in order to information to them, we always p r e v e n t v i o l e n c e a n d t h e gather them first, because we vulnerable people. This law was are able to prepare any docuapproved 2 years ago, and it will ments related to their problem be used for the following years. easily. It is the fact that when the The reason that I take this law to w o m e n m e e t t h i s p r o b l e m , discussion is that there was nobody comes intervene, but we m u c h d o m e s ti c v i o l e n c e i n have to realize that this is the Cambodia that forced us to find a human's problem. Whoever solution. Beside this law, we persecute, wound, or abuse have the law to give right to the against any individual who has to victims to file a complaint, we be punished by law, because the have the law on the Prevention of law will protect us. Human Trafficking. For the Q: What are the crisis that person who takes advantage from doing this will face before Cambodian women have? For law. This law has been approved instance, the women work in and amended to protect those the Ministry; do they have girls from cheating. In addition, pressure from the chief of we have the Common Law, Law senior? on Marriage and Family, and As I have mentioned above, it Cambodian Legal Code to depends on 5 sectors, which protect the women better. were considered as the priority We have already had the Law such as: health sector, legal on Land Ownership; however, sector, economic sector, and this law was set comprehen- e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r , ” s i v e l y w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g Lokchomteav said. “I don't want whether man or woman who has t o r e - m e n t i o n a b o u t t h a t the right to manage their own problem.” There is a great number of properties. For instance, when they buy a house, they always women who don't know the put their husband's names to be economic decline in their families the owner. Unfortunately, those because sometimes, they are women do not get anything to s i c k a n d c o u l d n ' t w o r k f o r f e e d t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r income, so they don't think too dependent children when they much about this problem. We, therefore, want to change such get divorced. We have used Legal Protection k i n d o f b e h a v i o r s i n e v e r y to protect those women, and I sectorand that's why we have to have also stated about the 5 focus on Gender. The aim of establishing our sectors above. The five-year Neary Rattanak plan will serve all Neary Rattanak plan (woman is a those women, including their valuable diamond) is to change standard of living, status, and the men's behaviors in the Cambodian society. We don't position, said Lokchomteav. mean that men always look down Q: "I would like to ask that if or loathe the women, but those the women come across with m e n a l w a y s l o o k o v e r t h e any problems, may they ask women's abilities. In the ancient for a help from the Ministry of time, women were considered as

a white cloth and the men as gold, meaning that gold is still gold even though it's fallen into the mud while the women are a vulnerable gender. I want the woman to become a diamond. If a man is gold so a woman is a diamond so that they are able to live together without any arguments in their family, Therefore, we have considered the 5 sectors as the priority, meaning that whatever we do is to improve the standard of living of the women. When women face with a health problem, they cannot find any information related to this issue because there are not enough health centers located where they live. And another problem is that the women don't think much about their health. There are many problems that we have to solve: There is still a group of people who always exploit and cheat the women to work as sexual workers and there are many other problems related to the women in the garment factories. As Cambodia is a developing c o u n t r y, t h e r e a r e n ' t m a n y investors who are willing to invest in our country. And some garment factories, which have already existed in Cambodia, have removed to another country because of the tax and as they cannot generate their incomes, but some of them are still processing. We have been really worried about the future of Cambodia because all those women depend only on the garment factories, so when they removed, all those women had to return their homeland. Q: What are the problems that Cambodian women have after divorce? What kind of organizations or things do you have to help the women after divorce? Do you have any organizations which support the women who need protection and shelter? We generally experience such kind of cases about divorce that when a woman files a complaint against her husband, we help them find a lawyer. In contrast, at the end they always quit their complaint because they think that it is not possible for them to live without their husbands. There is no policy of Royal Government of Cambodia that encourages divorce, but we still help them as much as we could

do. Sometimes, especially when their husbands abuse them day b y d a y, t h e y d e c i d e t o g e t divorced. There are many NGOs, which have got lawyers to give those women advices, Coll, for instance. So they could decide whether they should live with their husbands or get divorced. Sometimes, those w o m e n h a v i n g s o m e p r o blems—being cheated to be sold as the sexual workers in the foreign countries—and they can escape themselves, and reported to us. As soon as we receive their contacts, we collaborated with the Ministry of Foreign Affair, the embassy, and many other NGOs to help them return home. Q:What kind of activities or programmes do you have to make Cambodian women more aware of their rights and what do you suggest us to help the women become more conscious about this issue? We have a group of girls to help girls in Cambodia. I see you want to help girls so please go on informing the other girls to realize themselves and change their behaviors in order to improve their skills. By working as a network, you can disseminate all these issues to the other girls by collaborating with the ministry, because the ministry is willing to help those girls support them. I really appreciate your school because it has been educating, especially the girls, to make up themselves, to wear the uniform, and to behave in a good manner. However, in many other private schools, I've seen that the students don't wear an appropriate uniform, I mean the student uniform. Consequently, that could make all those female students to become a more vulnerable gender. They might be cheated to be sold or to do something inappropriately. Dissemination and strengthening all those girls are really important in order to help those girls have opportunity of having a good position as the boys do in the workplace. If the females are able to reach the doctor degree more, we can also use that skill to serve our jobs.

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Now, we would like to provide a brief description about Khmer or Cambodian New Year for people to get to know Khmer Culture better. In Cambodia, Khmer New Year is the greatest traditional festival, and also it is the greatest national holiday because it is three days of festival and sometimes can be four days. Khmer New Year begins on April

13th or can be on April 14th, depending on the "MohaSangkran," which is the ancient horoscope. In fact, Khmer New Year originally began on the first day of the first month in lunar c a l e n d a r, w h i c h c a n b e i n November or the beginning of December. In the Angkor Era, the 13th Century, the Khmer King, either Suriyavaraman II or Jayavaraman VII, was the one who changed the New Year to the fifth month of the lunar calendar, in April by the solar c a l e n d a r. 9 5 % o f K h m e r population are farmers, and the period from November through March is the busiest season for Khmer farmers to reap or harvest the crops from the rice fields. Khmer people can find free time in April because there is no rain, and it is very hot, so Khmer farmers have the time to take vacation after they have worked very hard to gather the rice crops from their rice fields to get their income. Therefore, April is the right time for Khmer in Cambodia to celebrate New Year. The Khmer New Year festival

originated from Bramhmanism, a part of Hinduism, which was a religion that Khmer believed in before Buddhism. Later on Buddhism became associated with the festival and then took all the important roles in theThoamabal's attributes allowed him to become a layman in charge of religious ceremonies

for all classes of people. Upon hearing this news another religious leader Kabel Maha Prohm, decided to challenge Thoamabal with tree riddles. He vowed that if Thaomabal could successfully answer the riddles he, Kabel Maha Prohm, would be beheaded; however if Thoamabal could not answer the riddles correctly then it would be Thoamabal who would be beheaded. Thoamabal insisted on having seven days to answer the puzzling enigma until Kabel Maha Prohm agreed.

eagles talking. The female asked, "What will we eat tomorrow morning?" The male eagle replied, "We will eat the flesh of Thoamalobal because tomorrow he is going to be beheaded by Kabie Maha Prohm due to his inability to solve the riddles". The female then asked, "What are the riddles?" The male answered, "The first riddle is, where is luck to be found in the mornine?" Of course the answer is that luck is on

the face because people always take water to wash their faces.

The second riddle asked, where is luck located at noon? It is on the chest because people always take water to wash their chests. Finally, the third question asked, where is luck located in the evening? The answer is that luck is on the feet because people always wash their feet in the evening. Thoamabal overheard all of the conversation and so happily returned to his temple. In the morning Kabel Maha Prohm came to ask For six days Thoamabal could Thoamabal if he could answer not solve the problems and knew the three riddles. that he faced the prospect of being killed by Kabel Maha T h o a m a b a l s u c c e s s f u l l y Prohm the next morning. He answered each of the riddles. t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o n h i d e Kabel Maha Prohm realixing he himself and let his life fade away had failed, called his seven by natural causes. He hid himself daughters, who were maids of beneath a pair of sugar palm Branma, to learn of his fate trees in which a pair of eagles .Kabal Maha Prohm said, "Your father is foing to be beheaded in were nesting, that night T h o a m a b a l o v e r h e a r d t h e front of Thoamabal. If my head is

set on the earth, if will set fire to Earth, if my head is thrown into the air, the rain will evaporate, if my head is thrown into the sea, the sea will dry up. Therefore I ask you, my seven daughters to get a holy metal tray on which to set your father's head". Having said this, he beheaded himself and his head was passed to Neang Toungsa, the eldest of his d a u g h te r s. Sh e p l a ce d h e r father's head on the holy tray and then proceeded to walk around M o u n t M e r u f o r o n e h o u r, respectfully keeping the tray on her right hand. She then took the tray to the temporary sanctuary of Phnom Kailas. At Phnom Kailas, Preah Visakam created a hall where seven holy glasses (Pheakabatei Saphea) were set. The glasses were for use by angels during ceremonies. Each year the seven angels took turns to invoke the head of Kabel Maha Prohm to and complete a holy procession around Mount Meru. Following the holy procession the angels returned to their heaven. festivity. Usually, Khmer New Year is celebrated for three days: The first day of New Year is called as Moha Sangkran, and it can be described simply as the inauguration of the New Angels who come to take care the world for a one-year period. This year is the year of Snake (Msanh), and Moha Sangkran of the New Year will begin on April 13th at 11: 36 PM. The leader of Angels is named KimiteaTevi. People need to clean and decorate the house and also prepare fruits and drinks for the New Year inauguration and to welcome the New Angels at every single home. Elderly people like to meditate or pray the Dharma at that time because they believe that any angel who comes to their houses at that time will stay with them and take care of their f a m i l y f o r t h e w h o l e y e a r. Actually, in the morning at the first day of New Year, most Khmer people prepare food to offer the monks at Khmer temple to get blessed. It is a great time for boys and girls to play traditional games together at the temple or any field or playground in their village because it is only at the New Year time that boys and girls are allowed to play or to get together.

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GENERAL Also it is a wonderful time for single people to search for the special partner to get married in the future. In the past 30 years, "Dating" did not exist in Cambodia. The second day of New Year is called as Wanabot, which means d a y o f o ff e r i n g g i f t s t o t h e parents, grandparents and elders. Usually, Khmer People like to share gifts or presents to employees and also donate money or clothes to poor people. In the evening, people go to temple to build a mountain of sand and ask the monks to give them a blessing of happiness and peace. The third day is called as day of "Leung Sakka" that means the year starts to be counted up from this day, for example the year of 2000 begins to be 2001, the year of 2543 BC becomes 2544 BC...etc. Traditionally, in the morning, we used to go to the temple to perform the ceremony of the mountain of sand to get blessed. In the evening, to complete the New Year festival, our Khmer people need to perform the last ceremony, called as "Pithi Srang Preah", which means giving a special bath or a special shower to Buddha statues, the monks, elders, parents, grand parents to apologize for any mistake we have done to them and to gratify them. Every one must have a wonderful time during this ceremony because it is a great opportunity for every one, young and old, man and woman to have much fun by spreading out water to each other. Khmer New Year is not just the great traditional festival for Cambodian, and it can make Cambodian to build up many unforgettable souvenirs. Most Popular game during Khmer New years Starting two or three weeks before the new year, young people take to the streets each night after dark to hang out, dance to traditional Khmer music, and play games such as this one using large seeds. Five seeds are made to stand upright on edge and then a team throws other seeds at them to knock them over. One team is usually boys and the other girls.

The winners of each round take two seeds and clack them together on an opponent's knee. Basically it is a socially-approved way for boys and girls to mingle, enjoy each other, and to touch, a closeness that is not allowed generally in the culture. The youths are normally divided into female and male teams to play these games.

Announcements Zaman Champions League

Comment from Staff in Zaman about Khmer New years -Mr. El rany : It is the traditional festival and It is the official holiday. Especially, It’s End of the third week grade 11B got first place with 7 points, and time for me to meet all my relative second grade 10A with 5 points. in my homeland. The matches for the following week will be held as -Mrs. NGETH Soveth I think this festival is for people to have free time and this year I would like to go to my home land and go pagoda and play popular games.




10/B - 12/A 10/A - 12-B 11/A - 9/A

13-04-2007 13-04-2007 13-04-2007

7:30 am 8:30 am 9:30 am

Everybody is excited to see who wins and who loses. -Mr. El sophea It is the great day for me because Only this festival that I can have holiday to meet my family and sibling and this year I have plan to go to some resorts around the province. -Mr. Ali KOKTEN Khmer New Year is the most important holiday in Cambodian calendar and is marched by dancing, music and family reunion all over the country. We as Zaman wish all our students and their families a safe and prosperous new year and most of all, enjoy the holiday. -Mr. Osman KARACA A celebration of new beginnings and hopes. A coming together of families and friends to strengthen ties, bonds and dreams for a greater year. What does it mean to me? A joyous time with sparkling and lighted streets, loud music, songs, dancing and marry-making and of course a great time to relax. Happy Khmer New Year. -Ms. Zehra YILMAZ This is the time of joy, exchange of gifts, pay tribute to elders and bring families together. Wishing all a very Happy New Year. Prepared by Bunnarith An

Khmer New Year Due to Khmer New Year please note that the school will be closed from 13th of April, 2007 to 17th of April, 2007. School will resume on Wednesday, 18th of April, 2007.

Science Fair Our School Science Fair will be held at the school on 4-6 May, 2007. So please note that down in your diary.

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Have you ever used a magnifying glass to make something melt or burn? You were using solar power! “Solar” is the Latin word for “sun” and it's a powerful source of energy. In fact, the sunlight that shines on the Earth in just one hour could meet world energy demand for an entire year! We can use solar power in two different ways: as a heat source, and as an energy source. Types of technologies Many technologies have been developed to make use of solar radiation. Some of these technologies make direct use of the solar energy (e.g. to provide light, heat, etc.), while others produce electricity. Solar design in architecture Solar design in architecture involves the use of appropriate solar technologies to maintain a building's environment at a comfortable temperature through the sun's daily and annual cycles. It may do this by storing solar energy as heat in the walls of a building, which then acts to heat the building at night. Another approach is to keep the interior cool during a hot day by designing in natural convection through the building's interior.

offsets energy use through a reduction in cooling load. Although difficult to quantify, the use of natural light also offers consisting of an air channel physiological and psychological sandwiched between a window benefits. and a sun-facing wall. Sunlight heats the air space during the Daylighting features include day causing natural circulation building orientation, window through vents at the top and orientation, exterior shading, bottom of the wall and storing s a w t o o t h r o o f s , c l e r e s t o r y heat in the thermal mass. During windows, light shelves, Hybrid the evening the Trombe wall Solar Lighting, skylights and light radiates stored heat. tubes. These features may be A transpired collector is an active incorporated in existing strucsolar heating and ventilation tures but are most effective when system consisting of a perforated integrated in a solar design sun-facing wall which acts as a package which accounts for solar thermal collector. The factors such as glare, heat gain, collector pre-heats air as it is h e a t l o s s a n d t i m e - o f - u s e . d r a w n i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g ' s Architectural trends increasingly ventilation system through the r e c o g n i z e d a y l i g h t i n g a s a perforations. These systems are cornerstone of sustainable inexpensive and commercial design. models have achieved efficiencies above 70%. Most systems Daylight saving time (DST) can pay for themselves within 4-8 be seen as a method of utilising years. solar energy by matching available sunlight to the hours of Solar cooking the day in which it is most useful. Solar Cookers use sunshine as a DST energy savings have been source of heat for cooking as an e s t i m a t e d t o r e d u c e t o t a l alternative to fire. electricity use in California by A solar box cooker traps the 0.5% (3400 MWh) and peak sun's energy in an insulated box; electricity use by 3% (1000 such boxes have been success- MW).[17] However, there is fully used for cooking, pasteur- some question whether these ization and fruit canning. Solar estimates are valid. In 2000 c o o k i n g i s h e l p i n g m a n y when parts of Australia began developing countries, both D S T i n l a t e w i n t e r, o v e r a l l reducing the demands for local electricity consumption did not firewood and maintaining a decrease, but the peak load cleaner breathing environment increased. for the cooks. The first known western solar Advantages and disadvantages oven is attributed to Horace de of solar power Saussure in 1767, which impressed Sir John Herschel enough to build one for cooking meals on his astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope in Africa in 1830. Today, there are many different designs in use around the world.

Solar heating systems Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. They may be used to heat domestic hot water, for space heating or to heat swimming pools. These systems are composed of solar thermal collectors, a storage tank and a circulation loop.[8] The three basic classifications of solar water heaters are: !Batch systems which consist of a tank that is directly heated by sunlight. These are the oldest and simplest solar water heater designs, however; the exposed tank can be vulnerable to cooldown. !Active systems which use pumps to circulate water or a heat transfer fluid. !P a s s i v e s y s t e m s w h i c h circulate water or a heat transfer fluid by natural circulation. These Solar lighting are also called thermosiphon Solar lighting or daylighting is the use of natural light to provide systems. illumination. Daylighting directly A Trombe wall is a passive solar offsets energy use in electric heating and ventilation system lighting systems and indirectly

Advantages !The 89 petawatts of sunlight reaching the earth's surface is plentiful compared to the 15 terawatts of average power consumed by humans. A d d i t i o n a l l y, s o l a r e l e c t r i c generation has the highest power density (global mean of 170 W/m2) among renewable energies. !Solar power is pollution free

during use. Production end wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are under development. !Facilities can operate with little maintenance or intervention after initial setup.[citation needed] !Solar electric generation is economically competitive where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Examples include satellites, island communities, remote locations and ocean vessels. !When grid connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost electricity during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions), can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power for use in times of darkness and high local demand; such application is encouraged by net metering. Time-of-use net metering can be highly favorable to small photovoltaic systems. !Grid connected solar electricity can be used locally thus m i n i m i z i n g t r a n s m i ssion/distribution losses (approximately 7.2%). !Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power plant has been spent, operating costs are low when compared to existing power technologies.). Disadvantages !Solar electricity is expensive compared to grid electricity. !L i m i t e d p o w e r d e n s i t y : Average daily insolation in the contiguous U.S. is 3-9 kWh/m2 usable by 7-17.7% efficient solar panels. !To get enough energy for larger applications, a large number of photovoltaic cells is needed. This increases the cost of the technology and requires a large plot of land. !Like electricity from nuclear or fossil fuel plants, it can only realistically be used to power transport vehicles by converting light energy into another form of stored energy (e.g. battery stored electricity or by electrolysing water to produce hydrogen) suitable for transport. !Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC when used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4-12%.

12 April 2007





ZAMAN International School organized an Alumni Dinner on 19 March 2007 at Intercontinental Hotel as it takes place every year through the end of academic year. It was a great opportunity for the graduate students to meet their classmates and refresh their memories. How we organized this purposeful event: 1-Everyone was informed about the dinner and its location a month earlier at our w e b s i t e to help the students know about the dinner who live or continue their study abroad or in Cambodia. 2-A student representing each class according to the graduation year was contacted to invite their friends to the dinner.

they were invited for dinner following a short welcome speech. After the dinner the school principal Mr Osman Karaca gave a speech about the meaning and importance of the gathering at that night. He said: “We're very happy to see you here. I'd like to thank you all for supporting ZAMAN and coming h e r e t o n i g h t . Yo u ' r e always welcome to the school. Our doors are open to all of you and you can avail school facilities through your supervisions. Purpose of this meeting is to improve our cooperation and relationship. I hope that tonight's meeting will fulfill its own purpose. By this occasion, I would like everyone to think about w h a t w e c a n d o t ogether.�

A slide show was presented about the school history and the progress made from the beginning until the present time. Beautiful songs in Khmer and 3-After that the school secretary English followed by the slide called and informed the stu- show. dents. The pictures of the students 4-Students were invited to sing i n c l u d i n g t h e m o m e n t s o f songs to make the night more different times in class or while entertaining. they were playing together and having picnics or fun activities Before the dinner started all were presented on slide show to students were welcomed and

refresh their memories. It was very interesting and fun for the students; they all laughed together at their pictures. They enjoyed their time a lot that that it could be seen clearly from their faces. The famous comedian Mr Koy and his group were also invited there to entertain the students.

When the dinner was over everyone thanked a lot for this gathering because they had the chance to meet their friends and teachers that they couldn't see them for a long time.

12 April 2007



ENTERTAINMENT Find and circle all of the Science Fiction movies that are hidden in the grid. The remaining letters spell the title of an additional Science Fiction movie.



Sudoku rules are extremely easy: Fill all empty squares so that the numbers 1 to 9 appear once in each row, column and 3x3 box.

Zaman International School Newspaper Issue 48  
Zaman International School Newspaper Issue 48  

school newspaper