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Volume 2 Issue 22


“You’re going to reach the top with us.” 15 March 2005

Increasing Brainpower B

rainpower can be defined as intellectual ability combined with intelligence, creativity, and learning ability. The brain is made of living tissues that can restructure itself, and is composed of billions of neurons with the same capability. Hence, it is infinitely more complex t h a n a c o m p u t e r. T h e functions of brainpower include learning, intuition, mental clarity, creativity, focus and concentration, and intelligence. Increasing brainpower We can improve our brain's memory, creativity, and intelligence by our own conscious effort and free will. Even though our brain is made of ner ve tissues, it can grow if it is used, just like a muscle. Scientists are constantly amazed at its plasticity the ability to grow. Even for ZAMAN NEWSPAPER Zaman, Publisher Serap Sinik, Editor-in Chief Zulfi Erken, Editor at Large

Prepared by 11- F Zaman International School Newspaper dedicated to educating students and training journalists. Published 2 times a month in Zaman International School. Copyright 2003 by the Zaman International School. All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced in print or electronically without the consent of The Zaman International School.

people over 80 years old, significant life-quality improvements can be achieved through intellectual activity. Researchers at the University of California-Los Angeles studied the brains of 20 dead people. After examining the dendrites (tree-like communicating arms between muscles), they discovered that their length i n c r e a s e d proportionally with a person's education and lifestyle. Those with a college education and a mentally active lifestyle had longer dendrites

than those with less education and an intellectually inactive lifestyle. Animal studies seem to confirm the same result. For example, rats exposed to maze learning show an increase in dendrite growth and enhanced problem-solving ability. They form new synapses between neurons, which facilitates further learning. When they are moved to dull, non-challenging environments, dendritic material decreases and synapses regress. Neurons can grow and change throughout one's life. French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes (1596-1650) once said: “It is not enough to have a good mind. The main thing is to use it well.”(1) In this ever-changing information society, successful adaptation depends on expanding our minds through learning and creativity. Knowledge helps us advance to happiness, because happiness usually is tied to less stress (in our career or daily life), gives us greater travel and leisure opportunities, more autonomy … and even more money. Love grows in a relaxed and happy atmosphere, so even emotional well-being depends on improving our brainpower. By stimulating our brain more intensively, a curious thing happens: The inter-connections between neurons increase by developing new dendrites. These surplus connections make our brain work better, improve our memor y, and protect us against diseases like Alzheimer's by providing alternative connections. Learning and brainpower An increased sense of selfconfidence and awareness

15 March 2005



GENERAL originates from a large fund of knowledge. Even the number and variety of friends we have is directly proportional to the number of topics of interest and discussion we acquire. Knowledge also improves our ability to foresee future political, economic, and historical trends. M o r e o v e r, a n i m p r o v e d understanding of history and cultures help us avoid the hazard of prejudice. Understanding the world is like a jigsaw puzzle. The more pieces that we can fit in, the clearer the image and the greater the urge to learn and fill in more pieces. The more we learn, the more we w i s h t o c o n t i n u e l e a r n i n g. Increasing knowledge is like an avalanche; for it gains a momentum of its own once it starts. Perseverance and some initial prompting are required, but the rewards soon pay off. Minds are kept young by continual use, and mentally active people tend to live longer. Learning is as important to our brain as exercise is to our body. Hence the process of learning should not cease right after graduating from high school or college. Students are presented with an enormous amount of information to learn and memorize during the academic year. During vacation time, however, they shy away from reading or learning even about non-curricular topics because of the mistaken notion that the brain has a limited capacity and that new information will overwrite previous information. The brain has a virtually unlimited capacity to absorb, sort, and retain information. But stimulation is required. An athlete improves by exercise and training; the brain gets into shape the more it is used. According to Life magazine's July 1994 feature article on “Brain Calisthenics,” Golden claims that exercising your brain may do as much for your health a s e x e r c i s i n g y o u r b o d y. Research on an elderly group of nuns in Minnesota revealed that a daily diet of brain games kept them healthy, youthful, and relatively free from Alzheimer's and other degenerative brain

disorders. And, they were happy, active, and mentally sharp well into their nineties. Researchers attribute this to the brain's capacity to grow new connections after receiving the proper

dendrites, they must be stimulated. In a Life magazine interview published in July 1994, Arnold Scheible, head of UCLA's Brain Research Institute, suggested: “The important thing

kind of stimulation. Although the connection between continued brain activity and health remains unclear, we can say that neural stimulation seems to have a direct role in keeping the brain and body balanced, energetic, and healthy. And, it is surmised that increased brain stimulation provides more pronounced and long-lasting benefits. We can increase our dendrites by engaging in newer a c t i v i t i e s. W h e n w e l e a r n something, we use our whole brain and build new brain circuits. But once something becomes a routine, we only use a small portion of our brain, leaving the rest to atrophy. To prevent the loss or actually to increase the number of

is to be actively involved in areas that are unfamiliar to you. Anything that's intellectually challenging can probably serve as a kind of stimulus for dendritic growth, which means it adds to the computational reserves in your brain.” However, the article pointed out a caveat for the occasional brain developer. It seems that although learning a new skill creates more neural dendritic connections, the growth stops once the skill is learned and the new connections may actually atrophy. Thus, the brain needs random and interactive exercise so that it cannot learn the exercise so well that it becomes a routine and so that it can better learn new things continu-

ally. Learning is an art that requires practical tools to gather a broad knowledge base. For example, Dr. S. Ray has an interesting suggestion: Look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary and then write a reminder by the word indicating where you encountered it, whet-her in a book, a newspaper, or a conversation. If you saw it in Newsweek, write “NW” beside the word. If your professor mentioned it, write his name next to the word. If you come across a word in this article, put a smiling face near it. Next time you encounter this word, your previous annotation will help you form a better association and you will remember the word better. Once you start learning new words, it is a pleasant surprise to encounter them again. Each new word becomes a personal friend that reinforces a memory. Consider the dictionary one of your most interesting friends. The more words we learn, the more we become aware of our surroundings. Words enrich our memory. “Words form the thread on which we string our experiences,” said the British philosopher Aldous Huxley (1894-1963). Physical activity and brainpower Physical activity increases mental function. Exercise induces the growth of capillaries (tiny blood vessels) in the brain. Aging can lead to the brain receiving less blood. Exercise throughout life works against the decreased mental functioning associated with old age. Yet, one must not overemphasize physical exercise. In their book Healthy Pleasures, Ornstein (a psychologist) and Sobel (a physician) argue that our current health practices should be shifted toward a more intellectual approach. They claim that diets and physical exercises can punish and even harm the body, and that they might have side-effects and only a limited effectiveness. They opine that some of the rigorous body controls we tend to practice are more linked to the Protestant work ethic than real health benefits. Hence going to the gym is a “work-out.”

Serap Şinik

15 March 2005




Agrobacterium: A Natural Genetic Engineer of Plants


lants are the key to life on earth. They are, directly or i n d i r e c t l y, t h e p r i m a r y source of energy for all terrestrial animals; for instance plants supply directly 90% of calorific intake, and 80% of the protein intake of man. Breeding of crop plants has been carried out by man for thousands of years. It is, however, only over the last 50 years, as a result of highly sophisticated breeding processes, combined with improved agricultural methods and modern technology, that this has brought about a dramatic increase in yield and quality of crops. Generally, though, these improved crop plants are often susceptible to many diseases caused by fungi, insects, bacteria, nemat o d e s a n d v i r u s e s. T h e tendency for crop plants to be threatened by many diseases and pests compared to wild plant species is due mostly to the breeding p r o g r a m m e s, w h e r e b y selection for characteristics such as yield take priority over those for disease and pest resistance. For many years this has been overcome by the use of pesticides, but there is now increasing concern about the environmental safety of these chemicals, which can persist in the food chain and may be toxic to plants and animals. Given that pesticides have been largely successful only in the control of fungi and insects, and offer little protection against viruses, viroids and bacteria, it is now more urgent than ever to find alternative methods of protecting crop plants from disease. Plant breeding has several other serious limitations for use as a tool to increase disease resistance. There are only a limited number of plant species which are able to cross-fertilize, thus restricting the transfer of potentially useful traits. Moreover, having found useful traits, it is impossible to prevent the co-transfer of undesirable ones, which can take many

years to breed out again by back-crossing. How can genetic engineering be of use in the quest for new answers to the problems of providing plants with the ability to resist disease? The aim of crop plant genetic engineering is to

from the bacterium to the plant cell. In addition to its chromosomal DNA, Agro-bacterium contains a much smaller circular DNA molecule called a Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmodia, of which a small piece, called the T-DNA (Transferred-DNA), is the

insert a gene (or genes) which improve an existing plant variety whilst retaining the desirable genetic make up of the original plant. The main tool at the disposal of the scientist is the use of nature's own genetic engineer, Agro-bacterium tumefaciens. The manipulation of this bacterium's natural functions has allowed the biologist to transfer many foreign genes into plants. The bacterium is soilborne and infects plants at the crown, usually through a wound site, causing cancerous growths of proliferating plant cells known a s c r o w n g a l l t u m o r s. T h i s disease in itself is ergonomically important and effects most dicotyledonous plants causing millions of dollars' worth of damage to plants. In the 1940s, from experimental observations, it was concluded that a factor is transmitted from the invading bacteria to the host plant cell. Further studies demonstrated that the disease is actually the direct result of the transfer of a particular DNA fragment (genes)

factor transferred into plant cells ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) . T h e T- D N A becomes stably integrated into the plant's chromosomes, from where it is able to perturb the natural functions of the plant. The T-DNA encodes genes, which, when expressed, bring about the production of new enzymes that are able to alter the hormone balance within the infected cell. This brings about de-differentiation and cell division, leading to proliferation of cells and the formation of tumors. This appears to be of little benefit to the bacterium. However, other genes are also present in the T-DNA which, when expressed, are able to synthesize novel compounds from naturally occurring plant precursors. These novel compounds cannot be metabolized by the plant but are a good source of nutrients for the bacterium. Mutation analysis of the T-DNA revealed two regions, the left and right borders, which were essential for integration into the chromosome. It was also found

that any piece of DNA inserted between these borders was stably inserted into the host chromosome on transformation. Deletion of the genes for tumor formation (Disarmed TiPlasmid) were found to have no effect on the transfer efficiency f r o m b a c t e r i u m t o p l a n t s. Availability of disarmed Tiplasmids, tissue culture methods for the regeneration of whole fertile plants from single cells, and marker genes (such as antibiotic resistance) for the selection of transformed cells, have allowed for the production of a whole new range of plants c o n t a i n i n g f o r e i g n g e n e s. Several genes responsible for pathogen and herbicide resistance proteins have been isolated from the bacteria and viruses. These genes have then been inserted into the T-DNA region of Agro-bacterium and introduced into plants, giving rise to insect, vir us or herbicide resistant plants. By using Agro-bacterium as a plant genetic engineer, many crop plants such as the tomato, potato and cucumber have now been engineered for virus resistance. Field tests showed that these genetically modified plants appeared to be highly resistant to viral infections. Similarly genetically-engineered cotton plants have proved to be resistant to insect attack and many herbicides (weed killers). Another powerful new genetic engineering technique i s ' a n t i g e n s ' t e c h n o l o g y, whereby specific gene transcripts are prevented from being translated into proteins. By using antigens technology, it has been possible to produce genetically engineered tomato plants that have a much increased shelflife. Although many aspects of gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants are not fully understood, the use of Agrobacterium for gene transfer will continue to increase; and it is likely that genetically engineered crops carrying traits for resistance to herbicides, insects and viral diseases will soon reach the market-place.

Serap Sinik

15 March 2005




13 Good Manners 1.Yalan söylememeliyiz! -You must not tell lie. 2. Gürültü yapmamalıyız!

-You must not steal. 7. İçki içmemelisin! -You must not drink alcohol. 8. Yemekten önce ellerini yıkamalısın! -You must wash your hands before eating. 9. Yemekten sonra ellerini ve ağzını yıkamalısın! -You must wash your hands and mouth after eating. 1 0 . Ya t m a d a n ö n c e v e yemekten sonra dişlerini fırçalamalısın! -You must brush your teeth before go to bed and after eating. 11.Çöpleri çöp kutusuna atmalıyız!

-You must not make noise. 3.Yüksek sesle konuşmamalısın! -You must not speak loudly. 4. Konuşmadan önce 3 kere düşün! -Before you speak think 3 times. 5 . Ye m e ğ i n i b i t i r m e d e n

Flowers don't go to school


y sun-faced days, concealing memories in their laps… My unending happiness… My un-abating enthusiasm… The land of innocence… The throne of beauty… My days of childhood cheered up by seasons… Fall was a friend I came together under the rain of falling loves… Pouring golden coins on my foot from all around… Sorrows are in exile on the wings of migrating birds… separation was far away… Autumn was the beauty of my world… Winter ensued with its white suit… Although it was rather cold, my warmth sufficed to melt the ice down… A sky-blue, smeared in the white

-You must throw rubbish to the rubbish bin. 12.Büyüklerimize başımızla

konuşma! -Do not speak until you have finished the food in your mouth. 6. Çalmamalısın!

selam vermeliyiz! -We must bow our head when we meet old people and teachers. 13.İçeri girmeden önce, kapıyı üç kere çalmalıyız! -You must knock the door 3 times before going inside the room.

Chea Thavy

color of the season used to fall down on the ground… Snow was a child like me… Oh, how much we loved each other. We wished that our togetherness would never come to an end… It was a pity that, whenever it was time he left, he waved his hand and went away… Would he come back the next year? My tears saw it off before the sun did… Being ornamented with flowers, spring was a picture wherein all

the colors gathered… Spring was like a song composed for me… And the birds tuned this spring song… And I kept on living… Water drew my picture, and the antelopes used to stroll with me… I had trees offering me their fruits, and sheep giving me their milk… The leaves call me to their edges and said: - “Come on, have a look”. I went near them with a smile on my face uttering: - “Kiss your blossoms for me”… Questions were the waves of curiosity of sea. I asked… Who did the birds learn flying from? Who told the bee I loved its honey? Who wrote the rainbow as if it were a song of color? Who covered us with the night, as if it were a blanket? Who hung the stars on the sky point by point…? Who placed my eyes that shine brilliantly? Who filled the seas on the earth? And who added the salt in them… Who stroke the lightings like a match…? What did the thunderstorm try to tell..? Who laid the spring carpet and who picked it up from under my foot…? Who sprinkles the rain drop by drop…? Where did the flowers get their color from…? Who taught them to bloom…? But they don't go to school…! Being a child after all, I asked … Contrar y to grown-ups that never asked… When you were a child have you ever wondered how flowers learned to bloom without going to school…? Have you ever been curious about it…? If not, I would be tempted to say: “I wish you never grew up”.

Monika chea

15 March 2005




Magic school


chool is a fun and fulfilling e n v i r o n m e n t, p r o v i d i n g l i f e l o n g f r i e n d s, i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r s, a n d i n t e r e s t i n g projects. Your school year can be one of the best times of your life! And there are Spells for School combines Eastern and Western magical wisdom to help you negotiate the minefields of study. H e r e a r e s o m e o f t h e f u n, beautiful guides, which is a great introduction to the power of positive magic! Preparing for an Exam When you are studying for an exam, sometimes a tiny voice in your head comes up with all sorts of criticism about what you are doing and how you are doing it, generally understanding your preparation. If this is happening to you, try the following spell to help clear your head. What do you need? A black pen A long-lasting white candle A stable candleholder A pinch of sage A pinch of sea salt A silver bowl half-filled with sand (optional) A box of matches One or more sheets of plain white paper A white envelope. What should you do? Collect your ingredients and sit quietly at your desk. Allow your mind to replay all the negative messages that you seem to be h e a r i n g. Wr i t e t h e m d o w n quickly as possible so that you do not miss any. Keep writing until you are repeating things. Use more than one sheet of paper if you need to. Look at your list and draw a curved line right around all the words, enclosing the words within the “circle.” Make sure that the circle is completely closed. If you have used more than one piece of paper, draw a complete circle around the words on each sheet. Fold the s and put it into the white envelope. Put in a pinch of sage and sea salt, then seal the envelope. Take the envelope to a fireplace

or the silver bowl half-filled with sand. Light the envelope and watch it burn. See the smoke rise, imagining that the words on the page mean absolutely nothing and are as insubstantial as the smoke. The spell is done. When should you do this spell? Whenever you are preparing for an exam. Spell for Concentration

The following spell is ver y useful for helping you concentrate on your work or studies. The spell is based on a very important concept in magic called “grounding”. By tapping into the power of the earth, all unnecessary thoughts and actions seem to melt away, and you are left free to focus on the job at hand. What do you need? Two heavy stones (river stones or, preferably, ironstone)

A black marker pen. What should you do? If possible, go outside with your stones and your black marker pen. Stand on a patch of grass in spot where you will not be disturbed. Place one stone on the ground and, with your pen, write on it the issue on which you want to concentrate. For example, write the name of your assignment, or the topic of your studies. Stand behind that stone, holding the other one in your hands. Feel its weight anchoring you in the ground. Imagine your feet sinking into the ground and the energy of the earth flowing up into your body. Feel this energy moving through you and imagine that all thoughts other than those concerning your desired focus for concentration are draining away from you into the earth. When you feel ready, place the stone in your hands on top of the stone on the ground and push down, imagining that your heightened levels of your choice. Leave the stones in this position, if possible, and go back inside to do some serious work. When should you do this spell? During the phase of the full moon or whenever you need to c o n c e n t r a t e o n a p r o j e c t, assignment or your studies. Simple spell craft Two important warning must heeded: What you want to happen must not harm anyone or anything, and What you want to happen must correspond with your true self. However, three types of energy can help you link into your true self and help make your spells succeed. They are: Love Honesty, and Respect. Keep these energies in mind when deciding which spell to cast, and you will find that you get all the things you deserve.

Neth Sovirakchenda

15 March 2005




Lets know our teachers A short interview with Mr. Zulfi ERKEN P: Merhaba ! Z: Merhaba ! P: Adınız ve soyadınız ne? Z: Adım Zülfi, soyadım Erken P: Kaç yaşındasınız ? Z: 29 yaşındaym P: Nerelisiniz ? Z: Amasyalıyım P: Nerede doğdunuz ? Z: Samsun da doğdum P.: Kaç kardeşiniz var ? Z: 4 kardeşim var P: Nerede oturuyorlar ? Z: Türkiye de oturuyorlar P: H o w ' s Tu r k e y ? C a n y o u describe it ? Z: Well…..Turkey is interesting. More than 15 millions people visit Turkey every year. It has four climate at a different part of T u r k e y. T h e r e a r e a l o t o f interesting places where we can see different kinds of anmals, birds, plants, high hill, beautiful mountains and valleys. etc. Turkey is surrounded by 3 seas and people are living in Turkey more than 3.000years. P: Where do you live, nowadays? Z: Phnom Penh P: Where did you come here? You come here because of money or any other reasons? Z: Hmmm…I came here because I wanted to see how the other people live in different places, different cultures and different societies. Also I wanted to know the difference between my country and here. P: What do you think about Cambodia? Z: Cambodia is a nice country people like living in peace, they're all kind, friendly, respectful to the elders also they're helpful. P: So do you enjoy living here? Z: Sure, I do. Because I like the climate in here the weather is in the middle, not too hot not too cold, But sometimes I find it difficult to eat what I want, also because the food is not as delicious as in my own country….anyway I still enjoy living here. P: Before coming here, have you ever been to another country? Z: Yeah! I've been to Russia. P: How long have you

been there? And what did you do? Z: I've been there for working for 4 years, but during working, I was searching for a new job because life in Russia was so bored. The weather was too cold. That's why at last I found Cambodia, and now I'm here. P: You are here to be a physics teacher. So why did you choose physics? Z: Firstly, I was wondering about the world, about human being, about why we need all those things in o u r d a i l y l i f e, a b o u t s o m ething that's related to the earth, etc…so I study physics because I wanted to know exactly about nature. P: And have you ever thought about leaving here to live in a n o t h e r country? Z: At the moment, no. P: But you said you are curious in different cultures so why you said No. Z: Because as I am teaching here I feel myself comfortable because my students are so kind, respectful and funny. They're all good students I love them, But if I have an opportunity maybe I'll move to Africa because I'm interested in Africa's culture as well. P: Ha…seems interesting! Anyway, that's it from me… Thanks for spending your time to answer all these questions. That's very kind of you. Have a nice time, Sir. Z: You're welcome kids. P: See you !

Phalen Saly, Kanitha Tep, Thida Nop

Kids playing computer games fail in studies [Health India]: London, Jan 10: A new study conducted by leading scientist Professor Robert Winston suggests that children who spend hours playing computer games and watching television are failing to develop the skills to succeed at school.

programmes they watch require only short-term bursts of concentration. The programme sur veyed a group of primary school pupils and found one in five had played Grand Theft Auto - a notorious 18- certificate game where players steal cars, kill people and pick up prostitutes. "Many children who love computer games find it hard to concentrate on the sort of tasks that require slow application and are necessar y for school success," he said. Winston studied the impact of computer games on children's ability to tackle various tasks. Those who spend long periods playing quick-fire, adrenaline-pumping games often lack a longterm attention span, he found. Children who have computers and TVs in their bedroom and sit in front of the screens into the early hours instead of getting enough sleep. "Children are sleeping between two and five hours less than their parents did at the same age. This affects their performance at school and their behaviour at home and some of that is down to computer games," Winston said.

According to the Daily Mail, he added that youngsters are not acquiring the long-term powers of study and application they need in class. This is because the games they play and

"Digital media may well have some dangers as well as some advantages for children. Modern children are spending three to four hours a day in front of a computer or television screen of some kind, often unsupervised," he added.

Lim Sochenda

15 March 2005




Where are those words?





Mao Silen &Taing Malinnet

15 March 2005




Attraction In Turkey times of histor y and natural beauties of the Asiatic and European shores. Polat Renaissance Hotel 5 Star Hotels in Istanbul with five restaurant, you will be able to please your palate with specialties such as traditional BOSPHORUS BRIDGE Unique Tu r k i s h, C h i n e s e, G e r m a n, c h a n c e t o s t e p f r o m o n e American and International. continent (A SIA) to another (EUROPE).

The Competition Of The Facts About The Earth


or this competition we would like to tell you that if you can answer most of these questions you would get the presents from 11f. And you have to give the answers to 11f. In addition your name will be announced and appeared on the next newspaper.

12. Can an earthquake cause a tsunami? 13. What's the deepest place in the ocean? 14. What is the world's largest island? 15. How many minerals are known to exist? 16. What is the world's deepest lake? These are the questions that are 17. How many lightning strikes asked bellow: occur worldwide every second? 1. How much gold has been 18. How much would seas rise if discovered worldwide to date? the Antarctic Ice Sheet melted? 2. W h i c h p l a n e t h a s m o r e 19. How are colors produced in moons, Earth or Mars? fireworks?

IZMIR The 3rd largest, and one of the most beautiful provinces of Turkey is Izmir, extending on the shores of an attractive bay, filled with ships and yachts. Backed by mountains and facing the sea. BEYLERBEYI PALACE The summer A lovely town, a popular port, residence of Ottoman Sultans with its original furniture and magnificent gardens with the HAREM on the ASIAN. During the excursion you will pass the magnificent D o l m a b a h c e Pa l a c e, a n d further along, the parks and imperial pavillions of Yildiz a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e, a n Palace. attractive holiday resort, is this Departure by private boat from "Bird Island" taking its name from the little "Dove Island" in the 3. Where is the world's highest harbor. Facing this islet covered waterfall? with flowers. 4.What would a 100-pound Istanbul is the only city in the person weigh on Mars? 5. What was the deadliest known earthquake? 6. Where is the lowest dry point on Earth? 7. What is the wettest place on Golden Horn and cruise through Earth? Bosphorus seeing the architec8. Is Earth the largest tural masterpieces from different rocky planet in the solar system? 9. Which two landmasses contain the vast world built on two continents which Fatih Sultan Mehmet the majority of the Earth's fresh water Conqueror changed in his era. It supply? stands on the shores of the 10. What is the largest lake in the uniquely beautiful Bosphorus world? 11. How many people world(Istanbul Bogazi) wide are at risk from volcanoes?

Borany Tork

20. What is the longest mountain chain on Earth? 21. What is the fastest surface wind ever recorded? 22. What three countries have the greatest number of historically active volcanoes? 23. Where are the oldest rocks on Earth found? 24. What is the largest volcano? 25. What was the strongest earthquake in recent times?

Sreypeou Sar

Zaman International School Newspaper Issue 22