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Volume 1 Issue 14


“You’re going to reach the top with us.” 15 May 2004

Life on the Tonle Sap T

onle Sap lake, which means "freshwater lake" in Khmer, is also known as the "Great Lake." It lies in the center of Cambodia and is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. According to the French scholar Carbonnel (1963), it was formed some 5-6,000 years ago. The lake's surface area quadruples from 2700 km2 in the dry season to more than 12,000 km2 in the rainy season. At this size, it accounts for 7% of the total area of Cambodia. The water's depth ranges from 1-2m to 8-10m with the seasons, while the average water temperature is 28 degrees celcius. More importantly, the Tonle Sap is the richest freshwater fishing ground in the world. The lake also has a ver y important symbolic value for the Cambodian people and fully illustrates the richness of the Khmer natural heritage.

ZAMAN NEWSPAPER Zaman, Publisher Zulfi Erken, Editor -in-Chief Murat Tutumlu, Editor at Large Oum Vantharith, writer Malik Ates, writer Zaman International School Newspaper dedicated to educating students and training journalists. Published 2 times a month in Zaman International School. Copyright 2003 by the Zaman International School. All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced in print or electronically without the consent of The Zaman International School.

Tonle Sap is unique in the world. To n l e S a p l a ke i s u n u s u a l because it shrinks and expands dramatically with the seasons. First of all, the lake is connected to the Mekong river through the Tonle Sap river. The rivers meet in Phnom Penh at a point known as Chakto Muk or

"Four Arms." Each year in June, when the rains begin and the Mekong is swollen by melting snow in the Himalayas, the water level at Chakto Muk rises more rapidly than the Tonle Sap river. This makes the latter reverse direction (going south-north instead of north-south) and it flows back into Tonle Sap lake, taking with it the extra water from the Mekong. As a result, the lake gets four times bigger! In November, when the rains e a s e, t h e To n l e S a p r i v e r changes direction again to flow out of the lake and

gradually empty it.

return to the sea.

This unique phenomenon creates exceptional flora and fauna. Fishing and agriculture benefit greatly. This makes Tonle Sap a source of fertility and abundance…that is to say a source of lives. The reversal of the Tonle Sap

Tonle Sap lake is the richest freshwater fishing ground in the world. More than 200 fish species have been identified, of which 80 are regularly fished. The seasonal flooding of the land has created this abundance: the fish have evolved over thousands of years and adapted their life cycle to the rhythm of the waters. The flooded forest provides a habitat and an important feeding ground.

river's flow is celebrated with one of the most joyous festivals i n C a m b o d i a : t h e Wa t e r Festival. For three days in N o v e m b e r, h u n d r e d s o f longboats compete on the river. Millions of spectators and street vendors go to Phnom Pen for this special event. At night there are fireworks d i s p l a y s, a n d i l l u m i n a t e d flotillas on the river. The festival coincides with the full moon of the Buddhist month of Kadeuk. On this night, people give thanks to the moon. Nagas, the mythical water serpents, are also thanked for fertilizing the land and are set free to

Two main categories of fish can be identified. "White" fish account for 60% of the total and comprise white or silver y fish. Most of them are longdistance migrator y species: they breed in the Mekong river during the dry season and migrate annually into the lake with the rising water. On the other hand, "black" or dark-colored fish are species which live in the lake year-round and can survive in adverse conditions. A few decades ago, the lake was still home to many crocodiles, turtles and water snakes. The area still holds globally-important species, but in much smaller numbers. Don't be scared of swimming in the lake, because wild crocodiles are getting more and more rare! Most are now actually raised in farms on and Continued page 2

15 May 2004



AND ALSO around the lake. As a result, little is known about their life in the wild. On the contrar y, turtles live exclusively in the wild. They don't like living in groups and lay their eggs on land. They can be found in

the lake in mixed-species colonies when the water begins to recede. They nest and breed in the trees and bushes of the flooded forest, where they can easily catch fish. From June onwards, when

Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand but are no longer very numerous. Most of the snakes live permanently underwater, only coming to the lake's surface to breathe.

the water level rises, the bird colonies scatter and gradually fly to shallower bodies of water in Cambodia or neighboring countries. All this makes Tonle Sap an exceptional site for birdwatchers. Many mammal species live around the lake, although they're less abundant than birds and fish. By the way, how do you recognize mammals? They have hair, four limbs, are warm-blooded and suckle their young. As recently as 20 years ago, elephants used to migrate from the upland forest to the lake shores, but this no

The Tonle Sap lake and more particularly the flooded forest near Prek Toal, northwest of the lake, holds the most significant population of waterbirds. Unlike other species, most of the birds living on the lake do not migrate north-south but according to changes in the water level. Their movements are seasonal: birds gather on

longer happens, as the forest has decreased in size. However, macaques, otters, civets and fishing cats can still be found in the area. Despite their name, the fishing cats aren't particularly good at fishing! But they are strong swimmers and divers. They also hunt on land mainly eat fish, crustaceans and small animals. The crab-eating macaques are also known as long-tailed macaques. During the rainy season, they gather in the trees in the flooded forest but are often caught to be kept or sold as pets. The common civets are nocturnal, i.e. they come out at night.. Strangely, they don't have a voice. They communicate with scents and have a strong body odor which they u s e i n s e l f- d e f e n s e. T h e y mainly eat fruit, frogs, crabs, birds' eggs and mice. The small clawed otters live in groups in the flooded forest. They are excellent swimmers and ver y skillful at fishing, sometimes damaging unhappy fishermen's nets! Tonle Sap lake is slowly dying Deforestation, i.e. the logging of f o r e s t s, d i r e c t l y impacts the lake. In particular, the flooded forest around Tonle Sap was reportedly reduced from 1 million hectares in the 1960s to about 600,000 hectares 3 0 y e a r s l a t e r. Trees are being killed by increased exploitation of all kinds of forests for firewood and commercial

purposes, and the clearing of land for agriculture. The forests can no longer act as nursery grounds and natural storm barriers, which kills wildlife and is causing the lake to silt up. Estimates of the lake's life expectancy range from 20 to 1,500 years The water quality in the lake is getting worse and worse. It is an increasing concern. Water pollution happens when garbage is thrown into the lake or when too many chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers are used around the lake. Doing this is dangerous: it not only kills fish stocks and other wildlife, but also puts our own health at r i s k. Pe o p l e, a n i m a l s a n d plants all live thanks to the Tonle Sap lake's resources. Whatever anyone does, it affects the others' lives. risk. People, animals and plants all live thanks to the Tonle Sap lake's resources. Whatever anyone does, it affects the others' lives. Tonle Sap's wildlife is seriously threatened Many species of fish, birds, turtles, snakes, crocodiles and mammals, living around Tonle Sap are gradually disappearing, mainly because of human activities. On the one hand, excessive fishing and hunting for the domestic and international markets prevents replenishment and causes species to disappear. On the other hand, many hunting and fishing methods are harmful to animals and often illegal. These include the use of explosives or chemicals to catch fish, poisoning, collecting of eggs and young birds, stretched hooked lines above the surface of the water to trap large waterbirds, and so on. These methods destroy natural habitat and injure or kill a large number of wild animals. They also threaten human livelih o o d s, w h i c h d e p e n d o n nature to develop. Tonle Sap is home to many species of international importance. Preser ving its resources promotes Cambodia's image in the world: all of us can help by respecting nature. Just think about it!

15 May 2004




Formula for a Good Life Basic facts

and no matter what your environment or situation, you You have been placed on this should appreciate what you Earth for a limited time. Young have. You should not expect people feel that they will live for- more, although you can hope ever. The fact that we all are on for more. Look at what you this Earth for only a limited time have and be grateful. Count usually doesn't sink in until a person reaches middle o r e v e n o l d ag e. Realizing that your time is limited should point you toward taking advantage of this opportunity of life. You have been given a certain body and mind. You are given a body that is less than perfect. Some people are even handicapped or may have ailments that may shorten their lives. You also have a mind with certain capabilities. Part of this includes your personality and the various characteristics that you may have. Accepting what you are given and trying to overcome the obstacles, handicaps and challenges your body and mind provides you gives you meaning in life. You are placed in certain circumstances. The circumstances you are born in can affect your health, ideas and opportunity to grow. Some are born into a wealthy, loving family. Some are born in a poverty, war-torn country. Rising above your circumstances is an important, but difficult, task. It is part of the struggle to survive and a motivating factor in life.

Principles for a better life By considering the basic facts that apply to every person on this planet, a belief system to get the most out of your life can be established. The principles for getting the most out of the opportunity of life are that you should: Appreciate what you have No matter how long your life on Earth is, no matter what type of body and mind your have,

your blessings. It is like the saying: "I was unhappy, because I had no shoes... until I saw a person with no feet." Appreciate what you have. Who should you be grateful to? Follow your spiritual or religious beliefs. Meet your challenges Life is full of challenges. Having a goal to overcome a challenge is what makes life worthwhile. Look at your problems as challenges to overcome. A person may be physically handicapped. You can overcome the challenge if you try or at least make the best of the situation. In the 1920s, two college-educated men in New York were crippled by polio, unable to walk and doomed to life in a wheelchair. In 1932, one of those men sat in his wheelchair on a New York City street corner, begging for dimes. In 1932, the other man was elected President of the United States. He was Franklin Delano Roosevelt. You can be living in poverty or in a dysfunctional family. These are challenges to overcome. Many a successful person started in poverty, only to rise to a position of provenance. Try to improve your circumstances.

Enjoy the adventure Life is a journey. It is a series of experiences. It can be an adventure. Accept the good with the bad and enjoy the whole adventure. Take care of yourself and enjoy good health. Be fascinated and enjoy learning as much as you can about this world and life. Be knowledgeable about things. Have fun doing things, do them well and be proud of it. Help others get what they want, and you will get what you want. Be valuable to them. Be known as an honest, forthright person and reap the rewards. Always celebrate your achievements and congratulate the winner.

Benefits When you appreciate things, your eyes open up to possibilities and opportunities. You also can enjoy what you have and make the most of it. Then as you see problems and negative situations that may harm you or hold you back, you can look at them as challenges to meet and overcome. Having the right attitude will help bring success. Celebrate and enjoy every success and achievement you have. Enjoy the people around you. Savor life and the adventures you experience.

In conclusion We are here for a limited time, so we should take advantage of the experience. The way to a good life is to seek things to appreciate, meet your challenges, and enjoy the adventure. Following this formula will give you more joy and meaning

Challenging Problems English: What was the first word spoken on the moon? ***

Mathematics What is the product of the following series? (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)...(x-z) ***

Science: The idea that everything is made up of a few simple parts originated during the 400's B.C., in the philosophy of atomism. Atomism was founded by which Greek Philosopher? *** Answers of previous issue. English: The words “gene” and “genius” from the word “gens”, which was used by Greek philosophers such as Aristotle to describe the ingenuity of males. “Genius” and “females” were never associated with each other. *** Mathematics: 4-(4/4))^4 = 81 (4!/(4*sqrt 4))^4 = 81 (4-(log4/log4))^4 = 81 *** Science: The Gaboon viper, up to 50mm. *** You can give your answers with in 7 days. Rewards goes to; English: No correct answer Science: No correct answer Maths: Levent Gulderen

Note: Students whose names written can take their reward from Zulfi Erken.

15 May 2004



How The Things Work


Question and Answer

hat would happen if Earth lost it's tilt and just stood vertical?


e must be assume that this change in the earth's orbital axis is a thought experiment. The earth can be thought of as a gigantic gyroscope, spinning at over 1000 miles per hour at its equator. If its axis were to be suddenly shifted from its normal inclination, inertial forces produced in such a change would literally tear the earth apart. That aside, if the rotational axis of the earth were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane that passes through the earth's orbit), several dra-

matic differences would appear. First would be that the length of day and night would be exactly equal, over the whole planet. There would be no seasons, just one average of the current four. Weather patterns would be very different; much more uniform. These and other changes in the oceans and atmosphere would result in tremendous and unpredictable changes in conditions on the earth's surface including shifts in the oceans' levels and changes in the location and extent of arid as well as tropical areas.


15 May 2004




May 19, 1919 First step to National Independence


he "Commemoration of Ataturk, Youth and Sports Day" on May 19 marks the anniversary of Mustafa Kemal's landing in Anatolia from Istanbul, and the launch of the Turkish war of Independence. It is one of the most valuable gifts that he gave to the Turkish people. May 19, 1919 was the beginning of National Independence and was declared a national holiday for youth by Ataturk. It is celebrated as May 19 Youth and Sports Day. The Ottoman Empire was defeated in World War I along with its allies. After the Mondros Armistice, the countries which signed it started to think that they did not have to comply with the provisions envisaged. The Entente Forces (France, Great Britain, Italy) sited their naval forces in Istanbul. Adana was occupied by the French, Urfa, Maras, Merzifon and Koyna by the British and Antalya and Konya by the Italians. The enemy was spread throughout Anatolia.

Bandirma Boat that Ataturk used to travel from Istanbul to Samsun Realizing it was impossible to liberate Istanbul, occupied as it was by the naval forces of foreign countries, Mustafa Kemal Pasha decided to move on to Anatolia. The day he left for Samsun on May 16, 1919, Izmir was occupied by Greek forces who were planning to invade Western Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal was warned that the Entente forces were planning to sink the ship on which he was sailing, but he was not put off and continued his journey. On their way, officers of Entente

forces stopped the ship for investigation at 4:30 p.m. and did not let it continue until sunset. The ship, the "Bandirma" transported Ataturk and his entourage to Samsun, the best landing point on the Black Sea coast under the circumstances, where they landed on May 19, 1919. This date is generally considered as the beginning of the Turkish Independence War. It is also the date Ataturk later declared as his birthday. After this day, national resistance to the enemy began all over

Anatolia. The young general wrangled an appointment with the Istanbul government as an inspector-general in Anatolia -presumably to administer the terms of the armistice. But his real objective was to rally various nationalistic forces under one banner. He was able to crystallize his movement at two momentous national congresses at Erzurum and Sivas. He presided at these congresses with the aim of organizing and lifting the spirit of resistance in the people to fight the force of the Entente which had invaded Anatolia. The result of these congresses was a decision to abandon the ideas and ideals of imperialism, fix national boundaries and principles, and from there, form the general lines of a real national policy to be made known to the whole population of the country. After the occupation of Istanbul by the Entente forces in 1920, Mustafa Kemal laid the foundation of a new Turkish state by convening the Great National Assembly in Ankara on April 23, 1920. Turkish national forces had to fight on several fronts. The most important front was the west, where the invading Greek armies were trying to enlarge the territories they had seized. But under the brilliant leadership of Mustafa Kemal, the Turkish armies were victorious on all the fronts. Finally on Aug. 30, 1922, Turkish armies under Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal, defeated the invading Greek armies and forced them to leave Turkey. On July 24, 1923, with the signing of the Lausanne Treaty, the humiliating Treaty of Serves was abrogated and Turkey's independence, integrity and sovereignty was recognized by the world powers. Ataturk dedicated May 19 to youth and ever since then, it has been celebrated as "Youth and Sports Day" wherever Turks reside.

15 May 2004




Proverbs English teacher collected some well known proverbs and gave each child in her class the first half of a prove r b. S h e a s ke d t h e k i d s t o come up with the rest of the proverb - with some interesting results!... *Better be safe than......................punch a 5th grader. * Strike while the .... bug is close. * It's always darkest before .... daylight savings time. * An idle mind is .... the best way to relax. * Yo u c a n l e a d a h o r s e t o water but .... how? * Don't bite the hand that .... looks dirty. * A miss is as good as a .... Mr. * You can't teach an old dog new .... math. * If you lie down with the dogs, you'll..stink in the morning. * The pen is mightier than the .... pigs. * Where there's smoke, there's .... pollution. * Happy the bride who .... gets all the presents. * A penny saved is .... not much. ***

funny english We m u s t p o l i s h t h e Po l i s h furniture. He could lead if he would get the lead out. The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert. Since there is no time like the present, h e thought i t was time to present the present. A bass was painted on the head of the bass drum. When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes. I did not object to the object. The bandage was wound around the wound. T h e f a r m w a s u s e d t o p r oduce produce. The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse. The insurance was invalid for the invalid. There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row. They were too close to the door to close it. The buck does funny things when the does are present. A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer line. To h e l p w i t h p l a n t i n g, t h e farmer taught his sow to sow. The wind was too strong to wind the sail. ***

Useless facts ! Weird Information * The sentence "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" uses ever y letter in the English language. * The average human eats 8 spiders in their lifetime at night. * "I am." is the shortest complete sentence in the English language. * A rhinoceros horn is made of compacted hair. * The shortest war in histor y was between Zanzibar and England in 1896. Zanzibar surrendered after 38 minutes. * A polar bear's skin is black. Its fur is not white, but actually clear. * Donald Duck comics were banned in Finland because he doesn't wear pants. * More people are killed by donkeys annually than are killed in plane crashes. * Shakespeare invented the word "assassination" and "bump." * If you keep a Goldfish in the dark room, it will eventually turn white. * Women blink nearly twice as much as men. * The name of all the continents end with the same letter that they start with. * The word "lethologica" de-

scribes the state of not being able to remember the word you want. * TYPEWRITER, is the longest word that can be made using the letters on only one row of the keyboard. * If the population of China walked past you in single file, the line would never end because of the rate of reproduction * The word racecar and kayak are the same whether they are read left to right or right to left. * A snail can sleep for 3 years. * China has more English speakers than the United States. * The electric chair was invented by a dentist. * The longest word in the English language is 1909 letters long and it refers to a distinct part of DNA. * Cats have over one hundred vocal sounds, dogs only have about ten. * Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing. eet. Elephants are the only animals that can't jump. ***

15 May 2004




Words begin with A

Word List

Abandon abdomen abolish abominable

abridge abrupt absent absolutely

absolve absurd acrobatics actress

actual actually acupuncture adolesent affair affect aggressive agreeable album alclove alcohol alienate alight amoral amoungst amphitheater ample amplifier animal animate anticlimax anticlockwise anticlone antifreeze antique apple approachable arcade arcade arch archeology ashore askew asleep asparagus atmosphere attitude attraction attrition auburn auctioneer audience

15 May 2004




History and Rules of Volleyball William G. Morgan was physical director at the YMCA in Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1895. Most of his clients were middle-aged businessman who found basketball too strenuous. So Morgan decided to create a sport that would offer them exercise without making them run. He strung a badminton net across a gym floor, brought out the bladder of a soccer ball, and split the men into two teams that volleyed the improvised ball back and forth across the net. Because it was patterned after badminton, Morgan called the new sport "mintonette." In his original rules, the court was 8 by 16 meter and the net was 2 meter high. In a bow to baseball, a match was made up of nine innings, with three serves for each team per inning. There was no limit to the number of players on a team.

full range of athletic skills. A match was defined as the best two-out-of-three games, and the number of points required to win a game was lowered from 21 to 15. The net was raised to 2.5 meter and the weight of the ball increased to between 220 and 280 gram. Also, the rule that a player couldn't have two consecutive contacts with the ball was added. A team was allowed an unlimited number of touches before sending the ball over the net before 1920, when another revision set the limit at three. Court size was reduced

In 1896, Morgan and some of his members traveled the 16 kilometers to a YMCA directors' conference in Springfield, the birthplace of basketball, the demonstrate the new sport. Dr. A. T. Halsted suggested that the name should be changed to "volleyball," and Morgan agreed.

to 9 by 18 meters.

Volleyball was added to the recreation program of the U. S. armed forces in 1914 and American soldiers introduced the sport to France and Italy during World War I. The sport also became popular at many colleges. In 1916, the YMCA and the National Collegiate Athletic Association collaborated on a new set of rules.

The basic nature of volleyball was changing, along with the rules. By design, it had originally been a slow game for older men. Many young men (and some young women) were being introduced to volleyball through colleges, as well the armed services and YMCAs, and they were making it a faster-paced sport requiring a

Spiking and blocking became essential elements of volleyball during the early 1920s, requiring some rules changes. In 1922, spiking was formally defined and limited to frontline players only. Beginning in 1937, multiple ball contacts were allowed to defend against violent spikes, and in 1938 blocking was defined in the rules as "a counteraction at the net by one or two adjacent players." The scoring system also changed a couple of times. In 1922, a team was required to take two consecutive points to win a game if the score was tied at 14, and that was changed to require only a 2-point advantage for victory. 1922: Double hit fault was added 1923: A team comprises six players and 12 substitutes; it's a foul if a player touches the opponents' court during play; team winning serve has to rotate clockwise and the player on the right side of the back row is the server 1925: Two timeouts allowed each team per game; ball weight changed to between 250 and 280gram. 1926: Net length set at10 meter. 1935: Touching the net during play is a foul; a player cannot step off the court while the ball is in play on his side of the court (which prevented the practice of getting a running start from outside the boundary to spike the ball); crosses added to floor to mark player positions 1947: Players in the front line are allowed to exchange

positions for a two-player block and spike. 1948: Service must be made from the right third of the backcourt boundary; simultaneous contact by two players is considered a single contact; rest period between games set at three minutes 1951: A back-line player can spike only from his own zone, not from the front line; a player's hands can invade the net during a block, but only in the final phase of a spike 1964: A blocker is permitted a second hit after initial contact, but airborne invasion during blocking is prohibited 1968: Antennas are added at each end of the net to help the referee determine whether a shot passes over the net legally 1976: Distance between antennas is cut to 9 meters from 9.4 meters; three ball contacts are permitted after a block (that is, the block itself doesn't count as a contact) 1985: Blocking a serve is prohibited 1988: A tie-break rally-point system is established for the fifth set of a match, with each serve worth a point; scoring per game is limited to 17 points, so a team can win by one point 1993: Scoring rule is changed to require a two-point advantage for victory after a 16-16 tie 1995: Accidental touching of the net is permitted if the player isn't trying to play the ball; the ball may be contact with any part of the body, including the feet; service zone is extend to entire 9-meter back line 1999: The first four sets are played to 25, the fifth set to 15, with a two-point margin required to win any set 2000: Every rally earns a point (previously, if the team returning service won a rally, it won only the right to serve) Before the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, the FIVB added a new specialist to the rules: the libero, who wears a uniform of a different color or design than that worn by the rest of the team.

Zaman International School Newspaper Issue 14