INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
Volume 1 Issue 1
FOREWORD While beginning to the new academic year, we are happy to present our new issue. Main article is about school rules. As newspaper team we would like to publish school newspaper with 15 days period. As a school newspaper our aim is to inform our students about school activities, to teach them express themselves with clarity. to help them share their opinions with others. All the students who want to join our newspaper teams are welcome.
In This Issue !
Information about school
Methods of study
How the satellites work?
Question and answers
History of Khmer language
Word search puzzle
Sport ZAMAN NEWSPAPER Zaman, Publisher Zulfi Erken, Editor -in-Chief Murat Tutumlu, Editor at Large Oum Vantharith, writer
Copyright 2003 by the Zaman International School. All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced in print or electronically without the consent of The Zaman International School.
“You’re going to reach the top with us.” 1 November 2003
Our School Background & Basic Information
ZAMAN International School (ZIS) is an independent, nondenominational, co- educational day school offering courses designed for students aged 13 to 18 years who seek an international education in Phnom Penh. The School was founded in 1997 by Zaman International Development Organization and currently has an enrolment of more than 340 students from Grade 8 to Grade 11. ZIS is certified by the Cambodian Ministry of Education and it is a member of ECIS (European Council of International Schools). Since 1997 The School has been housed in an attractive purpose-converted four-story building situated in a convenient central city location in street 71 off Mao Tse Tung Blvd near the junction with M o n i v o n g . Specialist rooms and areas include a computer information technology center, a whole school library, boarding facilities, kitchen, canteen and dining room, fully equipped art room and a full range of t e a c h i n g r o o m s. The courtyard has been remodeled and incorporates an out-door playground. The sports area and gymnasium are located on the roof. ZIS is open to children of all lin-
guistic, religious, cultural, ethnic and national groups. The School actively welcomes diversity in its student population and has no prescribed quotas or other such constraints in its admissions policy.
All teachers are qualified in their own country and hold at least a bachelor's degree and teaching certificate. All are concerned with their own continuing education and regularly attend courses and inservice w o r kshops. Teachers take a sinc e r e interest in a l l aspects of their student's lives and are committed to their personal and academic well being. The staff work closely together in an atmosphere of co-operation and mutual support.
We believe that children of today should grow up with selfconfidence, self-discipline and high ethical standards ready to communicate and operate within the increasingly complex global community with creativity and proficiency. The School seeks to p r e p a r e s t ud e n t s t o become citizens of the world through its commitment to the development of the w h o l e c h i l d, both as an individual and as a member of the community. Children are born with the love for learning; thus we encourage autonomous learning and aim to crea t e l i f e l o n g l e a r n e r s. We respect each child as an individual and thus encourage self-respect, decision making, independence and selfd i scipli ne. The Sch ool
emphasizes the need for acceptance of responsibility, concern for others, service to the community and an understanding of people of different races, religions and social Continued page 2
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ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
AND ALSO backgrounds. Each child has unique talent and potential, thus we encourage each child to explore his/her talents and help to develop them to their highest potential. Here at Zaman International School children will progress according to their own abilities and will be continuously assessed throughout the academic year.
GENERAL RULES FOR STUDENTS ZIS students are required to show great respect for school rules and regulations both in and around school. These rules are in effect for any school activities such as field trips, picnics etc. The students violate these rules will be corrected according to the disciplinary judgment. Wear your uniform. Be neat and clean. Be on time at school. Get ready to enter the class when the bell rings. Knock the door before you enter the classroom, Teachers/ Administration Office. Do not enter to unauthorized areas without permission. Be in your assigned seat. Prepare your books, notebooks and the other supplies and get ready to begin to the lesson before the teacher comes in. Do not move any classroom furniture unless you are told to do so. Keep your classroom clean. Do not eat or drink, do not chew gum or sugar cane in the class and do not take any food into the classroom. Keep your voice low in the class. Listen attentively to your teacher. Do not interrupt anybody while speaking. If another student is answering a question, giving a report or an explanation, you should listen quietly and give them your attention. Treat the others, as you like to be treated. Raise your hand before asking questions or to speak. Address the teacher using appropriate titles. If the teacher asks a question, you are expected to give an
answer. If you don't know the answer it is all right to tell the teacher that you don't know. Don't leave your desk without permission. Be kind to your friends at all times. Follow the classroom rules and procedures set by teachers. Follow the instructions of the classroom prefect. Hand in your homework or projects on time. There is no excuse for not doing homework. If you are absent, you should call your classmate and ask for the assignment. It is your responsibility to find out what assignments you have missed. It is not the teacher's responsibility to remind you of missed assignment. If you are seriously ill on exam days, call and let the teacher know you will not be there for the test. Posters, bulletin boards, or any other materials hanging on the wall is considered property of the school and shouldn't be written on or removed without permission. It is not acceptable to put up any sign, announcement or advertisement on boards without getting permission from the school administration in advance. Under no circumstances you are given a right to do anything unrelated to the flow of the lesson.
Taking into classrooms or the hall any radio, cameras, taperecorders, CDs, CD players, walk-man or any other electrical equipment without permission. Eating or drinking in the class. Bringing drinks or food into the classroom. Putting up notices without permission. Copying another student's work. Cheating, Selling of any items. The use of profane or degrading names, Using bad language, Involvement in gang activity, Fighting, Bringing improper articles into the school, Bringing pet into the school. Violating school dress code including coming to school in dirty clothes, having make up, and having long fingernails. Coming to school without ID cards. Entering the school main building when the school is on holiday and/ or out of study times. Damaging or destroying school property. Entering the administration office or the staff rooms without permission. Any attempt to break the school rules will be recorded in disciplinary action form by the teachers.
Explanations about unacceptable behaviors
Smoking, alcoholic drinks. Gambling or any kind of games of chance (for money or not). Spitting. Chewing gum, chewing sugar cane. Playing with or wasting water. Shouting, improper games and disruptive behavior in classrooms. Running in the corridors, climbing trees, running up or down the desks. Throwing stones or other objects likely to cause injury. Writing on the walls or the blackboards. Playing balls inside the building (inc. roof) Damaging or removing any notices. Scattering rubbish.
As a student at ZAMAN, you may not… Bring Cellular Telephones and/or Other Electronic Devices: They disrupt classes and distract others from learning. Cheat and/or plagiarize: Cheating on tests, plagiarism, and/or any other types of deception to get credit without effort are unacceptable conduct. Disrupt Learning: Disrupting learning includes any behavior that prevents other students from learning. It may include but is not limited to inappropriate language, eating or drinking in or during class, insubordination and/or selling or trading personal possessions to other students.
Violate the Dress Code: Students shall come to school in uniform and in line with specific uniform and appearance limitations described in the handbook. Gamble: Gambling includes but is not limited to card playing, dice shooting and sports pools and involves the transfer of money or personal belongings or assistance from one person to another. Harass another Student and/or a Teacher, Administrator, or Staff Member: Harassment means making unwelcome advances or any form of improper physical contact or sexual remark and any speech or action that creates a hostile, intimidating or offensive learning environment. Harassment is a violation of School's commitment to provide a physically and psychologically safe environment in which to learn. Steal and/or Vandalize Private or School Property: This means to cause or attempt to cause damage to private property or steal or attempt to steal private property either on school grounds or during a school activity, function, or event on school grounds. Students and their parents or guardians will be held responsible for any theft/vandalism that their student commits on school property. Display Threatening Behavior: Threatening behavior can include verbal threats, both face to face and over electronic media (phone and/or computers) and non-verbal threats, including “hard” stares, gestures, and so on, that cause or attempt to cause any student, teacher, administrator, or staff member to feel frightened or intimidated. Be Truant: Truancy means being inexcusably absent from school or a class without the knowledge of a parent. Habitual truancy means a student has accumulated 10 consecutive days or 15 total days of absence in one semester. School personnel may search book bags, gym bags, coats, and/or any other containers if they suspect the presence of a forbidden item.
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ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
Finding a Place to Study Together or Alone? Should I study in my room or the library? Alone or with others? To be sure, finding a good place to study is partly a matter of personal taste. More important than anything else, however, is whether the place you have selected enables you to work with the greatest amount of concentration and the fewest distractions. The reason for this is simple: your learning effectiveness drops every time your concentration is interrupted during study. For this reason, the ideal place for study is a quiet area away from the disturbance of other people, television, and stereos. By selecting a place with few distractions to begin with, most of your
mental energy can then be used for learning instead of for blocking out distractions. If you are an individual who has learned to study with some noise in the background and prefers it this way, don't worry. Research indicates that this will not significantly reduce your achievement as long as the noise does not include "language." Television, radio, and music with vocals certainly can
have a negative impact on learning, however. Study involves thinking about and processing both written and spoken language. "Irrelevant" background language present in the study environment usually interferes with the learning process. Students often deal with varying study demands by having more than one place to work. The most effective approach is to have two or three possible study areas, but no more. The small number is important because of what psychologists refer to as a conditioning effect created between you and your place of study. As you become familiar with and
build the habit of studying in a particular place or places, potential distractions are reduced. In addition, by conditioning yourself to use these areas only for study, you can train your mind to settle quickly into its "study" mode and to remain focused while you are there. At the same time, if you nap or socialize while in your place of study, you can also become conditioned to do
that instead of concentrating on your work. The bottom line is this: avoid potential problems by using your place of study only for that purpose. In addition to noise, the quality of your study environment can affect your learning success. This makes it important that you consider both your physical and mental comfort. Such concerns are most apt to involve lighting, temperature, furniture, and space. For best results, just keep these tips in mind: First, eyes strain from weak or glaring light is the biggest potential problem you may have with lighting. Lighting that is comfortable to the eyes is usually a result of more than one light source and the diffusion of light from the bulb through panels or lamp covers. Second, good concentration is not possible unless you are working at a comfortable temperature. Knowing how to dress for comfort in your regular study areas will enable you to keep from shivering in cool areas and dozing in warm ones. Third, find furniture that encourages you to sit up but is also comfortable. Hard, straightbacked chairs may keep you awake but are distracting because of their discomfort. On the other hand, reclining on sofas or beds will almost surely lead to daydreaming or to sleep. Finally, be aware of the impact of the space in which you are working upon the quality of your study. Whatever its size, arrangement, or decor, it must make you feel comfortable and secure enough to withdraw from the world for a time while you give your entire focus to learning.
Challenging Problems English What an interesting word What word, when you take away all of its vowels, sounds the same? ***
Mathematics A Bag of Potato Scientists weighed a bag of potato and found the result as 100 kg. They said that 99% of the potatoes is water. Then they put the potatoes under sun for a while. then they found 98% of the potatoes is water. If they weigh potatoes again what will be its weight? *** Science Consider the Earth to have a circumference of 40 000 km and a ribbon to be put tightly around it. If you cut the ribbon and inserted a 30 cm piece, how far will the ribbon be from the Earth if it was evenly spaced? *** One student for each question will be chosen with drawing and these three students will be awarded with a pen. If you would like to join; write down your name, surname, class and school number on an A-4 paper. Write down your answer clearly and give it to the editors of newspaper ( Murat Tutumlu or Zulfi Erken). Students who won award will be announced at the next issue. Please give your answers until 10 October. ***
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778, Swiss Political Philosopher, Educationist, Essayist
1 NOVEMBER 2003
ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
How The Satellites Work Question and Answer 2 million kW. On its journey to the satellite this signal is weakened about 1020 times, so that the input at the satellite's receiving antenna is 20 x 10-12 watt. The satellite transmits its signals with a power of 12 watts, which is weakened by a factor of 5 x 1019 on its way to the transatlantic receiving station, so that the input at the antenna is only Communications satellites, receiving -19 more particularly the active 2.4 x 10 watt. This extremely repeater type such as Telstar weak signal is amplified with and its successors, are used for the aid of master amplifiers as long-distance transmission of already described. signals in circumstances that Communications satellites of are beyond the performance this kind are put into circular range of other systems. This orbit around the earth at a disapplies particularly to band- tance of about 23,000 miles width, which for television trans- radius. The periodic time of the mission is about 5 megacy- satellite in its orbit is 24 hourscles/sec. and is thus over a i.e., synchronous with the thousand times greater than earth's rotation. The advanthe bandwidth required for ordi- tage of the synchronous satelnary radiotelephonic commu- lite is that, because it hovers stanication. (Bandwidth denotes tionary in relation to the point the frequency limits of a given directly under it on the surface wave band; more specifically, of the earth, it is available for
it indicates the frequency range occupied by a modulated carrier wave-i.e., a wave generated at a constant frequency whose amplitude, frequency or phase is then varied in accordance with a sound or video signal to be transmitted.) The signal beamed to the satellite from the parabolic antenna of the transmitter is equivalent to a power of about
communications work at all times, instead of being only periodically available like the earlier satellites such as Telstar which orbited close to the earth. A synchronous satellite at such an altitude can "see" about 120 degrees of latitude. At least three such synchronous satellites are necessary for complete coverage of the earth's surface.
Science is but an image of the truth. Bacon, Francis
Is the Earth, as a system, losing mass or gaining new materials over recent time (say the past million years)? The Earth is continually accreting mass as it is impacted by meteorites and micrometeorites like the Leonids. The Earth also loses mass due to the loss of parts of our atmosphere (mostly helium) to space. So your question really boils down to which of these processes is more important. Now, the way we determine the Earth's total mass is by observing the orbit of the Moon around it. The combination of the Moon's distance and its speed in orbit give us an excellent measure of the mass of the Earth. It would be very convenient to use this same method for determining changes in the Earth's mass, for if it were changing, this would result in a definite change in the orbit of the Moon. In fact, we do have very exact measurements of the Moon's orbit which might help in this endeavor. Unfortunately, the Moon's orbit is also affected by tides and the not-quite-sospherical shape of the Earth. These other effects are very large and dominate the effects of changing mass, which, as we will see, is very small indeed. Thus we must resort to individually accounting for each effect changing the Earth's mass. First, consider the meteorite addition of mass to the Earth. Most planetary scientists agree that the Earth gains mass at a rate of about 50 million kilograms per year due to meteorites. Now, 50 million kilograms may sound like a lot, but consider that the total mass of the Earth is 4.9 x 1024 kilograms. Even over the currently accepted age of the planet, 4.5 billion years, the total amount of added mass would be only (50 x 106) x (4.5 x 109) = 2.25 x 1017 kilograms, or about
.000005% of the mass of the Earth. Most molecules don't escape Earth's exosphere, because they are held in by the gravity of the planet. The very lightest molecules, however, will always be going faster than heavier molecules at a given temperature. If some of these lighter molecules in the exosphere move faster than the escape velocity of the planet, then they will eventually escape the planet's gravity. On Earth, Hydrogen (H 2 ) and Helium (He) evaporate from the atmosphere via this process, but the gravity is sufficient to retain all other gasses. In fact, any Hydrogen gas originally in our atmosphere escaped long ago, as would have any primordial Helium, except for the fact that Helium is continually being produced on Earth. Inside the planet, radioactive decays of Uranium and its by-products result in the production of Helium nuclei. This Helium is produced deep inside the Earth, percolates up through the solid Earth into the atmosphere, and is eventually lost to space. Thus although atmospheric Helium is being lost to space, it is constantly replenished by gas production underground. A quick calculation for Helium in the exosphere gives me a value of 1.4 billion kilograms of Helium escaping the atmosphere per year. So a somewhat larger mass of helium escapes the atmosphere than is added by meteors. Thus the Earth's mass on average is decreasing by some 1.4 billion kilograms per year. Such a change is almost unnoticeable compared to the total mass of the planet. Zulfi Erken Physics Teacher
1 NOVEMBER 2003
ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
The History of Khmer Language The earliest written language to have been found in the region is in Sanskrit, an Indian sacred language. The writings were carved in stones, which could be dated back to 5th and 6th century, which show a strong influence of the Indian culture over the indigenous people. Sometimes later, the Khmer Language seems to appear with many of its characters and words derived from Sanskrit. An oldest stone inscription written in Khmer language were found to be carved in 612 A.D. as its text said. The contents of these stone inscriptions which were housed in the temples were mostly concern with religions, its ritual and philosophy, Indian epics of R a m a y a n a a n d Mahabharata, Kings' salutations and some poetic verses. Some of these stone inscriptions also list the assets, which were owned by the temples and by the dignitaries as well as the different objects needed for ritual ceremonies. Although these assets and objects had long been disappeared, these listings served as another jigsaw in our quest for knowledge of the Angkor. Little things had been said about the ordinary life of the local people; however, these stone inscriptions had helped us to retrace the history of Khmer and to understand its political and cultural structure. Around 1,200 stone inscriptions written in Sanskrit and Khmer had been discovered. The inscriptions were careful engraved on the stone with a great work of real arts in order to show high respects to the gods of the temples. This could lead us to imagine that the Khmers were devout to their gods in whom they revered as their protector, and god's blessing would bring them prosperity. Inscriptions written in Sanskrit addressed more or less directly to the gods in term of religious prayers and rituals. Sanskrit is the sacred language of India and was maintained in the orig-
inal form by the Khmers so that its value to their gods would not be deviated by any form of translation. Generally, the Khmer inscription had its own distinction and the content was mostly a listing of assets, covering from paddy fields, cattle, objects and furniture, as well as the names of slaves, which were owned by t h e t e m p l e s. I n m a n y instances, some of the stone inscriptions were placed in the shrine by donors who could be the dignitaries or the elites of Khmer ruling class. These inscriptions could be varied, ranging from the listing of assets to some poetic verses. According to Zhou Daguan in the Chinese annals, the ancient Khmers knew how to write on the latina leaves as well as by chalks on the animal's skin. Unfortunately, these materials seem to have been decayed over the past centuries due to damp weathers and insects. It is hard to believe that such a high civilization of Khmer with a well-developed writing system would barely have any literature. Only three Khmer literatures are known since they were preserved in the stone inscription. Many literatures and other Khmer manuscripts, being writtn on unendurable materials other than on stone, are believed to have been lost with time, and some may have been survived until present day as local folklores.
LETTER FROM ONE OF OUR ZIS 1ST GENERATION ALUMNI
reeting to all teachers, students and other staffs, especially to the director of Zaman Int'l School. First of all, I would like to introduce myself. And some of you probably have known me; I am Vantharith, one of our ZIS 1st generation alumni. For this time, I have a great honor to be allowed and have a chance to take part in our ZIS Newspaper team. As one of the 1st Generation alumni of ZIS, I want to give my grateful thanks to all teachers as well as other students who have encouraged me to learn as much as possible in my high school life, especially I want to thank to Mr. A. Yusuf Guleker, the founder of Zaman Int'l School, for his grateful and helpful efforts in order to establish and run the school successfully. The school had provided me for years an opportunity to obtain a better and international high school education in the country. During my high school life, I have been studying a lot of subjects some conducted in Khmer and others conducted in English as all of you have known, and I have acquired also a lot of strong knowledge in sciences as well as other fields of studies. After I have graduated from ZIS, I was applying for a scholarship at Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), one among others state universities in the capital, in Department of Media and Communication (DMC). This department offers students who wish to pursue their higher education in the major of Journalism. I am going to obtain a bachelor degree, Bachelor of Media
Management (BMM), after my four-year university life. In order to become a successful fcandidate, I had to take an entrance exam in the selection process; fortunately, I had passed it and then another interview followed. At last, I was qualified to be a freshman among other 30 students to enroll in this department. If anyone of the students here wants to pursue his/ her further education in this major, Journalism, please let me know and I am glad to help. I also have got something to say and share to all students of ZIS. In their higher education or university life, students find themselves more difficult in their high school ones. They have to study very and very hard as well as to do some researches on many issues. So I suggest all students here to study hard and try their bests to comprehend strong knowledge from high school for their further education lives. Even I am an alumnus, a former student of ZIS, I have never forgot all my high school time with other friends and teachers here. Friendship is v e r y i m p o r t a n t, w i t h o u t friendship a man cannot survive alone; he must have some friends at least one, that the one who he can share ups and downs, as well as other things with. So I never think or want to lose contact with ZIS and other people. Lastly, I want to give my grateful thanks again to ZIS that allows me to join the newspaper team. And I am very glad to take part and I will try my best to write good and interesting articles or stories in the next issues of our ZIS Newspaper.
Without culture, and the relative freedom it implies, society, even when perfect, is but a jungle. This is why any authentic creation is a gift to the future. Camus, Albert 1913-1960, French Existential Writer
1 NOVEMBER 2003
ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
ENTERTAINMENT EXCUSES, EXCUSES! 1. Dear School: Please excuse Yunn from being absent on Jan. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, and also 33. 2. Please excuse Seakhim from being absent yesterday. She was in bed with gramps. 3. Please excuse Sophal for being. It was his father's fault. 4. Puthic will not be in school because he has an acre in his side. 5. Pitou has been absent because he had to have two teeth taken off his face. 6. Lyly was absent from school yesterday because she had a going over. 8. My son is under the doctor's care and should not take fizical ed. Please execute him. 9. Sopheak was absent yesterday because he was playing football. He was hit in the growing part. 10. My daughter was absent yesterday because she was tired. She spent this weekend with the Marines. 11. Please excuse Maliny from P.E. for a few days. Yesterday she fell off a tree and misplaced her hip. 13. Leakhana was absent Dec. 11-16, because she had a fever, sore throat, headache, and upset stomach. Her sister was also sick, fever and sore throat, her brother had a lowgrade fever. There must be the flu going around, her father even got hot last night.
YOU KNOW YOU'VE BEEN ON THE COMPUTER TOO LONG WHEN ... You want an elevator to the basement and begin looking for the "0" key, because 0 is less than 1. You hit the wrong key on the elevator keypad and you feel frustrated when you see that it has no "undo" key. You are afraid to hit the snooze bar on your alarm clock too many times because you think that the clock's subroutine was mallocing memory each time it goes and printing the free memory on the front, and soon it would run out. ....in a program which takes up 38 pages (of similar stuff) after 28 hours of work.... When you are trying to recall something and hear in your head: "parity error at address..." ....You're writing a homework assignment, and get the end of the line in the middle of a sentence, tack on a '\', and continue writing on the next line. When you pick up a rootbeer and read the label as "High Res", not Hires... You try to sleep, and think ... "telnet sleep.cs.mun.ca". You have two books, one on top of another, and think: "No problem. I'll just click on its title bar to raise the other book to the front". You hear a prof lecturing, and think that any question will crash his/her lecture interpreter.
14. Please excuse Neary from jim today. She is administrating.
When you think of the lyrics of "Jump! Jump!" by Kris Kross and wonder if they can be assembled.....
15. Soritchan was absent yesterday because he had a stomach.
When you start typing semicolons at the end of sentences instead of full stops;
16. Tola was absent yesterday because he had a sore trout.
You see something written on the blackboard and think: "Why don't I just log on and down-
load it?" When you think you can't wake up in the morning because you forgot to push a return address on the stack the night before. When you wake up with a woman and you think that she is a PDP-11 and you try to figure out how to boot her. When you think your girlfriend is a VAX, and can't figure out where to put the floppy. When you plan a hectic day as follows: 'My load averages seem to be a bit too high, my scheduler might die any moment, and I'm running out of swap space... I'd better kill off some low-priority user processes.' When you are reading a book and look for the space bar to get to the next page. You work on two Sparc stations, and get confused as to why attempting to move the mouse off one screen doesn't move it onto the other. When you watch TV and look for the INFO key in the remote control to find out the name of the program. When you look for your toothbrush by trying to do a 'grep toothbrush /dev/gym_bag' command. When you look for your homework using: "grep homework /dev/backpack" When your children do something they shouldn't do, you tell them to stop, and they do it just once more, and you react b y t h i n k i n g : " We l l, t h e y prefetched the instruction and are executing it in the delay slot..." When after fooling around all day with routers etc, you pick up the phone and start dialling an IP number...
Lost Balloonist A man flying in a hot air balloon realizes he is lost. He reduces his altitude and spots a man in a field down below. He lowers the balloon further and shouts, "Excuse me, can you tell me where I am?" The man below says, "Yes, you're in a hot air balloon, about 30 feet above this field." "You must be an engineer," says the balloonist. "I am. How did you know?" "Everything you told me is technically correct, but it's of no use to anyone." The man below says, "You must be in management." "I am. But how did you know?" "You don't know where you are, or where you're going, but you expect me to be able to help. You're in the same position you were before we met, but now it's my fault."
How Far Can Frogs Jump? There was a biologist who was doing some experiments with frogs. He was measuring just how far frogs could jump. So he puts a frog on a line and says "Jump frog, jump!." The frog jumps 2 feet. He writes in his lab book: 'Frog with 4 legs - jumps 2 ffeet. Next he chops off one of the legs and repeats the experiment. "Jump frog jump!" he says. The frog manages to jump 1.5 feet. So he writes in his lab book: 'Frog with 3 legs jumps 1.5 feet'. He chops off another and the frog only jumps 1 foot. He writes in his book: 'Frog with 2 legs jumps 1 foot'. He continues and removes yet another leg. " Jump frog jump!" and the frog somehow jumps a half of a foot. So he writes in his lab book again: 'Frog with one leg - jumps 0.5 feet'. Finally he chops off the last leg. He puts the frog on the line and tells it to jump. "Jump frog, jump!" The frog doesn't move. "Jump frog, jump!!!" Again the frog stays on the line. "Come on frog, jump!" But to no avail. The biologist finally writes in his book: 'Frog with no legs - goes deaf.'
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ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
Directions: Find and circle each of the words listed below the puzzle. T D E T I O F Q R A R R O G A N T T Z H
A E V N A K L E P T O M A N I A C T O O
C M W A D H R A N W B P A R T I A L P E
T E G I K O I Y J Q O X Y D W S T H K Y
Z A X T N L R P U N C T U A L P F Q U B
L N S X P E M S M A U D L I N E T H C U
L O T V Y K V D E D K W L E V C N I E Y
X R L W G B I I A C F G Q Y C Z O I N K
S E R V I L E S T A I M M E N S E N S R
Z Z H D P F X N U A B P C P S J V Z U D
P F Y I R B B F E P B A R C E N S O R L
L I P S O D K Y A V E L F O U J S N E O
O B O T M E M T X F O R E F S G J G O K
G I T O I V B L N G U L F N L A B I B T
J C H R N I E K X E K T E I F E I B S R
Z F E T E A S E G N A X I N C R M C C T
U Y S H N T B S L E O F X L T I S V U E
K F I K T E B T H Q E E D Y E B A V R M
R U S C V I W E N L I G H T E N Q L E V
Z F D R G P O L Y T H E I S M H M P D W
arrogant deviate inevitable servile demeanor
baffle distort obscure superficial enlighten
benevolent endorse partial tact kleptomaniac
censor futile prosaic maudlin polytheism
censure immense punctual prominent hypothesis
1 NOVEMBER 2003
ZAMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPER
Do We Know The Rules of Football? L a w Dimensions. The field of play shall be rectangular, its length being not more than 130 yards nor less than 100 yards and its breadth not more than 100 yards nor less than 50 yards. (In international matches the length shall be not more than 120 yards nor less than 110 yards and the breadth not more than 80 yards nor less than 70 yards.) The length shall in all cases exceed the breadth. Marking. The field of play shall be marked with distinctive lines, not more than 5 inches in width (not by a V-shaped rut) in accordance with the plan, the longer boundary lines being called the touch-lines and the shorter the goal-lines. A flag on a post not less than 5 ft. high and having a non-pointed top, shall be placed at each corner; a similar flag-post may be placed opposite the half-way line on each side of the field of play, not less than 1 yard outside the touchline. A halfwayline shall be marked out across the field of play. The center of the field of play shall be indicated by a suitable mark and a circle with a 10 yards radius shall be marked round it. The Goal-Area. At each end of the field of play two lines shall be drawn at right-angles to the goal-line, 6 yards from each goal-post. These shall extend into the field of play for a distance of 6 yards and shall be joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal-line. Each of the spaces enclosed by these lines and the goal-line shall be called a goal-area. The Penalty-Area. At each end of the field of play two lines shall be drawn at right-angles to the goal-line, 18 yards from
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each goal-post. These shall extend into the field of play for a distance of 18 yards and shall be joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal-line. Each of the spaces enclosed by these lines and the goal-line shall be called a penalty-area. A suitable mark shall be made within each penalty-area, 12 yards from the mid-point of the goal-line, measured along an un-drawn line at right-angles thereto. These shall be the PK marks. From each PK mark an arc of a circle, having a radius of 10 yards, shall be drawn outside the penalty-area. The Corner-Area. From each corner-flag post a quarter circle, having a radius of 1 yard, shall be drawn inside the field of play. The Goals. The goals shall be placed on the center of each goal-line and shall consist of two upright posts, equidistant from the corner-flags and 8 yards apart (inside measurement), joined by a horizontal cross-bar the lower edge of which shall be 8 ft. from the ground. The width and depth of the cross-bars shall not exceed 5 inches (12 cm). The goal-posts and the cross- bars shall have the same width. Nets may be attached to the posts, cross-bars and ground behind the goals. They should be appropriately supported and be so placed as to allow the goalkeeper ample room. Goal nets. The use of nets made of hemp, jute or nylon is permitted. The nylon strings may, however, not be thinner than those made of hemp or jute.
Decisions of the International F.A. Board
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In international matches the dimensions of the field of play shall be: maximum 110 x 75 meters; minimum 100 x 64 meters. National Associations must adhere strictly to these dimensions. Each National Association organizing an international match must advise the visiting Association, before the match, of the place and the dimensions of the field of play. The goal-line shall be marked the same width as the depth of the goal-posts and the crossbar, so that the goal-line and goal- posts will conform to the same interior and exterior edges. The 6 yards (for the outline of the goal-area) and the 18 yards (for the outline of the penalty-area) which have to be measured along the goal-line, must start from the inner sides of the goal-posts. The space within the inside areas of the field of play includes the width of the lines marking these areas. All Associations shall provide standard equipment, particularly in international matches, when the Laws of the Game must be complied with in every respect and especially with regard to the size of the ball and other equipment which must conform to the regulations. All cases of failure to provide standard equipment must be reported to FIFA. In a match played under the rules of a competition if the cross-bar becomes displaced or broken, play shall be stopped and the match abandoned unless the cross-bar has been repaired and replaced
in position or a new one provided without such being a danger to the players. A rope is not considered to be a satisfactory substitute for a crossbar. National Associations may specify such maximum and minimum dimensions for the cross-bars and goal-posts, within the limits laid down in Law 1, as they consider appropriate. Goal-posts and cross-bars must be made of wood, metal or other approved material as decided from time to time by the International F.A. Board. They may be square, rectangular, round, half-round or elliptical in shape. 'Curtain-raisers' to international matches should only be played following agreement on the day of the match, and taking into account the condition of the field of play, between representatives of the two Associations and the referee (of the international match). National Associations, particularly in international matches, should restrict the number of photographers around the field of play. have a line (photographers' line) marked behind the goallines at least two meters from the corner flag going through a point situated at least 3.5 meters behind the intersection of the goal- line with the line marking the goal-area to a point situated at least six meters behind the goal-posts. prohibit photographers from passing over these lines, forbid the use of artificial lighting in the form of "flashlights".