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Gend der Ba ased A Analy ysis: Thirrd Ann nual Asses A nt of the smen Te echnology Secto S r in Q Quebec

May y 12, 2015


TABLE T OF O CON NTENTS ACK KNOWLEDG GEMENTS .......................................................................................2 EXECUTIVE SU UMMARY .........................................................................................3 Ge ender in the Education Sector S and th he Workplacce ......................................................... 3 Fin ndings from the Montrea al Technolog gy-Sector Stu udy ...................................................... 3

INTR RODUCTIO ON .....................................................................................................4 Back kground ................................................................ ............................................................ 4 Ratio onale for the Project............................................. ............................................................ 4 Key Concepts C an nd Definitions .................................... ............................................................ 5 Ge ender Define ed ...................................................... ............................................................ 5 GB BA Definition ns and Purpo ose ................................ ............................................................ 5 Ro ole of Socioe economics in n GBA ............................ ............................................................ 6

MET THODS ...............................................................................................................7 Litera ature Review w ....................................................... ............................................................ 7 Technology Secttor Survey ......................................... ............................................................ 7 Enterrprise Survey....................................................... ............................................................ 8 Case e Study Interrviews ............................................... ............................................................ 8

LANDSCAPE: GENDER IN I THE WO ORKPLACE E ....................................................8 STEM M Education n and Gende er .................................... ............................................................ 8 Cana ada: The Tec chnology Se ector in Brief .................. ............................................................ 9 Queb bec: Technology Sector Overview....................... .......................................................... 11 Immig gration and STEM .............................................. .......................................................... 13

SUR RVEY RESU ULTS .............................................................................................. 17 YES Survey Respondents Pe erceptions...................... .......................................................... 17 So ocialization Processes P ......................................... .......................................................... 17 Ca areers in Tec chnology ........................................... .......................................................... 18 Wo orkplace Culture.................................................. .......................................................... 19 So ocial Issues Related R to th he Workplac ce ................ .......................................................... 26 Progrram Impact: WIT Enterp prise Particip pants ........... .......................................................... 30

CON NCLUSION ....................................................................................................... 31 REC COMMENDA ATIONS ......................................................................................... 32 END D NOTES .......................................................................................................... 34

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ACKNOWL LEDGEM MENTS YES wishes to thank t Statu us of Wome en Canada for their fin nancial assistance for tthe Gend der-based Approach A to o Women in Technolo ogy project. This research paper p was produced p in n consultatio on and closse collabora ation with th he mem mbers of the e Women in n Technolog gy Advisoryy Committee who gene erously devo oted their tim me and ene ergy in sugg gesting reso ources for tthis projectt as a whole e. Mem mbers of the e Advisory Committee C include: ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

Liesl Barrrell, Third Wunder, W Mo ontreal Sophie Forest, F Brightspark Ventures, Montreal Tara Hun nt, TOTEM, Toronto Elisabeth h Laett, Inte ellaCare & Xaphan X Gro roup, Montrreal Chad Loeven, RSA, Montreal Mark Ma acLeod, form merly of Re eal Venturess, Montreall Daniele Nascimento N o, McGill University, M Montreal Cathy Ng guli, ABB, Montreal M Carmela Orlando, In nsight, Mon ntreal Elisabeth h Vanderve eldt, Microso oft Canada , Montreal

o like to ack knowledge the t followin ng individua als for their work and YES would also opment of th his report: contrributions to the develo ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

Andrea Wood, W Third d Wunder, Montreal Jack Jed dwab, Cana adian Institu ute for Identtities and M Migration, M Montreal Paul Holley, YES, Montreal M Leann Brrown, YES,, Montreal Kelsey White, W YES,, Montreal Danica Meredith, M YES Montrea al Iris Unge er, YES, Mo ontreal

essarily rep present the e official policy This findings presented in this report do not nece dings of Sta atus of Wom men Canad da. stand

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EXE ECUTIVE E SUMM MARY

Base ed on secon ndary resea arch and prrimary data collected tthrough surrveys and encing the underrepre interv views, this report exam mines the fa actors influe esentation o of wom men in Queb bec’s techno ology secto or. The repo ort focuses on early ed ducation in techn nology as well w as care eer develop pment, and addresses the main cchallenges enco ountered by y women wo orking in Qu uebec’s tecchnology se ector. Gend der in the Education E Sector an nd the Work rkplace 

 

While ma any female high schoo ol students excel in ST TEM subjeccts, less tha an a quarterr of female university entrants e choose to stu udy in these e fields. Ma any female students are e effectively y limiting the eir lifetime earning pow wer by ignoring the potentia al of STEM M careers. This is in nfluenced by ‘off-ramping’, the pra actice of lea aving the w workforce even for a short perriod of time. Women w who choose e to leave th he workforcce or family or for self-dev velopment often strug ggle to returrn and to care fo frequentlly accept a lower salarry than exp perience me erits simply so they ca an re-enter. With a grrowing trend toward se elf-employm ment, more e women tha an ever are e choosing g to leave th he traditiona al workforcce to pursue e their own ventures. Montreall’s vibrant start-up s com mmunity offe fers immensse potential for women n to run the eir own technology inittiatives. Inccreasing nu umbers of w women are pursuing options forr self-emplo oyment with h technolog gy start-upss. Male univ versity stud dents and graduates g sshowed a m marked prefference for STEM. These T male students were w more likely to study enginee ering, but th he gap is clo osing for the field of co omputer sccience. Both dom mestic and internationa al migrantss play a vita al role in the e technology sector. Quebec Q is very capable e of attracting talented d and skilled d labour fro om within Ca anada and around the world.

Find dings from the Montre real Techno ology-Secttor Study 

 

t draw off the provinc ce’s techno ology sector, barriers tto talent Despite the retention n persist. Sa alary inequiity between n men and w women con ntinues to challenge e Montreal’’s technolog gy sector. Surveys in 2013 and 2 2015 revea al that 45% % of women believed th hat their ma ale colleagu ues receive ed better compens sation than their female colleague es. Both wom men and men believe that women do not sp peak up in tthe workpla ace, and henc ce fail to ga ain sufficien nt recognitio on for their work. Nea arly half of survey re espondents s indicated that t women n do not ad dequately prromote themselv ves or their skills. Some se even in ten believe tha at men and women are e not promo oted at the same ratte. Some tw wo-thirds of women ind dicated that role models and men ntors are lacking in n the workp place. 3


INT TRODUC CTION Background This paper represents the Gender Ba ased Analyssis portion o of YES Mon ntreal’s men in Tech hnology (WIT) project. Based on e empirical re esearch our objective is Wom to de etermine ho ow best to build b capacity in Montrreal’s techn nology secto or by applying gend der-based analysis a to women’s w ca areer devellopment in the technollogy sectorr. The research su upports the e delivery off programs focusing on the devellopment, imple ementation and evalua ation of wom men’s care eers in techn nology over a three-ye ear perio od, between n 2013 and d 2015. In ge eneral, men n and wome en have varrying life exxperiences, influenced d by social, political and eco onomic circ cumstances s. Ideology, culture and d gender sh hape be identtities and offten influence the choiices made in the workkplace. Thiss needs to b taken n into consiideration when assess sing the con nditions enccountered b by men and d wom men across various v occ cupations. This report seek ks to help women w in Quebec’s Q te echnology ssector in attaining theirr caree er goals. In n order to ellaborate up pon these isssues and o opportunitie es, the stud dy relies s on a litera ature review w and prima ary data collection. In latte 2012 YES Montreall launched a three-yea ar project entitled “Women in Tech hnology”. Th his project sought s to id dentify wayys to increasse the num mber of wom men involved in the fields f of tec chnology by y applying a gender-ba ased analyssis to develop and implement i an awarene ess and evaluation pro ogram. In a addition to tthe producttion of a research r pa aper we strress the nee ed for entre epreneurship, job searrch and menttorship prog grams for women w in th he technolo ogy sector. The overall obje ectives of th he project were: w  

To increa ase the und derstanding g of how gender impaccts the upta ake, developm ment and co ommitmentt of women with careers in techno ology. To suppo ort women in the deve elopment off their caree ers by settin ng goals an nd promotin ng change in n Montreal’’s technolog gy sector.

Rationale for the Project YES Montreal’s s Women in n Technolog gy program and subse equent gend der-based analy ysis was drriven by the e realisation n that:  

Gendere ed perspectives in tech hnology nee ed to be clo oser to the fforefront off issues fa acing private e sector lea aders. Stud dying the isssues and alerting industry will w trigger positive acttion. An underrstanding of o gender is central to iidentifying tthe nature of problemss confronting the tech hnology sec ctor and wo orking towards solution ns to these problems s.

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The research co omponent of o the proje ect:   

Gathered d informatio on about relevant toolss and appro oaches Gathered d research to support the develop pment of an n evaluation n tool for th he technology sector. Provided d informatio on to the tec chnology se ector that assisted with h gender analysis and equal opportunity y.

This research document d so ought to pro ovide defin itions and cclarification ns for releva ant key concepts. c The T objectiv ves of this research r inccluded the identificatio on of curren nt GBA A research and a to supp port continu ued applicattion of GBA A.

Key Concepts s and Definitions Gend der Define ed Gend der “refers to the roles s and respo onsibilities o of women a and men tha at are creatted in ou ur families, our o societie es and our cultures. c Th he conceptt of gender also includes the expectation e s held abou ut the chara acteristics, aptitude an nd behaviou urs of both wom men and men (femininitty and masculinity). Th hese roles a and expecttations are learn ned. They can c change over time and a they va ary within a and between n cultures. The concept of gender fac cilitates gender analysiis, revealing g how wom men's subo ordination is s socially co onstructed. As such, th he subordin nation can b be changed d 1 or en nded. It is not n biologica ally predete ermined norr is it fixed fforever.” “Gen nder is a useful concep pt that can help [us] un nderstand h how men and women are socialised s to o conform to t specific and a distinctt rules of be ehaviour, an nd perform 2 certa ain specific roles, activ vities and prrofessions.”” Gend der is a corre organisin ng principle of social re elations and d opportuniities. Gende er roles s are not un niversal. Ins stead, they vary from cculture to cu ulture. Gen nder and gend der roles an nd relationships impact all processses of life. In order to better unde erstand and d respond to o the needs s of the tech ust take an hnology sector, we mu integ grated appro oach that addresses a the intersecction of gender, age, visible minority statu us, educatio on, languag ge, etc. Intersectionality y operates under u the premise p tha at people livve multiple, layered identtities derive ed from soc cial relations s, history an nd the operration of strructures of powe er. People are a membe ers of more than one ccommunity a at the same e time. Intersectional analysis aim ms to reveal multiple identities, exxposing the different types s of discrim mination and d disadvanttage that occcur as a co onsequence of the comb bination of identities. GBA A Definition ns and Purrpose Gend der-based analysis a (G GBA) is prev valent on th he internatio onal stage a as an analy ytical tool th hat can be used to ass sess how th he impact o of policies a and program ms 3 on giirls/women might differ from theirr impact on boys/men.. In order to understa and the premise p und der which th hese studie es are cond ducted, a se election of d definitions a are draw wn and prov vided below w.

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Interrnational Labour L Org ganisation: “Gen nder analysis is a tool to diagnose e the differe ences betw ween women and men regarding their specific s acttivities, conditions, nee eds, accesss to and control over resou urces, and access to developme d nt benefits and decisio on-making. It studies tthe linkages of thes se and othe er factors in the larger social, economic, political and c Ge ender analysis entails, first and fo oremost, co ollecting sexx envirronmental context. disag ggregated data d and ge ender-sensitive inform mation about the popula ation conc cerned. Gen nder analys sis is the firs st step in ge ender-senssitive planning for prom moting gend der equality”.4 Statu us of Wom men Canada a: “[GBA] includes s an unders standing of the nature of relationsships betwe een men an nd wom men, and the e different social s realities, life exp pectations a and econom mic circu umstances facing f wom men and me en. It acknow wledges that some wo omen may be disad dvantaged even furthe er because of their racce, colour, ssexual orien ntation, soccioecon nomic positiion, region, ability, leve el or age. A gender-ba ased analyssis respectss and appreciates a s diversity.””5 Heallth Canada a, Bureau of o Women's 's Health an nd Genderr Analysis:: “GBA A is an analytical tool that t system matically inte egrates a g gender persspective into o the developmen d nt of policies, programs and legisslation, as w well as plan nning and decis sion making g processes s. It helps to identify a and clarify th he differencces betwee en wom men and men, boys and d girls, and demonstra ates how th hese differences affectt healtth status, access to, and interactiion with, the e health ca are system.””6 As re epresented above, GB BA definition ns as prese ented above e share com mmonalitiess: 1. The defin nitions focu us on men/b boys’ and w women/girlss’ needs and relationships. 2. Rarely is s the concep pt of gende er identity and sexual o orientation addressed; when the ese concep pts are referrred to, theyy are regard ded variable es ded as add (similar to age, or economic status). e of Socioe economics s in GBA Role Gend der analysis s questions s the distrib bution of ressources alo ong with the e impact of cultu ure and trad ditions. By addressing a how an inittiative can iimpact wom men and me en, GBA A challenges s existing gender g divis sions of labo our, economic disparitties and prom motes equallity. Domes stic contribu utions frequently go un nrecognised d as econom mic contrributions. Work W within the home, such as ch hildcare and d domestic labour, doe es not fiit within con nventional moneymak m ing structurres. As a re esult, this tyype of workk is unde errepresented in officia al statistics,, and underrvalued by ssociety as a whole.

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METHODS Literrature Rev view The literature re eview identified and re eviewed HR R, labour ma arket and ssociological C and d around th he globe. Steps included: studiies and surveys from Canada ‐ ‐ ‐

Identifica ation of issu ues facing the Informa ation, Comm munication a and Technolo ogy (ICT) se ector, partic cularly fema ale recruitm ment and re etention. Identifica ation of prog grams, reso ources, outtreach strattegies, prom motional campaigns and care eer develop pment tacticcs and their impacts. Focus on n the issues s facing enttry and rete ention within n the ICT field.

Them mes identified in the litterature rev view were u used to devvelop the intterview ques stions used in the Case e Study Inte erviews.

Tech hnology Sector S Surrvey Primary data, presented in n ‘Gender-B Based Tren ds: Finding gs from the Montreal Tech hnology-Sec ctor Survey y’, includes the finding s from 497 survey ressponses, 20 0 enterrprise surve eys and 20 case study y interviewss. Individua als in professsional role es, emplloyment seekers, stud dents and fu unders were e approach hed for the sstudy, whicch reach hed out to sectors, s inc cluding, but not limited d to: ‐ ‐ ‐

Software e and hardw ware develo opment Gaming Ecomme erce

‐ ‐

Digital arts Biotech hnology

The most recen nt wave of the YES Mo ontreal Wom men in Technology survey was offered online between b De ecember 12 2, 2014 and February 1 17, 2015. T The survey cons sisted of twe enty-five de emographic c and sociog graphic que estions and d was circu ulated throughout YES’s clientele, WIT Advissory Comm mittee memb ber’s profe essional networks, and d a variety of o personall networks. In total, the e survey reach hed 497 pe eople from Canada C and d the Unite ed States. Nearrly 4 in 5 su urvey respondents werre female (n n=388 or 78 8%) and the majority o of the sample s was s between the age of 25 2 and 44 ( n=353 or 7 71%). Almosst half of respo ondents we ere born and raised in Quebec (4 44%) and an nother one--third reside ed in Qu uebec for six or more years. y Sligh htly more th han half of respondentts were marrried at the tiime of the survey s (54% %) and one e-third had cchildren. In terms of educ cation, 4 in 5 responde ents (80%) had a bach helor’s degrree or highe er, one-third d had a master’s degree or higher h (31% %) and apprroximately 7% had an MBA or Ph hD. The data was re efined to iso olate respo ondents from m Quebec, to addresss the differrences betw ween male and female e respondents, and to identify gaps between n the te echnology sector and the soft-tec chnical secctors in Que ebec. Durin ng the first year of the study, the online survvey consiste ed of thirty--two demo ographic an nd sociogra aphic questions. In tota al, the survvey reached d 546 peoplle from around the e world.

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Ente erprise Su urvey The survey, con nducted onlline betwee en January 6, 2015 – F February 17 7, 2015, cons sisted of fou ur questions s related to each busin ness’ hiring g objectivess. The surve ey was circulated to t those enterprises th hat participa ated in YES S Montreal’ss 2014 NetW WORK Now w event.

Case Study In nterviews Twen nty YES Wo omen in Te echnology (WIT) progrram particip pants contributed to the 2015 5 GBA case e study interviews. The ese particip pants share ed their insig ghts and expe erience about Quebec’’s technolog gy sector in n a series o of one-on-one interview ws. Stakeholders in ncluded members of, but b were no ot limited to,, the followiing domains: ‐ ‐ ‐

Software e and hardw ware develo opment Gaming erce Ecomme

‐ ‐

Digital arts Biotech hnology

Case e study inte erview findin ngs are pre esented alon ng with those from the e technolog gy secto or survey. Results R from m these stu udies can be e used to b build capaciity in the secto or by increa asing aware eness of the e social, fam mily and wo orkplace isssues that wom men face wh hen entering g (and rema aining) in th he technolo ogy field. In nsights from m these e studies ca an also be used to info orm the devvelopment, implementtation and evalu uation of WIT W program ms and serv vices in Mon ntreal.

LAN NDSCAP PE: GEN NDER IN N THE W WORKPLACE STE EM Educattion and Gender G An analysis by Darcy Hang go7 entitled d “Gender d differences in science, technologyy, neering, ma athematics and compu uter science e (STEM) p programs att university” engin (2013) observes s that while e women cu urrently represent the majority of young unive ersity gradu uates, they remain und derrepresen nted in scie ence, technology, engin neering, ma athematics and compu uter science e (STEM) fields. Hang go points ou ut: 

According to the 2011 Nationa al Householld Survey (N NHS), wom men ed for 39% of universitty graduate es aged 25 tto 34 with a STEM accounte degree in n 2011, com mpared with h 66% of un niversity gra aduates in non-STEM M programs s. Among STEM S gradu uates aged d 25 to 34, w women acccounted for 59% of tho ose in scienc ce and technology prog grams, but accounted for 23% off those who o graduate ed from eng gineering an nd 30% of tthose who g graduated ffrom mathema atics and co omputer science progrrams. Among women w who o choose to pursue a d degree in S STEM, mostt do so in biology or o science programs, p resulting r in even fewerr women in engineerin ng, computer science and a mathem matics progrrams.

While e aptitude is undoubte edly a consideration in n the choice e of a university progra am it onlly partly exp plains gend der differenc ces in STEM choices. Young wo omen with a

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high level of ma athematical ability remain far lesss inclined to o enter STE EM fields than youn ng men, eve en where th he latter pos ssess less aptitude for mathemattics. This implies that othe er factors need n to be taken t into a account when explaining the gend der gap in STEM-relate S ed program ms. Amongsst others, H Hango suggests that we cons sider labourr market exp pectations including fa amily and w work balancce, differencces in mo otivation an nd interest. Educ cational cho oices have market imp plications, a as better tha an average e outcomes in emplloyment and earnings arise from fields of stu udy such as engineeriing and comp puter science. The ratio of men to o women educated an nd employe ed in STEM indic cates that th here is a pe ersistent dis sconnect be etween opp portunity and potential.. By not taking pa aths leading g to STEM education a and work, p promising yyoung women are effectively e reducing the eir chances s at larger liifetime sala aries and op pportunitiess to influe ence the strrategic dire ection of lea ading organ nizations in the industrry.

Canada: The Technolo ogy Sectorr in Brief Hang go’s (2013) analysis re eveals that women are e proportion nately unde errepresented amon ng STEM graduates; g although a 59 9% of all un niversity gra aduates age ed 25-34 in n 8 2011 1 were fema ale , only 39% of graduates with a STEM de egree were female. An nd the majority m of female f STE EM degree holders ma ajored in science and ttechnology (61% %) – compared to only 28% of ma ale STEM d degree hold ders. Nearlyy 1 in 2 male graduates (in STEM) receiived a degrree in engin neering (47%) versus o only 1 in 5 men who gra aduated witth an engine eering degrree. wom FIGURE 1.1 PERCENTT OF STEM UNIVERSITY GR RADUATES AG GED 25-34 BY Y SEX 100% 80%

17%

25%

22%

60%

47%

40% 20%

61% 28%

0% Women

Men

Scienc ce and techno ology

Engin neering

Math/C Computer Sccience So ource: National Household Su urvey 2011 Sta atistics Canada a9

Hang go points ou ut that Canadian men aged 25 to o 34 with ST TEM degre ees conc centrated in engineerin ng had lowe er unemployyment ratess and highe er wages th han their non-STEM M counterpa arts. The lab bour marke et outcomess of women n with STEM M oncentrated in science and techno ology, did n not clearly degrees, who are more co differr from non-STEM wom men in this age a group.110

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Hang go observes that “bette er labour market m outco omes of young gradua ates with a STEM M degree are a often us sed as motivational facctors to enccourage stu udents to choo ose a STEM M degree.” Such S conditions can vvary by gend der and dim mensions of labou ur market performance p e. Rates of unemploym ment are an n importantt dimension n of perfo ormance. Employing data d from Sttatistics Ca anada’s 201 11 National Household d Surv vey, Hango notes that the rate of unemploym ment for gra aduates age ed 25 to 34 4 with a STEM un niversity degree was 4.7% 4 compa ared with 5.5% for those with a non-STEM degrree, while the unemplo oyment rate e of women n with a STEM universsity degree was 7.0%, comparred with 5.7 7% among tthose with a non-STEM M degree. Hang go describe es “skills mismatch” as s the situatio on wherein n men with a STEM unive ersity degre ee are also less likely than t non-S STEM gradu uates to be working in occu upations req quiring a hig gh school education e o or less. Thiss is illustrate ed in the table below w. In sum, amongst a men m between the age o of 25 and 34 4 with a ST TEM universsity degree, almost 12% were in occupations genera ally requirin ng a high scchool diplom ma ss, comparred with 22% % among th hose with a non-STEM M universityy degree. or les Abou ut 18% of all women were w in occu upations req quiring a hiigh school d diploma or less, regardless s of STEM degree d vs. non-STEM M degree sta atus. T ABLE E 1: L ABOUR M ARKET O UT TCOMES OF UNIVERSITY G R RADUATES A G GED 25 TO 34 4, BY SEX AND D Note N 1 M AJO OR F IELD OF S TUDY , 2011

Unemployment Total STEM Scienc ce Technology T (except ( engin neering tech hnology) Engineerring Mathema atics and com mputer scien nce Non STE EM Skill mismattchNote 2 Total STEM Scienc ce Technology T (except ( engin neering tech hnology) Engineerring Mathema atics and com mputer scien nce Non STE EM

Total 5.5 6.2 5.1 4.9 5.4 5.6

Percentag ge Women 7.0 6.6 3.4 7.1 8.5 5.7

Men 4.7 5.8 6.7 4.3 4.2 5.5

Total 14.3 18.0 22.2 10.6 13.6 19.7

Women 18.3 18.9 20.5 13.5 22.4 18.5

Men 11.8 16.8 23.5 9.8 10.1 22.2

Median n wages and d salariesNote 3

Total 59,300 51,700 51,700 65,200 59,300 52,200

Dollars Women 53,200 49,100 49,700 61,100 54,900 50,200

Men 62,300 55,300 54,600 66,300 60,800 56,000

Total STEM Scienc ce Technology T (except ( engin neering tech hnology) Engineerring Mathema atics and com mputer scien nce Non STE EM

Sourc ce: Statistics Ca anada, Nationa al Household Survey, S 2011 ass cited in Darcyy Hango, “Gend der differencess in scienc ce, technology,, engineering, mathematics m and computer sccience (STEM)) programs at u university”

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Statisttics Canada, December D 2013 3. Note 1: 1 This table dis splays the resu ults of labour market m outcome es of universityy graduates age ed 25 to 34 tota al, wome en and men, calculated using percentage an nd dollars units of measure (a appearing as co olumn headers). Note 2. 2 Percentage of o persons worrking in occupa ations requiring g a high school education or le ess. Includes person ns who were employed during g the NHS refe erence week, o or weren't emplo oyed but last w worked in 2010 or 2011. Similar differences were foun nd between gro oups when the sample was re estricted to employees workin ng full year, full-time in 2010. 2 Note 3. 3 Gross wages s and salaries before deductio on, employeess working full ye ear, full time in 2010.

Hang go reaffirms s that STEM M programs s lead to be etter-paying g jobs and e even more so for men. m In 2010 0, men age ed 25 to 34 with a STE EM university degree e earned a mediian of $62,3 300, versus s $56,000 fo or those wh ho graduate ed from non n-STEM programs. For female f univ versity-educ cated STEM M graduatess median ssalaries and d wage es were $53 3,200, com mpared with $50,200 fo or non-STEM graduate es. The gap p is large ely attributable to the higher h conc centration o of men in en ngineering w where earnings are sig gnificantly higher. h

Que ebec: Tech hnology Sector S Ove erview As th he home of 49% of Qu uebec’s pop pulation, the e Montreal region offe ers the 11 greattest econom mic potentia al for the prrovince’s re esidents. F Furthermorre, the city has become b a centre c for excellence e in aerospacce, enginee ering, technology and gamiing. With 83 3% of the province’s p R&D R conduccted in Mon ntreal, the ccity attractss a 12 2 diverrse and multicultural workforce. w In fact, M Montreal attrracted more e than 45,0 000 13 3 new immigrants s in 2013. Desp pite the city y’s desire to o increase itts workforce e, a significcant stumblling block stand ds in the wa ay of contin nuing to attrract a broad d range of p people to th he technolo ogy secto or: wage eq quity. In 201 13, the average hourlyy wage for m men workin ng in softwa are deve elopment wa as $37.60, while the average a hou urly wage fo or women in the field was $36.78. 14 The T wage gap g is signifficantly morre noticeab ble for profe essional engin neers; while e men rece eived an hourly wage o of $40.30, w women rece eived $4.91 1 less – an hourly y wage of $35.39. Ove er the femalle engineerr’s lifetime, this gap beco omes signifiicant.15 As th he world’s 7th 7 largest centre c for te echnology, the city ho osts 50,000 technologyy jobs, 20,000 aerospace job bs, and 33 gaming stu udios.16 Forr Montreal tto continue its ques st for excelle ence, such salary disp parity must be addresssed both byy employerss and employees e . In order to main ntain this po osition and to grow as a technolo ogy leader w within Cana ada and within w a glo obal contextt, the city’s leaders strrive to foste er centres o of technolog gy 17 exce ellence and industrial clusters. c S Success in tthese doma ains require es ongoing attraction and re etention of the best an nd brightestt minds – both from wiithin industry and new n gradua ates from th he city’s universities. W With an ave erage of 10,000 1 resid dents leavin ng the city every e year,18 Montreal must repopulate the ttechnology secto or by tappin ng into the valuable v im mmigrant po opulation that make Mo ontreal theiir home e.

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19 Note 1 Note 2 T ABLE E 2: A VERAG GE S ALARIES BY B PROFESSIO ON IN Q UEBEC C

Code - Occupation n Title CNP All Prrofessions Fema ale Participatio on Rate Fema ale dominant professions p Professions withou ut gender domin nance Male dominant pro ofessions By Oc ccupation (14 4 of 22 profess sions in the private secto or) Predo ominately fem male profess sions 314 - Prof. - Therapy and Evaluation 511 - Prof. - Library y, archives, museums and art galleries g 415 - Prof. - Psych hology, social work, couns selling, religio on and probation 411 - Judges, lawy yers, notaries essions witho out gender Profe dominance 112 - Prof. - Huma an resource mana agement and business b serv vices 416 - Agents - Policies and prog grams, resea archers and co onsultants 212 - Prof. - Life sc ciences g, translation,, public 512 - Prof. - Editing relatio ons 211 – Physical and d natural sciences Male dominant prrofessions 216 - Mathematicia ans, statisticia ans, actuaries mation techno ology 217 - Prof. – Inform 215 - Prof. - Architecture, planning and surveying 214 - Other engine eering profess sionals 213 - Civil, mechan nic, electrical,, and chemical engineering

Av vg. Hourly W Wage By Ge ender Fem male Male Gap $ 34 4.36 38.55 4.19

Female F Parrticipation Rate % 42.1

Both S Sexes $ 36.78

78.0

36.78

6.28 36

38.58

2.30

94.0%

56.2 20.6

34.93 39.01

33 3.27 36 6.99

37.06 39.54

3.79 2.55

89.8% 93.6%

91.5

35.28

x

x

69.5

31.97

31 1.77

32.43

0.66

98.0%

64.8 62.3

30.30 50.43

30 0.71 49 9.82

29.55 51.45

-1.16 1.63

103.9% 96.8%

56.7

35.86

34 4.57

37.55

2.98

92.1%

55.3 54.6

37.12 32.60

35 5.04 31 1.58

39.70 33.83

4.66 2.25

88.3% 93.3%

45.4 45.0

35.14 33.30

31 1.44 31 1.68

38.22 34.63

6.78 2.95

82.3% 91.5%

35.7 23.8

41.14 37.40

39 9.00 36 6.78

42.34 37.60

3.34 0.82

92.1% 97.8%

23.1 16.2

35.55 42.11

33 3.70 39 9.24

36.11 42.67

2.41 3.43

93.3% 92.0%

15.8

39.52

35 5.39

40.30

4.91

87.8%

Ra atio % 89.1%

Note 1: Table is reproduced in English E from la l institute de e la statistique e de Québec, Enquête surr la remun neration globa ale au Québe ec, Collecte 2013. Confiden nce intervals are not repro oduced. Note 2: 2 Table 2 pre esents the fem male participa ation rate and d average hou urly wages byy occupation o of the National Occup pational Class sification, univ versity compl etion level, re egular fulltime e, private ver 200 emplo oyees. companies with ov

12


FIGURE 1.2 POPULATION AGED A 25-64 W WITH UNIVERSI TY DIPLOMA AND IMMIG GRANT STATU S , 2011 30% 25% 20% 15% 10%

22%

20 0% 14% 9%

7%

25%

17%

8%

7%

3% %

5% 0% Eng gineering, architectural, related

Math, Computerr science, information n science

Health sciences

Immigran nts

Socia al science es

merce Comm and p public adminisstration

Non-im mmigrants

Source: Sta atistics Canada, 2011 Nationa al Household S Survey, Statisticcs Canada Catalogue no. n 99-012-X20 011048.20 Note: Due to o rounding, tota als may not ne ecessarily corre espond to the ssum of the parts.

Imm migration and a STEM M Data a from the 2011 2 Nation nal Househo old Survey reveal thatt in Canada a and in its Metropolitan are eas immigrants constitute an imp portant sharre of STEM M degree holde ers. As obs served below w in Canad da in 2011 ssome 37.4% % of all STE EM degree holde ers in the la abour force were foreig gn-born. In the Montre eal Region in the same e categ gory some 36.2% are foreign-borrn. T ABLE E 3: STEM DEGREE H OLD ERS IN THE L ABOUR A FORCE IN C ANADA AND M ONTRE EAL 2011 Total Non-immigrants Immig grants Be efore 1971 19 971 to 1980 19 981 to 1990 19 991 to 2000 20 001 to 2011 2001 to 2005 5 2006 to 2011 Non-p permanent res sidents

Canada C 2,124,415 2 1,284,645 1 794,100 53,780 83,495 115,540 234,945 306,350 164,970 141,375 45,665

Montreal 282,615 172,385 102,140 5,415 9,670 13,560 24,995 48,500 23,330 25,165 8,090

Source e: Special Tabulations, Catalo ogue no. 99-01 12-X2011043, Statisttics Canada, National Househ hold Survey, 20 011

13


As observed be elow in Mon ntreal wome en aged 25--34 have higher rates of unem mployment than men across a all STEM S fieldss of study. T The gap is e especially wide in the field d of mathem matics and computer c sscience. T ABLE E 4: M ONTREA AL U NEMPLOY YMENT R ATE BY SEX FOR 2 25-34 YEAR O LDS , STEM M FIELDS OF STUDY, 2011 Total STEM M fields of stud dy Sc cience Te echnology, ex xcept engineering technolo ogy En ngineering and engineering g technology Ma athematics an nd computer sciences s Otther fields of study s (Non-ST TEM)

Both Se exes 7.4 6.7 8.0 6.0 6.1 6.8 6.1

Male 7.7 5.9 7.3 5.6 5.8 5.7 6.6

Female 7.1 8.8 8.6 6.3 7.6 10.7 5.7

Source e: Special Tabulations, Catalo ogue no. 99-01 12-X2011043, S Statistics Cana ada, Nation nal Household Survey, S 2011

Therre is evidence to sugge est that in Montreal M m uch of the e employmen nt gap amon ngst STEM M degree ho olders is a fu unction of immigrant sstatus. Therre is a cons siderable ga ap amongstt immigrantt and non-im mmigrant S STEM degre ee holders and iti is especia ally pronounced for im mmigrant an nd non-imm migrant wom men. As obse erved below w amongst Canadian-b C born men a nd women age 25-34 residing in the Montreal M reg gion the ratte of unemp ployment iss not substa antial. The g gap however amon ngst immigrants with a STEM degree in thatt same age e cohort tha at arrived ovver the past p decade e. The table e below doe es suggest that over th he duration n of stay the e gap in i rates of unemploym u ment for STE EM degree holders na arrows. T ABLE E 5: M ONTREA AL U NEMPLOY YMENT R ATE BY SEX AND IMMIGRANT M STATUS T FOR 25 5-34 YEAR OLDS L , STEM M FIELDS OF STUDY Total Non-immigrants Immig grants 19 981 to 1990 19 991 to 2000 20 001 to 2011 20 001 to 2005 20 006 to 2011 Non-p permanent res sidents

Both Sexes 6.7 4.1 11.7 5.1 8.4 14.0 7.7 16.2 8.8

Ma ale 5.9 5 4.0 4 9.9 9 5.1 5 8.0 8 11 1.6 6.6 6 13 3.2 7.6 7

Female 8.8 4.4 15.9 4.8 9.1 19.3 9.8 23.0 12.3

Source e: Special Tabulations, Catalo ogue no. 99-01 12-X2011043, Statisttics Canada, National Househ hold Survey, 20 011

14


While e Quebec’s s immigratio on patterns are comple ex and mulltifaceted, a proportion n of migra ants choose to conduc ct business s in Quebecc as a resullt of the pro ovince’s busin ness-positiv ve policies. The Goverrnment of Q Quebec’s In nnovatech initiative comm mitted $80 million in fu unding to te echnology ccompanies, while partn ners promissed $100 0 million to help set-up p a tech fund and acce elerator, cre eate centress of exce ellence and instate outreach initia atives to attrract investm ment and in nterest from m Euro ope.21 With low operatting costs, tax t benefits s for new en nterprises a and 25% grrowth in the e high tech sectorr from 2002 2 – 2012, Montreal M offe ers great po otential for start-ups in n the high h tech do omain.22 FIGURE 1..3 REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION N OF VC INVE ESTMENT 250

($ millions)

200 150 100 50 0

Q3 2013 2

Q3 2 2014

Source: Ven nture Capital Monitor, M Q3 201 14 SME Resea arch and Statisttics 2014, Industry Canada. 233

Ventture Capitall (VC) inves stment in Quebec Q has grown exp ponentially yyear-overyear; Quebec experienced d a 33% inc crease in VC C deals from m the third quarter of 2013 3 to third qu uarter of 2014.24 Investtors appearr to be lookking to Quebec’s techn nology com mmunity with h a sense of o optimism m and a clea ar belief in tthe comm munity’s pro omise for growth. g In its s annual Wo omen Shap ping Busine ess report, e employmen nt agency R Randstad show wed that wo omen fail to advance to o senior po ositions in business due to a number of lim miting biase es and perceptions. Am mong these e, responde ents believe ed that wom men were e limited by the percep ption of wom men in man nagerial role es and that the perceivved leade ership capa acity of wom men restrictted upward mobility in the workfo orce.25

15


FIGURE I 1.4 PERCEIVED FACTORS THAT PR REVENT WOME EN FROM ADV VANCING TO S ENIOR ROLES Perceptio ons of women n in managerial roles Percep ptions of leade ership capacity for wom men Les ss willingnesss to relocate fo or senior po ositions Perso onal confidenc ce Lack of exec cutive sponsors Limite ed social netw works/personal connecttions 0%

10 0%

20%

30%

40%

n=1,004 omen Shaping Business: B Challenges and Op pportunities 20 014 November 2014 Randstad d26 Source: Wo

Gend der has bec come a pro oductivity iss sue in technology worrkplaces. In n fact, studie es of sto ock perform mance show w that in a like-for-like comparison, companiies with at leastt one woma an on the bo oard outperrformed tho ose compan nies with no o women on the board b by 26 6% over the e course of the last sixx years.27 Fu urthermore e, successfu ul 28 start--ups have twice t as ma any women n in senior p positions w while data sshows that start--ups use 40 0% less cap pital when women w lead d. These w woman-led sstart-ups also have e a higher probability p of o survival.29 Inste ead of jumping at the opportunity o to work in e established d technolog gy workplacces, more e than 52% of women in private-s sector scien nce and tecch jobs drop p out of the e work kforce witho out returning g.30 This is higher than n the privatte sector avverage; 37% % of US S women in n profession nal roles vo oluntarily "o off-ramp", orr leave the workforce, at some e point in th heir careers s.31 For wom men with ch hildren, the figure risess to 43%.32 Wom men who offf-ramp do so s for only a limited tim me, on averrage about 2.2 years. They y do not inte end to give up their ca areers for go ood, but the ey find it ve ery difficult tto re-en nter the worrkforce. 93% % of highly qualified w women who o stop workiing want to returrn to their ca areers, but only 74% are a able to find employyment.33 Fu urthermore, wom men who cho ose to off-ra amp then re e-enter the workforce earn 18% lless than peers who stay in the work kforce witho out a breakk.34 Acco ording to a study s condu ucted at the e Universityy of North C Carolina at Greensborro, wom men step offf the traditio onal career path to see ek challeng ge and self-ffulfilment. Thes se women consider c pe ersonal grow wth to be th he primary ssuccess facctor in theirr entre epreneurial endeavourrs.35 As such, entreprreneurship b becomes a life strateg gy. For women w who o are unable to re-ente er the workfforce after off-ramping g, ermination,, profession entre epreneurship offers the e potential for self-dete nal growth and personal p sa atisfaction. While W entre epreneursh ip may inhibit earning power in th he shortt term, stud dies show women w cons sider this to o be second dary to perssonal fulfillment – mak king entrep preneurship p an attractivve proposittion.36

16


SUR RVEY RESULTS R S YES S Survey Responde R ents Perce eptions To provide insig ght into issu ues that are e especiallyy relevant to o gender differences, in this section s we will review the findings s of the surrvey administered to sstakeholderrs in the e technolog gy field: employers and d employee es, job seekkers, entrep preneurs, a and stude ents studyin ng towards a degree in STEM. Sociialization Processes P When asked if “boys “ and girls g receive e different le evels of encourageme ent in science and math m in prim mary and secondary school”, s 54% % of women and 41% of men indic cated they believed b the e statementt to be accu urate in 201 15. Both ge enders rated d this statement s to be less accurate a in 2015 2 comp pared to 201 13, when 65% of wom men and 57% 5 of men indicated they believ ved the stattement to b be true. FIGUR RE 2.2 S URVE EY RESPONDENTS – 2013 & 2015 BOYS

AND GIRLS R RECEIVE DIFFE ERENT LEVELS S OF ENCOUR RAGEMENT IN SCIENCE AND D MATH IN PRI MARY AND SE ECONDARY SC CHOOL

70%

65%

60%

57 7%

54%

50% 40%

43% % 32%

30%

41%

39% %

27%

20% 10% 0% F 2013

F 20 015 Accurate

M 2013

M 2015

Inaaccurate

n=450 & 345 3 Question: Boys and girls s receive differe ent levels of en ncouragement in science and math n primary and secondary y school. Break kdown exclude es respondents who chose no ot to answer. Source: YES Y Women in Technology on nline survey, Fe ebruary 2015 & April 2013.

In primary and secondary s school, scie ence and m math are tho ought to be e designed tto appe eal to boys, while arts and langua age are taug ght in a styyle that appe eals to girlss. Case e study inte erviews indicate that te eachers and d parents a are also more likely to enco ourage boys s to work ha ard in scien nce and ma ath, while le ess emphassis is placed d on th he importan nce of girls succeeding s g in these ssubjects. In some case es, women were e actually diissuaded frrom pursuin ng math beyyond the ba asic require ements in high scho ool.

17


Care eers in Tec chnology The 2015 surve ey response es provide a sense of o optimism. W While the number of wom men with carreers in technology dro opped by 4 4% in 2015, the drop re epresents a an incre ease in the number of women self-employed d in a techn nology start--up (17% in n 2015 5), aspiring to own a te echnology start-up s (6% % in 2015) a and aspiring for a care eer in tec chnology (1 14% in 2015 5). The strength of the Montre eal start-up communityy has made e an impactt on case study y participan nts. Some 50% 5 of thes se participa nts indicate ed they werre entre epreneurs. Eight of these particip pants indica ated that th hey work forr themselve es in a start-up, s wh hile two parrticipants indicated the ey hold a fu ull-time job iin fields oth her than technology y while deve eloping the eir start-up ideas. Two of the full-ttime entre epreneurs in ndicated they were inv volved in a technologyy incubator and had move ed to Montrreal specific cally to worrk on their p product idea a. Particula arly for thosse wom men involved d in YES’s WIT W progra am, entrepre eneurship iis a significcant draw away y from the traditional t workforce. w Acco ording to the e 2015 data a, 61% of re espondentss had fewerr than 4 yea ars’ expe erience in th he technolo ogy sector. This T data ssuggests tha at more and more wom men may be choosing careers c in te echnology; it will take more time to unde erstand if th hese same women w stay in the secctor for long g periods off time. Espe ecially amon ngst the 20 015 respond dents, the n number of w women with h more than n 10 ye ears’ experrience in the e technolog gy sector ha as decrease ed year-ove er-year. On nly 18% of female respondent r ts in 2015 in ndicated they had ove er a decade e of expe erience. Wh hile there we ere more fe emale respo ondents witth 10 or mo ore years in n the te echnology sector in 20 013, a simillar ‘fall out’ trend occu urs for women – but amon ngst women with more e than 16 years’ experrience. Give en the matu urity of the secto or, few wom men may ha ave had the e opportunitty to accrue e 16+ yearss of expe erience. Alte ernatively, women w with h this level of workforcce tenure m may have taken n another path p at this point in the eir career. Anotther notable e dip took place p for wo omen with b between 4 – 10 years technologyy secto or experience. In both 2013 and 2015, 2 the d data shows a sudden d drop-off for fema ale participa ation in the sector. This gap may be associa ated with a number of facto ors. First, women frequ uently ‘off-ra amp’ during g childbearing years; tthe dip in respo ondents witth mid-rang ge career ex xperience m may suggesst women a are taking time with family y post childb birth. Secon nd, women who chang ge focus miid-career m may s gap. also explain this ct, 60% of 2015 2 survey responde ents indicate ed that theyy switched careers sin nce In fac enterring the workforce. With dynamic c career pro ospects and d rapid rates of growth h in the te echnology sector, wom men are choosing to trransition to a technolo ogy career after they have established d themselve es in the wo orkforce. her to this point, p half of o all case study particiipants indiccated that th hey had Furth work ked outside the techno ology sectorr before transitioning into a techn nology secto or caree er. These participants p had worke ed for betwe een 4 and 1 15 years be efore quittin ng their former occ cupations and embarking on a ca areer in tech hnology. Th he other half

18


of ca ase study pa articipants indicated th hat they had d only everr worked in the techn nology secttor. This da ata suggests s that the te echnology ssector has great draw wing powe er; both women with workplace w experience e a and women n new to the e workforce e wish to find suc ccess and employment e t in the tech hnology secctor. Work kplace Cullture A dis sconnect pe ersists in what men an nd women b believe abo out wage eq quity. In 201 13, 60% of men bellieved salarry inequities s had impro oved over tthe past 10 years, while 47% of women agree with the same statement. s In 2015, 59 9% of men believed salarry inequities s have imprroved over the past 10 0 years, wh hile 42% of women agree with the same statement. s FIGURE I 2.3 SURVEY RESPONDENTS – 201 13 & 2015 IN THE LAST DE ECADE THERE HAS BEEN SO OME IMPROVEMENT IN AD DDRESSING SA ALARY INEQUIITIES BETWEE EN MEN AND W WOMEN ?

M 2015 5

59%

M 2013 3

60%

F 2015 5

31%

47% 0%

20% Ag gree

15 5%

33%

42%

F 2013 3

26% %

7%

27%

30% 40%

60%

Ne either agree n nor disagree

23% 80%

100%

Disagre ee

n=298 & 345 Question n: In the last de ecade there ha as been some i mprovement in n addressing sa alary inequitiess between n men and wom men? Breakdo own excludes re espondents wh ho chose not to o answer. Source: YES Women in Technology online o survey, February 2015 5 & April 2013.

o disagreed d with the sstatement grew significcantly in 2015. The proportion of men who sagreed tha at salary ine equities betw ween men and women had 15% of men dis impro oved over the t last dec cade. Only 7% 7 of men disagreed in 2013. Th his shift sugg gests that media m storie es and educ cation camp paigns are impacting b both men a and wom men, thereby y helping th hem to unde erstand tha at workforce e issues, likke salary equitty, still requ uire attentio on. Resp pondents in n both 2015 5 and 2013 indicated u uncertainty about pay e equity. Apprroximately one-third o off male and two-fifths o of female re espondents indicated they neither agrreed nor dis sagreed witth the state ement ‘My m male colleagues receivve er compens sation than my female colleaguess’ across su urvey yearss. bette

19


FIGURE 2.4 SURVEY RESP PONDENTS – 2013 2 & 2015 MY MALE COLLLEAGUES RE ECEIVE BETTE R COM MPENSATION THAN T MY FEM MALE COLLEAG GUES

M2015 5

43%

M 2013 3

31%

37%

26%

35 5%

28%

F 2015 5

45%

38%

17% %

F 2013 3

45%

40%

15 5%

20%

0%

60%

40% Agree

Neither

80%

100%

Disagree

n=298 & 345 Question n: My male colleagues receiv ve better compe ensation than m my female colle eagues Breakdo own excludes re espondents wh ho chose not to o answer. Source: YES Women in Technology online o survey, February 2015 5 & April 2013.

FIGURE E 2.5 S URVEY R ESPONDENT TS – 2015 & 2013 WOMEN ARE LIKELY L TO PRO OMOTE THEMS SELVES AND T THEIR SKILLS MEN ARE LIK KELY TO PROM MOTE THEMSE ELVES AND TH EIR SKILLS MEN ARE E MORE FREQU UENTLY PROM MOTED THAN W WOMEN 100% %

89 9% 73%

80% %

58%

60% % 40% %

47 7% 30%

31%

20% % 0% % Men and women w are Men are like ely to Wom men are likely to promote ed at the ote themselve es promote themsselves promo same e rate and their skillss in the and th heir skills in th he workplace e w workplace All Agree 2015 2

All A Agree 2013

n=298 & 345 Question n: Women are likely to promo ote themselves and their skillss; Men are likely to promote e themselves an nd their skills; Men M are more frequently prom moted than wo omen Breakdo own excludes re espondents wh ho chose not to o answer. Source: YES Women in Technology online o survey, February 2015 5 & April 2013.

20


Less s than half (45%) of fem male survey y responde ents agreed d that “Men and women are promoted p at the same rate” in botth 2013 and d again in 2 2015. For m men, this perce entage incrreased betw ween surve ey years, fro om 37% to 43%. The number of respondentts who belie eve “Men a are likely to promote th hemselves and their t skills in the workp place” drop pped by 16% % from 2013 to 2015. Similarly, the numb ber of respo ondents wh ho believe women w are likely to prromote them mselves and their skills in the e workplace e dropped by b 11%. While e both sexe es agree that men are more likelyy to self-pro omote than women, there e is a wide disparity d in views on th he rate at w which wome en are prom moted and o on the liikelihood off women to self-promo ote. FIGURE 2.6 SURVEY RESPONDENTTS – 2015 MA ALE AND F EMA ALE R ESPOND DENTS WOMEN ARE LIKELY L TO PRO OMOTE THEMS SELVES AND T THEIR SKILLS MEN ARE LIK KELY TO PROM MOTE THEMSE ELVES AND TH EIR SKILLS MEN ARE E MORE FREQU UENTLY PROM MOTED THAN W WOMEN 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

81% 61 1% 50% 5

1 18%

15%

Men M and wom men are promoted p at th he same rate

Men are likelyy to prromote themsselves an nd their skills in the workplace e Female F

24% %

Wo omen are likely to prom mote themselves and d their skills in n the workplace

Ma le

n=298 W are like ely to promote themselves t and d their skills; M Men are likely to o promote Question: Women themselves and their skills s; Men are morre frequently prromoted than w women c not to an nswer Breakdown excludes respondents who chose Source: YES Women in Technology online survey, Feb bruary 2015

In 20 015, only 15 5% of wome en indicated that men and wome en are prom moted at the e same e rate. This s is an astou unding 35% % less than the numbe er of men w who agree th hat men and women are prom moted at the e same rate e. This data a indicates that neitherr sex understand u s the terms s under which their pee ers are pro omoted. On the other hand d, 81% of women w felt men m are like ely to prom ote themse elves vs. 61 1% of men. Even n career-oriented wom men are kno own for their modest approach to their skills and experience e . As such, only o 18% of o female re espondents agreed tha at women a are likely y to promote e themselves and theiir skills in th he workplacce. 24% of male respo ondents ag gree that wo omen are lik kely to self--promote in n the workp place.

21


Evide ently, the sexes do no ot share an outlook on how wome en and men n self-promo ote in the e workplace e. In bo oth 2013 an nd 2015, res spondents indicated th hat their tecchnology w workplaces were e predomina antly male. 82% and 79% 7 of resp pondents re espectively agreed with this statement s in n 2015 and d 2013. FIGURE 2.7 7 SURVEY RES SPONDENTS – 2015 & 201 3 M Y WORKP PLACE IS MOST TLY MALE

2015 5

82%

2013 3

18%

7 79%

0%

20%

21%

40%

60%

Agree A

Disa agree

80%

100%

n=298 & 345 Questiion: My workpla ace is mostly male m Breakd down excludes s respondents who w chose not to answer. Source e: YES Women n in Technology y online surveyy, February 20 15 & April 2013 3. VEY R ESPOND DENTS – 2015 5 & 2013 MY FIGURE 2.8 SURV

MALE COLLEA AGUES SOCIAL LISE WITH ME N , AND MY FEMALES F COLL LEAGUES SOC CIALISE WITH W WOMEN

80% % 70% %

67%

65% %

60% % 50% % 40% %

35% %

33%

30% % 20% % 10% % 0% % 2013 3

2015 Ag gree

Disag ree

n=29 98 & 345 Ques stion: My male colleague soc cialise with men n, and my fema ales colleaguess socialise with h wom men Brea akdown exclude es respondents s who chose no ot to answer. Sourrce: YES Women in Technolo ogy online survvey, February 2 2015 & April 20 013.

22


In pa art, biases can c be brok ken down th hrough soc ialisation be etween the e genders in n the workplace. w In 2015, 65 5% of respo ondents ind icated men n and wome en socialise e at work k. Harmonio ous social re elationships s can also promote a healthy and d open worrk atmo osphere, wh here individ duals openly y express t heir opinion ns. Over tim me, exposure to the ese opinion ns can help p to reshape e bias. How wever, exclu usionary be ehaviours and expe ectations ma ay prevent valuable so ocialisation from occurring. A sense of exclusion in the e workplace e may stem m from corpo orate appro oaches to diverrsity. When asked: “Te echnology companies c spend ade equate time addressing g diverrsity”, 89% of women disagreed d – up 8% fro om 2013. 45 5% of men agreed with the statement, s leaving a no otable gap between ea ach genderr’s perceptions of wha at ‘adeq quate’ atten ntion to dive ersity consists of. FIGURE E 2.9 S URVEY R ESPONDENT TS – 2013 & 2 2015 TECHNO OLOGY COMPA ANIES ND ADEQUATE TIME ADDRES SSING DIVERS SITY SPEN

M 2015 5

45%

M 2013 3

W 2015 5

69% %

31%

89% %

11%

W 2013 3

19% 0%

55%

8 81% 20%

40% Ag gree

6 60%

8 80%

100%

Disag gree

n=298 & 345 Question n: Technology companies spe end adequate ttime on diversiity Breakdo own excludes re espondents wh ho chose not to o answer. Source: YES Women in Technology online o survey, February 2015 5 & April 2013.

The disconnect on the sub bject of gender equity b becomes e even more a apparent when n men and women were asked if they agree e or disagre ee with the sstatement “men n and wome en have the e same opp portunities in Science a and Techno ology”. While e 64% of women w disag greed with the stateme ent ‘men an nd women have the same e opportuniities in tech hnology’, 62 2% of men b believed the statemen nt to be true e. This sentiment was w echoed throughout the case e study interviews; wom men who ked in large tech corpo orations stated that wh hile diversityy policies w were in placce, work they were for th he most parrt ineffective e and mere ely masked deeper-roo oted issues.

23


FIGURE E 2.10 SURVE EY R ESPONDE ENTS – 2013 & 2015 M EN A AND WOMEN H HAVE THE SAME OPPORTUNIT TIES IN S CIENC CE AND T ECHN NOLOGY

M 2015

62%

M 2013

38%

% 70%

W 2015

30%

36 6%

W 2013

64%

48% 0%

20% 2

52% % 4 40% Ag gree

6 60%

8 80%

1 100%

Disag ree

n=298 & 345 3 Question: Men and wom men have the sa ame opportunitties to succeed d in Science & T Technology Breakdow wn excludes res spondents who o chose not to a answer. Source: YES Y Women in Technology on nline survey, Fe ebruary 2015 & April 2013.

FIGURE 2.11 SURVEY RESPONDENTTS – 2013 & 2 2015 MENTOR RS AND ROLE M MODELS ARE READ ILY AVAILABL LE FOR WOMEN N IN THE WOR RKPLACE

M 2015

49% %

51%

M 2013

63%

37%

W 2015

65%

35 5%

W 2013

31% % 0%

20% 2

69% 4 40% Ag gree

6 60%

8 80%

1 100%

Disag ree

n=298 & 345 3 Question: Mentors and role r models are e readily availa ble for women in the workpla ace Breakdow wn excludes res spondents who o chose not to a answer. Source: YES Y Women in Technology on nline survey, Fe ebruary 2015 & April 2013.

24


In 20 015, the perrcentage off men that believed b tha at mentors and role m models are readily available e for women in the wo orkplace inccreased by 14%. The p percentage e of wom men that agrreed also in ncreased – but at a mu uch less sig gnificant ratte: 4%. Thiss data could indic cate that aw wareness ab bout the lacck of mento ors is increa asing, and that workplace w programs p are a adapting g to addresss the needs of male a and female perso onnel alike. Alterrnatively, men and wom men alike believed b tha at mentors and role models are readily available e for men in n the workp place. Some e 16% more e men agre eed with this state ement in 2015 than 2013. In 2015 5, there wass a modestt increase in n the perce entage of women w who o agreed with this state ement. Desspite this sh hift in opinio on, an ob bvious gap exists: both men and women req quire mento ors and role e models. FIG GURE 2.12 SURVEY R ESPON NDENTS – 201 13 & 2015 MEENTORS AND ROLE MODELS S ARE READIL LY AV VAILABLE FOR R MEN IN THE WORKPLACE

M 2015

M 2013

41%

59%

W 2015

86%

W 2013

14% %

73% 0% 0

25%

5% 75

20% 2

27%

40% 4 Ag gree

60%

80%

100%

Disag gree

n=298 & 345 M and role models are readily r availabl e for men in th he workplace Question: Mentors Breakdown excludes respondents who chose c not to an nswer S Women in Te echnology onlin ne survey, Feb bruary 2015 & A April 2013. Source: YES

In 20 015, 90% off women disagreed tha at women a and men fa ace the sam me barriers in the workplace w (87% in 201 13, data nott shown). T This is a sta ark contrast to the 34% % of men who agree ed that wom men and me en face the same barriiers in the w workplace (35% % in 2013). Both sexes s clearly hav ve differentt experiencces in the w workplace an nd perce eptions of the t work wo orld. Furth hermore, women and men don’t see s eye-to--eye on who o is asked tto do the ‘offic ce housewo ork’. 61% off women in 2015 (65% % of women n in 2013) disagreed th hat men and women are asked d equally to o do adminiistrative tassks outside the scope of their daily work.. For the mo ost part, me en believe tthat men and women are asked equa ally to undertake admin nistrative ta asks. 68% o of men in 2015 (77% o of men in 2013 3) agreed with w this stattement. Wh hile 2015 sa aw a decrea ase of 9% o of men who o

25


agreed with this s statementt, perception still variess widely be etween men n and wome en on th he matter off administra ative work. FIGURE 2.13 SUR RVEY R ESPON NDENTS – 201 15 WOMEN AND MEN M FACE THE E SAME BARR RIERS IN THE W WORKPLACE MEN AND WOMEN N ARE ASKED E QUALLY TO DO A DMINIST TRATIVE TASK KS 80% 68%

70% 60% 50% 40%

39%

34% %

30% 20% 10%

10% %

0% Women and d men face th he same barrierss in the workp place

Women Agree

M Men and wome en are asked e equally to do a admin tasks Me en Agree

n=298 Questiion: Women an nd men face the same barrierrs in the workpllace, Men and women are asked equally y to do administtrative tasks in the workplace e Breakd down excludes s respondents who w chose not to answer. Source e: YES Women n in Technology y online surveyy, February 20 15 & April 2013 3.

R to the Workp place Sociial Issues Related Queb bec provinc cial policies enable em mployees to o find a sensse of balance between n work k and sociall life. Ample e opportunitty exists forr male and female parrents to botth atten nd to their children. c It is s up to the individual, however, to o make deccisions thatt are best b for them and theirr family. Ca areer-driven n individualss may feel professiona al press sure to worrk extra hou urs to meet tight deadllines or to a achieve am mbitious reven nue objectives. These e issues ma ay influence e a tech secctor employyee’s desire e to have e children. Less s than 1 in 3 technolog gy sector wo orkers survveyed in 2013 had children (64%)) and this t estimatte remained d stable forr 2015 (65% %). While th he bulk of parents emplloyed in the e technolog gy sector arre employed d by a third d party, 24% % either run n their own opera ation – or as spire to do so. s 17% of responden nts with children indic cated that th hey are selff-employed in a techno ology start--up. Anothe er 7% indic cated they aspired a to ru un their own technolog gy start-up..

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FIGURE 2.14 SURVEY RESPPONDENTS – 2015 & 20 013 TECH SECTOR EMPLO YEES WITH CH HILDREN 70 0%

65%

64% %

60 0% 50 0% 36 6%

40 0%

35%

30 0% 20 0% 10 0% 0% 0 2013

2015 Yes

No

n= =298 & 345 Qu uestion: Do you u have children n? Bre eakdown exclu udes responden nts who chose not to answer.. So ource: YES Wo omen in Techno ology online su urvey, Februaryy 2015 & April 2 2013.

FIGURE 2.15 SURVEY RESPPONDENTS – 2013 & 2015 RESP PONDENTS WITH C HILDREN N & DESCRIBE YOUR SITUAT TION

% respondents with children

70%

66% %

61%

60% 50% 40% 30% 7% 17

20%

9% % 11%

10%

1%

12%

7 7%

12%

1%

0%

0% I have h a ca areer in tec chnology

I am selfm aspiring I am m studying I am I aspire to I am employed em ployed in a ha to oward a to oward a ave my own by a te ca areer in c career in echnology te echnology ttechnology tec chnology tecchnology start-up start-up start-up

2015

20 013

n=29 98 & 345 Question: Do you have h children? (Yes responde ents only), and Describe yourr situation. Brea akdown exclude es respondents s who chose no ot to answer. Sourrce: YES Women in Technolo ogy online surv vey, February 2 2015 & April 20 013.

3%

27


While e the hours s and dema ands of operating an enterprise m may be significant, case study y interviews s with start--up founderrs and entre epreneurs iindicated th he freedom afforded by ope erating theirr own busin ness and th e passion ffor their role e allowed fo or greatter flexibility y in childrea aring, and was w accom mpanied by a greater ssense of rewa ard. All re espondents s, both those with child dren and tho ose withoutt children, indicated th hat familly plays an important role r in their lives. In 20 015, 91% of women in ndicated fam mily was important to them com mpared to 85% 8 of men n. The rate of response e is cons sistent with the data fro om 2013. In n 2013, 94% % of women n and 83% of men indic cated family y was imporrtant. These e figures ind dicate that the majoritty of the tecch secto or employees value fa amily life and the time rrequired to dedicate o oneself to familly. FIGURE 2.16 2 SURVEY RESPONDENTTS – 2015 HO OW IMPORTAN T IS CAREER T TO YOU & HOW IMPOR RTANT IS FAMI LY TO YOU ? 100% % 95%

95% % 91% % 90% % 85% %

85% %

80%

80% % 75% % 70% % Care eer

Family W Women

Me en

n=298 n: How importa ant is family to you? How imp ortant is career to you? Question Breakdo own excludes re espondents wh ho chose not to o answer Source: YES Women in Technology online o survey, February 2015 5 & April 2013.

The value v of career is para amount to women w acccording to 2015 surveyy results. 95 5% of fem male respo ondents in 2015 2 indicated career was importtant to them m. The weig ght place ed on caree er indicates s women va alue the opp portunity to establish tthemselvess in the workplace, w earn e a sala ary and feel a sense off personal d developmen nt. At the same tim me, a careerr-driven woman is alm most equallyy interested in her family espite the challenges experienced e d by female e respondents, they relatiionship. De contiinue to striv ve for a bala ance betwe een career a and family.

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In bo oth 2013 an nd 2015, me en demonstrated a gre eater intere est in familyy than on caree er. In 2015, 80% of me en indicated they were e interested d in career developme ent – an interest of 5% less tha an those re espondentss who stated d family wa as important. Since e both men n and wome en in Quebe ec’s techno ology sector value care eer and fam mily, the ability a to atte end to famiily commitm ments is imp portant to b both sexes. Unfortunattely, 54% of respond dents indica ated that me en and wom men are no ot treated eq quitably when familly commitm ments arise. In 2015, women w were e 29% more e likely than n men to belie eve that they are treate ed differently when fam mily a comm mitment, su uch as the illnes ss of a child d, arises. Th his is a sign nificant incrrease from 2013, wherre 59% of wom men disagreed that men and women were tre eated equita ably when ffamily comm mitments arise. FIG GURE 2.17 SURVEY U RESPO ONDENTS – 20 015 MEN AND

WOMEN ARE T TREATED EQU UITABLY WHEN N FAMILY COMMITMENTS C S ARISE

80% 70%

68% 61 %

60%

54 4% 47%

50% 40%

39% 32%

30% 20% 10% 0% Wom men

Men Disagree D

All A Agree

n=298 n: Men and wo omen are treate ed equitably wh hen family com mmitments arise e Question Breakdo own excludes re espondents wh ho chose not to o answer. Source: YES Women in Technology online o survey, February 2015 5.

While e awarenes ss of workp place obstac cles is grow wing, a sing gular issue persistentlyy supp ports inequitty: unconsc cious bias. Since bias operates b beyond the control of the indiv vidual, it info orms each person’s pe erception, d decision-ma aking and a actions at an unco onscious lev vel. In order to tackle bias b – abou ut the capab bilities of ea ach genderr, abou ut roles and d opportunitties – each individual m must assesss their own n assumptio ons and hold h themselves accountable at home, h at w work and in ssocial interractions. Without persona al accounta ability, bias about gend der will con ntinue to exist.

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Prog gram Impa act: WIT Enterprise E e Participa ants In an n effort to le evel the technology pla aying field i n Montreal, YES Monttreal held a an inaug gural eventt for aspiring g technolog gy sector em mployees. On March 2 27th 2014, 2 21 wom men seeking g employme ent in techn nology atten nded an eve ening of sp peed netw working alon ng with 20 Montreal M tec chnology co ompanies. The event connected qualiified women n with tech sector emp ployers in a an effort to p prepare job b seekers fo or the Montreal M job b market – including a sense of th he opportunities in Mo ontreal’s tecch secto or. The 2014 NetWOR RK Now eve ent resulted d in follow-u up interview ws for over 50% of participa ants, 5 job offers o and 4 new hiress. Three (3 3) participan nts were alsso hired d within a month m of the e event by other o compa anies that w were not in attendance e at the e NetWORK Now event. One year after the t WIT Ne etWORK No ow event, th he WIT Entterprise parrticipants proviided feedba ack on theirr approache es to gende er diversity in the workkplace. With only one exception, e all a twenty pa articipating enterprisess said that tthat their organizations are supporting an ongo oing initiativve to promo ote gender d diversity in w the workplace. FIG GURE 3.1 S UR RVEY R ESPON NDENTS - M EN N AND WOMEN

ARE TREATE D EQUITABLY WHEN FAMILY Y COMM MITMENTS ARIISE

Des scribe why your y organiza ation is activ vely seeking female emplloyees. We think there's a shortage of o women in te echnical roless. We'd like to o see more female representation - especially in Developmentt. It's part of our glo obal corporatte goal! Ourr company is about 75% women. w Women in gamin ng are a little rare. We are trying to brea ak that stereo otype and sho ow that there iis a pllace for wome en in gaming.. We've gone from 8% of th he studio bein ng women in 2012 to 26% to th his day. n=20 0 Question: Describe e why your org ganization is ac ctively seeking female employyees. E Prog gram Outcome e Survey. Sourrce: YES WIT Enterprise

Furth her feedbac ck from the participatin ng enterprisses indicate ed a desire to challeng ge bias about wom men as part of corporatte objective es and to bo olster a corrporate culture that embraces e gender g dive ersity. This enterprise--level comm mitment to gender g dive ersity contin nued in Feb bruary 2015 5, when n YES Mon ntreal and SAP S Labs Canada C join ed forces to o celebrate e female entre epreneurs in n technolog gy. The eve ent featured d a diverse group of fe emale entre epreneurs pitching p the eir innovativ ve businesss ideas – evverything fro om e-learniing and gaming g to travel t experrience. Six semi-finalissts were ch hosen from a wide range of en ntrants to piitch their bu usiness start-up ideas to a panel of tech exp perts. The final three conte estants werre then sele ected to ma ake their pittch in front o of a live ence on Fe ebruary 25, 2015. The panel then choose the e finalist – a female te ech audie entre epreneur wh ho developed a custom mized trave el experiencce app – an nd awarded d her a $5,000 grant to further develop her techno ology and bolster Monttreal’s unique start--up spirit.

30


CONCLUSIION With growing interest in the e issues fac cing women in techno ology, a stro ong comm munity and voice has evolved over the past few years. Major tech hnology have releassed diversitty data and playe ers, such as s Apple, Go oogle and Facebook, F h open nly discusse ed their effo orts and struggles to re ecruit and m maintain wo omen in the e work kforce. The issue of ‘W Women in Te echnology’ has grown n from a niche interest to a ma ainstream is ssue - one whose w reso olution requ uires ongoin ng attention n. Overr the past th hree years, significant media, corrporate and d governme ent attention n has been b placed on empow wering girls s so that the ey may beccome future e female techn nologists. As A such, a wide w range of productss and servicces has be een made available to children and adults a in an effort to faccilitate new w entrants in nto the techn nology marrket. Succ cess for STEM education is not limited to yo oung girls. Initiatives ta argeting wom men, such as s Ladies Le earning Cod de, have se een expone ential growth. Introduce ed as a monthly tra aining session in Toronto, Ladiess Learning C Code gradu ually spread d natio onwide throughout Can nada. Ladie es Learning g Code grou ups are now w present in n 19 Canadian C regions and 21 2 cities ac cross Canad da, with a ccommunity of over 10,00 00 learners s.37 Thes se products s and progra ams, along with a variety of others, are takin ng the step ps to ma ake educattional and social s chang ges that willl impact girrls and wom men throu ughout theirr lives. These initiative es fight aga ainst a serie es of biasess that estab blish what is ‘acceptab ble’ and ‘no ormal’ for girls and wom men. The underrepre esentation of o Women in Science, Technolog gy, Enginee ering and Math (STE EM) roles pllagues indu ustry, acade emia, not-fo or-profits an nd governm ment alike. The imbalance between men m and women in STE EM is roote ed in the very fabric of socie ety, ranging g from cultu ural bias to educationa e al norms to workplace priorities. Durin ng the courrse of this th hree-year Gender G Bassed Analysiis, notable cchanges ha ave taken n place with hin Montrea al’s technology sector.. Since 2013, more tecchnology busin nesses hav ve opened their t doors, greater ve enture capita al investme ent has bee en made e in the tec ch community and the number of available te ech sector positions has grow wn. In respo onse, both women w and d men alike have migra ated to the sector. In ffact, Monttreal has se een an incre ease in the e number off female participants w who have switc ched careerrs mid-strea am to work in the tech hnology secctor. This indicates gre eat intere est in the sector’s pote ential for pe ersonal and d profession nal growth. While e the sector has been growing, bias b about rroles within the sector continues tto existt. Men tend to underes stimate the barriers facced by wom men in the w workplace. Rang ging from salary inequ uity to the av vailability o of mentors tto opportun nities within the sector, s prog gress has been occurring very gra adually. As campaignss to increasse diverrsity in tech hnology worrkplaces gro ow these b iases shou uld be reducced in parallel. Desp pite these unconscious u s biases, women w are fforging ahe ead in Montreal’s techn nology secttor. Increas singly, women are grad duating from m STEM de egrees and are la aunching th heir own tec chnology businesses. The succe ess of these e start-ups ccan

31


be ob bserved witthin any number of pa articipant gro roups within n the YES M Montreal W WIT program; from case c study participants s to worksh hop/coachin ng/counselling partic cipants and d enterprise e-level enga agements. Below we o offer a num mber of recom mmendatio ons aimed at a further lev velling the playing field d in the ST TEM occu upations.

REC COMME ENDATIO ONS The combination of the lite erature revie ew and the e primary da ata collectio on indicatess the fo ollowing iss sues should d be addres ssed:    

Availabiliity of mento orship to su upport aspirring women n in technology. Partnerships with su uccessful women w and men can p provide affirrmation to developin ng professional wome en in search h of guidancce Encourag gement of entreprene e urship amo ongst wome en. Supportt their effortts with lega al, financial and operattional experrtise. Ensure th he removall of obstacle es for immigrants to enter STEM occupation ns and nota ably for imm migrant wom men Identify means m for addressing a the recogn ition of cred dentials forr immigrant that seek k employme ent in STEM M occupatio ons

YES puts forth the t followin ng recomme endations to o remove b barriers for women blishing carreers in the e tech indus stry: estab Brea aking down n bias in th he workpla ace: ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

Encourag ge pay equitty in all tech hnology sector careerrs. Work with h Montreal’s s technolog gy sector to o encourage e greater diversity and d inclusion. Create a workplace w culture c thatt encourage es the re-in ntegration o of mid-caree er women po ost childbirtth. Conduct bias b educattion worksh hops in cooperation wiith Montrea al employerss. Raise awa areness ab bout the perrspectives tthat challen nge gender diversity in n the workp place.

Enco ourage enttrepreneurrship: ‐ ‐ ‐

Provide trraining and funds to su upport fema ale-led starrt-ups. Provide access to information about a settin ng up small technologyy businesse es. Guidance e regarding business planning, p acccounting, legal and H HR issues would gre eatly assist first-time entrepreneu rs. Support mid-career m women w and d those with h families in n the pursuit of technolog gy careers. Services could c includ de helping w women to rre-enter the e workforce e in a new capacity c or providing th he guidancce to plan and start a small bus siness. Foster sta art-up growth and educ cate female e founders//entreprene eurs on theiir options fo or investment. Offer wo orkshops on financing g, mentorship program ms and sponso with succe essful start-up founders (male an nd female) a or dialogue between entreprene e urs and the e investmen nt communiity.

32


Prov vide mento orship oppo ortunities:: ‐ ‐

Create me entorship programs p an nd network s specificallly for fema ale entrepren neurs in technology. Alllow women n to learn frrom one an nother and access a forum for exchange e and support . Implemen nt a WIT me entorship program. Ma atch female e job seekers and entrepren neurs with Quebec-bas Q sed businesss professio onals.

Prov vide a welc coming edu ucational environme e ent: ‐ ‐ ‐

Continue to work witth educatorrs to addresss the state e of women’’s technolog gical educattion that inc clude teach hers and facculty at all levels of the e education n sector. Establish the importa ance of technology ca areers throu ughout the lifecycle of education n. Build conffidence in STEM S at an n early age.. Provide giirls and boyys alike with h the opporrtunities to learn aboutt creating and fostering g supportivve, collaborattive technology workplaces. Create in--school mentorship pro ograms; alllow children n interested d in STEM tto interact with w like-min nded adults employed in the secto or.

33


END D NOTE ES 1 UNESCO, “Ge ender Mainstreaming Im mplementatio on Framew work for 2002 2-2007”, Bureau of Strate egic Plannin ng - Section for Women n and Gende er Equality, Septemberr 2003 3. 2 Bha ardwaj, Gee etha N. “Ma ainstreaming g gender an nd ICTs for d developmen nt”, Mainstreaming ICTs. 2(3); May-June M 2005. p. 22-2 23. 3 Aud ditor Genera al of Canada a. ʺReport of o the Audito or General o of Canada tto the House e of Co ommons: Ch hapter 1, Ge ender-Base ed Analysisʺ , Minister off Public Wo orks and Gove ernment Serrvices Cana ada, 2009. 4 Inte ernational La abour Office e, “ABC of women w workkers’ rights and genderr equality”, Gene eva, 2000. 5 Status of Wom men Canada. “Setting th he Stage forr the Next C Century: The e Federal Pllan for Gender G Equa ality”, 1995. 6 Hea alth Canada a, Bureau off Women's Health H and Gender Ana alysis. “Wha at is Genderbase ed Analysis? ?” March 2003. http://ww ww.hc-sc.gcc.ca/hl-vs/pubs/women nfemm mes/gender--sexes-eng..php 7 Darrcy Hango, “Gender “ diffferences in science, te chnology, e engineering,, mathematiics and computer c sc cience (STE EM) program ms at univerrsity,” Statisstics Canada a, Decembe er 2013 3. 8 Darrcy Hango, “Gender “ diffferences in science, te chnology, e engineering,, mathematiics and computer c sc cience (STE EM) program ms at univerrsity” Statisttics Canada a, December 2013 3 9 Statistics Cana ada, “Nation nal Househo old Survey”, 2011. 10 Sta atistics Canada, “National Household Survey””, 2011. 11 The Boston Consulting Group, G “Build ding a New Momentum m for Montrea al’, Februarry 2014 4. http://www w.bmo.com//ci/files/BCG GMontreal14 405FINAL_JJun0214en..pdf 12 The Boston Consulting Group, G “Build ding a New Momentum m for Montrea al”, Februarry 2014 4. 13 The Boston Consulting Group, G “Build ding a New Momentum m for Montrea al”, Februarry 2014 4. 14 Ins stitut de la statistique s du Québec, “Résultats “ d de l'Enquête e sur la rémunération globa ale au Québ bec”, Augus st 6, 2014. 15 Ins stitut de la statistique s du Québec, “Résultats “ d de l'Enquête e sur la rémunération globa ale au Québ bec”, Augus st 6, 2014. 16 The Boston Consulting Group, G “Build ding a New Momentum m for Montrea al”, Februarry 2014 4. 17 The Boston Consulting Group, G “Build ding a New Momentum m for Montrea al”, Februarry 2014 4. 18 Ma arian Scott, “Number off Quebecers s leaving pro n the rise”, T The Montrea al ovince is on Gaze ette, June 1, 2014. 19 Ins stitut de la statistique s du Québec, “Résultats “ d de l'Enquête e sur la rémunération globa ale au Québ bec”, Augus st 6, 2014. http://www.s tat.gouv.qc.ca/statistiques/travailremu uneration/resultats-erg_ _an.html 20 Sta atistique Ca anada, “Enquête nationale auprès des ménages, tableau 99-012X201 11048”, adapté par l'Ins stitut de la statistique, 2 2014. 21 Inv vestissemen nt Québec, “La “ fiscalité au Québecc 2012”, 201 12. http:///www.inves stquebec.co om/en/index x.aspx?page e=2861

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22 The Boston Consulting Group, G “Build ding a New Momentum m for Montrea al”, Februarry 2014 4. 23 Ve enture Capittal Monitor, «Q3 2014 SME S Resea arch and Sta atistics”, 201 14. https s://www.ic.gc c.ca/eic/site e/061.nsf/vw wapj/VCMon nitor-MoniteurCR_Q3T3_2 2014_eng.pd df/$FILE/VC CMonitor-Mo oniteurCR_ _Q3-T3_2014_eng.pdf. 24 Ve enture Capittal Monitor, «Q3 2014 SME S Resea arch and Sta atistics”, 201 14. https s://www.ic.gc c.ca/eic/site e/061.nsf/vw wapj/VCMon nitor-MoniteurCR_Q3T3_2 2014_eng.pd df/$FILE/VC CMonitor-Mo oniteurCR_ _Q3-T3_2014_eng.pdf. 25 Ra andstad, “W Women Shap ping Busines ss: Challeng ges and Op pportunities 2014”, 2014 4. http:///www.rands stad.ca/wom menshaping gbusiness/do ownload-wh hite-paper-2 2014.aspx 26 Ra andstad, “W Women Shap ping Busines ss: Challeng ges and Op pportunities 2014”, 2014 4. http:///www.rands stad.ca/wom menshaping gbusiness/do ownload-wh hite-paper-2 2014.aspx 27 Cre edit Suisse,, “Does Gen nder Diversiity Improve Performancce?”, July 20 012. https s://www.cred dit-suisse.co om/ca/en/ne ews-and-exp pertise/rese earch/credit--suisseresea arch-institutte/news-and d-videos.artiicle.html/artticle/pwp/ne ews-andexpe ertise/2012/0 07/en/does--gender-dive ersity-impro ove-performa ance.html 28 Wo omen in VC C Study Research Team m, Dow Jone es Venture Source, “W Women at the e whee el: Do Fema ale Executiv ves Drive Sta artup Succe ess”, 2012. http:///www.dowjo ones.com/c collateral/file es/WomenP PE_report_final.pdf 29 Ma ahendra Ramsinghani, “On Startup p Boards, La aziness And d Bias Trounces Gend der Diversity y”, Forbes, January J 2013. 30 Ce enter for Wo ork-Life Polic cy, “Off-Ram mps and On n-Ramps Re evisited”, Ju une 2010. 31 S.A A. Hewlett, C.B. Luce, P. Shiller, and a S. South hwell, “The Hidden Bra ain Drain: Offframp ps and Onra amps in Wom men’s Careers,” Cente r for Work-L Life Policy, ((Cambridge e MA, Harvard Business Scho ool Publishing Corpora ation), 2005.. 32 S.A A. Hewlett, C.B. Luce, P. Shiller, and a S. South hwell, “The Hidden Bra ain Drain: Offframp ps and Onra amps in Wom men’s Careers,” Cente r for Work-L Life Policy, ((Cambridge e MA, Harvard Business Scho ool Publishing Corpora ation), 2005.. 33 S.A A. Hewlett, C.B. Luce, P. Shiller, and a S. South hwell, “The Hidden Bra ain Drain: Offframp ps and Onra amps in Wom men’s Careers,” Cente r for Work-L Life Policy, ((Cambridge e MA, Harvard Business Scho ool Publishing Corpora ation), 2005.. 34 S.A A. Hewlett, C.B. Luce, P. Shiller, and a S. South hwell, “The Hidden Bra ain Drain: Offframp ps and Onra amps in Wom men’s Careers,” Cente r for Work-L Life Policy, ((Cambridge e MA, Harvard Business Scho ool Publishing Corpora ation), 2005.. 35 E. Holly Buttner and Doro othy P. Moo ore. “Women n’s Organiza ational Exod dus to Entre epreneurship: Self-Rep ported Motivations and C Correlates w with Successs”. Journal of Small Business Manageme ent, January y 1997. 36 E. Holly Buttner and Doro othy P. Moo ore. “Women n’s Organiza ational Exod dus to Entre epreneurship: Self-Rep ported Motivations and C Correlates w with Successs”. Journal of Small Business Manageme ent, January y 1997. 37 Ladies Learnin ng Code, “O Our Shared Vision, Ourr Shared Su uccess: 2014 4 Annual Repo ort”, 2014. http://ladiesle h earningcode e.com/2014 4.pdf

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YES - Women in Technology Report 2015  

YES Women in Technology - Gender Based Analysis: Third Annual Assessment of the Technology Sector in Quebec

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