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Contents 52

ELEVATOR WORLD November 2015

Vol. LXIII No. 11

70

ON THE COVER 36

Company Spotlight: Lift Emotion

by Kaija Wilkinson Yacht elevator specialist Lift Emotion has produced lifts for some of the world’s most luxurious pleasure vessels.

FEATURES 52

Destination: U.A.E.

已批准

by Kaija Wilkinson Technology and style come together in one of the world’s most sophisticated vertical-transportation markets.

70

iWalks in Heathrow Airport by Begoña Flores Canseco ThyssenKrupp installs the first iwalks in the U.K.

已批准

CONTINUING EDUCATION 75

Elevator Door Force by John W. Koshak

117

Assessment Examination Questions

FOCUS ON EVACUATION SOLUTIONS AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS 88

It Is Safety Awareness That Counts! by Peng Jie, EW Correspondent

94

Use of Elevators During Emergencies by David McColl, P. Eng.

102

Comparison of Concepts for Evacuation Lifts by Ashiqur Rahman and Wim Offerhaus

已批准 已批准

40


Contents

16

COLUMNS 32

Industry Profile: Robert “Bobby Dee” DeFrancesco by Kaija Wilkinson

40

A Forum on High-Speed Elevator Technology & Global Codes and Standards by Peng Jie, EW Correspondent

60

New Venue, Renewed Energy for IAEC-NY Fundraiser by Melissa Aponte photos by Casey Hyde

64

Early Elevator Guide Lubricators by Dr. Lee Gray, EW Correspondent

DEPARTMENTS 8 Editor’s Overview 10 Calendar 16 U.S. News 24 International News 121 Product Spotlight 123 Classified 127 Advertisers Index 128 Last Glance

ONLINE EXTRAS

www.elevatorworld.com In addition to selected U.S. patents, we offer:

• More photos of upcoming projects in the U.A.E. • An editorial on Seattle’s challenges with building vertically • Toshiba Elevator officials visit DMAC Heights in Dubai (pictured; photo courtesy of Toshiba Elevator Middle East) and ThyssenKrupp showcases its recent projects in the U.A.E. • NOVEMBER WEB EXCLUSIVE: “Exit Strategy” from the National Fire Protection Association Journal

60

24


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Mission Statement The mission of ELEVATOR WORLD is the intelligent collection, management and distribution of information for the benefit of the industry, while providing a global marketing platform that expands the reach of the industry to all corners of the world. How to Contact ELEVATOR WORLD • Mail: P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, Alabama 36660 • Shipping: 354 Morgan Avenue; Mobile, Alabama 36606 • Phone: (251) 479-4514 or toll-free: 1-800-730-5093 • Fax: (251) 479-7043 • Email: editorial@elevatorworld.com or sales@elevatorworld.com • Website: www.elevatorworld.com Subscriber Services & Back Issues • ELEVATOR WORLD is available in both print and digital verisions. Questions regarding new print or digital subscriptions, renewals, bulk subscriptions, subscription payments, change of address, back issues or billing may call (251) 479-4514 or 1-800-730-5093, ext. 23, 12 or 19. News, Press Releases and Article Submissions • Submissions to be considered for publication should be sent to editorial@elevatorworld.com. Editorial space is non-paid; material is accepted based on newsworthiness or educational value and may be edited. Contact Managing Editor Angela C. Baldwin, ext. 30. Reprints/Permission • To order editorial or advertising reprints, call Patricia Cartee, ext. 23. • To obtain permission to use any part of ELEVATOR WORLD, call Ricia Hendrick, ext. 25. Advertising • For display, classified or online advertising information, contact Advertising Manager Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29. The Bookstore • For educational books, posters, CDs, DVDs and videos, contact Syreeta White at ext. 19; online at www. elevatorbooks.com; or see our supplemental booklet in this issue. Online • www.elevatorworld.com: News, links, calendar, classifieds, bookstore, feature articles, people and products of the industry. Site updated daily. • www.TheElevatorMuseum.org: Take a tour of the history of the elevator industry. • www.elevatorjobsitesafety.com: Complete Safety Handbook PDF, plus current revisions, quizzes, safety products, toolbox meetings and links. • www.elevatordirectory: A powerful online business directory, events calendar, classifieds section and more. • www.elevatorworldindia.com: Covers information about the free quarterly magazine ELEVATOR WORLD India, including a complete archives section. • www.theeurosource.com: Contains details regarding the yearly EURO SOURCE directory, including the most recent directory in digital format.

Mailing Lists

• ELEVATOR WORLD does not release its subscriber list. • The Elevator World SOURCE© published yearly in January provides a comprehensive list of elevator industry suppliers, contractors, consultants and associations. Call Lesley Hicks, ext. 29, for more information.

Printed on recycled paper

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015

ELEVåTOR WÅRLD

®

Founder:

STAFF

Editor and Publisher Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick, ext. 25 Executive Vice President T. Bruce MacKinnon, ext. 20 Managing Editor Angela C. Baldwin, ext. 30 Senior Associate Editor Lee Freeland, ext. 41 Associate Editor Kaija Wilkinson, ext. 13 Editorial Assistant Hanno van der Bijl, ext. 40 Vice President of Production Lillie K. McWilliams, ext. 15 Graphic Design Associates Tara Dow, ext. 24 Ashley Pierce, ext. 16 Web/Graphic Designer Dan Wilson, ext. 28 Director of Commercial Operations Patricia B. Cartee, ext. 23 Vice President of Sales/Marketing Brad O’Guynn, ext. 38 Sales/Marketing Assistant Caleb Givens, ext. 17 Advertising Manager Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29 Advertising Account Executive Scott O. Brown, ext. 31 Commercial Assistant Cleo Brazile, ext. 42 Educational Sales Service Associates Syreeta White, ext. 19 Susan Crigler, ext. 11 Financial Associate Emma Darby, ext. 33

William C. Sturgeon 

1953

ELEVATOR WORLD, INC. BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

Angela Baldwin (V.P. Editorial), Richard Baxter, Massimo Bezzi, Tricia Cartee (V.P. Commercial Operations), Jonathan Charest, Jo Chateau (Acting Treasurer), James Green, Ricia Hendrick (President, Chairman), Paul Horney, Martha Hulgan, Achim Hütter, John Koshak, T. Bruce MacKinnon (Executive V.P./Secretary), Lillie McWilliams (V.P. Production), Brad O’Guynn (V.P. Sales/Marketing) and Robert Schaeffer TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP John Antona, Richard E. Baxter, Louis Bialy, James W. Coaker, Ferhat Çelik, Walter Glaser, M.J. Mohamed Iqbal, John Koshak, Ami Lustig, TAK Mathews, Zack R. McCain, Parag Mehta, Richard Peters, Jay A. Popp and Albert So

CORRESPONDENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS

Africa: Shem Oirere; Australia: John Inglis; Canada: John Murphy; China: Peng Jie, Zhang Lexiang, Dr. Albert So, Yihui Ruan; Europe: Luc Rivet; Germany: Andreas Wirths; Hungary: Marius Makovsky; India: TAK Mathews; Iran: Amir Reza Hashemi; Israel: Ami Lustig; Italy: Massimo Bezzi; Japan: Masaru Matsumoto, Yutaka Otagiri, Youichi Saji, Shigeharu Kitamura; Mexico: Raul Gonzales Mora; New Zealand: Bob Johnston; Russia: Viktor Khristich, Yury Kireev; South America: Carmen Maldacena; Taiwan: Spenser Cheng; Turkey: Bülent Yilmaz, Ersan Barlas; United Arab Emirates: M.J. Mohamed Iqbal; United Kingdom: David Cooper, John Gale; United States: John Koshak, Jim Coaker, Galen Dutch, Lawrence Fabian, Richard Gregory, David Herres, Dr. Lee Gray, George Gibson

EDITOR EMERITUS Robert S. Caporale

CORRESPONDING PUBLICATIONS

Argentina: Revista del Ascensor, Subir y Bajar; Brazil: Revista Elevador Brasil; China: China Elevator; Germany: Lift Report, Lift Journal; Greece: Anelkistiras – Greek Elevation Magazine; Iran: Donya-ye Asansor; Italy: Elevatori; Korea: Elevator & Parking Systems; The Netherlands: Liftinstituut Mededeling, Liftbouw; Poland: Dzwig Magazyn; Russia: Lift Russia; Spain: Ascensores y Montacargas; South Africa: Lift Africa Magazine; Ukraine: Lift Expert; United Kingdom: Elevation ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine published by Elevator World, Inc. (Mobile, Alabama) and Virgo Publications (Bangalore, India). Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www.elevatorworldindia.com. ELEVATOR WORLD Turkey is a bimonthly magazine owned and published by Elevator World Turkey. Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www.elevatorworld.com.tr or by calling (251) 479-4514.

ELEVATOR WORLD is a registered trademark and all rights reserved. Copyright © 2015. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, please write ELEVATOR WORLD at P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, AL 36660. ELEVATOR WORLD is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry, to improve communication within the industry and to further the continuing education of members of the industry. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes articles by contributing authors as a stimulation to thinking and not as directives. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes this material without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering practices, guidelines, codes and standards. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD. Printed by Interstate Printing & Graphics, Inc., 1135 Corporate Drive North, Mobile, AL 36607. Periodicals postage paid at Mobile, Alabama, and at additional mailing office. Post Office Publication Number 172-680 (ISSN 0013-6158), under the act of March 3rd. U.S. Pat. Office. POSTMASTER: address all correspondence to Elevator World, Inc., P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660; fax: (251) 479-7043. Published monthly. Subscription rates (print): U.S. and possessions: $75/one year, $125/two years, $175/three years. International, including Canada: $125/one year, $225/two years, $325/three years; Digital format: $25; Single copies (print or digital): $15; THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE© (print or digital): $46. (All subscribers receive THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE© free.)

The official magazine for NAEC, Elevator U and CECA.


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Editor’s Overview

Safety Awareness That Counts by Ricia S. Hendrick As we write this month, several members of our staff have just returned from the National Association of Elevator Contractors Convention and Exhibition in Boston and are getting ready to go to Augsburg, Germany, for the Interlift expo. With just a week in between, many suppliers in the industry are scurrying to be present at both events. Articles on these events will follow in December and January. One of the things that occurred in Boston was the introduction by the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation (EESF) of the industry’s new safety characters for the elementary school children’s age group. The young “Safe-T-Rider� superheroes should be well received by the target age group and will help promote safety awareness. Additional plans for the EESF include updating the university and senior adult programs, as well. A new Foundation program being considered is of particular interest to me – it involves teaching those who work near escalators and elevators how to be aware of emergencies occurring and how to assist. As you will see in the article It Is Safety Awareness That Counts! by our China correspondent, awareness by ordinary citizens can make the difference between life and death. Our focus this month is on emergency operations and evacuation solutions, and we have three excellent articles that speak to the subject. Use of Elevators During Emergencies by David McColl summarizes the initiatives taken in North America to address the use of elevators in emergencies by both firefighters and occupants (for evacuation). Two task groups, established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and chaired by the author, studied the issues and developed recommendations for the elevator, building and other related codes to address these issues. A new operation called “Occupant Evacuation Operation� is included in the ASME A17.1/CSA B44 elevator code in 2013, and its origins and applications are explored here. Comparison of Concepts for Evacuation Lifts by Ashiqur Rahman and Wim Offerhaus of Mitsubishi Elevator Europe explores the different concepts of evacuation lifts on the market and makes suggestions for further standardization and development. In It Is Safety Awareness That Counts!, Peng Jie explores the safety concerns around the recent escalator fatality in China. This accident caused widespread public concern about escalator safety, while the investigation – the most responsive and fastest in Chinese history –

8

www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015

uncovered the causes of the accident as the result of human error on multiple levels. Features this month include a Company Spotlight highlighting Netherlands-based yacht elevator specialist Lift Emotion titled Champagne Wishes and Caviar Dreams. After only eight years in business, the company is experiencing big growth catering to some of the world’s wealthiest people and some of the world’s most luxurious pleasure vessels. Speaking of luxury, Kaija Wilkinson’s Destination: U.A.E., a Market Trends article on that country, shows that competition is fierce within that entire region to be the tallest, fastest, first and best in an ever-expanding market where luxury is king. Home of the current world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the emirate continues to spend money to build more and bigger, and it is not alone. The rest of the country is following suit, and the industry is increasingly optimistic about the country’s future growth. We wrap up features with iWalks in Heathrow Airport by BegoĂąa Flores Canseco, who explores ThyssenKrupp’s challenging installation of the first iwalks in the U.K. at one of the world’s busiest airports. Elevator Door Force by John W. Koshak is our first peer-reviewed article. We are grateful to Lou Bialy and Walter Glaser for their expertise. This Continuing Education article, worth 2 Continuing Education Units, provides information needed to educate elevator personnel who work on elevator doors every day to understand code requirements, measurement, testing and adjustments, and the imperative to limit the maximum forces to ensure the highest level of safety. That brings us back to the whole discussion on safety awareness. We make our equipment quiet and design it to fit into the landscape. As an industry, are we wrong to expect our users to exhibit a level of consciousness and responsibility for their own safety – much less that of others – when they barely even notice we exist? To quote the article It Is Safety Awareness That Counts!: “If everyone in the building has sufficient common sense regarding elevator and escalator safety – for example, knowing the location and function of the emergency stop button, accidents can be substantially reduced.â€? If that is the case, then the EESF, with its revamped programs, is certainly headed in the right direction.   đ&#x;Œ?


Calendar

Calendar of Events Networking opportunities abound at various national and international events.

The World Lift Expo 2015 will be taking place in Nairobi on November 24-26 (photo by Sam Stearman).

2015 November Podcar City 9 Silicon Valley Mountain View, CA November 4-6 For more information, email lfabian21@ gmail.com or visit website: www.podcar.org. National Elevator Escalator Safety Awareness Week Worldwide November 8-15 National Elevator Escalator Safety Awareness Week is coordinated by the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation. For more information or to participate, visit website: www.eesf.org. World Lift Expo 2015 Kenyatta International Conference Centre Nairobi, Kenya November 24-26 For more information, contact Ashutosh Kataria at phone: (91) 11-41536990, fax: (91) 11-45636990 or email: info@ worldliftexpo.com, or visit www. worldliftexpo.com.

December ECNY Annual Meeting & Holiday Party Bruno’s on the Boulevard

Jackson Heights, NY December 3 For more information, contact the Elevator Conference of New York at website: www.ecnyweb.com.

2016 January ASME A17 Elevator Code Week Sheraton Sand Key Resort Clearwater, FL January 11-14 For more information, contact the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) at website: www.asme.org. LIFTECH EXPO Cairo International Convention Center Cairo, Egypt January 21-24 For more information, visit website: www. liftechexpo.com.

March New York Build 2016 Javits Center New York, NY March 7-8 For more information, contact Oliver Kinross Ltd. at info@oliverkinross.com or visit website: www.newyorkbuildexpo.com.

IEE Expo 2016 Bombay Exhibition Centre Mumbai, India March 17-19 For more information, contact Virgo Communications at email: vashdev@ virgo-comm.com or naveen@virgocomm.com, or visit website: www. ieeexpo.com.

April ECNY Supplier Showcase Villa Barone Manor Bronx, NY April 6 For more information, contact the Elevator Conference of New York (ECNY) at website: www.ecnyweb.com. INELEX 2016 International Izmir Fair Center Izmir, Turkey April 7-10 For more information, visit website: www. inelex.com. NAEC Educational Conference Westin Savannah Harbor Resort & Spa Savannah, GA April 9-12 For more information, contact the National Association of Elevator Contractors’ (NAEC) Amanda Smith at toll free: (800) 900-6232, fax: (770) 760-9714, email: amanda@naec.org or website: www.naec.org.

Continued

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015


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Cairo will host Liftech Expo on January 21-24 (photo by Simon Steinberger).

ISO TC 178 Plenary and Working Groups Meeting Sydney, Australia April 11-15 For more information, contact the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) at website: www. iso.org. Eurasia Lift 2016 Istanbul CNR Expo Fair Center Istanbul, Turkey April 20-23 For more information, visit website: asansorfuari.com/fuar_hakkinda. aspx?ff=1. VFA Members' Meeting Düsseldorf, Germany April 21-22 For more information, visit website: www. vfa-interlift.de/en.

May Elevcon 2016 Hilton Madrid Madrid, Spain May 10-12 For more information or to register, visit website: www.elevcon.com. World Elevator & Escalator Expo 2016 China National Exhibition and Convention Center Shanghai, China May 10-13

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015

For more information, visit website: www. elevator-expo.com. LIFTEX 2016 ExCeL London London, U.K. May 25-26 For more information or to register, contact the Lift & Escalator Industry Association at website: www.liftex2016. com.

June NFPA Conference & Expo Chicago, IL June 22-25 For more information or to register, contact the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) at website: www. nfpa.org/training/nfpa-conference-andexpo.

July Indonesia Lift & Escalator Expo Jakarta International Expo Jakarta, Indonesia July 27-29 Contact via phone: (62) 21-7892938, fax: (62) 21-7890647 or email: info@ wpcitra.co.id, or visit ina-liftescalator. com.

September United in Montreal Westin, InterContinental, Hyatt Regency & Palais des Congres de Montreal

On January 11-14, the ASME A17 Elevator Code Week will be held in Clearwater, Florida (photo by Malachi Witt).

Montreal, Canada September 19-22 This collaborative event will include a large exposition and the annual meetings of the Canadian Elevator Contractors Association, International Association of Elevator Consultants and National Association of Elevator Contractors.

October Wisconsin Elevator Symposium Grand Geneva Resort Lake Geneva, WI October 13-14 For more information or to register, contact NAESA International at www. naesai.org. Euro-Lift 2016 Kielce, Poland October 18-20 For more information, contact Targi Kielce S.A. at email: biuro@targikielce.pl.

November National Elevator Escalator Safety Awareness Week Worldwide November 13-20 National Elevator Escalator Safety Awareness Week is coordinated by the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation. For more information or to participate, visit website: www.eesf.org. Continued


The Canadian Elevator Contractors Association Central Region will meet on November 26 in Mississauga (photo by Tom Glod).

Global Lift & Escalator Expo Dhaka International Convention City Dhaka, Bangladesh November 16-18 For more information or to register, contact raghu@virgo-comm. com or vashdev@virgo-comm.com, or visit website: www. gleexpo.com.

Regional Meetings and Events Canadian Elevator Contractors Association (CECA) Central Region Meetings are held the first Thursday in February, April, October and December. Contact CECA at phone: (905) 446-0327, email: office@ceca-acea.org or website: www.ceca-acea.org. CECA Eastern and Western Regions Four meetings per year on an as-needed basis. Contact CECA at phone: (905) 446-0327, email: office@ceca-acea.org or website: www.ceca-acea.org. Chicago Elevator Association (CEA) First Thursday of each month, September-June (no meetings during July and ­August). Contact Tom Przybyla at phone: (708) 371-2444 or fax: (708) 371-2477. Elevator Association of Florida Meetings are held on the second Tuesday of January, April, July and October. Contact Treasurer Lee Rigby

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015


at phone: (850) 294-1070, fax: (850) 210-0085, email: elevatorlee@ aol.com or website: www.fla-elevator-association.org. Elevator Association of Minnesota (EAM) September, December, spring and a June golf outing. ­Contact Rick Lowenberg of Minnesota Elevator, Inc. at phone: (507) 245-4208. Elevator Conference of New York (ECNY) Dates to be announced on the ECNY website. Contact ECNY at email: info@ecnyweb.com or website: www.ecnyweb.com. Elevator Industry Group of Southern California (EIGSC) Third Tuesday of each month, January-May and September-­ December at Les Freres Taix ­Restaurant, 1911 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, beginning at 11:30 a.m. Contact EIGSC at website: www. elevatorindustry.com. International Association of Elevator Consultants – New York (IAEC-New York Region) Meets quarterly in March, June, ­September and ­December on the ­second Tuesday in New York, NY. ­Contact Joe Neto, Jr. at email: jneto@josephneto.com. Massachusetts Elevator Safety Association (MESA) Meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month (except June, July and August) at the Phillips Old Colony House, Boston (Dorchester), MA. Contact President Eric Tragash at phone: (860) 678-7987, Treasurer Joe Zarba at phone: (508) 586-3610, email: mesassoc@hotmail.com or website: www.mesassoc.com. The annual safety seminar is held in O ­ ctober of each year, with the golf outing in September of each year. Northern California Elevator Industry Group (NCEIG) Third Wednesday of each month (except July and August). Contact NCEIG at website: www.nceig.org for meeting dates and locations. An expanded calendar with associated industry events is available at website: www.elevatordirectory.com/event .

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November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

15


U.S. News

New York City and Area Continue to Grow New York YIMBY shares information about activity in the city and beyond.

Durst’s Tetrahedron Building Nearly a Wrap The Durst Organization is wrapping up construction of VIA 57 West at 625 W. 57th Street in Manhattan. According to Durst, the glittering, 32-story, tetrahedron-shaped building “provides a dramatic visual gateway to Manhattan’s skyline along the Hudson River.” It is the first building designed by Bjarke Ingels Group in North America, and features more than 700 residences, stores and amenities, including a landscaped courtyard on the riverbank. Standing 467 ft. tall, the building had its final curtain wall installed in September.

Foundation Work Underway on Stylish Supertall

Image from The Durst Organization

The foundation of a stylish supertall designed by Jean Nouvel that will house pricey residences was taking shape in September at 53 West 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. The 1,050-ft.-tall building will stand approximately 80 stories and house an expansion of the Museum of Modern Art at its base and more than 130 multimillion-dollar condominiums above. A penthouse is expected to fetch in excess of US$50 million. Conceived approximately a decade ago, the building has been controversial but is ultimately expected to enhance the Midtown skyline. Completion is anticipated in 2017.

LIC Tower Reaches Skyward A 50-story, 503-ft.-tall tower at 43-25 Hunter Street in Long Island City (LIC) is reaching skyward. Scheduled for completion by summer 2017, it had reached 14 stories in

16

www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015

Rendering from www.53w53.com


August. Rockrose is the developer, and SLCE Architects is the designer for the project, set to also have a 14-story building. Together, the buildings will house close to 1,000 residences. Retail and parking, along with other amenities, are planned on the bottom level of the taller tower, and amenities will be scattered throughout. It looks to be one of LIC’s tallest buildings.

Otis Expanding in South Carolina

95-Story Tower Envisioned on Jersey City Waterfront

Otis is adding 50 jobs and 15,000 sq. ft. to its facility in Florence, South Carolina, where it established a 440,000-sq.-ft. “manufacturing center of excellence” for the U.S. and Canada in 2011 with a US$40-million, 360-employee investment, The Morning News reported. The new jobs were announced over the summer, with hiring to take place over the next 12 months. Prior to the job additions, the facility had approximately 600 employees, Otis told EW. The physical expansion, which will house offices, is scheduled to be complete by the end of January 2016.

A 95-story, mixed-use supertall could be built along the bustling Jersey City, New Jersey, waterfront, across the Hudson River from Manhattan and Brooklyn at 55 Hudson Street. Plans are in their infancy, but if the building comes to fruition, it would be part of a Jersey City skyline that is becoming ever taller and become the tallest building in New Jersey. It is expected to house commercial/ office space, hotel rooms or residences and retail, and have close to 700 parking spaces.

Image courtesy of Otis

Image from China Overseas America

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U.S. News

Las Vegas Strip Escalators to Be Replaced The State of Nevada has approved a US$35-million plan to improve the escalator and bridge system that helps people cross the Las Vegas Strip, Nevada Public Radio reported. Whiting-Turner Contracting Co. of California is the contractor for the project, which will include 16 new escalators to replace ones from the 1990s for which parts are no longer available. The units are frequently out of service and could create safety hazards.

The Las Vegas Strip; photo by Sam Morris, Las Vegas News Bureau

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U.S. News

Residential Development Reaching Higher in L.A. As land in the most desirable neighborhoods dwindles, residential towers in downtown Los Angeles are getting taller, with 21 of the nearly 70 projects under construction standing at least 10 stories, National Real Estate Investor reported. Among the tallest are the 50-story 820 S. Olive Street by Vancouver, Canada-based Onni Group; a trio of towers standing 54, 38 and 40 stories that are part of the mixed-use Metropolis project (ELEVATOR WORLD, April 2014); and a 49-story and pair of 40-story towers that make up Fig Central by Beijing developer Oceanwide. Despite the threats of higher land and construction costs, this tall-building boom is expected to continue for the foreseeable future.

820 S. Olive Street by Onni Group

Glass-and-Steel Apartment Tower Pitched in Minneapolis A 28-story glass-and-steel tower housing apartments, resident amenities, parking and retail is proposed in northeast Minneapolis, the Star Tribune reported. Stakeholders were reviewing plans for 333 Hennepin in September. Mortenson and U.S. Bank are the developers, and the Cunningham Group is architect. The design boasts wraparound glass on one of the building’s corners to reflect movement of the nearby Mississippi River.

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015

A rendering by the Cunningham Group shows the historic Nye’s Bar in the foreground.


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U.S. News

New Regional Manager for Kings III Penn

Bill Penn has been appointed business development manager by Kings III for the Central and West Coast regions. Penn has nearly 20 years’ experience in multifamily property management with BG Staffing in Plano, Texas, including a period when he is credited with tripling production of the property-management division through acquisition. He has also been involved in numerous local, regional and national industry organizations.

Delaware Elevator, Suppliers Working on Astronaut Elevator Delaware Elevator of Salisbury, Maryland, is the contractor for an elevator designed to allow astronauts to board CST-100 Starliner capsules prior to travel to the International Space Station. The elevator is for a 201-ft.-tall tower being built at Launch Complex 41 for United Launch Alliance (ULA) at Cape Canaveral, Florida, main contractor Boeing told ELEVATOR WORLD. Traveling at a speed of 350 fpm, the explosion-resistant elevator will make four stops, rise 170 ft. and have a capacity of 4000 lb., according to Delaware. Additional suppliers include C.J. Anderson & Co., Columbia Elevator Products, GAL/Hollister-Whitney and Virginia Controls. The first sections of the tower began being stacked in September, Florida Today reported, in anticipation of astronauts boarding the capsules for launch on Atlas V rockets sometime in the next several years. Launch Complex 41 has seen 56 Atlas V probe missions to distant planets such as Pluto, and the busy complex is being redesigned to help send people into space. ULA is designing a new rocket, Vulcan, to replace Atlas V. The tower is scheduled for completion in September 2016, with manned flights anticipated in late đ&#x;Œ? 2017.   

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International News

Business Transactions Acquisitions abound as companies make strategic moves.

KONE Forms T&I Division, Appoints CTO

Korte

Pihkala

KONE has established a Technology & Innovation (T&I) division and appointed Tomio Pihkala (ELEVATOR WORLD, November 2013), formerly head of Operations Development, chief technology officer (CTO). T&I brings together the R&D and Information Technology departments. Mikko Korte, formerly head of New Equipment, Americas, will fill the Operations Development leader role. Upon announcement of the changes, KONE CEO Henrik Ehrnrooth stated: “By establishing a dedicated [T&I] division, we will speed up our development in a changing business environment. The opportunities from digitation are accelerating in our industry. We see a lot of new and exciting ways to improve customer and user experience, as well as the quality and productivity of our operations.”

KONE Acquires Croatian, Bosnian Distributor KONE has acquired Lift Modus d.o.o., its distributor in Croatia and Bosnia. Headquartered in Zagreb, Croatia, Lift Modus has approximately 1,600 elevators and escalators in service and 60 employees. It has been KONE’s exclusive distributor in the area since 1999. Pierre Liautaud, director for KONE West and South Europe and Africa, stated, “We are very pleased to establish our presence in Croatia and Bosnia and take advantage of the growth opportunities in the region.”

ThyssenKrupp Ups Stake in Chinese Venture, Plans Factory ThyssenKrupp has upped its stake in Chinese joint venture Marohn ThyssenKrupp Elevator Co., Ltd. from 25% to 51%, in an effort to increase its market position in the world’s largest elevator market. The company plans to open a new manufacturing facility in Shanghai in 2016 and had EUR85.2 million (US$97 million) in sales revenue in fiscal 2013/2014. ThyssenKrupp has had a stake in

Magnetek Acquired by Columbus McKinnon Magnetek has been acquired by Columbus McKinnon Corp. of Amherst, New York, in a US$188.9-million deal. Magnetek, based in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin, will continue its operations under President Peter M. McCormick. Upon completion of the acquisition, Columbus McKinnon President Timothy T. Tevens stated: “We command a measurably broader market for Magnetek’s technologies, and the addition of [its] power-control technology impressively enhances our product offerings. This compelling blend of products and knowhow enables us to bring ‘smart’ lifting and moving solutions to our customers.” Besides the U.S., Columbus McKinnon has locations in Brazil, Germany, Mexico, South Africa and the U.K., while Magnetek has locations in Canada and the U.K.

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The new factory in Shanghai includes a test tower.


UT Makes Otis, Carrier Separate Again, Appoints Leaders Delpech

After two years of Otis and Carrier being part of Building & Industrial Systems (BIS), parent company United Technologies (UT) has made the entities standalone businesses again and appointed leaders for each, as of September. Both new leaders report to UT CEO Greg Hayes. Philippe Delpech is now president of Otis. He was formerly chief operating officer, International Operations, for BIS. Former BIS COO for the Americas Robert J. McDonough is now president of UT’s Climate, Controls & Security, which includes Carrier. BIS CEO Geraud Darnis is retiring in January after overseeing the transition.

Woolcott Joins AL Alan Woolcott has joined Amalgamated Lifts (AL) as project manager in its Construction Department. Woolcott has handled lift modernizations at large company and government offices, university campuses and hospitals. He has established relationships with large consultancies, as well as architects within the U.K. Houses of Parliament. AL Operations Development Manager Daniel Williamson observed that Woolcott “brings additional structure and understanding to ensure client retention is maintained, while broadening AL’s project scope and overall project-management capabilities.” Woolcott

Marohn since 2011. The company elaborated on the factory for EW: “The construction area of the manufacturing facility is over 37,000 m2. Production capacity will be greatly enhanced as a variety of automated production lines will be configured there. Moreover, an elevator testing tower, which is over 89 m, will completely meet the needs of various types of elevator tests, including that of a 7-mps, high-speed elevator.”

ThyssenKrupp Encasa, CRL Collaborate on Stairlifts ThyssenKrupp Encasa, the U.K.-based accessibility arm of ThyssenKrupp, recently collaborated with Brussels South Charleroi Airport (CRL) to develop and install an outdoor stairlift system for the mobile stairs used to access planes at CRL. ThyssenKrupp engineers worked with airport officials to overcome several challenges, such as providing electricity for the lifts using the battery that moves the mobile stairs and developing a folding mechanical step to bridge the gap from mobile stairs to ground. Twelve Levant® stairlifts were installed, and CRL will likely add more as airport traffic increases from the approximately 6.5 million passengers who pass through annually.

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CRL

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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International News

Projects, Changes in Asia Significant contract, orders for industry equipment and a new safety initiative 40 KONE Elevators in Ho Chi Minh City Development KONE has been hired to provide 40 MiniSpaceTM elevators to a residential component of Masteri Thao Dien, a mixed-use development covering 8 ha. in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Powered by the energyefficient EcoDiscTM hoisting machine, the elevators will have a speed of 3 mps. Masteri Thao Dien is set to include apartments, offices, a large shopping center and public amenities. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 2016. The shopping center will be adjacent to a new metro station scheduled for completion in 2018. Neeraj Sharma, executive vice president for KONE Asia Pacific and Middle East, stated: “We are extremely pleased that Masteri Thao Dien chose KONE as its supplier for this project and to serve the growing population of Ho Chi Minh City with our pioneering eco-efficient solutions.”

Otis Teaches Escalator Safety in China Otis has approximately 1,000 volunteers teaching escalator-safety classes to children across China, an effort that is increasingly important in light of recent serious and fatal escalator accidents in the world’s largest vertical-transportation market, China News Service reported. Otis employees are getting involved, too, with more than 960 having taught safety classes in 33 Chinese cities as of 2015. Launched in 2012, the program shares tips about the proper use of escalators during an approximately 45-min. class and includes a comic book.

Avire Displays in Guangzhou Tower By the end of 2015, 23 E-Motive Panorama LCD displays from Avire are set to be installed in the Mitsubishi Electric elevators in the Kingold Century building in Guangzhou, China. The headquarters for Kingold Group and other large corporations, the tower is 228 m tall and encompasses 210,000 m2. The displays are available in screen sizes of 19, 28 and 38 in., and content can be customized.

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015

Above: Masteri Thao Dien, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Left: E-Motive Panorama LCD displays from Avire


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International News

Mitsubishi in Japan New show space and building in the works in and around Tokyo Mitsubishi Electric to Open Showcase Space in Tokyo Specially built elevators will be part of a new showcase space Mitsubishi Electric is building in commercial district Ginza 5-chome in Tokyo. The 908-m2 METoA Ginza is scheduled to open in spring 2016 and will include an event and exhibition area, a café and displays. Mitsubishi Electric observes: “It will be the first time in 29 years for Mitsubishi Electric to open such a facility in Ginza, after its Mitsubishi Electric Sky Ring showroom from 1963 through 1987. The area attracts a wide variety of visitors from Japan and overseas, making it an ideal location to raise the group’s profile and communicate its value to society by highlighting how its products can improve people’s lives.”

Mitsubishi Estate Plans Tallest Building in Japan Mitsubishi Estate Co. said it plans to build the tallest skyscraper in Japan, a 390-m-tall, 61-story tower near JR Tokyo Station, The Japan News reported. Abeno Harukas in Osaka is Japan’s current tallest building at 300 m. The construction site for the proposed building spans more than 30,000 m2. Mitsubishi Estate foresees completion in 2028.

A rendering of what would be the tallest building in Japan

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METoA Ginza was designed by architect/interior designer Shigeru Kubota of Kubota Architects & Associates.

Indian, Bangladeshi Events Set Virgo Communications & Exhibitions has announced the sixth International Elevator & Escalator (IEE) Expo and second Global Lift & Escalator Expo Dhaka (GLE). The former will again be held in Mumbai’s Bombay Exhibition Centre on March 17-19, 2016, and the latter will take place in Dhaka, Bangladesh’s International Convention City on November 16-18, 2016. GLE first took place in February under the name “IEE Expo Dhaka” (ELEVATOR WORLD, May 2015). For more information or to register, contact raghu@virgo-comm.com or vashdev@virgo-comm.com, or visit www.gleexpo.com.


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International News

Action in Canada Savaria acquisition headlines news from Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver. Savaria Buys Silver Cross Franchise, Plans to Expand Savaria Corp. has purchased the assets of the Silver Cross franchise in Ottawa, Canada, and plans to open additional Silver Cross stores in “all key markets in Canada to complement [its] existing franchise locations.” Savaria purchased the assets of Silver Cross, with 16 locations in the U.S. and Canada and a pair of corporate locations in Ontario, in 2014. Savaria now intends to add to those locations with larger stores that will enable it to showcase additional accessibility products, including home elevators.

Vancouver Client Orders Alimak Hoists Alimak Group received a US$1-million order from Tall Crane Equipment Ltd. in Vancouver, Canada, to construct twin cage hoists. The hoists are scheduled for delivery by the end of 2015. Fredrik Betts, head of Alimak Group’s Construction Equipment division, observed Canada is a promising market for the company, and it intends to continue to expand its sales, distribution and service networks in Canada and beyond.

KJA Signs 10-Year Contract with Real-Estate Giant KJA Consultants Inc., headquartered in Toronto, has signed a 10-year maintenance contract with Oxford Properties Group, one of the largest Canada-based realestate firms, with more than 50 million sq. ft. of office, residential, multifamily and hotel property. Utilizing KJA’s e2m elevator and escalator management program, the agreement includes regular inspections, contractor meetings and web-based tracking of performance, government directives and capital planning.

Ottawa Towers to House Student Residences A pair of 28- and 25-story towers at 101 Champagne Avenue South are planned in Ottawa, the Ottawa Citizen reported. Capital Hall Condominiums are set to include more than 500 residences that will be owned by investors and rented to college students. Developers hope the project, originally planned as traditional condominiums, will help address a student housing shortage in the area. The 28-story tower is expected to be complete by the start of the 2016 school year, while the 25-story tower is to open in 2018.

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Ashcroft Homes is building Capital Hall Condominiums.


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Industry Profile

The Power of Relationships Robert “Bobby Dee” DeFrancesco is an ambassador to the industry with a worldwide network of colleagues and friends. by Kaija Wilkinson He has hosted and chaired countless events There is also the annual ECNY Supplier Showcase. The daylong event features 100 or so and committees and received the industry’s most vendors and a dining hall where guests can feast prestigious awards, but ask Robert “Bobby Dee” on house-made Italian food and network in the DeFrancesco what he is famous for, and he will cozy-yet-opulent Villa Barone Manor reception say it is the network of friends he has made hall. He says the showcase is a great opportunity throughout the country, even the world, during for employers to give back to their employees. his more than three decades in the business. He observes: DeFrancesco, president of Benfield Electric “In New York, the owners like to treat their and Elevator Supply Corp. in Bronx, New York people well. They may not be able to send them (ELEVATOR WORLD, October 2015), attended all to NAEC, but they can say, ‘Hey, go on over his first National Association of Elevator there [to the showcase] and eat, drink and see a Contractors (NAEC) convention in 1982 as lot of product.’” cofounder of Central Electric, which eventually Many do exactly that. Earlier this year, the became a division of Benfield. Of that first showcase drew NAEC expo, he says, approximately 800 “I realized there was attendees, from a home for us in the What I like about the elevator managers in suits to elevator industry. laborers in hardhats. Almost every industry is the unbelievable “Last year, we moved working part in an camaraderie. a few of the exhibits elevator—from into the dining hall computers to due to space running controllers—has something electrical in it. I out in the main hall, and I think that worked out thought to myself, ‘We’re missing the boat well,” DeFrancesco says. Indeed, this past year, here.’” many visitors on their way into and out of the So, Central Electric and Elevator Supply was dining hall were compelled to stop and see what launched in Queens, New York, later that same the booths there had to offer. Exhibitor space at year. Its first supplier was Boston Insulated Wire the showcase is spoken for almost immediately, (later Draka), and the company established a and, whether rain, snow, or sleet, turnout is niche in traveling cable for elevators that persists always impressive. to this day. Draka is still a huge supplier—to the Each year, ECNY bestows US$30,0000– tune of approximately US$6 million a year in US$45,000 in scholarship money to the children purchases—and Benfield often shares a booth and grandchildren of those in the industry. “I with Draka on the NAEC convention floor. wish we could give out more in scholarship DeFrancesco stays heavily involved in helping money,” DeFrancesco states. “There are so many the industry and industry members’ families. For smart, young people.” example, he launched the Elevator Conference

of New York (ECNY) dinner dance networking event and scholarship fundraiser 22 years ago. He says it was “a little shindig” at first, with approximately 60 guests. That number has since more than quadrupled.

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It’s Personal The main change DeFrancesco has observed in the industry is the pervasiveness of technology, not only in equipment, but also in Continued


Rob Merlo presents DeFrancesco with the NAEC President’s Award in 2002.

The DeFrancesco family includes (l-r) daughter, Elaine Theresa; son-in-law, Matthew; Bobby Dee; and Elaine.

and willing to make introductions and ensure DeFrancesco wasn’t alone at events such as the welcome breakfast. Today, DeFrancesco does the same thing for members of the up-andcoming generation, letting them know, for example, whom they should meet in New York City and making introductions. “Relationships matter,� he says. Besides Marchese and his family, other industry people who have helped and inspired DeFrancesco include Richard Faiello, Kenneth Breglio, Gene Frohlinger, Lou Persico, the Glaser brothers, Stan McDonald and the late Frank Riley.

About Family, Fun and Awards DeFrancesco is presented with the William C. Sturgeon Distinguished Service award in 2008 by (l-r) Walter and Herb Glaser of GAL.

communications. It is a double-edged sword, he says. While he is fascinated by emerging technology such as MRL elevators, he is dismayed that emails and texts often take the place of actual conversation. Indeed, if one sends DeFrancesco a text or an email, he or she will most likely receive a phone call back. “With emails and texts, the progress is quick, but you lose that bond that comes with talking to someone,� he opines. DeFrancesco finds NAEC membership and all it entails invaluable. The business and personal relationships he has built through the years mean yearly dues “are worth every penny,� he says. “It’s like money in the bank.� NAEC members who are traveling always have a friend, he observes, recalling a couple of instances that illustrate this. Members have taken fellow members’ children to hospitals in emergencies (once after a scooter accident in Bermuda and another after a car accident in Chicago), and helped secure jobs for colleagues, relatives and friends. At his first NAEC expo, DeFrancesco didn’t know a soul. He said as a young, first-time exhibitor, he was taken under the wing of industry icons such as the late Joe Marchese, who was ready

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DeFrancesco and his wife of 45 years, Elaine, live in Country Club, Bronx, on Long Island Sound. They have a daughter, Elaine Theresa, who is a physical therapist at Helen Hayes Hospital in Haverstraw, New York, and son-in-law Matthew. Elaine Theresa and Matthew have twin boys, R.J. and Dom. DeFrancesco says that when he and his wife are not babysitting the boys, they enjoy tropical vacations, casinos and Broadway plays. Among DeFrancesco’s many involvements and achievements: 1998–2001, NAEC convention host; 2000–2002, Elevator World, Inc. Safety Task Force Committee member; 1998, NAEC Exhibit Committee chair; 2000, Supplier Committee chair; 2002, NAEC President’s Award recipient; and 2008, William C. Sturgeon Distinguished Service Award recipient. There is no question DeFrancesco has distinguished himself in the industry and will continue to do so. He states: “What I like about the elevator industry is the unbelievable camaraderie. A lot of times we’re in competition with one another. You put a bid in, and somebody wins the bid. But, at the end of the day, you have a drink at the bar together. You learn from one another and, at some point, may go on to need a favor from one another. “My claim to fame in this industry is I made lifelong friends.â€?  đ&#x;Œ?


A curved-glass elevator by Lift Emotion

COMPANY SPOTLIGHT

CHAMPAGNE WISHES AND CAVIAR DREAMS Yacht elevator specialist Lift Emotion has produced lifts for some of the world’s most luxurious pleasure vessels.

The 55-m superyacht Silver Shalis was completed in 2010 for a U.S. client. Lift Emotion collaborated on the project with Curvelle.

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by Kaija Wilkinson

With lifts built for yachts including the 70-m MY Axiomia and the newest, 47-m Majesty 155, built in the U.A.E. for a Middle Eastern client who went so far as to have his palace cigar bar replicated in miniature on his yacht, it is clear that Lift Emotion is succeeding. While the end users are no doubt the Bonos and Beyoncés of the world, Lift Emotion primarily deals directly with shipyards and interior designers and often does not know the identities of the ultimate customers. Even if they do, they keep quiet about it due to customers’ desire for privacy. Yacht elevators account for roughly 85% of business, with private-residence lifts making up 2% and the rest offshore industry systems. Brandt estimates the company has built 100 yacht elevators since it was founded in 2007 and 160 elevators in all. The company continues to embark on new, exciting projects. For example, it is working on a custom elevator for a well-known U.S. tech company. About that job, he told Superyacht Times: “The company was looking for a highly customized elevator, and that’s how they found us, as we deal with the most difficult and technically challenging elevators every day.” There have been repeat customers such as a Swiss yacht elevator client who tapped Lift Emotion to create a custom elevator for his home in Switzerland. The unit was delivered in 2014. Brandt described it as a “truly spectacular” elevator with a 3.03-m-tall glass cabin with floor-toceiling doors. Another recent Kwakkel

C

akewalk, at 85.6 m the largest yacht built in the U.S. since the 1930s, launched on August 8, 2010, from Derecktor Shipyards in Bridgeport, Connecticut. When it did, it was outfitted with an elevator and dumbwaiter custom built by Lift Emotion BV, based in Meppel, the Netherlands. Mike Brandt, who co-owns the company with Eef Kwakkel, thinks that says a lot about the custom, high-end work for which the company has become While the end users are no known during its eight years in doubt the Bonos and Beyoncés of the world, Lift business. Headquartered in an Emotion primarily deals approximately directly with shipyards and 3,229-sq.-ft. shop with additional interior designers and does outlying space it rents on an asnot know the identities of needed basis, Lift the ultimate customers. Emotion plans to expand into a shop five times larger by mid 2016 and add to its staff of eight full-time and 15 part-time employees who fly all over the world to take care of clients in places such as Australia, China and Turkey. The expansion is necessary to keep up with demand, Brandt stated. Reflecting on 2015, he said: “The progress we made in 2015 was significant. [In September], we had just come back from the Monaco Yacht Show, where we spoke with a lot of potential clients. There is a lot of competition, including from the big OEMs, but I think we stand out, because what we make is never copy and paste, but always tailor made. Some people try to do what we do. Some succeed, some do not.”

Brandt

Outfitted with a Lift Emotion elevator and dumbwaiter, Cakewalk is the largest yacht built in the U.S. since the 1930s.

Continued

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Glass and stainless steel are among Lift Emotion’s most-used cab materials.

notable job was an elevator built inside (yes, inside) a bus for a Middle Eastern client with mobility issues. That job was particularly challenging due to having to work in such a tight space. Brandt, who has an engineering background, observes that all jobs come with a mix of challenges and rewards. There are particular challenges that go with building marine elevators, perhaps the biggest one being the strict rules and regulations that vary by location. “There are always differences and different interpretations of the rules among Notified Bodies, and that can be frustrating,” he states.

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Lift Emotion often works with yachts’ interior designers to customize units.

All Lift Emotion passenger elevators —for yachts, vessel crews or offshore workers—are based on its standard C-line and comply with Netherlands Standardization Institute, International Organization for Standardization, Lloyd’s, DNV GL and American Bureau of Shipping regulations. They operate on open-source software, which enables maintenance to be performed by whichever company or person the client chooses, anywhere in the world. C-line features also include: ♦♦ High comfort ♦♦ Functionality and failsafe mechanisms ♦♦ A wide range of load capacity ♦♦ Fire-rated, watertight doors

♦♦ Door and cabin finishes in a wide array of colors and stainless-steel finishes ♦♦ The choice of hydraulic or traction drives ♦♦ Machinery, power pack and controller cabinet positioned behind or next to the shaft on any level The company offers remote monitoring and can provide onsite maintenance and inspections anywhere in the world. It carries an inventory of spare parts that can be used on any marine elevator, regardless of type or manufacturer. The greatest difference between a land- and marine-based elevator is the fact that the former is stationary, and the latter is constantly in motion. This calls for the


The Lift Emotion booth at a recent Monaco Yacht Show, an annual event where mutually beneficial relationships are formed.

The company offers service to clients anywhere in the world and has staff who fly to places such as Turkey, China and Australia.

marine unit having different dimensions and weight distributions. Also, Brandt observes, a marine elevator is subject to harsh environmental conditions—wind, water and salt, for example. Lift Emotion uses specific materials and finishes built to withstand the elements and calls on a regular group of suppliers, primarily in the Netherlands and Germany, to deliver them. Lift Emotion’s other lift systems have proven popular, as well, and they are marketed in a very compelling way. The

Ceramic tile, wood and patterned stainless steel distinguish this elevator interior.

company has this to say, for example, about Another product in this category is a its goods lifts: flexible marine elevator made especially for “Which dumbwaiter will transport use on the decks of river barges. Lift food, wine or Emotion says this goods between lift “rests on the decks for you at deck, allowing it to There are particular sea? How do you pass under low challenges that go with make sure that a canal bridges, and bottle of building marine elevators, be brought upright champagne at will.â€? perhaps the biggest one reaches the guests In addition to on your luxury being the strict rules and new yachts, Lift superyacht in the Emotion has been a regulations that vary same way it part of several depending on location. would in a noteworthy five-star retrofits. When the restaurant? 44.7-m former Where do you find an elevator that brings H2Ome was purchased and rechristened 300-kg loads wherever they are needed Blade in late 2014, Lift Emotion was a onboard during a raging storm? At Lift member of the international team Emotion, we are used to solving questions assembled to handle its like these, and even enjoy it and take multimillion-U.S.-dollar makeover. For great pride in combining precision this project, Lift Emotion constructed a technology, experience and ingenuity to pop-up elevator that emerges out onto the build the dumbwaiter or trolley lift that sun deck, making the deck wheelchair will suit your onboard needs on the accessible. heaviest seas. Our dumbwaiters and Lift Emotion’s relationships with its trolley lifts come in a wide range of types, customers go deep, often spanning years functionalities, door types and loading and countless hours. Brandt stated: “It’s a systems.â€? tremendous amount of hours you have to Beyond marine elevators, Lift devote to help and guide people, but in the Emotion’s special-build line includes the end, you will get something truly special Lifebuoy Shooting Unit, which launches a đ&#x;Œ? and of the highest quality.â€?    life preserver from a ship’s bridge or near the bulwark with the push of a button. November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

39


Events

A Forum on High-Speed Elevator Technology & Global Codes and Standards China Elevator Association meets to talk about a changing industry in an uncertain future.

by Peng Jie, EW Correspondent A seminar on high-speed elevator technology and current trends in global codes and standards was convened in a suburb of Beijing on July 8–9, 2015. The future of the global economy seems uncertain, and climate change poses challenges and threats to both developed and developing nations alike. Meanwhile, since urbanization is proceeding steadily as social reforms go in depth in China, the elevator industry needs to adjust to changes in market demand. The years of record sales and competition based on low prices are gone. It is time for members of the industry to figure out what to do next. The China Elevator

healthy and sustainable development of the industry in the face of a challenging future. More than a decade ago, similar CEA events would entail a pile of printed materials of presentations and speeches of both organizers and participants. Today, the event itself has gone green. At the registration desk, every participant received a bag containing a pen and a timetable of the two-day activities printed on both sides of a single sheet of paper. Nearly 400 people presented at the two-day event. While a presentation was going on, the hall was filled with flash photography from cameras, mobile phones and tablets in the hands of participants, most of whom were in their 40s, 30s or promising 20s. CEA president Li Shoulin welcomed all the participants from home and abroad, and Zhang Lexiang presided over the event. Seeing some of the audience members repeatedly taking pictures of the contents on the stage screen, Lexiang advised them to take it easy and listen to the speakers attentively. He promised that all the presentations at the event would be made available online for download as soon as the meeting was over. The event, like other CEA gatherings of its kind, served as the glue that held the members of the industry together for mutual development.

High-Speed Elevators CEA vice secretary general Zhang Lexiang presided over the event.

Association (CEA) planned the event, providing an excellent opportunity for elevator companies and organizations to sit down together and exchange ideas and innovations to promote the

By 2050, the world population will increase by two billion resulting in the acceleration of urbanization worldwide. The year 2030 will see 1.4 billion more people move into cities, leading to more and higher high-rise buildings, which, in turn will increase the demand for high-speed elevators. However, because of human physical Continued

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015


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tolerances, such as ear-popping due to sharp changes in atmospheric pressure in the car, the specified speed of a super high-speed elevator only refers to its ascending velocity. For example, the express elevators in Taipei 101 travel up at 16.67 mps but come down no faster than 10 mps, which is widely accepted as the maximum down-travel velocity for any super high-speed elevator, including those in the Shanghai Center. Vibration is another known challenge in designing high- and super high-speed elevators. Solutions such as aerodynamic capsules with streamlined exterior and varied technologies for prevention and reduction of car vibration have been made available. Satoru Kato, from Mitsubishi Electric, addressed the key issues in developing the 18 mps super high-speed elevators for Shanghai Center. He highlighted its 310-kW PM-motor, 21-person capacity traction machines with twin drivecontrol systems; double-section safety gears with ceramic brakes; solutions to reduce the weight of wire ropes by sfleX-rope and compact, flat traveling cables with steel cores; solutions for atmospheric pressure and ride comfort; and vibration reduction by means of active roller guides and the streamlined air fairing of the car exterior. Yoichi Sakuma addressed, in detail, how car-vibration problems of a super high-speed lift are

assessed and solved, ideally by the company. As we continuously pursue more sustainable urban solutions, high-rise buildings come into focus, and, since the trend of going green is given top priority by the international community, energy efficiency has become one of the key criteria for high-speed elevators. On the one hand, power consumption must be

reduced by optimizing the elevator system —especially the drive as a whole—and, on the other hand, the unit’s capability of electricity regeneration is regarded as a basic requirement of a (super) high-speed elevator. Power can be retrieved or

regenerated by the elevator when the traction system works with differing weights between the car and counterweight; no matter which end is heavier, the one pulls the other up when the lift is slowing down during braking. KONE’s regenerative braking system does not need additional devices to take in the returned electricity, since the Modulated Line Bridge (MLB) automatically adjusts the phase, voltage and frequency to match those of the building grid. The massive weight of the wire ropes, setting a limit to the elevator’s rise, presents another challenge. High-speed elevators using conventional steel wire ropes can hardly exceed the height of 500 m due to the weight of the ropes. As KONE’s then Head of Technology Johannes de Jong puts it, the weight of the ropes is so large that more ropes are needed to carry the ropes themselves. Therefore, UltraRopeTM, an innovative traction rope made of carbon fiber, was developed by KONE in an underground testing hoistway in Finland to make rides beyond 500 m feasible, while substantially reducing rope weight and power consumption. Katoh Masaru demonstrated hands-on experience and expertise in vertical-transportation solutions by Otis in many of the tallest buildings in the world. He addressed planning and engineering issues, including: building and rope sway, resonance, the stack effect and impact, lobby congestion, zoning and sky-lobby schemes, as well as making the best use of single cars, double-deck cars and escalators in Continued

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015


remained good enough for future optimized planning. Continued efforts operation without obvious aging and and advances have led to the improved decline in function. The groove wear of safety, reliability and riding comfort of the secondary sheave was measured and high- and super high-speed elevators. Zhu found to be in conformity with the Ruitong demonstrated how VDI 4707 standards are applied to the assessment of estimated wear level in the seventh year, energy efficiency such as the Schindler so the sheave was replaced. The 7000. Analyses of the elevator system atmospheric pressure difference between focused on drive motors, controls, door the ground and the top-destination floor drives, and car and hoistway components. measured roughly 48 hPa, which would Energy-regeneration technology plays an cause ear-popping discomfort to important role. The faster the speed, the passengers if nothing was done to bring it more power could be Since the trend of going green is given top saved. The PORT technology for group priority by the international community, operations and the ECO energy efficiency has become one of the mode are applied in combination with key criteria for high-speed elevators. planning for new or under control. The atmospheric pressure existing projects. in the car is balanced with a regulating Yang Xiaojun, from Toshiba Elevators, system consisting of real-time sensors that presented the working conditions of control two blowers—one blows air in to Taipei 101’s two express elevators, which increase while the other blows air out to have a capacity of 1600 kg and ascend at decrease pressure. The car doors’ sealing 16.7 mps, and descend at 10 mps pads were replaced due to aging. The door (ELEVATOR WORLD, September 2005). guides showed little wear. The The overall 10-year anniversary inspection was aimed at making sure the machines performance of the pneumatic sensors was

examined, and the difference between the values on the fifth and 89th floors proved good without declination. The linear motor magnet and acceleration sensors of Active Mass Dampers, a device mounted on the car to reduce vibration, were found to be in good condition. Car vibration was measured and adjusted for ideal ride comfort. Perfect day-to-day maintenance and sufficient technical support proved essential to the exceptional performance of these super high-speed elevators. Lori Lu, from Hyundai Elevators, spoke about high-speed elevator technology. A number of speakers addressed the latest developments and innovations from the component supplier’s perspective. Yao Qi and Xu Lei, from Wittur, presented on doors and safeties, respectively; Jesus Sanz and Jose Enrique Fernandes, from Savera, presented on guiderails; Mohamed Ezzeddine, from Kinetek, presented on drive-control technology; Xie Baofu, from Shanghai BST, presented on humanelevator interface; Sun Guohe, from Tianjin Golden Sun, presented on wire ropes; Wang Cheng, from STEP, Continued

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www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015


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presented on traveling cables; and Wei Wei, from Jiangsu Xinghua, presented on noiseless compensation chains.

Global Codes and Standards Esfandiar Gharibaan, Chairman of CEN/TC10, addressed the international trends in codes and standards affecting high-speed elevators. International standards reflect the world’s current highest standards and harmonize safety and technical requirements. They are developed by CEN, CENELEC, ISO and IEC. Of the 16,000 CEN and 15,000 ISO standards in use, there are 76 specific standards for elevators and escalators and more than 500 other international standards that may be applicable for elevators and escalators, covering electrical and mechanical design, material selection, reliability and quality testing methods and verification. According to Gharibaan, the Event participants were mostly in their 40s, 30s or 20s. specific challenges for highspeed elevators include the need for the world, including: the safety of detailed traffic planning, energy efficiency, passengers and workers, the correlation of emergency tenant evacuation, and higher the units’ life cycle and maintenance, specifications for noise and ride comfort; changes in safety concepts and lower whereas, the building-design issues tolerance for risks, and the systematic include building sway, piston effect in the evaluation of potential risks, using, for pit and the stack effect. example, the ISO 14798 standard. The international codes and standards’ The cooperation between CEN, SAC, ISO, ASME and JISC proves successful safety requirements are continuously with regard to experience and needs updated based on experience from around

collection worldwide, common understanding of the safety risks, and agreement on solutions to remove the risks and agreement on safety requirements for achieving a higher level of harmonization around the world. Gharibaan is satisfied with the close cooperation of SAC/TC 196 and CEN/TC 10, as both parties regard the other as a respected and well-trusted partner and give full consideration to what the other is thinking when discussing an issue or proposing a solution. Since the Cooperation Agreement was signed in 2005, the parties have held regular technical exchange meetings, which help develop the EN 81-20/-50 standards in an efficient way. Countries using EN 81-1 either adopt it as an identical national standard, or use it as the basis for a national standard but with some differences (or as the basic requirement for the national standard), or accept it besides other international standards. ISO is in the process of adopting EN 81-20/-50 and making their standards identical with EN 81-20/-50, with an anticipated publication date in December 2017. Ian Todkill, from Pacific Asia Lift and Escalator Association (PALEA), has worked on the mission of elevator-safety code harmonization worldwide with great devotion for many years. He introduced the latest development in this issue. The harmonization process is driven by the Continued

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global marketplace and safety expectations, among other things, concerning the economy and industrial development. It helps remove technical barriers to trade and improve export opportunities. It helps remove differing national levels of safety, which can increase costs but not necessarily safety. It also helps remove confusion for designers and the potential for multiple code interpretations. A harmonized worldwide code suite will include prescriptive code for standard products, performance code for innovative products, conformity

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assessment procedures (CAP) and risk-assessment standards. With continued efforts by safety code specialists from around the world under ISO, the global elevator-safety-code system has boiled down to three major codes: CEN, JIS and A17.1. The current situation fairs with an achievement of Performance Code- ISO 22559 Parts 1–4; Risk Assessment- ISO 14798; PESSRAL & PESSRAE- ISO 22201 Parts 1&2; EMC Emission & Immunity- ISO 22199 & 22200; and Ride Quality- ISO 18738. ISO will continue to work on the ISO Continued

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Prescriptive Code and Comprehensive CAPs, and plans are in place to resolve the Prescriptive Code. The next plan is to use EN81-20/-50 as the basis of the ISO Global Code System to merge the three existing codes. The Elevator & Escalator Single Code Package under the banner of ISO, regarded as the ultimate goal of the safety-code system, will probably make its debut in 2017. Ma Peizhong, a well-known specialist experienced and authorized in type tests and code interpretation from the National Elevator Inspection & Testing Center (NETEC), addressed key technologies and requirements of type tests for high-speed lifts. Theoretically speaking, the present national safety standards, including GB7588-2003, have taken into consideration the full range of traveling speeds, but, in practice, they are only applied well to lifts with speeds up to 6 mps, because they have not yet taken full consideration of the specific features of super highspeed elevators. For example, shuttle elevators in towers normally have a greater distance than 11 m between two landing-door sills, and the horizontal distance between two adjacent cars is usually greater than 750 mm, which was later changed to 1,000 mm. Both conditions above do not comply with the requirement for using a safety door. Key technologies concerning high-speed elevators include safety protection against the failure of drive signals or the control system itself. Protective measures in both up and down direction over-speed travels, free falls and unintended car movement (UCM) call for progressive safety gears and governors able to react to different speed limits. By programmable electronic systems in safety related applications for lifts (PESSRAL), active protection shall come in place of passive protection, and electronic governors and electronic-triggering safety gears will be used, too. Aerodynamic issues of the car and hoistway include the piston effect, car weight and car deformation, car ventilation, atmospheric pressure control and car-noise damping. Chen Fengwang, a code expert from SAC/TC196, addressed the latest trends in national elevator-safety-standard development and the risk-assessment procedures for innovative products in China. Three national standards regarding elevator and escalator safety were issued in July 2015. GB/T 31821-2015 Technical Conditions for Major Elevator Components to Go Scrapped (recommended) lists 13 components essential to elevator safety to be scrapped when meeting the conditions due to aging or wear and tear if they cannot be repaired or are not worth repairing at all. GB/Z 31822-2015 Safety Requirement Directive of Escalators and Moving Walks for Public Transportation (directory) provides the contents to be agreed upon between the building owner and manufacturer, guidelines on safety design, selection and planning, safety requirements and protective measures and requirements on operation. The two standards above will take effect on February 1, 2016. Revision No.1 to GB7588-2003 (mandatory) lists essential changes based on EN81-20/-50, covering requirements on the strength of landing doors, car-door opening and UCM. It goes into effect on July 1, 2016. According to Fengwang, working procedures based on Risk Assessment ISO14798 have come into practice in China to enable innovative designs and products to enter the market.   đ&#x;Œ?


Market Trends

Destination: U.A.E. Technology and style come together in one of the world’s most sophisticated verticaltransportation markets.

by Kaija Wilkinson In tennis, there is a theory that rallying with a player far better than oneself will improve one’s game. Sometimes, this is true, as it drives the less skilled player to achieve feats he or she never thought possible. The tennis analogy may be applied to the elevator industry in the U.A.E., where companies are “playing up” to fulfill developers’ ever-more-ambitious dreams. Competition is fierce here. When the world’s tallest building, the 828-m-tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, was conceived in 2008, teams from the world’s biggest OEMs, such as KONE and Otis, got busy developing technologies for it, in the process bringing about a series of firsts: the first elevator to exceed 1 km in travel height, thanks to KONE’s new hoisting material UltraRopeTM (ELEVATOR WORLD, August 2013); and Otis’ fastest-ever double-deck elevator system with heat-resistant brakes made of advanced alloys – a feature that was necessary due to such weight descending at rapid speeds.

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Oppoiste page, clockwise from left: Escalators in Dubai International Airport, image courtesy of Dubai Airports; a moving walk in Dubai International Airport, image courtesy of Dubai Airports; elevator lobby in the Burj Khalifa, image courtesy of Otis This page, top (l-r): ETA Melco cab in the Burj Al Arab hotel; an elevator as a work of art; ETA Melco unit in the Gold Center in Dubai This page, bottom: Burj Mohammed bin Rashid, CTBUH’s Best Tall Building for South Africa and the Middle East for 2015

Iqbal

Mohamed J. Iqbal, EW correspondent and managing director of Toshiba Elevator Middle East LLC, states there are myriad reasons to be optimistic about the U.A.E. He says Toshiba Elevator’s business in the country is driven by high-rise hotel, residential and mixed-use projects; midrise hotel and residential buildings; and low-rise multifamily developments. He observes:

“In Dubai, we have seen major development of mid- to high-rise buildings in the Business Bay central business district, Dubai Marina and Palm Jumeirah (primarily known as New Dubai), whereas low-rise, communityliving projects are taking shape in [mixed-use developments such as DUBAILAND®]. There are also clusters of mid- and low-rise projects off the new Al Maktoum International Airport and ‘logistics city’ taking shape there. Also, there is a major forecast for [the planned, mixed-use] development, Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum City.

“Development related to Expo 2020 in Dubai is also underway. In addition, the steady growth of Abu Dhabi projects in Saraya, the Abu Dhabi International Airport and Etihad Railway add to the list of milestone projects in the Middle East that [keeps] the real-estate market outlook positive. Recent announcements from Abu Dhabi city leaders about expansion of Al Reem Island, a parallel city alongside Abu Dhabi, are positive news for the real-estate industry.” There is plenty of work to go around. Lerch Bates Inc., which handled verticaltransportation consulting on the Burj Continued

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

53


DAMAC Heights is a luxury residential project with 12 5-mps elevators serving 91 stops. Overlooking manmade archipelago Palm Jumeirah, the tower boasts a selection of penthouses, duplexes, and three-, two- and one-bedroom apartments. Residents wake up to views of Palm Jumeirah. DAMAC Heights will become one of the tallest buildings in Dubai and the fourth-tallest residential building in the world, surpassed only by Pentominium (in Dubai), World One (in Mumbai) and Marina 101 (in Dubai). Toshiba Elevator was awarded the elevator package for this project with the daunting challenge of completing the installation on a fast track, as it was necessary to hand over the elevators shortly after handover of the machine room. A project-management team handled all the engineering, design, manufacturing and installation activities and worked closely with the client, contractor and consultant. This resulted in the project being ahead of schedule. The elevator system is divided into three zones – low, mid and high. The low zone is served by six 3-mps elevators serving 56 floors. The mid zone is served by three 4-mps elevators that travel from the ground floor to 17 stops higher than the low zone. The high zone is served by two passenger and one service elevator operating in a three-car group, traveling from the ground floor to 25 stops higher than the mid zone at a speed of 5 mps. This project is the last high rise in the Dubai Marina district and stands adjacent to the Cayan Tower (EW, January 2014 and November 2011). – Mohamed J. Iqbal

Roberts

DAMAC Heights

Khalifa, is working on more than 30 projects in the U.A.E. alone, observes Richard Roberts, general manager for the Middle East, Africa and Turkey. “Some of these will be additional landmarks for the ever-evolving Emirates,” Roberts states. Since opening its Dubai office in 2005, Lerch Bates has handled projects in a vast array of sectors including, but not limited to, healthcare, education and sports. Notable jobs include the 292-m-tall Sky Tower on Shams Island in Abu Dhabi, and the Atlantis Hotel and Emirates Palace hotel in Dubai and Abu Dhabi, respectively.

Cinderella Story After the discovery of oil in what was then the Trucial States in the 1950s, the region underwent a remarkable transformation. Between Oman and Saudi Arabia and bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, the U.A.E. was formed by the alliance of the Trucial States in 1971 after they gained independence from Great Britain.[1] Prior to the discovery of oil, it was impoverished, underdeveloped and reliant on the traditional industries of fishing and pearl diving.[1] Side-by-side photos of Dubai from as recently as 1991 compared with today show

Billions of U.S. dollars are being invested in manmade island “cities” off the coast, and mixed-use developments that include elaborate water parks are in the works as the U.A.E. continues to diversify beyond petroleum and attract more tourists and expatriates. 54

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The U.A.E. has captivated the world’s attention as a place of promise and prosperity.

Top to bottom: The iconic Burj al Arab hotel in Dubai, photo by Titoni Thomas; U.A.E. Vice President, Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, center, and colleagues look over a model of Mohammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum City, image from meydan SOBHA.

starkly different cities – one dusty with a smattering of low-rise buildings, the other with a glittery Las Vegas-style skyline. Billions of U.S. dollars are being invested in manmade island “cities” off the coast and mixed-use developments that include elaborate water parks are in the works as the emirates continue to diversify beyond petroleum and attract more tourists and expatriates. The ritziest shops in the world can be found in here, along with one-of-akind destinations such as Ferrari World. The “world’s richest horse race,” the Dubai Cup, is held each year in March.[2] An economy that has been, for the most part, thriving for decades hit some turbulence in 2008-2009 as the result of falling oil and real-estate prices combined with the international banking crisis.[1] But all indications are that the U.A.E. will be stronger than ever thanks to continuing efforts to expand its economy. As other

Continued

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

55


Top to bttom: High-end finishes and inlays are popular in elevator cabs, such as these in the Burj al Arab, photo by Donaldytong; Aldar headquarters in Abu Dhabi is among the U.A.E.’s many striking buildings, photo by FritzDaKat; Palm Jumeriah

U.A.E. Facts ♦♦ Area: 83,600 km² ♦♦ Gross domestic product: US$269.82 billion (2013) ♦♦ 150-m-plus-tall buildings: 189 completed; 25 under construction ♦♦ 300-m-plus-tall buildings: 21 completed; 10 under construction ♦♦ Tallest city: Dubai ♦♦ Global ranking: Fourth in the world in terms of 150-m-plus-tall completed buildings ♦♦ Regional ranking: Number one in the Middle East in terms of 150-m-plus-tall completed buildings ♦♦ First 150-m-plus-tall building: Baynunah Hilton Tower Hotel (165 m, 1994) ♦♦ Average building age: Six years ♦♦ Most common function: Residential (50%) ♦♦ Most common material: Concrete (95%) Source: CTBUH

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C U R R E N T B U I L D I NG S 1

Burj Khalifa

2010

828 m

Dubai

2

Marina 106

2019

445 m

Dubai

3

Marina 101

2015

427 m

Dubai

4

Princess Tower

2012

413 m

Dubai

5

23 Marina

2012

392 m

Dubai

6

Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid

2014

381 m

Abu Dhabi

7

Elite Residence

2012

380 m

Dubai

8

Arabtec Tower

2018

369 m

Dubai

9

The Address The BLVD

2016

368 m

Dubai

10

Almas Tower

2008

360 m

Dubai

Completed

Arch. Topped Out

Under Construction

Struct. Topped Out

F U T U R E TA L L E S T 1

Burj Khalifa

2010

828 m

Dubai

2

Dubai One

2020

711 m

Dubai

3

Burj 2020

550 m

Dubai

4

Entisar Tower

520 m

Dubai

5

The Jumeirah Business Bay

485 m

Dubai

6

Marina 106

2019

445 m

Dubai

7

Marina 101

2015

427 m

Dubai

8

Princess Tower

2012

413 m

Dubai

9

23 Marina

2012

392 m

Dubai

10

Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid

2014

381 m

Abu Dhabi

Completed

Arch. Topped Out

Under Construction

Proposed

Interiors favored by consultants and contractors include, but are not limited to, etched patterns reflecting the intent or theme of the building and special materials such as bonded metals and paints.

– Mohamed J. Iqbal

nations in the region experience unrest, the U.A.E.’s relative stability holds even greater appeal as a safe, interesting tourist haven. Euromonitor International noted in its 2014 report, “Travel and Tourism in the United Arab Emirates”: “Since the economic recovery of 2011, the government has reinvigorated its efforts to develop the tourism market as an alternative source of income for the country by intensifying its level of investment in developing infrastructure, as well as marketing and branding efforts at home and abroad to promote tourism. In particular, following the country’s winning the bid to host EXPO 2020, a number of important infrastructure projects are being [undertaken], including tourist attractions such as the Dubai Water Canal (a proposed mixed-use development that includes an astonishing 450 restaurants) or the plan to expand the Dubai International Airport to boost passenger capacity to 90 million by 2018.” Iqbal says that to help ensure the real-estate sector continues to grow, the government has enacted measures to prevent a market bubble, keep out disreputable and inexperienced developers and safeguard investors’ money. “This instills confidence and boosts the market,” he says, noting there has been a steady announcement of projects since 2013. Major developers, he notes, include Aabar, Aldar, Damac, Dubai Properties, Omniyat, Danube, Emaar and Nakheel. The pace is expected to continue leading up to EXPO 2020, he says. The U.A.E. has captivated the world’s attention as a place of promise and prosperity. Immigrants make up more than 80% of the population with a range of ethnic groups: 19% Emirati; 23% other Arab or Iranian, 50% South Asian and 8% other expatriates such as Westerners.[1] Since the economic recovery in 2011, the government has expanded its visa program to make it easier for doctors from elsewhere to work in the U.A.E. and for people seeking medical treatment to receive treatment there.[3] Continued

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Saraya Towers by Aabar These are two striking, luxury residential towers with water views of the Abu Dhabi Corniche and the Saraya Lagoon. Situated at the tip of the impressive Saraya development, they complement each other. These adjacent 41- and 46-story towers have apartments on each floor. Podium decks provide extravagant landscaped areas with swimming pools. The buildings are enhanced by sky gardens, courtyards, terraces and landscaped rooftops. The façade is sculpted to catch and reflect different angles of the sun throughout the day. Each tower is served by three passenger and one service elevator with speeds of 4 and 3 mps, respectively. Additionally, there is one penthouse elevator per tower. The units are designed with bronze, copper and stainless-steel interiors in a range of finishes. – Mohamed J. Iqbal

A Desire for the Best For such a small country, the U.A.E. has a disproportionately large number of iconic buildings. Beyond the Burj Khalifa, Iqbal points to the “exotic, pineapple and honeycomb design” of the Al Bahr Towers in Abu Dhabi, an Aedis-designed project that was recognized in 2012 by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) as a Best Tall Building finalist for the Middle East and Africa, as well as recipient of its Innovation Award. Emporis praised the towers for their “dynamic, translucent facade that runs off power generated by photovoltaic panels which react to sunlight.” Accolades keep coming for U.A.E. buildings: in 2015, CTBUH deemed Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid Tower in Abu Dhabi, for which Otis did the elevators, the best tall building in the Middle East and Africa. CTBUH lists the qualities that earned the 381-m-tall, Foster+Partnersdesigned tower the honor:

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“The Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid Tower is located in the heart of Abu Dhabi at the site of the old Central Market, a traditional crossroads and a meeting point in the city. A souk extends the marketplace into the building, facilitating a gentle transition between public and private spaces. A smooth, sleek and reflective façade is designed to require minimal amounts of maintenance in a dusty environment. Meanwhile, layers of internal shading control glare and unwanted heat gain. The exterior envelope of the tower undulates in waves as it wraps around the core. This glass cladding creates a mirage effect that alludes to its geographical context.”

Form and Function Elevator systems in the U.A.E. must not only look good, they also must perform well, Iqbal notes. Environmental friendliness is important to customers, but

appearance is no less so. “Lobby finishes and cabin interiors are major drivers in the U.A.E.,” he observes. “Interiors favored by consultants and contractors include, but are not limited to, etched patterns reflecting the intent or theme of the building and special materials such as bonded metals and paints.” As for performance, systems have features that alleviate the effects of wind sway or stop a unit at the nearest floor if seismic activity is detected. Destination dispatch is very popular. Eduardo Montero, general manager of ThyssenKrupp Elevator U.A.E., observes the market has many players ready and willing to deliver. The market is extremely competitive, he says, observing: “It is a battleground for both Western and Asian manufacturers/suppliers, where projects commonly require high-end specifications, as well as service, all in a fast-changing business environment. Also a challenge is the relatively high employee turnover among all companies doing business in the country, primarily due to the fact that the workforce is composed mostly of expatriates. Nevertheless, the rewards are also plentiful, such as playing an active role in the history and development of this country, taking part in some of the world’s most prestigious projects and working in a truly incomparable multicultural and diverse environment.” The market is a busy one, and players must stay on their toes to earn a good living here, Iqbal says. As a link between Asia and the West, the U.A.E. draws top competitors from the U.S., Europe and the Far East, all bringing their latest technology to the table, he observes.

Acknowledgement EW Correspondent Mohamed J. Iqbal

References [1] BBC News, “United Arab Emirates Profile – Overview,” February 24, 2015. [2] www.dubaiworldcup.com [3] Euromonitor International, “Travel and Tourism in the United Arab Emirates, Executive Summary,” October 2014.


Events

New Venue, Renewed Energy for IAEC-NY Fundraiser The 22nd annual event raises US$15,000 for EESF and treats guests to a new experience.

by Melissa Aponte photos by Casey Hyde The New York Region of the International Association of Elevator Consultants (IAEC-NY) hosted its 22nd annual fundraising event on August 20 at the exclusive 40/40 Club in Manhattan to great success. In lieu of the traditional boat cruise, it was exciting to hold this year’s event in a trendy and chic new venue. IAEC-NY fundraising committee members Joe Carracappa, Bill Mogg and your author hosted the event that welcomed many guests from all facets of the elevator industry. As in years past, the fundraiser donated US$15,000 to the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation (EESF) to help implement safety programs throughout the U.S. EESF Executive Director Nikole Gore–Layton was on hand to accept the donation on behalf of the Foundation. Guests purchased raffle tickets early in the evening in anticipation of winning one of the many coveted prizes on hand, including an iPhone watch, Beats™ headphones, Bluetooth music speakers and a GoPro® action camera. IAEC Executive Director Shelia Swett helped preside over the awards ceremony. This year’s event premiered a silent auction hosted by Grandstand Sports & Memorabilia. The crowd’s enthusiasm over some unique items prompted an all-out bidding war. Sought-after items included pictures of Jack Nicklaus, Derek Jeter and Mickey Mantle, a Furla handbag and ladies Givenchy sunglasses. Guests were treated to a variety of hors d’oeuvres throughout the night, and bartenders Continued

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kept glasses full, while guests socialized and networked with new and old industry friends. The packed house rocked to the DJ’s eclectic selections. And, the bar area’s flat-screen TVs showcased live streaming pictures of the event’s guests throughout the evening for all to admire. All in all, the IAEC-NY 2015 fundraiser was heralded a huge success, thanks in part to the energy of our new venue. We can’t wait to see what next year brings. So, stay tuned. Melissa Aponte is president of Lift Tech Ltd. and an International Association of Elevator Consultants member.

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History

Early Elevator Guide Lubricators A look back to the turn of the 20th century reveals the rocky start of these important devices.

by Dr. Lee Gray, EW Correspondent One of the first American elevator books was H. Robert Cullmer’s Elevator Shaft Construction (1912). This early work examined almost every aspect of elevator shaft design, including recommendations for proper guide-rail care and maintenance. Cullmer reported that “very few” people understood “the large amount of power that is lost by friction between the elevator guide shoes and guides when not properly lubricated.”[1] He described the problem as follows: “It has been and now is the general custom to lubricate the elevator guides by hand application of grease. It will be realized that by this method, a large amount of time and labor is lost, both by the man applying the grease and the operator running the car while this work is being done.”[1] This system was, however, seen as inefficient and, quite often, ineffective: “When it is considered that some of the elevators in modern buildings travel as much as 5 mi. per day, it will be observed that this hand application of grease is not sufficient to insure economical operation.”[1] Cullmer recommended that the “economical and scientific operation” of elevators required “automatic guide lubricators.”[1] The first automatic elevator guide lubricators were developed in the late 19th century. These systems are the subject of this Figure 1: Michael P. Coleman, “Lubricator,” U.S. Patent No. month’s article. 380,023 (March 27, 1888)

Figure 2: Coleman, “Lubricator”

The first U.S. patent for a guide lubricator appeared in 1888; however, the patent text clearly implies that automatic lubricators existed prior to this date. Boston mechanic Michael P. Coleman described his invention as related “to that class of lubricators which are employed in lubricating the ways of elevator-carriages. . . [and] now in ordinary use.”[2] His design consisted of two primary components: cups, “partially filled with oil,” that were attached to the guide rails “below the lowest point to which the carriage descends” and weighted, hinged levers, which were equipped with wheels “covered with felt or any other absorbent material” and attached to the bottom of the car. [2] He described the lubricator’s operation as follows: “When the carriage descends, the wheel will enter the cup, and its felt covering become saturated with oil, and as the carriage traverses the well, said wheel will be kept constantly in contact with the way by the weight, thus lubricating it in a manner which will be readily apparent without a more explicit description. Continued

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Figure 3: L-r: Coleman, “Lubricator for Elevators,” U.S. Patent Nos. 398,685 (February 26, 1889) and 437,351 (September 30, 1890)

In case the carriage accidentally descends at any time below the lower end of its route and the wheels [strike] the bottom of the cups, the joint between said lever and the arm will yield or be bent outwardly. . . thereby preventing injury to the cup and other parts of the lubricating apparatus.”[2] The location of the oil-filled cups at the bottom of the shaft meant that the upper portions of the guide rails did not receive the benefit of Coleman’s automatic lubricator. In fact, his design was the only one that placed the lubricating device on the bottom of the car (Figures 1 and 2). James M. Arnold, a Chicago machinist, received the next two patents for an automatic guide lubricator: “Lubricator for Elevators,” U.S. Patent No. 398,685 (February 26, 1889) and “Lubricator for Elevators,” U.S. Patent No. 437,351 (September 30, 1890). His design was also intended to “automatically lubricate the guides of an elevator at all times and avoid the necessity of stopping the elevator. . . for the operator to lubricate it or for someone to ride on the cross-beam to perform the same purpose.”[3] (The later statement serves as a reminder of the dangers associated with elevator maintenance in the 19th century.) Arnold’s design employed a cup that was “bifurcated to overlap or straddle the elevator-guide.”[3] The cup contained an asbestos pad, which was impregnated with oil that was fed to the pad from a small reservoir located on top of the cup. The pad was fitted into a bracket such that, as the pad became “worn by contact with the guide,” it could be easily adjusted.[3] The pad was also held steady against the guide by a weighted lever. The lever was intended to compensate for the

“oscillating movement of the carriage which occurs in the operation of the elevator.”[3] Arnold’s patent illustrations clearly indicate the subtle improvement of his design between 1889 and 1890, as well as his awareness of actual elevator car construction as seen in the 1890 patent drawings (Figure 3). His 1890 patent was the basis for the Arnold Elevator Guide Lubricator manufactured by M.B. Skinner & Co. of Chicago (Figure 4). An illustrated article that appeared in the June 4, 1890 issue of The American Engineer described the device as ideal for:

Figure 5: Harrison M. Angle and Winter D. Hess, “Lubricator for Elevator Guides,” U.S. Patent No. 466,971 (January 12, 1892)

Figure 4: The Arnold Elevator Guide Lubricator (1890)

“. . . lubricating elevator guides, keeping them clean and in good condition. It can be attached to elevators already built and in use, without in any way interfering with their construction. It consists of a bifurcated cup, filled with asbestos fiber, kept thoroughly saturated with oil by means of an adjustable sight feed oil cup. This filling protrudes somewhat from the open portions of the cup, forming an oiled pad, which is pressed lightly against the guides by means of the weighted lever, all lateral play of carriages thus being compensated for by its continued action when the elevator is in motion. The pad not only

lubricates the guides, but removes all dust and dirt, thus producing an oil finish or polished guide so necessary to obviate friction. Its use therefore saves power, does away with grease. . . and avoids the necessity of an engineer or helper making frequent trips on top of the carriages for the purpose of slushing the guides.”[4] Although the extent to which Arnold’s lubricator was used is unknown, the article reported that it had been “highly commended by the Crane Elevator Co., Hale Elevator Co., Eaton & Prince and the J.W. Reedy Elevator Manufacturing Co.”[4] The next lubricator patent was by a pair of inventors who were also from the Chicago area. In December 1890, Harrison M. Angle & Winter D. Hess of Evanston, Illinois, filed an application for a patent titled “Lubricator for Elevator Guides,” U.S. Patent No. 466,971 ( January 12, 1892). As was the case with the previous inventions, the design problem was described in terms of the “trouble. . . experienced in the operation of elevators and lifts owing to the difficulty of keeping the guideposts properly lubricated.”[5] However, Angle and Hess provided an additional explanation of the problems caused by poor lubrication: Continued

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Figure 7: Ferguson, “Automatic Oiler for Elevator Guides”

Figure 6: William J. Ferguson, “Automatic Oiler for Elevator Guides,” U.S. Patent No. 517,272 (March 27, 1894)

“As the weight in the car is liable to be constantly shifted and is rarely balanced, any deficiency in the lubrication of the guide-posts is not only liable to interfere with the running of the car by causing it to jump, as a result of excessive friction, but to wear the guide-posts and render the surface thereof uneven.”[5] Thus, in this design, the lubricators were also called upon to act as guides capable of counteracting the actions of an unbalanced car as it moved through the shaft. Angle and Hess sought to solve this problem by employing three rollers, mounted in an iron frame, which embraced the guide rail. The rollers were fitted with springs that held them against the guide rail and allowed them to flex as the car traveled through the shaft (Figure 5). An oil supply cup, located atop the guide, dripped a steady stream of oil onto the rollers, thus lubricating the guide. William J. Ferguson of Baltimore patented two designs for automatic lubricators: “Automatic Oiler for Elevator Guides,” U.S. Patent No. 517,272 (March 27, 1894) and “Lubricator,” U.S. Patent No. 531,993 ( January 1, 1895). His first patent was similar to earlier schemes in that it provided continuous lubrication and was designed to accommodate variations in the guide surfaces. He employed an oil reservoir balanced on top

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of supply tubes connected to a hollow cylinder. The curving walls of the cylinder featured a series of small perforations, which allowed the oil to slowly escape (Figures 6 and 7). Ferguson’s second patent also employed a roller topped by an oil reservoir; however, this design was more compact than the first and was not predicated on providing continuous lubrication: “One of the objects of the invention is to provide a device of simple construction whereby the lubricating roller may be readily thrown into and out of contact with the vertical guides whenever it is desired to oil or grease them. Another object is to provide an improved automatic cut-off co-acting with the roller to cut off or let on the supply of oil or grease.”[6] The “simple construction” that allowed the lubricator to be moved in and out of contact with the guide rail consisted of a series of springs and levers activated by a “hand-ring” attached to a long spring (Figure 8). The elevator operator was responsible for pulling on the ring, which caused the roller “to be projected out from its normal position into contact with the vertical guide.”[6] The operator would then “secure” the hand-ring “in any suitable way” or simply continue to hold it down until the guide had “been thoroughly lubricated.”[6] Ferguson did not, however, address how the operator accessed the hand-ring or the need to lubricate both guide rails and, thus, the prospective of needing to hold both rings down simultaneously. Although it was not uncommon for operators to participate in

Figure 8: Ferguson, “Lubricator,” U.S. Patent No. 531,993 (January 1, 1895)

the basic maintenance of their respective elevators, the prospect of an operator reaching through an opening in the roof of the car to activate the lubricators while running the car offers an intriguing image. The remaining 19th-century lubricator patents were filed by George A. Hofmeyer, a mechanical engineer working in New York City: “Lubricator,” U.S. Patent Nos. 515,586 (February 27, 1894) and 577,658 (February 23, 1897). These designs were variations on the roller lubricators patented by Angle and Hess in 1892. Hofmeyer’s patent text also matches that of the previous designs in that it attempts to place elevator guide lubrication in the realm of what Cullmer later referred to as the “economical and scientific operation” of elevators. These automatic devices were designed to remove the human element from this aspect of elevator maintenance, replacing it with the scientific precision of modern technology. The fact that several of these devices had design and operational flaws does not diminish the goal of creating the proverbial well-oiled machine.

References [1] H. Robert Cullmer, “Elevator Shaft Construction” (William T. Comstock Co.: 1912). [2] Michael P. Coleman, “Lubricator,” U.S. Patent No. 380,023 (March 27, 1888). [3] James M. Arnold, “Lubricator for Elevators,” U.S. Patent No. 398,685 (February 26, 1889). [4] “Elevator Guide Lubricator,” The American Engineer, Volume 19 ( June 4, 1890). [5] Harrison M. Angle & Winter D. Hess, “Lubricator for Elevator Guides” U.S. Patent No. 466,971 ( January 12, 1892). [6] William J. Ferguson, “Lubricator,” U.S. Patent No. 531,993 ( January 1, 1895).


Project Spotlight

iWALKS

IN HEATHROW AIRPORT ThyssenKrupp installs the first iwalks in the U.K. by Begoña Flores Canseco

Heathrow Airport had to avoid, if possible, the need for pits at a level that was already well below ground level and, therefore, susceptible to water ingress.

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Since 1955, Heathrow Airport has been connecting people from around the globe, making it one of the world’s busiest international airports. Situated west of London, it is the U.K.’s largest airport with 245,000 passengers arriving and departing on more than 1,200 flights every day. The airport, with its five terminals, is home to some 82 airlines that provide flights to 180 cities in 885 countries. Terminal 5, an addition opened in 2008, has been rated one of the best in Europe.


Because the iwalk section lengths were reduced from the standard size to fit inside the elevators, there were 1,660 individual sections delivered to the site.

Solutions

iwalks opened to the public

In recent years, GBP11 billion (US$17 billion) has been invested in improving Heathrow. This is one of the largest private-sector investments in U.K. infrastructure – improving customer service, as well as providing jobs and supporting the country’s economic growth. Looking forward to 2019, more upgrades and expansions will continue to improve the airport. Tunnels, known as the Track Transit Walkways (TTWs), lie beneath the underground Track Transit System (TTS). Passengers can use them to reach terminal sections 5B and 5C by foot. Installing passenger conveyors into these two walkway tunnels was a challenge for Heathrow Airport Limited (HAL), the airport operator. It had to avoid, if possible, the need for pits at a level that was already well below ground level and, therefore, susceptible to water ingress. After scouring the market for suitable products, HAL contacted ThyssenKrupp, which was able to offer its pit-less iwalk product. After many months of discussions, ThyssenKrupp was awarded the contract to provide 13 iwalks to the TTW, which links Terminal 5’s main building, T5A, to its two satellite buildings, T5B and T5C. These are the first iwalks to be installed in the U.K.

Challenges This project presented the team with a number of challenges.

♦♦ The site was located inside the airside boundary. Not only was this logistically challenging for the delivery of the iwalk sections and associated parts, but the entire project team had to be equipped with passes for airside work. ♦♦ The actual site was split between two separate tunnels, each approximately 1/2 mi. long, for arrivals and departures with no access between them, except at the ends. ♦♦ The TTS walkways remained open to the public while both the delivery of the iwalk sections and assembly and testing were undertaken. This required all works to be undertaken behind a boarded area. Coordination between ThyssenKrupp and the main contractor was critical to allow boardings to be available when iwalk works were carried out. ♦♦ The iwalks were delivered via elevators from the airport’s apron level down to the TTS walkway level. This required the iwalk sections to be manufactured in smaller lengths – 3,350 mm at the most – than the standard 5,715 mm. Therefore, special redesign and manufacturing were required. ♦♦ Due to an extremely tight schedule to complete the project in time for the official opening of the TTS walkways, other refurbishment works were required in the walkway tunnels while the iwalks were being installed.

As part of the tender negotiations, representatives from the Spanish escalator and moving-walk factory, ThyssenKrupp Norte, visited the site to determine the requirements. Detailed surveys and measurements were taken to ensure the iwalks were designed and manufactured to the correct lengths to suit the layout of the tunnels. The surveying of the site also identified a potential route to get the iwalk sections down to the walkway via a series of elevators that traveled between the apron level and TTS walkway. Passengers also used these elevators to transport their luggage using buggies; so, the ThyssenKrupp design team concluded the solution would be to redesign the modular iwalk sections to a length that fit inside the elevators. Adopting this method eliminated other routes that would have caused much more disruption to the airport’s operations. Back at the factory, the iwalks were released for manufacturing on June 1, 2013. After six weeks of working on the modules’ redesign to a smaller length at ThyssenKrupp Norte, which involved relocating some of the main-drive-system parts and the complete redrawing of the balustrade, among others, the necessary drawings and bill of materials were fully completed. Then, the procurement process through the materials-requirementplanning control system was carried out. Six weeks later, the first materials started arriving at ThyssenKrupp Norte facilities to be inspected by the Quality department, and, after that, they were incorporated into the manufacturing Continued

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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This page, clockwise from top left: iwalk end section preassembled and ready for pile up and package at ThyssenKrupp Norte; iwalk sections piled up and ready for wrapping; maneuvering the iwalk sections into the elevator; iwalk sections loaded onto platform lift trucks Opposite page, top to bottom: maneuvering the iwalk sections through the terminal; iwalk assembly

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process for the final assembly of the sections under the constant oversight of the Quality and Engineering department and the project manager at ThyssenKrupp Norte, Juan Antonio Fernández. On October 25, 2013, the first iwalk for Terminal 5 was loaded in a truck and left ThyssenKrupp Norte for Heathrow.

The Test The site works started in earnest in mid November 2013. Then came the time to see if the months of planning would work and if the iwalk sections would fit inside the elevators as planned. They did, so the ThyssenKrupp Airport Services team – which operates within the airport installing and maintaining air bridges – delivered and installed the iwalks. They were delivered to the site via a client-owned and

-operated logistics facility specifically developed to control deliveries to the airport. They were offloaded at the apron level by the use of a Hiab crane fitted to the delivery vehicle. The sections were loaded directly onto platform lift trucks that had been specially designed and manufactured for this project. The platform lift trucks, which allowed the sections to be tilted 45˚, aided the maneuvering of the iwalk sections into the elevator, through the terminal and along the respective tunnels to their final locations, where they were installed in place using lifting frames. In order to give HAL personnel access to doors and passageways linking the two tunnels, the iwalks had to be set approximately 1 m away from the walls. Once all the sections were in place and

joined together, the site team lined and leveled the complete iwalk. The next stage was to assemble the balustrades, fit the inner and outer decking’s cladding, fit the specially manufactured passengeremergency-stop posts and carry out the final testing and commissioning of each iwalk. Because the iwalk section lengths were reduced from the standard size to fit inside the elevators, there were 1,660 individual sections delivered to the site. During assembly, the guidance systems on each section had to be filed by hand to achieve a perfect and smooth transition between sections. To say the least, this was an extremely time-consuming activity. When the site team recessed for Christmas in 2013, only three of the 13 iwalks had been assembled. Although three more had been delivered and installed, and another three were on their way, it was recognized that, with only eight weeks left, a revision to the plan was required to meet the end date. The project manager of ThyssenKrupp Elevator U.K., Mel Lewis, called a meeting with the key members of the team, who eventually came up with a plan that included some changes to the assembly methods and additional shifts on weekends. The plan also required isolation of the moving walks’ fire alarms so as to allow some hand grinding, rather than filing by hand. While it was a tough program to maintain, the site team met the challenge. Assembly and testing of the final iwalk was completed in time for the February 2014 completion date. In order to comply with strict specification requirements, technical and environmental inspections were undertaken by both the main contractor and HAL. The iwalks passed each of these inspections, and, on the day they were officially opened to the public, Terminal 5 head of Engineering and Facilities Alan Russell said, “ThyssenKrupp has successfully delivered a product that perfectly suits the requirements of the TTS walkways. We are pleased to have the iwalks as part of our airport terminal.” Begoña Flores Canseco is Communications manager at ThyssenKrupp Elevator Southern Europe, Africa and Middle East.

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Continuing Education

Elevator Door Force by John W. Koshak Maladjustment of elevator door controllers can cause injury to persons if impacted by a closing door with a high speed. Persons can also be entrapped or crushed by a door system with too much door closing force. Education and vigilance when performing elevator door adjustment and maintenance is critical for safety. Door-related incidents are estimated to exceed 40% of all elevator-related injuries. Other types of injuries include 40% related to trip and falls, where the elevator is not level. This means 80% of all injuries occur at the entrance. With the high incidence of door-related injuries occurring, it is clear that more education to ensure doors are code compliant is warranted, along with, perhaps, a

Learning Objectives This Continuing Education article will provide information needed to educate elevator personnel who work on elevator doors every day to understand code requirements, measurement, testing and adjustments, and the imperative to limit the maximum forces to ensure the highest level of safety. In it, the reader will learn: ♦♦ Maintenance on doors and their closing forces is required by code. ♦♦ Maintenance must include replacement of damaged components and proper adjustment, and be performed at adequate frequency. ♦♦ Door operators are designed with a means by which to adjust both closing force and closing speed. ♦♦ Freedom of movement of the doors is critical to ensure proper and consistent speed. ♦♦ Heavy hoistway doors (typically, cladded doors in lobbies) need a second speed control, which is provided by all modern door operators. Where a second speed control is not provided for a heavy lobby door, the speed of the heavy door must be adjusted to meet its kinetic energy requirements; consequently, all the other doors will operate at that slower speed.

reexamination of code values of pressure and force.

Design Requirements

ASME A17.1/CSA B44 code requirements call for elevator-door closing forces and kinetic energy to be limited to prevent high-energy impacts to a person when struck by a closing door. There are also requirements to limit crushing forces in the closing movement between the door panels and door strike with a person in the entrance. This generally, but not always, is the center third of travel, given the width of a person. Limiting these forces and energy levels requires an understanding of code requirements and dooroperator adjustments. There are sometimes competing interests to increase the door closing speed to improve elevator performance and lower the frequency of maintenance, but this is at the expense of increasing door-impact incidents. Before they make adjustments and repairs, mechanics must know the importance and impact the work can potentially have on users of the elevator. Elevator door operators have a means by which to adjust the door force to below 135 N (30 lbf ). (A Newton [N] is the force needed to accelerate 1 kg at the rate of 1 mps2; a pound force [lbf ] is the force needed to accelerate 1 avoirdupois pound [lbm] at the rate of standard gravity [g].) Door operators also have a means by which to adjust door speeds to ensure the kinetic energies are kept at or below 23 J (17 ft.-lbf ) at any point in the code zone (instantaneous) and 10 J (7.37 ft.-lbf ) where a reopening device is used. Where a door-reopening device is not used, these kinetic energies must be kept below 8 J (6 ft.-lbf ) at any point in the code zone (instantaneous) and 3.5 J (2.5 ft.-lbf ). (A Joule [ J] is energy equal to the work done when applying 1 N through a displacement of 1 m. A foot-pound of force [ft.-lbf ] is equal to the work done when

Value: 2 contact hours (0.2 CEUs) Approved for Continuing Education by NAEC for CET®. EW Continuing Education is currently approved in the following states: AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MO, MS, MT, OK, PA, VT, VA, WV and WI. Please check for specific course verification of approval at www.elevatorbooks.com.

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applying a force of one pound-force [lbf ] through a displacement of 1 ft.) This means there are three measurements and adjustments that must be made on door operators. This is the most overlooked concept contributing to hazardous door movement. The door force of 135 N (30 lbf ) is easiest to ensure, because there are simple tools available to measure the force (figures 1 and 2). The kinetic energies are often considered somewhat of a mystery (due to being difficult to measure) and are, therefore, the most often overlooked. This article will demystify the enigma of adjusting kinetic energies.

Changes in Door Closing Speed and Force

When a new elevator is adjusted and has to pass an acceptance inspection with the AHJ, the tests include the door force test and kinetic-energy verification based on door closing time. If the doors are binding when first inspected, it is likely that the door speed and force will increase as the doors wear in. This must be measured and corrected as soon as the energies and forces appear to be above code levels. Door speeds and, particularly, door forces will change as the frictional components of the system change. Some components may wear in, while others wear out and have to be replaced. Replacement parts can affect the forces if the parts are not exactly the same brand or quality. The accumulation of dirt and

debris (particularly construction dust) over time will have an effect. Doors impacted by carts may be bent, causing misalignment and considerable friction. Modern-day door operators have separate adjustments for closing speeds and closing force. As long as the closing force is set to compensate for various frictional forces, the closing speeds will be the same at all floors. If the force is adjusted at a floor that has higher friction, it must be checked at the floor that has the least friction, because this floor will have the greatest force. It is these changes in energies and forces for which code verification is required in A17.1/B44 Section 8.6 and for which the means to test is provided in the maintenance control program. Testing should be done as often as an analysis of the job conditions require: according to this section, either annually or as often as every visit. Section 8.6 requires this analysis to ensure the frequency of testing and maintenance is adequate to keep the forces in compliance. Carrying the necessary force gauge to spot check every door on every visit is not hard or burdensome; it takes approximately 30 s. and will lead to more compliant, safer doors. Timing the door close times and comparing them to the minimum times listed on the door data plate can be done within this timeframe, as well. These tasks are necessary to ensure the doors’ closing times have not changed to noncompliant levels.

Understanding Code The requirements for these forces are found in A17.1/B44 Part 2, Requirement 2.13.4.

Door Closing Force The following is directly from ASME A17.1-2013/CSA B44-13: “2.13.4 Closing Limitations for Power-Operated Horizontally Sliding Hoistway Doors and Horizontally Sliding Car Doors or Gates “2.13.4.1 Where Required. Where a power-operated horizontally sliding hoistway door or car door/gate or both is closed by momentary pressure or by automatic means (see 2.13.3.3), or is closed simultaneously with another door or car door/gate or both from one

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continuous-pressure means (see 2.13.3.2.3 and 2.13.3.2.4), the closing mechanism shall be designed and installed to conform to 2.13.4.2 and the reopening device shall be designed and installed to conform to 2.13.5. “2.13.4.2 Closing Mechanism. . . 2.13.4.2.3 Door Force. The force necessary to prevent closing of the hoistway door (or the car door or gate if power operated) from rest shall not exceed 135 N (30 lbf) (see 2.13.3.1). This force shall be measured on the leading edge of the door with the door at any point between one-third and two-thirds of its travel.”

Measurement of Door Force Using a Door Force Gauge Two common tools in use are shown in figures 1 and 2. Both gauges use a spring of a known spring rate with a calibrated scale indicating the applied force. Both gauges are applied to the closing door when the doors are in the center third of door panel travel, stalling them with the gauge, just allowing door movement, then reading the force. This procedure is described in the ASME A17.2 Guide for Inspection of Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walks, Item 1.8.1: “ASME A17.2-2014 “ITEM 1.8

Figure 1: Door force gauge Figure 2: Door force gauge (courtesy of ThyssenKrupp)

“DOOR CLOSING FORCE “1.8.1 Periodic Inspections To test the door closing force, park the car at floor level and start the doors in the closing direction. Allow the doors to close between one-third and twothirds of their normal travel and stop them. Push a forcemeasuring device with a range appropriate to measure 30 lbf (133 N) against the stopped door, removing the stop so the door is held stationary by the force-measuring device. Slowly back off on the device until the point the door just starts to move. At this point, the door and measuring forces are in equilibrium and the force can be read. . . . “ITEM 6.5 “ACCEPTANCE CHECKLIST FOR FIREFIGHTERS’ SERVICE (ASME A17.1–2000 and CSA B44-00): AUTOMATIC ELEVATORS. . . “6.5.6 Phase I Operation With Doors Open Place the Phase I switch to the “OFF” position and run the car to any floor. With the doors open, have the Phase I switch turned to the “ON” position and check the following: ... (b) If door reopening devices are rendered inoperative, the closing speed is reduced so that the kinetic energy is reduced to 2 ½ ft-lb (3.5 J). . . .” Most testing and inspection procedures are found in ASME A17.2, which indicates how the AHJ will generally perform inspections. Technicians should use it (the book the inspectors use) to ensure a job is in compliance. It lists 133 N (30 lbf ) where

the code lists 135 N (30 lbf ), but this is just a difference from metric rounding practice between publications. Either is valid. If the measurement indicates too much force, in excess of the 135 N (30 lbf ), the door operator needs to be adjusted. The limiting of electrical power applied to a door motor solely controls door force (torque). When there is more current to the motor armature, there is more available closing force and vice versa. Figures 4 and 5 depict typical door-operator circuits from two common operators: one rheostatic (using resistors) and one solid-state (using electronic controls). Figures 6 and 7 indicate where the physical adjustments are made in the circuit. These drawings are for illustration purposes only; always consult the OEM manual before adjusting an in-service elevator door operator. These adjustments may be on the door operator; in the elevator controller; or, in some cases, adjusted with a handheld tool standing in the car. You must familiarize yourself with the specific door operator, but the general designs are similar, and the results are the same. While the code limit is a maximum of 135 N (30 lbf ) of closing force, there is no reason to adjust it higher than necessary. Adjust this to the very minimum to obtain reliable operation. The lower the current, the less the crushing force. Common injuries result from the door reopening device being unobstructed and a person being pinned between the hoistway doors and the door strike or jamb, or between the center-opening hoistway doors. In many cases, the force can be set between 60 and 80 N (13 and 18 lbf ). There is no reason to set this to the maximum.

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Figure 3: Center third of travel (highlighted) to measure door force

When properly set, increasing the torque (current limit) will not increase the speed. Decreasing the torque will only decrease the door speed when there is not enough power to reach that speed. Do not adjust the current limit if attempting to change the kinetic energy. This is analogous to increasing the relief pressure on a hydraulic elevator valve and expecting an increase in car speed.

Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Recall that all objects with mass are subject to forces. The following is a physics refresher. A book resting on a table has potential energy; the force due to the acceleration of gravity is pulling the book down as the table resists the force, holding it up. If the book were slid off the table and allowed to fall to the floor, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy until it hits the floor. Just as the falling book accumulated kinetic energy, so will closing elevator doors. The farther the book falls due to the acceleration of gravity at 9.8 mps2 (32.2 fps2), the higher its velocity, until the floor stops it. This increase in kinetic energy is shown in the kinetic-energy formula (Equation 1). The velocity increases relative to the distance it is in motion. The kinetic energy increases with the square of the velocity. (Equation 1) where: EK = kinetic energy m = mass v = velocity In elevator-door terms, the door operator moves the doors with a closing velocity that accelerates the mass to full speed, then decelerates toward zero speed until fully closed. All door operators have adjustments to raise or lower the velocity, which, in turn, raises or lowers the kinetic energy. (In this article, velocity and speed have been used synonymously up to now, but there is a difference. Velocity is a vector quantity, which has both magnitude and direction, while speed is a scalar quantity that only has magnitude. Since we are speaking of velocity in one vector direction and there are no other vectors to consider, speed is also correct to use in this case.) To know what the kinetic energies of a

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Figure 4: Typical rheostatic door-operator control wiring diagram (courtesy of ThyssenKrupp)

Figure 5: Typical solid-state door-operator control wiring diagram (courtesy of KONE)


moving door system are, we need to know the total mass and average velocity. Often, mechanics don’t know the mass of older doors and can only use a timer to measure the closing doors to get the average velocity, so it seems we are always in an unknown condition. Hence, many door-strike incidents causing injury are due to high kinetic energies.

Further Reading George W. Gibson’s articles “Kinetic Energy of Passenger Elevator Door Systems”[1] and “Instantaneous Maximum Kinetic Energy of Horizontally Sliding Passenger Elevator Door Systems”[2] detail more in-depth mathematics for readers interested in a treatise of door kinematics and mathematics. Even further education on this topic can be found in Systems Engineering of Elevators by Phil Andrew and Dr. Stefan Kaczmarczyk.[3] For a practical perspective from a design engineer, Elevator Engineering by Ben Abbaspour[4] is a useful book. I also recommend the resources of Bob Desnoyers, who runs a website with many utilities, such as his “Minimum Door Time Calculator,” at elevatorbob.com. In this article, the goal is to explain the problem and solutions in simpler, hands-on terms for mechanics with basic principles and simplified examples. Certainly, more detailed formulae are required when designing equipment and for creating code. This article is to explain the principles for mechanic and technician education and, hopefully, prevent hazardous doors as much as possible.

Code The requirements in code for kinetic energies are found in requirement 2.13.4: “ASME A17.1-2013/CSA B44-13 “2.13.4 Closing Limitations for Power-Operated Horizontally Sliding Hoistway Doors and Horizontally Sliding Car Doors or Gates “2.13.4.1 Where Required. Where a power-operated horizontally sliding hoistway door or car door/gate or both is closed by momentary pressure or by automatic means (see 2.13.3.3), or is closed simultaneously with another door or car door/gate or both from one continuous-pressure means (see 2.13.3.2.3 and 2.13.3.2.4), the closing mechanism shall be designed and installed to conform to 2.13.4.2 and the reopening device shall be designed and installed to conform to 2.13.5. “2.13.4.2 Closing Mechanism “2.13.4.2.1 Kinetic Energy (a) Where the hoistway door and the car door/gate are closed in such a manner that stopping either one manually will stop both, the kinetic energy of the closing door system shall be based upon the sum of the hoistway and the car door weights, as well as all parts rigidly connected thereto, including the rotational inertia effects of the door operator and the connecting transmission to the door panels. (b) Where a reopening device conforming to 2.13.5 is used, the closing door system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The kinetic energy computed for the actual closing speed at any point in the Code zone distance defined by 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 23 J (17 ft.-lbf). Continued

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Figure 6: Typical sliding resistor tap adjustment: increased resistance decreases current to the door motor and, therefore, the force.

The code references both kinetic energy (EK) “at any point” and the kinetic energy computed for the “average closing speed.” The use of the word “any” includes the maximum or peak EKpk or EK at the highest velocity the door panel travels. For simplicity, we will use the term “Average EK” based on the average velocity (average closing speed): the total distance the panel travels divided by the total time taken. All we need to know is where to start a timer and where to stop it. This is the “code zone” described in requirement 2.13.4.2.2 and is the total movement of a side-opening door panel minus 100 mm (4 in.). So, for a sideopening panel, you do not count the first 50 mm (2 in.) or last 50 mm (2 in.) of travel. For a center-opening door, the code zone distance is half the door opening minus 50 mm (2 in.) starting at 25 mm (1 in.) away from the open jamb to a point 25 mm (1 in.) from the center meeting point of the doors. The average velocity is calculated by dividing the total code distance by the total time. (Equation 2) where: vavg = average velocity dt = total distance traveled tt = total time

Figure 7: Typical electronic symbol for a variable resistor: it uses a small-tipped screwdriver.

(2) The kinetic energy computed for the average closing speed as determined in accordance with 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 10 J (7.37 ft.-lbf ). (c) Where a reopening device is not used, or has been rendered inoperative (see 2.13.5), the closing door system shall conform to the following requirements: (1) The kinetic energy computed for the actual closing speed at any point in the Code zone distance defined by 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 8 J (6 ft.-lbf). (2) The kinetic energy computed for the average closing speed within the Code zone distance (see 2.13.4.2.2), or in any exposed opening width, including the last increment of door travel, shall not exceed 3.5 J (2.5 ft.-lbf). “2.13.4.2.2 Door Travel in the Code Zone Distance (a) For all side sliding doors using single or multiple speed panels, the Code zone distance shall be taken as the horizontal distance from a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from the open jamb to a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from the opposite jamb. (b) For all center-opening sliding doors using single or multiple-speed panels, the Code zone distance shall be taken as the horizontal distance from a point 25 mm (1 in.) away from the open jamb to a point 25 mm (1 in.) from the center meeting point of the doors. (c) The average closing speed shall be determined by measuring the time required for the leading edge of the door to travel the Code zone distance.”

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The velocity is very slow at the extreme end of door travel, so the EK is very low; therefore, the code excludes the first and last side-opening bit of door panel’s travel when calculating the average door panel velocity for EK determination. Also, there is simply no room to get much in there to be impacted.

Example To assist in learning about kinetic energy, let’s start with an example of the familiar. Imagine a book sitting on a table. If the book is pushed off the table, it falls to the floor. To calculate peak kinetic energy (EKpk) of the falling book, the peak velocity of the book must be calculated. The formula to find peak velocity of a falling book (vpk) is the square root of twice the acceleration times the distance moved (Equation 3). Given gravity (g) = 9.8 mps2 (32.2 fps2) and height (h) = 1 m (3.28 ft): where: vpk = peak velocity g = acceleration of gravity h = height Metric

Imperial

(Equation 3)

Determining the EKpk of closing elevator doors can’t be directly measured without special tools, but is easily calculated. If we know the mass and peak velocity at a point, we can know the EKpk value at that point. This is similar to knowing the mass and


  

Figure 8: Code zone

peak velocity as the book hits the floor. If we use a tachometer set to feet per second to measure the closing door’s velocity, we can record the peak velocity that would also represent where the EKpk is located in the door path. With the peak velocity known, the EKpk formula can be solved when you know the mass of the object. Calculating the EKpk of the falling book from above, given mB = 0.91 kg (2 lb. = 0.06 slug) and vBpk = 4.43 mps (14.5 fps): where: EKpk = peak kinetic energy mB = mass of book VBpk = velocity of book J = Joules Metric

Imperial

(Equation 4)

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“Slug” is not a commonly used term in the field, but it should be. A slug is the imperial unit of mass. It is its weight (lbf ) divided by the standard gravitational acceleration. So, if an object weighs 32.17 lbf, its mass is 1 slug (32.17 lbf/32.17 fps2 = 1 slug). In the International Space Station, the same object would still have a mass of 1 slug, but its weight would be zero, because it is beyond the reach of the acceleration of gravity. In the imperial system we have interchanged “lb” and “lbf ” for so long, many think they are the same. To use the imperial energy formula, the correct units must be used, and the slug is the correct unit. (This problem does not exist in the metric system, as mass is measured in kilograms, and weight (force) is measured in Newtons.) So, we were able to calculate the EKpk of the book because we knew its mass and velocity. For elevator doors, we need to know the mass of the door panels and all the connecting equipment, and the equivalent mass due to the rotational inertias (flywheel effects of the rotating motor armatures and pulleys) in order to know what EKpk is and adjust to the door closing speed for code compliance. For this example, assume the total door mass is 180 kg (396 lb. = 12.3 slugs). The velocity also needs to be known. Continued

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Average velocity is simply the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken. For elevators, we don’t use the entire opening; we subtract 0.1 m (4 in.) per entrance width. In a 1.07-m (42-in. or 3.5-ft.) side-opening entrance, if the side-opening door panel takes 3.5 s., the velocity is: With a harmonic door operator, one with a sinusoidal motion, the relationship between maximum speed and the average speed is a ratio of approximately 1.57:1,[2] meaning that, if the average velocity is known, multiply by 1.57 to find the approximate peak velocity. If a tachometer measured the highest door-panel velocity, on a harmonic door operator with an average velocity of 0.28 mps (0.91 fps) as above, it would be 0.44 mps (1.43 fps). Plug Metric

Imperial

Imperial

(Equations 6 and 7)

Recall the code limits: Ekavg cannot exceed 10 J (7.37 ft.-lbf ), and EKpk cannot exceed 23 J (17 ft.-lbf ). The values in equations 6 and 7 comply with the code. It should become clear that, if the doors were heavier, 300 kg (662 lb. or 20.6 slugs) and moved at the same velocity as in equations 6 and 7, then, logically, the kinetic energy would increase. So, given mD = 300 kg (662 lb. = 20.6 slug) and vDavg = 0.28 mps (0.91 fps): The values now exceed the kinetic-energy code maximum, though the doors closed at the same velocity.

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(Equations 8 and 9)

29 J (21.1 ft.-lbf ) is the approximate energy used in lifting 11 kg (25 lb.) 1 ft. Said another way, it is equivalent in kinetic energy to 11 kg (25 lb.) dropped from 1 ft. The door panel is moving horizontally, but this is only at its maximum speed. Recall that the door speed changes with a harmonic operator, but the linear type can be programmed to be full speed throughout the travel or simulate the harmonic sinusoidal changes. Persons using the elevator are exposed to these impacts. Since door weights typically do not change (but door velocity does), let’s reduce the door closing time by arbitrarily increasing the closing velocity, changing the average velocity to 0.37 mps (1.21 fps). If a tachometer measured the highest door-panel velocity, it would be approximately 0.58 mps (1.90 fps) (the average velocity times 1.57) for a harmonic door operator. An increase in door-panel velocity increases the energies to above code limits. Well-intentioned increases in door speeds, without considering these effects, may solve service problems but create new hazards that injure persons impacted by the doors. This explains the significance of seemingly small velocity increases that may create hazardous unintended consequences. Metric

82

Imperial

(Equation 5)

these velocities into the kinetic-energy formulae to get the average EKavg (Equation 5), then the EKpk (Equation 6), given mD = 180 kg (396 lb. or 12.3 slug) and vDavg = 0.28 mps (0.91 fps): where: mD = total mass of doors vDavg = average velocity of door panel vDpk = peak velocity of door panel Ekavg = average kinetic energy EKpk = peak kinetic energy Metric

Metric

Imperial

(Equations 10 and 11)

Harmonic Versus Linear Door Operators So far, we have dealt with harmonic door operators producing a sinusoidal motion, motion around a circle as the pulley rotates the drive arm. Given that the motor turns at the same speed, the


drive arm increases in speed as the pulley rotates, then decreases in speed to zero at the end of door travel. Therefore, the peak velocity is 1.57 times the average velocity. This is generally true enough that, by simply measuring the average velocity, the peak can be closely estimated. In code, the addition of instantaneous kineticenergy values is the result of this factor. With a linear door operator, the door speed is directly proportional to the motor speed, where the speed curve is more of a trapezoidal waveform. Most of the cycle takes place during acceleration and deceleration. With a harmonic-motion door operator, the motor speed remains somewhat constant, but the speed of the door changes during the acceleration and deceleration cycle, producing a sinusoidal motion. The peak velocity with harmonic motion is approximately 1.57 times the average velocity, and the peak velocity of a linear door operator is 1.52 times the average.[2] Both produce a peak kinetic energy of 17 ft. lb. Now we should understand the significance of making speed changes in the door system. The ultimate problem is that on older elevators, the door masses are unknown. Here is where the code works for you.

Code Solution To determine the weight of the doors, one would theoretically need a tachometer and force gauge, and take a force reading where the average velocity intersects the actual velocity of the door panel of a harmonic door operator because of the constant rate of velocity change due to the rotation of the pulley. Similarly, with a linear door operator, a measurement in the constant velocity area

of motion with a force gauge could be used to measure the force and, perhaps, be used to determine the mass of the doors. These methods could measure the total force and actual acceleration during retardation to calculate mass, mass being equal to force divided by acceleration (m = F/a); a rearrangement of the F = ma fundamental equation. You also could literally take the doors off the tracks and weigh them on a scale, but the rotational inertias would still be a mystery. All these methods are time consuming, extremely expensive and leave room for error. For example, there is no way to measure the rotational inertias, except through direct force-gauge measurement of the closing door system and subtracting the non-rotational door masses or detailed calculations. No tools have been designed for this function. So, how do we find the mass and, therefore, know if the doors are adjusted correctly? Manufacturers know the total masses of their door systems, and, since the 2000 edition of code, a door data plate is required to be provided with minimum door closing times. This data plate should be on all new elevators and all elevators that have had alterations to their door operators: “ASME A17.1-2000/CSA B44-00 “2.13.4.2.4 Data Plate. A data plate conforming to 2.16.3.3 shall be attached to the power door operator or to the car crosshead and shall contain the following information: (a) minimum door closing time in seconds for the doors to travel the Code zone distance as specified in 2.13.4.2.2 corresponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 2.13.4.2.1(b)(2) Continued

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Figure 9: A typical door data plate

(b) minimum door closing time in seconds for the doors to travel the Code zone distance as specified in 2.13.4.2.2 corresponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 2.13.4.2.1(c)(2), if applicable [see 2.27.3.1.6(e)] (c) where heavier hoistway doors are used at certain floors, the minimum door closing time in seconds corresponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 2.13.4.2.1(b)(2) and 2.13.4.2.1(c)(2), if applicable, for the corresponding floors shall be included on the data plate” The plate provides the minimum door closing times. Now, all the mechanic needs is to time the door closing time in the code zone and determine whether it is too fast. There will be no need to weigh the mass. In addition to the code data plate, the 2016 edition of the code has a non-mandatory appendix with some minimum door times for standard door types and openings. These door closing times are based on door weights provided by some Canadian door manufacturers. While this is a good step, knowing the exact kinetic energy is the ideal, and until a practical method to calculate the weight of the doors is made affordable, we can only ask the manufacturers how much panels weigh, take off the door panels and weigh them, or estimate the weight and err on the conservative side. This table is only an estimate of weights, but it errs on the heavy (safer) side: “ASME A17.1-2016/CSA B44-16 Non-Mandatory Appendix

Metric

door weights of 3.62 kg/m2 (8 lb./ft.2). If the doors are clad with decorative cladding, the weight can be increased as much as 0.9 kg/m2 (2 lb./ft2), and, therefore, door close times must be increased for the extra kinetic energies. Today, doors are much lighter, and the door data plate covers the modern doors. There are still many older doors without a door data plate, typically of the heavier variety.

Imperial

Door type

Uncladded

Cladded

Uncladded

Cladded

Weight/area

38.9 kg/m2

48.7 kg/m2

8 lb./ft.2

10 lb./ft.2

Table 1

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“NOTES: (1) This Table was developed to assist in annual maintenance inspection in accordance with 8.6 requirements where no data plate is provided in accordance with 2.13.4.2.4 (2) The data provided in the Table are based on a survey of several Canadian manufacturers based on information data in the early 1990’s and are intended to be used as a guideline only. (3) The Table covers sheet steel doors with painted surfaces without cladding. (4) Door closing time, t, expressed in the table as either normal speed or reduced speed is the time to travel from a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from jamb to a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from the opposite jamb for side opening doors. In the case of center opening doors, time to travel is from a point 25 mm (1 in.) away from jamb to a point 25 mm (1 in.) from the center. This distance is referred to as the code zone distance in A17/B44 Requirement 2.13.4.2.2. (5) In the absence of actual minimum door close time from the manufacturer, use the upper time limit of the range for adjustment and inspection purposes.” Consultants often cite specific door close times for various entrance widths. This “industry standard” is typically based on

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To determine the weight of a side-opening hoistway door, determine the area of the door panel. Table 1 summarizes common weights for steel doors. The hoistway door and car door masses need to be added to determine the total mass. The car door could be taller, typically is not wider, and could be cladded or uncladded. Once you establish its type, sum all the door panel weights. Finally, adding 20% for rotational inertias and door-mounted accessories will give the effective mass.

Example Calculate the effective mass for a 2.743-m (9-ft.) -tall door opening with a 1,066-m (42-in.) -wide entrance. Remember that the doors overlap the actual entrance opening on the top and sides by approximately 13 mm (0.5 in.), so the total size of the door panels is 2.756 m X 1.092 m (109 in. X 43 in.) The lobby doors are heavier because of the cladding; the upper floors are lighter, because they are uncladded. For the rotating masses and accessories, we will simply add 20% of the door-panel mass to be conservative. The effective weight of the lobby door system is 316 kg (696 lb.). The door close time of 3.9 s. is calculated at the maximum allowable kinetic energy of 10 J (7.37 ft.-lbf ). The effective weight

Metric

Imperial

Uncladded hoistway 3.0 m2 x 38.9 kg/m2 = 117 kg door

32.5 ft.2 x 8 lb./ft.2 = 260 lb.

Cladded hoistway door

32.5 ft.2 x 10 lb./ft.2 = 325 lb.

Example Determine the kinetic energy of an elevator-door system with a 2.13-m (7-ft.) single-speed center-opening door with a clear opening of 1.07 m (3.5 ft.), total door weight of 256 kg (563 lb. = 17.5 slugs) and measured door closing time of 2 s. with an operative door-reopening device. First determine the door panel velocity in the code zone: Then, use velocity in the code zone (vDcz) to complete the calculation: The result is less than 10 J (7.37 ft.-lbf ), the maximum EKavg with an operational reopening device required by the code. Therefore, it is code compliant. Metric

3.0 m2 x 48.7 kg/m2 = 146 kg

Uncladded car door 3.0 m2 x 38.9 kg/m2 = 117 kg

Total weight of cladded doors

kinetic energy limit. This is why many door operators have a separate heavy-door setting that must be adjusted, in addition to the rest of the doors. There are two components needed to evaluate the EKavg of a door system. The first step is timing the doors in the code zone to determine the average velocity. One could also use a tachometer, record the peak velocity and divide by 1.57 for a harmonic door operator for a ballpark average velocity, but timing the doors in the code zone is easiest. The second step is calculating the effective mass. There is one more factor to complete this example. Doors come in single-, two- and three-speed vareities. The masses are seperated by some relating mechanism that is not solid. Therefore, a reduction factor is used. This is Q in Equation 13.[2] If the doors are single speed, Q = 1; if two-speed, Q = 0.625; and if three-speed, Q = 0.222.

Imperial

(Equation 12)

32.5 ft.2 x 8 lb./ft.2 = 260 lb.

146 kg + 117 kg = 263 kg

325 lb. + 260 lb. = 585 lb.

Total weight of 117 kg + 117 kg = 234 kg uncladded doors

260 lb. + 260 lb. = 520 lb.

Metric

Imperial

(Equation 13)

of the upper-floor door system is 281 kg (619 lb.). This would give a minimum door time of 3.6 s. at the maximum allowable kinetic energy of 10 J (7.37 ft.-lbf ). The significance of this is that using the speed used on the lighter upper-floor doors for the heavier lobby door will exceed the

Metric

Imperial

Lobby door

263 x 1.2 = 316 kg

580 lb. x 1.2 = 696 lb.

Upper-floor door

234 x 1.2 = 281 kg

516 lb. x 1.2 = 619 lb.

Summary There is not a need to be at a maximum force and energy in most cases. The need for speed at a convalescent hospital is not as critical as at a class-A office building. Consider the users, adjust the speeds as appropriate and eliminate the high rate of injurious incidents. Continued November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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The code also speaks about reduced energy when the doorreopening device is rendered inoperative or is not present. This is typically called “nudging operation”: simply stated, the doors must go much slower to have a reduced kinetic energy. This speed will simply nudge someone out of the plane of travel so the elevator can still operate. All that changes is the door speed and, therefore, the door closing times. One would use the same formulae for calculating nudging times to limit the kinetic-energy values. When people are struck by the doors, they are rarely hit by the average kinetic energy. Incidents most often take place when the door is at its center third of travel, where its kinetic energy is likely higher than average. This may indicate a reduction in these energies might be appropriate in buildings and facilities where older persons work and live. This population moves slower and is impacted by the hoistway doors not reaching the reopening device mounted on the car door. This is, perhaps, a subject for another article, but a change in the code might be warranted.

More education to ensure doors are code compliant is warranted, along with, perhaps, a reexamination of code values of pressure and force. Code writing utilizes incident history and hazard assessment based on predictable human events, foreseeable misuse and common sense when specifying the maximum kinetic energies doors can have. This is squarely juxtaposed against wanting the fastest door times, to have the fastest floor-to-floor times and, therefore, maximum elevator performance for the building. However, there are speed limits on roads and highways for similar reasons: excessive speeds have shown to be hazardous; therefore, we impose limits to reduce these hazards. There will be people who are struck by doors for many reasons: running to catch the elevator, standing where the reopening devices cannot detect their presence in the plane of the hoistway doors and not paying attention. Limiting the kinetic energies is our way to ensure that the majority of these impacts are simply a nuisance, not damaging incidents. Mechanics are the final adjusters every day. It is our responsibility to know what the code requires and to adjust the elevator to code. We should: ♦♦ Regularly verify the door force with a force gauge ♦♦ Regularly verify the door close time with a stopwatch ♦♦ Know the limits of adjustment when changing the door speeds ♦♦ Record all related values for easy permanent retrieval, preferably on a door data plate Accordingly, elevator companies should: ♦♦ Train mechanics to understand the importance of door hazards ♦♦ Provide the tools and training to each route mechanic ♦♦ Ensure that proper recording of these values is in the maintenance records ♦♦ Add a door data plate to every door operator

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Acknowledgements Peer reviewed by: Louis Bialy, Consultant; and Walter Glaser, G.A.L. Manufacturing – Members of the Elevator World Technical Advisory Group.

References [1] Gibson, George W. “Kinetic Energy of Passenger Elevator Door Systems” ELEVATOR WORLD, December 1989 and January 1990. [2] Gibson, George W. “Instantaneous Maximum Kinetic Energy of Horizontally Sliding Passenger Elevator Door Systems,” EW, April 1997. [3] Andrew, Phil and Dr. Kaczmarczyk, Stefan. Systems Engineering of Elevators, Elevator World, Inc. ( July 31, 2011). [4] Abbaspour, Ben. Elevator Engineering, Elevator World ( July 30, 2014).

John W. Koshak is head and founder of Elevator Safety Solutions, Inc. Directly prior to reactivating the company in September 2008, Koshak served as director of Codes and Standards for North America for ThyssenKrupp Elevator. He was formerly in research at ThyssenKrupp Research, Innovation and Design. Koshak got his start in the industry in 1980 with Westinghouse Elevator Co. and has worked for Dover Elevator, Amtech Elevator and Adams Elevator Equipment Co., where he was vice president of Technical Support. He was a National Elevator Industry Educational Program instructor from 1982 to 1991, designed the LifeJacket™ hydraulicelevator safety and holds several patents for elevator-component designs. Koshak is a member of the ASME A17 Standards Committee and a regent of the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation.

Learning-Reinforcement Questions Use the below learning-reinforcement questions to study for the Continuing Education Assessment Exam available online at www.elevatorbooks.com or on p. 117 of this issue. ♦♦ What is the most overlooked concept contributing to hazardous door movement? ♦♦ What are the causes of door speeds changing over time? ♦♦ Why should 135 N (30 lbf ) of closing force not be exceeded? ♦♦ How is the code zone distance of side-opening doors calculated? ♦♦ What are the differences between harmonic and linear door operators? ♦♦ What is the requirement for door data plates? ♦♦ How is door force measured? ♦♦ What is the maximum door force allowed by code? ♦♦ What is kinetic energy, and how is it related to the operation of doors? ♦♦ What should all mechanics do when working with door speeds and force?


Focus on Evacuation Solutions and Emergency Operations

It Is Safety Awareness That Counts! In this Readers Platform, Elevator World’s Chinese correspondent explores the safety concerns around accidents in China.

by Peng Jie, EW Correspondent By 2014, there were more than three million elevators and escalators in China. This number will continue to grow alongside the accelerating urbanization of the country. People, especially those living in cities, are entering an age of vertical transportation.

When two or more adverse factors come into play at the same time, it usually results in an accident. On July 26, a 30-year-old woman rode up an escalator with her three-year-old son between the sixth and seventh floors at a mall in Jingzhou, China. When she set foot on the escalator’s horizontal cover plate at the upper landing, the plate flipped up, and she and her son fell into the truss, where the escalator’s machine and transmission mechanism are housed. She immediately pushed her child up and out to safety. Moments later, she completely disappeared into the escalator truss. The accident caused widespread public concern about escalator safety, while the investigation – the most responsive and fastest ever in Chinese history – uncovered the causes of the accident as the result of human error on multiple levels. There is widespread sympathy for the young victim and her family, and the sincere hope similar tragedies will never happen again. The liable parties not only have to compensate the victim’s family, but they will also face great losses in business and reputation in the years to come – especially the manufacturer, because Hubei Province has announced it is banning the company from making future installations. The General Administration of

Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China issued an emergency notice to its subordinate authorities at various levels to examine currently operating escalators unit by unit. According to the results of the investigation, the manufacturer and mall management are primarily responsible, and the maintenance company is partly responsible for the accident due to incomplete records. The four major causes of the accident have been identified as follows: 1) Direct cause: the first cover plate next to the leveling step was unfastened. 2) The escalators were NOT switched off in time after the hazards had been reported five minutes before the accident occurred. 3) Defective design made the three cover plates prone to getting loose and turning over. The size of the plates was NOT in conformity with those specified in the drawing – they were too small for the landing area. 4) Unregulated maintenance led to incomplete maintenance records. Maintenance procedures should meet the requirements as set forth in the national Production Safety and Special Equipment Safety laws.

How Do Accidents Happen? When two or more adverse factors come into play at the same time, it usually results in an accident. Not long ago, a man assaulted a doctor who treated a family member of his. The man dragged the doctor into the elevator lobby and slammed him hard against an elevator’s landing door. Unfortunately, the door was not strong enough to withstand the force, and, as a result, both persons fell down the shaft and died. Two Continued

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factors contributed to this accident: excessive force and a weak landing door. History sometimes repeats a lesson to those who fail to learn from it. Another escalator accident that caused public outcry took place in July 2011 in Beijing. It was answered in a similar way by various parties. According to the investigation into that accident, a broken bolt was responsible for the inverting movement of the steps, and both brakes failed to stop the inversion. Two factors contributed to this accident: a broken bolt and brake failure. The product design was declared defective, and the manufacturer was banned from making installations in Beijing, while the top authorities issued an emergency notice for its subordinate authorities to examine currently operating escalators unit by unit. Unfortunately, the routine measures taken by the authorities have proven ineffective in preventing similar escalator accidents. In July’s accident, there seem to be more than two contributing factors. After analyzing the facts, the conclusion drawn is that the tragedy could have been easily avoided.

Safety Awareness Is Lacking A number of people could have helped. The mall manager, who received the hazard report, should have taken immediate action to stop the escalator. Unfortunately, he failed to do the right thing in time. More than one mall clerk was standing at both the lower and upper entrances of the escalator, but they did nothing until they saw the victim fall into the escalator truss. If any one of the four ladies standing by had had the wherewithal to step forward and press the emergency-stop button, the woman could have been saved. Nobody at the scene of the accident had the slightest notion of safety awareness, and nobody, except the person who had reported the malfunction of the cover plate, did the right thing. The designers made a primary mistake in the cover-plate arrangement. The design principle calls for plates to stay put, even if they are not secured by screws or bolts. It seems they do not know how escalator cover plates should be protected in the event one of them maneuvers out of place. They apparently had too little safety awareness to be designers.

Raising and Measuring Safety Awareness through Inspection The annual inspection cannot guarantee passenger safety. It is safety awareness that counts! The equipment-inspection system needs to be updated, because it makes no sense to say the unit was found to be in good condition during annual inspection but caused an accident two months later. The inspection authorities should NOT just check the equipment, put on a label with an expiration date, collect their pay and walk away. The safety awareness of the owners, managers, supervisors, staff and workers in the building should be measured and scored in the inspection process. If everyone in the building has sufficient common sense regarding elevator and escalator safety – for example, knowing the location and function of the emergency-stop button – accidents can be substantially reduced. One day in early August, shortly after the accident in Jingzhou, an elderly passenger stumbled on an escalator at a metro station in Shenyang. Another passenger

pressed the emergency-stop button and prevented the passengers riding the same escalator from getting injured. There have been safety laws that included the training of personnel. Why not make employee safety-awareness training a hard and fast rule to be enforced by certified inspectors? This would be more effective than giving orders to have each elevator and escalator examined after a major accident. Most manufacturers have their own safety-awareness programs for users. They could play a valuable role if asked to work with the safety-supervision authorities on the nationwide safety-awareness program for building owners and their employees.

Proposals The designer’s safety awareness is essential for products. One should give top priority to guaranteeing passenger safety in every detail. They must consider whether it is strong enough. Safety must be made sure and firm. It cannot be based on a number of screws and/or tension pins. These small pieces are vulnerable to getting lost on the jobsite or overlooked in work. Is it protected in the event that one part fails or gets broken? Is it maintenance friendly? Making things easy in maintenance is also important, as field technicians sometimes tend to overlook something. For example, they may forget to remove a jumper from the door safety after work. A good designer ought to think from the perspective of the field technician. If a support beam has to be removed for work, it must be put back in place before the technician leaves. If such a component is missing, the system should refuse to work by design. The supervisory authorities could work out detailed rules to integrate building owners’ responsibilities with laws and regulations to further the nation’s laws on safety. The building owners’ level of safety awareness can be made measurable and, thus, operational in practice. This could be specified in requirements, and recorded and scored during the annual inspection to motivate building owners to train themselves and their employees in safety awareness at the appropriate level for each type of employee. There are three levels of safety awareness that correspond to different employees.

Level One: Engineers Level One is for onsite engineers or field veterans who usually hold a field-operation license for special equipment or have worked as inspectors or field engineers. They are specialists. A building owner must hire one or more engineers depending on the number of units in the building. They shall supervise the maintenance contractor and report equipment conditions to the owner in a timely fashion and handle emergency events. They are responsible for taking immediate measures toward passenger safety, such as releasing entrapped passengers from the car or closing entrances to a broken down unit. The owner can also contract such a service from a manufacturer or specialized service provider.

Level Two: Managers Level Two is for managers, supervisors, electricians and group leaders working in the building. They are not elevator specialists Continued

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To be a safe rider takes work for both adults and kids who use elevators and escalators every day.

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but are to have sufficient knowledge concerning the structure, operational theory, major components and their functions on elevators and escalators, so they know what to do in the event of an emergency. They shall help supervise the working conditions of the equipment on a daily basis, and report the hazards they see to their manager or to one of the onsite engineers immediately. They are also able to talk to the entrapped passengers to calm them and tell them what to do and what NOT to do.

Level Three: Personnel Level Three is for all the others working in the building. They are supposed to have common sense regarding elevator and escalator safety and how to be a safe rider. In addition, they shall be trained how to report to their supervisor or manager upon seeing any equipment issues and know how to use the emergency buttons.

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To be a safe rider takes work for both adults and kids who use elevators and escalators every day. A number of leading manufacturers have been doing this for years with positive effects. Industry media such as China Elevator issue pamphlets about passenger safety from time to time. However, these efforts made by the industry itself still seem to be a drop in a vast ocean compared with the country’s massive population and widespread installations. Here are some common-sense rules with regards to escalators and elevators. Ladies in skirts or heels should keep off the yellow lines on the step, and mothers should keep a close eye on their children so that they do not stick their fingers or shoes into the moving sides. In the event of being trapped in an elevator, passengers should NOT try to open the door by force to escape, but stay calm and call for help. They should be aware of the fact that standing in the door-opening area is the most dangerous thing to do, because, by doing so, they expose themselves to the risk of being sheared by the moving car. Also, passengers should never try to open a landing door from outside by force or with an unauthorized key while the elevator is not there. By doing so, they will be at the highest risk of falling into the shaft. The present situation is, sadly, that nine out of 10 passengers are illiterate with regards to riders’ safety. If the safety supervisory authorities take riders’ safety issues into consideration and work out guidelines and effective measures to raise the safety awareness of the public, the prospect would look bright and injury and death rates relating to verticaltransportation equipment would be substantially reduced. China has a well-developed elevator industry and healthy public media system to help implement this program once it is made available. Media such as newspapers and television programs could carry public-service advertisements regarding riders’ safety. Posters and pamphlets on how to be a safe rider đ&#x;Œ? could be used at metro stations for citizens.  


Focus on Evacuation Solutions and Emergency Operations

Use of Elevators During Emergencies by David McColl, P. Eng. This paper was presented at Paris 2014, the International Congress on Vertical Transportation Technologies, and first published in IAEE book Elevator Technology 20, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with permission from the International Association of Elevator Engineers (website: www.elevcon.com). This paper is an exact reprint and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD.

Abstract This presentation summarizes the initiatives taken in North America to address the use of elevators during emergencies by firefighters and for occupant evacuation. Two task groups, established by ASME, and chaired by the author, studied the issues and developed recommendations for the Elevator Code, Building Codes and other related codes to address these issues. A new operation called “Occupant Evacuation Operation” is included in the A17.1/B44 elevator code in 2013. New requirements have been added to the building codes to protect elevator systems from water, fire and smoke and provide protected power supplies, protected lobbies and new communications features to aid occupant self-evacuation.

Introduction The use of elevators during emergencies for occupant egress and for firefighter access has received a great deal of study over the last several years, due to the tragic events of September 11, 2001, and due to an increasing interest and concern in building safety and security, particularly high-rise buildings. The author’s involvement in the study of these issues began at a Workshop on the Use of Elevators in Fires and Other Emergencies held

in 2004. This Workshop was co-sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), International Code Council (ICC), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), U.S. Access Board, and the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF). The outcome of this successful Workshop was the formation of two A17 Task Groups by ASME to study “Use of Elevators for Occupant Egress” and “Use of Elevators by Firefighters”. Both of these A17 Task Groups were chaired by the author. This paper provides an update to earlier articles and presentations, which reviewed the work of these two task groups, their results and recommendations, and also reviews some of the issues to be addressed by the industry in responding to the Task Groups’ recommendations. The A17 Task Groups reviewed the suggestions from the 2004 Workshop. Each Task Group developed a prioritized list of issues, conducted an extensive Hazard Analysis of the issues and then used the corrective actions from the analysis to prepare proposals for revisions to the ASME A17.1/CSA B44 elevator code or recommendations for changes to other codes, including Building, Life Safety, Electrical, and Accessibility codes as well as Firefighters’ training and operational issues. The Task Groups each held 29 meetings over an eight-year period.

Use of Elevators for Occupant Egress In studying “Use of Elevators for Occupant Egress” a Hazard Analysis was conducted to investigate the use of elevators during emergencies for evacuation of occupants in an occupied high-rise office building, prior to activation of Firefighters Emergency Operation Continued

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Phase I emergency recall operation. The group performing the analysis included elevator manufacturers and consultants, firefighters, fire-safety engineers and consultants, human-behavior academics and experts, building and life safety code experts, fire-alarm system contractors and consultants, and accessibility experts. A sub-group of the Human Behavior experts was formed to evaluate the cases incorporating assumptions pertaining to occupant behavior, and provide some guidance on the further work or research needed to confirm the assumptions and validate the corrective actions involving occupant behavior. Situation awareness pertaining to all of the relevant issues, such as capacity, design of signage/voice, use of wardens and training, was used throughout the analysis.

Occupant Evacuation Operation A new elevator operation called Occupant Evacuation Operation (OEO) was developed and is included in a new section (2.27.11) in the 2013 edition of the ASME A17.1/CSA B44 Code. OEO is defined in A17.1/B44 as “the operation of an elevator system for occupant evacuation under emergency conditions”, and it provides elevator operation from a zone of five affected floors (the fire floor, the two floors above and the two floors below the fire floor) to the discharge level. OEO is not a mandatory requirement, but the International Building Code (IBC) requires that “where elevators are to be used for occupant self-evacuation during fires, all passenger elevators for general public use shall comply with” Section 3008, which contains requirements for “Occupant Evacuation Elevators”. Although there is no direct reference to OEO in Section 3008 of the IBC, the IBC requirement would mean that, if provided, OEO would be required on all passenger elevators in the building. OEO would commence automatically in a group of elevators whenever there is a fire alarm signal in the building which does not activate Phase 1 recall in that group, i.e. activated fire alarm initiating devices (FAID) outside of the elevator lobbies and machine rooms. If activation of an automatic FAID occurs on an additional floor(s) at any time while OEO is in effect, the

evacuation zone is expanded to include all floors with an active alarm, all floors between the highest and lowest floor with an active alarm plus two floors above the highest floor with an active alarm and two floors below the lowest floor with an active alarm. Manual initiation of OEO by authorized or emergency personnel is permitted. There is an option for Full Building Evacuation, manually initiated in the Fire Command Center. The Fire alarm system provides the signal to the elevator system when all floors are to be evacuated.

Signage and Communications Extensive signage and tenant training are necessary in order to facilitate the new operation and allow passengers to adapt to a new paradigm. Currently, buildings have a sign in elevator lobbies that says “In Case of Fire, Elevators Are Out of Service” (see Figure 1, sign specified in A17.1/ B44). This sign will no longer be used in buildings with OEO. A new paradigm in signage is required. “Real-time” signage on all floors will be provided to inform people whether or not to use the elevators on a given floor. Occupants will see messages such as “ELEVATORS AVAILABLE FOR EVACUATION. NEXT CAR IN ABOUT 2 MINUTES”, “ELEVATORS TEMPORARILY DEDICATED TO OTHER FLOORS” or “ELEVATORS OUT OF SERVICE. USE STAIRS TO EVACUATE”. Estimated time of arrival of an elevator to an evacuation floor will be provided to allow occupants

to decide if they want to wait or use the stairs. Signage at the main lobby landing will be provided to advise people to not use the elevator. Signs in the cars will give passengers instructions to exit the car at the discharge level. The elevator signage will be supplemented by “Real-time” voice announcements to elevator lobbies and cars. In addition, building occupant training and drills, supplemented by the use of floor wardens during the emergency will be necessary.

Actuation of OEO When OEO is actuated, landing calls outside of the evacuation floors will be cancelled and disabled. Security systems will be overridden. Landing calls within the affected floors will call an elevator with the floor with an active alarm given the highest priority. At other floors, the evacuation priority will be assigned in the sequence received. Highest calls will be given the highest priority in Full Building Evacuation unless there are calls at the affected floors. Car calls are disabled except for a call at the elevator discharge level. Unoccupied cars will move to a floor being evacuated and park with doors closed until a landing call is registered. Occupied cars proceed directly to the elevator discharge level and then proceed directly to a floor being evacuated. New landing calls are registered immediately and assigned to another car. New landing calls cannot prevent a loaded car from leaving. Cars with 80% of load start to close their doors and proceed to the elevator discharge level. Cars with over 100% load will not leave the floor, their doors will open and remain open, and a voice and visual signal notification will notify passengers that the car is overloaded.

After Evacuation

Figure 1

A 60-second period in which no landing calls have been registered indicates that the affected floor has been evacuated. At this time, one car parks with its doors closed at the lowest floor of the affected floors, ready to answer subsequent landing calls of any stragglers. The rest of the cars park with their doors closed at the elevator discharge level. A car parked at the elevator discharge level Continued

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will replace the car at the lowest floor of the affected floors which has answered a landing call. Firefighters will be able to manually recall one or more cars from a group, leaving the rest of the group to continue operating on OEO if needed. Individual car recall is enabled by a new set of Phase I recall switches, one for each car, marked in a yellow and black scheme to distinguish the car recall switches from the traditional group recall switch, marked in red. All of the key switches use the standard FEO-K1 key. If smoke reaches one of the initiating devices normally used to initiate Phase 1 Recall, such as a device in the elevator lobby or in an elevator hoistway or machine room, OEO will be automatically terminated, and a Phase 1 Recall will commence. Resetting of the Fire Alarm system will also terminate OEO.

Requirements for Buildings with OEO Building enhancements are also necessary to ensure safe usage of OEO and part of the proposal developed for addition to the A17.1/B44 Elevator Code includes an Appendix on the building requirements that the A17 Task Group determined in the hazard analysis to be necessary features of the building construction. Some of these building features were added in the 2009 and 2012 editions of the International Building Code and in the NFPA 101 Life Safety

Code, and there are more changes in the 2015 editions of these codes. The A17 Task Group made recommendations to the building code writing organizations to include all of the requirements listed in the OEO Appendix. These items include: ♦♦ Protected lobbies able to accommodate 25% of the floor population with direct access to stairwells ♦♦ Pressurized hoistways, lobbies and stairwells ♦♦ Automatic sprinkler system in conformance with NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, excluding hoistways and machine rooms (“shunt trip” also excluded) ♦♦ Building smoke detection system ♦♦ Voice alarm/communications system in conformance with NFPA 72: Fire Alarm and Signaling Code ♦♦ Protected Emergency Power (2 hr.) to elevators, signage/voice systems, pressurization systems, ventilation ♦♦ Water flow protection to prevent water from sprinklers entering hoistways ♦♦ Building Fire and Evacuation Plan: procedures for evacuation using stairs and elevators, building occupant training and drills, use of floor wardens, and routine integrated testing

Other Considerations As mentioned earlier, the A17 Task Group’s hazard analysis was performed on a high–rise office occupancy. A

subsequent analysis was done for other types of occupancies, which determined that the OEO proposal was suitable for those other occupancies. However, the Task Group recommends that a hazard analysis should be performed by the building designer for all types of occupancies and building configurations as part of the Fire and Evacuation Plan. Other issues analyzed by the task group included: seismic activity; full building evacuation; Sky Lobbies; unique building configurations and other types of occupancies and monitoring, maintenance and inspection issues. Future enhancements to OEO may be issued as a result of additional analysis or experience gained as systems are installed and used.

Use of Elevators by Firefighters Concurrently, the A17 Task Group on “Use of Elevators by Firefighters” conducted a hazard analysis, which was an investigation of enhancing the use of elevators by firefighters during emergencies, also in an occupied high-rise office building. The composition of the group and the methodology were similar to the Egress group. The theme of this investigation and analysis was “Could elevators be more robust to enhance firefighters’ effectiveness?” Such a robust firefighters’ elevator would be one that would provide greater protection, Continued

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allowing the elevator to continue to operate for the firefighters to complete their operations. Almost all of the issues identified by the Task Group on “Use of Elevators by Firefighters” are beyond the scope of the A17.1/B44 Elevator Code. Recommendations from this task group include enhancements falling into four areas covered by the building and electrical codes: ♦♦ Protection from water ♦♦ Protection from smoke and heat ♦♦ Protection of primary and backup power supplies ♦♦ Direct access to a protected lobby and stairwell containing a standpipe These enhancements are essentially the same as the requirements specified above for elevators used for occupant egress. Substantial training needs and opportunities for Firefighters were also identified.

3.1 Fire Service Access Elevators Many of these requirements identified above have already been added in the 2009, 2012 and 2015 editions of the International Building Code in Section 3007, specifying requirements for “Fire Service Access Elevators” (FSAE). A Fire Service Access Elevator is one that will provide greater protection allowing the elevator to continue to operate for the firefighters to complete their operations. The 2009 edition required one FSAE, and the 2012 and 2015 editions require two FSAEs in all high-rise buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 ft. (36.6 m) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. The required minimum capacity of the FSAE(s) is 3500 lb. (1588 kg.). The A17 Task Group had additional recommendations that go beyond the IBC requirements, including the provision of three FSAEs. Firefighters have indicated that they need a minimum of two elevators for firefighting operations. An additional FSAE would provide a spare in case maintenance or malfunction has caused one FSAE to be unavailable. The protection required for FSAEs is as follows. Protection from water: ♦♦ No sprinklers in machine/control rooms, machinery/control spaces and hoistways ♦♦ Sprinkler system monitoring ♦♦ An approved system to prevent water inflow to hoistway from automatic sprinklers outside the enclosed FSAE lobby ♦♦ Shunt trip (removal of power) not permitted on FSAEs ♦♦ Structural integrity of hoistway specified Protection from smoke and heat: ♦♦ Hoistway lighting required when Firefighters’ Emergency Operation is active ♦♦ Dedicated FSAE lobby, involving direct access to stairwell, 1-hr. fire-rated barriers and fire-rated doors, and a size larger than 150 ft2 (14 m2) with minimum dimension of 8 ft. (2440mm) Protection of primary and backup power supplies: ♦♦ Standby power required for elevator equipment, hoistway lighting, ventilation and cooling equipment, and elevator car lighting ♦♦ Wires or cables located outside the hoistway and machine room providing normal or standby power, control signals,

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communication with the car, lighting, heating, airconditioning or ventilation and fire-detecting systems protected by construction having a 2-hr. fire-resistance rating or a circuit integrity cable having a 2-hr. fire-resistance rating Other requirements for the FSAEs include continuous monitoring at the Fire Command Center of the elevator’s location within the hoistway, direction of travel and whether it is occupied. Also, the FSAEs must be identified on the hoistway door frame at the FSAE lobby with a 3-in. firefighters’ helmet symbol. There is also a proposal, not yet finalized, for the elevator emergency exit to be openable from within the car with the Firefighters’ key, with instructions for safe egress from the car top at the Firefighters’ panel in the car operating panel and on the exit panel itself.

Conclusion ASME organized a Symposium on the Use of Elevators During Emergencies, held in December 2010, to present the work of both A17 Task Groups and review in detail the code changes proposed by the Task Groups for Elevator, Building and Life Safety codes and Firefighter training issues. There were also presentations providing an opportunity to examine proposals and experiences from some jurisdictions in implementing changes to buildings and elevator systems for emergency use. Consideration of human factors, including training of the public and firefighters was presented. The 2013 edition of A17.1/B44 is not yet effective in many jurisdictions in North America, and there are no buildings with OEO installed yet. The 2013 editions of the NFPA 72 Fire Alarm Code, NFPA 101 Life Safety Code and the NFPA 5000 Building Code contain most of the A17 Task Groups’ recommendations, as does the 2015 edition of the International Building Code.

Acknowledgements I would like to thank the members of the two A17 Task Groups – “Use of Elevators for Occupant Egress” and “Use of Elevators by Firefighters.” The members dedicated up to 16 days per year, not including travel time, over an eight-year period to study the issues discussed and prepare the recommendations and proposals.

References [1] ASME A17.1-2013/CSA B44-13 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, Section 2.27.11, Occupant Evacuation Operation [2] International Code Council 2012 and 2015 International Building Code, Sections 430, 3007 and 3008

David McColl, P. Eng., is Senior Manager – Worldwide Codes Development for Otis Elevator Company. Mr. McColl has worked for Otis for 35 years, the last 20 years full time in Codes and Standards. Mr. McColl is Convenor of ISO/TC 178/WG4, Safety requirements and risk assessment; a member of ISO/TC 178/WG6, Lift Installation; a member of the ASME A17 Standards Committee; and Chair of the CSA/B44 Technical Committee, as well as numerous code sub-committees and task groups in North America.


Focus on Evacuation Solutions and Emergency Operations

Comparison of Concepts for Evacuation Lifts by Ashiqur Rahman and Wim Offerhaus R&D Centre, Mitsubishi Elevator Europe, The Netherlands This paper was presented at Paris 2014, the International Congress on Vertical Transportation Technologies, and first published in IAEE book Elevator Technology 20, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with permission from the International Association of Elevator Engineers (website: www.elevcon.com). This paper is an exact reprint and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD. Key Words: Evacuation, emergency, CEN/ TS81-76, BS9999, ISO/DTS18870, ASME/A17.1

Abstract Nowadays three concepts of evacuation lifts could be distinguished. CEN has published TS81-76 for lifts that are intended for the assisted evacuation of disabled persons which is comparable to BS9999. ISO is working on DTS18870 for lifts that are intended for all occupants who want to use the lift for evacuation, without need for assistance of trained personnel similar as ASME A17.1. A third concept is a lift which shuttles to intermediate refuge floors, as we know it from some very high buildings. A comparison of these three concepts and applications will be discussed. And some guidance for further development of standards shall be made.

1. Introduction Tall buildings worldwide are incorporating lifts for evacuation for reducing evacuation time (Bukowski 2010). Also buildings with less extreme heights demand more and more that some lifts will be equipped for evacuation. And some countries have requirements for such lifts in their building codes, like France and Italy. In

the field of standardization, however, there is only one document which is ready, namely the British Code of Practice BS9999, which addresses requirements for lifts that are intended for the evacuation of persons with a disability. ASME and ISO have started studying on this topic of evacuation after the 9/11 attack on WTC in New York. CEN started even before this date. The motivation of CEN for this development has been: “if we, the industry, are doing our best to make buildings accessible to all persons including persons with disabilities, than we should also ensure that the people with disabilities can be evacuated when an emergency arises.” As a result the Technical Specification TS81-76 has been produced, which is largely overlapping with the BS9999. Both documents stick to the principle that evacuation of a building shall be entirely by stairs, and thus are only specifying requirements for lifts which are intended for the evacuation of disabled persons. Although some aspects from these documents might be used as guidance for evacuation lifts in tall buildings, it is clear that the purpose is totally different. ISO, on the contrary, is not specifically aiming on evacuation of disabled. The ISO document is specifying requirements for lifts that can be used by any passenger calling the lift during the event of an emergency, bringing the passengers automatically (without human assistance) to the evacuation exit floor. While the requirements for controller are limited, the document seems to focus on the input that needs to be provided to the lift controller coming from building equipment such as intelligent building management system (BMS) and monitoring Continued

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systems. Such systems should decide about the priorities of evacuation floors and abandoning certain floors, e.g. dependent on the floor level of the detected emergency. The ASME document that was published last year can be regarded as a further elaboration of this concept. A third concept of evacuation lift that could be distinguished is lifts that shuttle between the main floor and a predetermined intermediate refuge floor, under the control of a person travelling with the lift. Such system is applied in various tall buildings, but no standard is being prepared for this yet. In this paper we want to make a comparison of the different concepts which are on the market, and which are being developed. As a conclusion we will make suggestions for further standardization and development.

2. Current Practice 2.1 Lift Attendant Controlled Lift in the UK The current practice in the UK is to use a lift attendant controlled lift for building evacuation according to British Standard BS9999. This lift is designated to evacuate disabled occupants from the building in case of emergency. In this lift there is a lift attendant in the car who controls the lift. A fire coordinator stays at the main emergency exit floor to coordinate the evacuation. The lift is basically a firefighter lift and used as evacuation lift. It has two triangular key switches at the main landing. One key switch is for fire-fighting (FB) and another one is for evacuation (EVAC) operation. When fire occurs the evacuation assistant uses the EVAC key-switch to shift the lift to evacuation mode. Then all the call buttons at landings become inactive. There is a two way intercom device at each landing, at the main landing and in the car. Occupants from the landing communicate with evacuation coordinator at the main landing. He then communicates to the lift attendant in the car and asks him to go to the floor and collect the passenger and evacuate at the main landing. The lift should have secondary power supply. There are two LEDs at the landing panel to show whether the lift is running with primary or secondary power.

Figure 1. More London plot 1, a multitenant office building (www.london-se1. co.uk/places/more-london-riverside)

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Figure 2. Petronas Towers (www.stockfreeimages.com)

Figure 1 shows the More London plot 1-building as an example of a building wherein a lift attendant controlled lift is used. This is a nine-floor office building and a combination of firefighter / evacuation lift as discussed above is installed in the building.

2.2 Shuttle Lift for High-rise Building Many high rise buildings in recent days are built with an intermediate refuge floor. The refuge is a relatively safe place inside the building where people can stay during an emergency situation for a period of time until they got some assistance, and it should be safe from fire, smoke and heat etc. In the case of emergency, the occupants of the building gather and wait for the lift at the refuge floors. Then they use the designated ‘shuttle’ lift Continued

Figure 3. Burj Khalifa in Dubai (www.all-free-download.com)


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to evacuate themselves from the refuge floor to the main evacuation exit floor. Most of the time the ‘shuttle’ lifts are firefighter lifts and controlled by firefighters or other trained fire coordinators. Shuttle lifts are used in case of evacuation of Petronas twin tower in Kuala Lumpur (Ariff 2003). In both of the towers there are refuge floors in the 41st and 42nd floors. Occupants from the higher floors use the stairs to gather at the refuge floors and are then evacuated with shuttle lifts from those floors. Occupants from the floors below the refuge floors use stairs to evacuate themselves. Figure 2 shows Petronas twin tower. Some kind of priority control is needed for shuttle lifts. An obvious way to achieve this is to apply firefighter lifts. The ‘Life Boat principle’, applying the ‘phase III control’, as described by Mr. Fortune (Fortune 2010), can be regarded as a specific elaborated type of this shuttle principle. In this system there is a ‘Life Boat’ switch (control switch of the lift) at the Fire Command Centre of the building and a monitoring system is provided at the refuge lobbies, main landings as well as in the lift shaft and machinery spaces which monitors the safe condition of the building and communicates to the command center. If an ‘All clear’ message is received at the Fire Command Centre, the ‘Life Boat’ switch is operated manually. The lift then starts shuttle service between the refuge floor and the main evacuation exit landing automatically. All other car calls and hall calls shall be inoperative during this special (Life Boat) evacuation service. Ten Lifts with ‘Life Boat’ operation are installed in Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Figure 3 shows Burj Khalifa in Dubai.

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The British Standard BS9999: Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings describes the safety regulation for using lifts in case of building evacuation. Evacuation lifts in accordance with this standard, or alternatively Firefighter lifts can be used for evacuation of disabled occupants, but only if it is installed with proper safety and controlled by trained personnel or by a firefighter. If the lift is used as evacuation lift, it must be switched to controlled operation by an authorized person, and the lift should be only directed to the lobbies where any occupants are waiting for the assistance for evacuation. If the building is equipped with fire detectors, the lift returns to the main landing with the detection of fire and from there the control of the lift can be overtaken. This overtaking of the control is done by an evacuation switch at the main landing. To manage the evacuation process, a number of evacuation assistants are appointed who have capability to operate the evacuation operation. Buildings with more than two stories need some communication devices to enable rapid identification of lobbies with persons required assistance for evacuation and relaying this information to the person operating the lift staying in the car. Such a system may consist of a control located at each lift landing and linked to the lift car call indicators. Requests may be made to the person controlling the evacuation, either by using visual Continued

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indicators or a telephone and then relaying to the lift operator by telephone, or by a communications system using personal radio transceivers. Staff member located at the main landing should be responsible for evacuation and should have some training for evacuation.

3.2 CEN/TS81-76 The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) has published a technical specification called CEN/TS 81-76: Evacuation of disabled persons using lift. This is about a lift system, which is designated for disabled persons only, to evacuate them from a building in case of an emergency. The other (healthy) persons must use stairs to evacuate themselves from the building. As this lift is designated for the disabled person evacuation, it must stop at all floors. There shall be a key switch at the Main Evacuation Exit Floor (MEEF) to take the control of the lift. When this switch is activated, the lift denies any registered calls and comes to the MEEF directly and opens the door. All car and landing calls are deleted, and the car operating system becomes inoperative. A trained evacuation assistant then enters to the lift and controls the lift from inside. He then drives the lift to the floor where any disabled persons are waiting for the lift and evacuates them. After completion of evacuation, he deactivates the key switch and the lift stays at the MEEF with the doors open. In addition to the normal lift communication device there shall be a communication device similar to that of a firefighters lift, which shall be activated when the lift is in evacuation mode. The communication system includes speakers and microphones in the car, at the MEEF, any machine room and or emergency rescue panel. In the landings and in the car, a disabled evacuation sign shall light up during evacuation operation. An evacuation coordinator shall be present at the MEEF to coordinate the evacuation process.

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International Standardization Organization (ISO) published a draft technical specification on evacuation lifts and is called ISO DTS 18870: Requirements for lifts used to assist in building evacuation. This is an automatic controlled lift used under supervision of Building Management System (BMS) during evacuation. This lift is not limited to disabled occupants only but designed to be used by all occupants of the building. Evacuation service can be initiated by a device or signal from a BMS or hazard detection system of the building. Then the lift cancels all calls and arrives to the Main Evacuation Exit Floor (MEEF) to release the existing passengers. Upon receiving an evacuation call by BMS, the lift goes to the floor directly and opens the doors for a specified time to allow occupants to enter to the car. After the time is expired or the lift is fully loaded, the lift closes the doors and goes to the MEEF directly. After the lift released all passengers at the MEEF, it directly goes to the called floor if the floor is not completely evacuated, or to attend another evacuation call from BMS if the floor is completely evacuated. Continued

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Table 1. Comparison between different evacuation lift concepts Principle 1

Standard Persons to be evacuated Served floors Application & Building type Control

Required assistants Monitoring Communication system

Principle 2

CEN/BS

ISO

ASME

TS81 -76 BS 9999 Disabled persons All floors

DTS18870

A17. 1

All occupants

All occupants

All floors High-rise buildings Automatic/BMS (on landing call)

5 floors closest to the fire High-rise office buildings Automatic/BMS (on landing call)

-

-

For dispatching by BMS

For dispatching by BMS

Car to Fire Command Center -

Car to authorized personnel

Care buildings, Hospitals From inside the car (by “Lift Attendant”) 1 person in car 1 coordinator on main floor For securing safe environment Landings to MEEF + MEEF to car

Pictogram

Evacuation service terminates with a signal from BMS or manual reset by authorized persons. In this case the lift returns to the MEEF and stays there with the doors open. The lift system relies on the BMS as well as monitoring systems at the lobbies, lift shaft and machine room. Lifts suspend evacuation operation upon receiving any signal which shows an unsafe condition of the lift or the environment where the occupants gather to use the lift. There should be a direct communication device between the lift car and the Fire Command Centre (FCC).

3.4 ASME A17.1 In 2013 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) published a new version ASME A17.1: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. This document specifies so called Occupant Evacuation Operation (OEO) which allows using lifts for evacuation in case of emergency. In this operational mode the lifts will shuttle between the five floors closest to the fire (e.g. fire floor, two floors above and two floors below) and the

-

elevator discharge level. Occupants will not be able to travel to or from any other floor using lift. Signs and voice announcements on all floors will inform occupants about the emergency, and whether or not the elevators are available for their use. OEO is initiated by the building alarm and can be utilized until the fire brigade arrives. The fire brigade then can recall the lifts and start using it under phase II operation. The lift shall have a 2-way emergency communication device between the car and the authorized personnel of the building, emergency standby power supply, signalizations, and switches at the main landing allowing firefighters to selectively recall individual lifts for phase II operation.

4. Comparison When we look at the development of standards/requirements for evacuation lifts, we can clearly identify three basic principles: 1) Lifts that serve all floors in order to

allow evacuation of persons who cannot Principle 3 take the stairs (as in BS9999 & CEN/ Shuttle/Life Boat TS81-76). 2) Lifts which remain in operation and which All occupants can be used for ‘self-evacuation’ Intermediate without the need of Refuge floors any assistance, High-rise buildings supervised and From inside directed by intelligent the car building systems (as in (by “Lift ISO/DTS18870 and in Attendant”) ASME A17.1). 1 person in car 3) Lifts that shuttle 1 coordinator on main floor between the main For securing evacuation exit floors safe and pre-defined environment intermediate refuge Car to Fire floors that need to be Command Center evacuated in order to speed up the evacuation of all occupants from the building. (as in phase III or the ‘lifeboatprinciple’). When writing this article only examples of types 1) and 3) are known. Information of an example according ISO (principle 2) is not available.

4.1 Requirements for Safe Environment All of the types largely depend on a safe environment, to be provided by the building. This includes the following aspects: ♦♦ Ensuring the reliable and safe functioning of the lift by protecting the lift equipment and the power supply against the effects of heat fire and smoke. ♦♦ Ensuring a safe environment for the passengers who are waiting in the lobby and who are traveling in the shaft, including a safe exit route when lift is no longer in function. Requirements for this aspect are also described in EN81-72 for firefighter lifts, which was used as reference for some of the (draft) standards for evacuation. Continued

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Figure 4. Proposed pictograms for identification of different lift types

4.2 Monitoring & Dispatching

car where he should go to pick up the disabled passenger waiting at the floor.

In addition to the requirements for safe environment, which are described in EN81-72, most of the documents are assuming some kind of monitoring of the safe environment. In the BS and CEN/TS document, this is rather mentioned as an option. Also, in the life boat principle, we can imagine functioning even without this monitoring. In the ASME and ISO documents, the monitoring is essential: intelligent building systems are required for deciding which floors shall be evacuated with priority, and which floors shall be avoided.

4.4 Control The various systems are either controlled from inside the car, or supervised by intelligent building systems. In the Life Boat principle from Mr. Fortune, the control is limited to only closing of the doors from inside the car. Controlling the lift from inside the car is an obvious solution, but also it has some disadvantages: It requires an extra member from the Emergency Response Team (ERT) of the building, not having a very difficult task, but with certain psychological impact (traveling alone upward, leaving building as last person). It decreases the capacity of the lift (instead of this person, one extra person could be evacuated). Closing the doors before shuttling downward might be difficult when a crowd is rushing in the doors. So far no system has been described that allows an ERT member to control the lift outside the car, from the floor that needs to be evacuated. That could be an alternative which might have some benefits.

4.3 Communication Systems All documents recognize the importance of good communication during the emergency. The documents rely largely upon communication systems from the building, not only from the lift. The communication from the lift car to the main landing or to the command centre falls under the lift equipment. But communications to the floor where passengers are waiting fall under the building equipment. Direct communication from the floor to be evacuated to the person controlling the car is not arranged. Especially in the BS and CEN/TS document this could be regarded as a disadvantage, certainly if we take into account that the landing buttons in these documents are disabled, and a handicapped person is fully dependent on using the intercom for calling the lift. The only way for this passenger to call a lift is using the building-intercom (if any!) to inform the coordinator (or command center) that he is waiting on a certain floor. The next step is that the coordinator informs the evacuation assistant in the

4.5 Evacuation Lift Pictograms Only CEN/TS81-76 specifies a pictogram for the evacuation lift, showing a wheelchair heading in the direction of the lift. It should be noted that the same pictogram is also suggested on the inside of the car, while in fact it would be more suitable to use a pictogram here showing a wheelchair going out of the car. The Continued

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other documents are not specifying any pictograms that allow identification of the evacuation lift. Consideration should be made to developing a range of pictograms allowing to identify the different kinds of evacuation lifts, including the type of control, and the aimed passengers. Figure 4 shows proposals for pictograms of different lift types.

5. Conclusion When overlooking all the developments that take place in practice as well as in the field of standardization, we can make the following conclusions: 1) Various developments seem to end up in one out of three different principles. The lifeboat principle doesn’t give a solution for disabled persons, and should therefore always be combined with at least one lift serving all floors, such as an evacuation lift according BS or CEN, or a firefighter lift. These lifts, on the other hand, are not at itself adequate to reduce evacuation time of large buildings. Therefore, it seems logical that some standardization will take place of the integration of these two principles. 2) At this moment application of lifts for evacuation seems to be restricted to highly advanced buildings. Extensive building systems are required: if not a very sophisticated BMS or monitoring system, then still each of the described system depends on communication systems that are part of the building. This will rule out the safe application of evacuation lifts in many smaller and simpler buildings, even those where an Emergency Response Team (ERT) is present. In the future,

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industry might consider to develop a standard for evacuation lifts, which are also feasible for ‘low-end buildings’, and which could even function independent from any building system, starting with a communication system that is fully integrated in the lift. 3) Regarding the control of the lift, it seems that there lays an opportunity to develop a system that can be controlled not from inside the car as in described systems, but by a member of the ERT who is present at the landing that needs to be evacuated. This would have the following advantages: a. Less impact on ERT team, in terms of capacity, and psychological impact b. Efficient use of car capacity for evacuation This kind of control would be perfectly suitable for shuttle lifts as in the lifeboat principle, but could also be applied for lifts that shuttle from the main landing to any floor where a member of the ERT team is present. We hope that above gives some guidance in further development of standards. Mitsubishi is working on a system which is taking into account above matters.

6. References Ariff, A. (2003). Review of Evacuation Procedure for Petronas twin Towers. CIB/CTBUH Conference, Kuala Lumpur, October 20-23, pp. 35-42. Bukowski, R. (2010). International Application of Elevators for Fire Service Access and Occupant egress in Fires. CTBUH Journal Issue 3, pp. 28-33. Fortune, J. W. (2010). Emergency Building Evacuations via Elevators. CTBUH World Conference, Mumbai, India, February 3-5. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) (2012). A17.1: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. British Standards Institution (BSI) (2008). BS9999: Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings. European Committee for Standardization (CEN) (2011). CEN/TS 81-76: Evacuation of disabled persons using lift. International Standardization Organization (ISO) (2012). ISO DTS 18870: Requirements for lifts used to assist in building evacuation.

7. Biographical Details Ashiqur Rahman received M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Stuttgart, Germany in 2004. Since 2009 he works for Mitsubishi Elevator Europe B.V. in Veenendaal, The Netherlands at the R&D Centre. Wim Offerhaus graduated in 1993 as a M.Sc. in Industrial Design Engineering at the Technical University of Delft. Since 1997 he works for Mitsubishi Elevator Europe B.V. in Veenendaal, The Netherlands at the R&D Centre. Wim Offerhaus is a member of CEN/TC10/Wg6 and Wg1, and also of the national standardization committee for lift standards in The Netherlands.


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ELEVATOR WORLD Continuing Education Assessment Examination Questions Read the article “Elevator Door Force” (p. 75) and study the learningreinforcement questions at the end of the article. To receive two hours (0.2 CEUs) of continuing-education credit, answer the assessment examination questions found below online at www.elevatorbooks. com or fill out the ELEVATOR WORLD Continuing Education reporting form found overleaf and submit by mail with payment. Approved for Continuing Education by NAEC for CET®.

1. The speed of a door increases when: a. The car is in motion. b. The acceleration stops. c. It is being accelerated. d. It approaches the end of travel. 2. When adjusting the speed of the doors, adjusting the current limit will: a. Increase the speed. b. Increase the available force. c. Decrease the speed. d. Stop the motor. 3. Kinetic-energy limits are located in ASME A17.1/CSA B44 requirement: a. 2.14.3. b. 2.13.4.1. c. 2.13.4.2. d. 2.14.4.2. 4. The code zone distance of sideopening doors is the entrance width minus: a. 50 mm (2 in.) per door panel. b. 100 mm (4 in.) per entrance. c. 150 mm (6 in.) per entrance. d. None of the above; the distance is the same as for center-opening doors. 5. Average velocity of the doors determine kinetic energy is the ______ divided by the ______. a. time, distance b. distance, time c. time in the code zone, distance in the code zone d. distance in the code zone, time in the code zone 6. If a tachometer is used to measure the peak door speed, the average door speed would be approximately ______ times ______. a. 1.57, slower b. 1.57, faster c. 1.75, slower d. 1.75, faster 7. For a given speed of the doors, adding 40 kg (88 lb.) to the doors would ______ the kinetic energy. a. have no effect on b. increase c. decrease d. disable

8. For a given weight of the doors, speeding up the doors would ______ the kinetic energy. a. have no effect on b. increase c. decrease d. disable 9. Being struck by an object with 30 J (25 ft.-lbf ) has the equivalent energy as being struck by a: a. Beach ball dropped from 3 m (10 ft). b. 11-kg (25-lb.) ball dropped from 1 m (1 ft.). c. 30-kg (25-lb.) ball dropped from 1 m (1 ft.). d. Basketball dropped from 3 m (10 ft.). 10. Door data plates are required by code on all: a. Existing elevators. b. New elevators starting in 1978 and alterations. c. New elevators starting in 1996 and alterations. d. New elevators starting in 2000 and alterations. 11. The force retainers on a hoistway door designed to the 1996 edition of A17.1 must resist before disengaging from the entrance if ______ is applied to the center of the door panel. a. 30 lbf (133 N) b. 250 lbf (1112 N) c. 625 lbf (2780 N) d. 1,125 lbf (5000 N) 12. Door speeds change because of: a. Temperature changes. b. Loosening of components. c. Humidity changes. d. Electrical transients.

15. Adding current to an electrical motor will: a. Increase its speed. b. Decrease its speed. c. Increase its torque. d. Decrease its torque. 16. ASME A17.1/CSA B44 Section ______ requires maintenance and testing of door forces. a. 2.13 b. 2.14 c. 8.4 d. 8.6 17. The typical length of time to measure the door force is approximately: a. 10 s. b. 30 s. c. 1 min. d. 10 min. 18. The typical length of time to measure the door closing time in the code zone is approximately: a. 10 s. b. 30 s. c. 1 min. d. 10 min. 19. The maximum door force allowed by code is: a. 13.5 N (3 lbf ). b. 27 N (6 lbf ). c. 135 N (30 lbf ). d. 200 N (45 lbf ). 20. Kinetic energy is the: a. Heat of running. b. Energy in a calorie. c. Energy of motion. d. Same as potential energy.

13. A17.1 Requirement ______ specifies the maximum door force. a. 2.14.4.1 b. 2.14.3.1 c. 2.13.4.2.3 d. 2.13.4.1 14. 1 ft.-lbf is the energy required to lift: a. 1 lb. 1 ft. b. 10 lb. 2 ft. c. 1 ft. up one stair step. d. 1 lb. 10 ft. November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Last name: ______________________________________________ First name: _________________________ Middle initial:________ CETÂŽ, CATÂŽ or QEI number:_____________________________ State License number: ___________________________________ Company name: ______________________________________ Address:________________________ City:_________________ State: __________________________ZIP code: _______________ Telephone:______________________ Fax: __________________ E-mail: _________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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Product Spotlight

New Technology Applications Sensors, monitoring devices and an entire elevator system are featured this month.

❮ New Controller Module Supports Remote Monitoring

Schmersal Böhnke + Partner has introduced its bp408 lift controller module. It is compact enough to be fitted in door frames, eliminating traditional control cabinets. A built-in safety switch fulfills the requirements of EN 81-20 and -50. Functions also include self driving and collective control, priority and guest calls, and functions for “freedom from barriers” in accordance with EN 81-70. Its “highly developed group algorithm” is adapted to relevant systems and allows it to control up to eight lifts. Paired with the WinMOS®300 software, the module can provide a range of additional functions, such as remote monitoring and maintenance, and emergency call management. It can also be utilized by CANopen lift components. www.schmersal.net

Sensors with Increased Range

Carlo Gavazzi Inc. has announced an expansion of its popular sensors. The new Extra Extended Range ICB Series Inductive Proximity Sensors provide sensing distances up to three times the sensing distances of standard inductive proximity sensors, up to 10, 20 and 40 mm, depending on model. Additionally, calibration after assembly is allowed, enabling greater temperature stability, reliability and repeatability. A microprocessor design simplifies OEM customization requests, such as special output types, switching frequencies and timing functions. The associated diagnostic LED can be viewed from any direction and provides status, setup, shortcircuit and overload indication. The sensors have an operating frequency up to 2,000 Hz and carry cULus and CE markings, rated for operation from -25°C to +70°C (-13° to +158°F). Connection options include either a 2-m PVC cable or M12 disconnect plug. www.GavazziOnline.com

Continued

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Inductive Proximity Sensors, Cordsets

Carlo Gavazzi has released two new product lines designed specifically for harsh environments. Its ICS Inductive Proximity Sensors accommodate both hot and cold temperature extremes with an operating range of ‑40°C to +80°C. The three-wire DC ICS series is available in M12, M18, and M30 316L stainless-steel housings, with single or double sensing distance, flush or nonflush mounting, and normally open or normally closed outputs with 200 mA positive-negative-positive or negative-positivenegative transistor output. The company’s IP69K CONB Series Cordsets are ECOLAB certified with one of the highest temperature ratings in the market: ‑40°C to 105°C. The CONB Series cord sets are intended to complement IP69K-rated sensors, including inductive, photoelectric and capacitive sensors. They are available in lengths of 2 or 5 m, with a straight or 90° connector, and in nonilluminated or LED versions. www.GavazziOnline.com

❮ Safety Brake Monitoring

Mayr GmbH + Co. KG has introduced an intelligent brake control module ROBA®-brakechecker. This module is not only able to energize brakes, it can also monitor them without the use of sensors. The product can be integrated into existing systems and communicate with superordinate controls. It recognizes the switching condition of the actuator and the wear on the brake linings, and detects safety-critical conditions prior to their occurrence. Any changes in the braking torque can, thus, be instantly detected and countermeasures initiated. The product is designed for an input voltage of 24 or 48 VDC and can control brakes with a coil nominal current of 10 or 5 A. It detects when the brake condition changes (i.e., whether the armature disk has been attracted or released) and emits the respective switching condition of the brake via a signal output. The switching condition of safety brakes can, therefore, be recorded in machines and systems even without the usual microswitches or proximity sensors. It is able to detect a possible wear reserve or line breakage, or, if applicable, unpermitted heating. Dimensions of 30 mm in height, 69 mm in width and 73.6 mm in length allow integration into most control cabinets. www.mayr.com

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â?Ž Home Elevator

Terry Lifts has introduced the Lifestyle Home Elevator, touted as a compact, easy-to-operate and efficient alternative to the chairlift. The lift is ergonomically designed and comes in an array of colors and finishes. Installation typically takes a few days, and distributors are located in numerous countries, including the U.S. and Canada. Features include: ♌♌ Fire protection in line with BS 5900:2012 ♌♌ Pressure-sensitive safety surfaces to stop the lift if it is obstructed from above or below ♌♌ Prevention of travel when door is open ♌♌ Backup battery power ♌♌ Adjustable cabin lighting ♌♌ Capacity of 250 kg ♌♌ CE marking đ&#x;Œ? www.terrylifts.co.uk  

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1_12 Class

• Copper, Architectural Bronze, Commercial Bronze, Muntz, Aluminum, Stainless Steels, and VM ZINC® Sheet, Circles, Plate, Bar, Tube, Pipe Handrail, and various profiles. • Alloys C110, C220, C230, C260, C272, C280, C330, C353, C385 • Muntz Sheets available in Brushed and Mirror finish

Canadian Brass and Copper Co. 225 Doney Crescent • Concord, ON L4K 1P6 Tel. 416-736-0797 • Fax 416-736-7510 Toll Free 1-800-845-1134 www.canadianbrass.ca sales@canadianbrass.ca


Advertisers Index Adams Elevator Equipment Company......................21

SafeLine Sweden AB..........................................................105

AFD Industries, Inc.................................................................11

Savaria, Inc..................................................................................15

Alimak Hek AB.......................................................................106

SEES Inc./Southern Elevator & Electric......................13

Ametal Asansor San. Ve Tic. A.S......................................79

Sematic S.p.a..................................................................Cover 2

Bella Elevator LLC....................................................................14

Shanghai BST Electric Co., Ltd.........................................87

Brugg Wire Rope, LLC..............................................................7

Shanghai Gie Em Co. Ltd...................................................67

C.E. Electronics, Inc................................................................33

SJEC Corporation....................................................................63

Canton Elevator, Inc..............................................................27

Smartrise Engineering, Inc...................................................9

CGI Northeast, Inc..................................................................50

SnapCab.......................................................................................61

China Elevator Magazine................................................116

The Texacone Company.....................................................50

Claddagh Electronics, Ltd..................................................98

Torin Drive International.................................................103

Columbia Elevator Products Co., Inc...........................22

Tri-Lok Mfg. & Maint. Corp..............................................112

Draka Elevator Products.........................................Cover 4

Union-Gard..............................................................................114

Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation......................119

Unitec Parts Co.........................................................................29

Elevator Motors/Materials Corp.....................................69

Vertical Express........................................................................51

Elevator Safety Company...............................................111

Virgo Communications &

Elevators EV International..................................................91

Elgo Electronic GmbH & Co. KG.....................................48

Wire Rope Works Messilot Ltd........................................43

FieldBoss......................................................................................46

Wurtec, Inc..........................................................................49, 89

G.A.L. Manufacturing Corporation............................107

Zhejiang Xizi Forward Electrical

GAL Canada...............................................................................65

Exhibitions Pvt. Ltd..................................................120

Machinery, Ltd..............................................................95

GEN Elektromekanik San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti...................19 Global Tardif Elevator Manufacturing

Elevator World Products

Group Inc......................................................................109

2016 EW Media Planners...................................................74

Gustav Wolf GmbH....................................................Cover 3

Focus Topic Books Available.........................................115

Hidral USA, Inc..........................................................................83

Visit the EW Blog..................................................................122

Hollister-Whitney Elevator Corp.......................................1

Continuing Education Courses...................................127

Inpro............................................................................................113 Integrated Display Systems, Inc..................................108 International Steel & Counterweights....................108 JM Associates/Burnham + Company.........................76 K.A. Schmersal GmbH..........................................................17 KONE, Inc.....................................................................................92 Kumalift Co., Ltd......................................................................59 LM Liftmaterial GmbH.........................................................99 Magnetek-Elevator Products Division........................97 Man-D-Tec, Inc.............................................................................3 Monitor Elevator Products................................................31 Motion Control Engineering, Inc. (MCE)......................5 NAEC...............................................................................................41 Ningbo Xinda Group Co., Ltd..........................................35 The Peelle Company Ltd....................................................23 Physical Measurement Technologies.........................45 PTL Equipment Manufacturing Corp.........................93 Quality Elevator Products...............................................101 Quick Cab by Vertical Dimensions...............................18 Reynolds & Reynolds Electronics..................................47 Ring Communications, Inc...............................................81

Don’t Forget!

The DEADLINE for recertification is December 31st!

Classified Advertising ATEL Corporation Blain Hydraulics Gmbh C.J. Anderson & Company Canadian Brass and Copper Co. Code Data Plate Delaware Elevator Delaware Elevator Residential Elevator Equipment Corporation (EECO) Lift Business Advisors, Inc. Maxton Manufacturing Company McGill Waters, P.A. Parts Specialists, Inc Precision Escalator Products, Inc. Renown Electric Motors and Repair Inc. Serapid, Inc. Silver State Elevator Company

Let us help with your Continuing Education needs. Order today... additional fees APPLY IN DECEMBER!

Smart Elevator Tech LLC Vator Accessories World Electronics

November 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

127


Last Glance

Historic, Artful and Utilitarian The Santa Justa Lift, also known as the “Carmo Lift,” is an elevator in the historical Santa Justa area of Lisbon, Portugal. It connects Carmo Square with the streets below it and serves as the only remaining vertical urban lift in the city, as reported in the Lift Engineering Society of Australia (LESA) Newsletter. Work on the ornate structure took place throughout 1900 and 1901. The elevator originally used steam power but was converted to electric in 1907.

A two-level spiral staircase leads from the top floor to the roof lookout above (photos courtesy of LESA).

128

www.elevatorworld.com • November 2015


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www.gustav-wolf.com

Gustav Wolf wire ropes are available from: Draka (US/Canada) 1-877-DRAKA-EP (1-877-372-5237) Benfield (Metro NYC) 1-718-706-8600 S.E.E.S. Inc. (Florida) 1-800-526-0026 For technical support 1-919-878-5605


There are reasons for selecting to work with a global company.

All the SERVICE All the PRODUCTS All the WORLD Even if you have worked for years with Draka, you may not realize the benefits you get from Draka being part of the Prysmian Group, the world’s largest manufacturer of electrical cable. And if you haven’t been working with Draka, consider what you may be missing. The Prysmian relationship expands Draka’s 40+ years of elevator cable experience. We have broadened innovative efforts to bring you fresh products that will save you even more money and further speed your work. We can provide and refine services like logistal support and connectorization. And we have the expanded resources to leverage our elevator know-how to new markets. But most of all, the Prysmian/Draka partnership permits the discoveries of one company to fuel the successes of all of the parts. Advances in quality, service and customer satisfaction flow to all of the entities in the group. All the service. All the products. All the world. That’s Draka. North America • 1•877•372•5237 Metro NYC • 718•784•3816 So. California • 323•888•2325 Toronto • 519•758•0605 www.drakaelevator.com


电梯世界2015年11期