This project explores the description of concrete as a ‘medium’. It is a global medium but is attempting to create local identity, furthermore acts as a photographic negative which captures the impress of formwork. My ‘touch stone’ which displayed the imprint of bamboo and Newcastle’s figure ground, give two local images on two sides of this global medium. This becomes a metaphor for the project’s program of an ‘Ideagora’. A Cultural Exchange Centre at the gate of Newcastle will contribute to solve recent immigration problems, foster encounters and understanding between different ethnic groups in Newcastle. Through culture’s fragments as Language, Art, Dance, Music and Food ,this centre, with an ‘Exchange Hall’ at its heart, is a common platform which helps to avoid conflict and create a more united society.
Brother Klaus Chapel Peter Zumthor - bamboo formwork - material and spatial studies
Guggenheim Museum FLW - circulation, spatial quality
Rolex learning centre SANNA - hierachy, topography
Using a site model for the formwork, a negative of the site was impress on the touchstone. It is a study about mass and void, above and below. Buildings represented as sunken, meanwhile some underground structure include the bank’s vault are the convext elements. This also gave the touchstone a local identity, achived by a digital process. 6
Seatle Library OMA - massing & programatic Distribution
Tower of Babel - biblical analogy
Using bamboo formwork on the other size, a nature and raw image of concrete was also studied. Bamboo grow abundant everywhere in the world but Europe, give it quiet a non-local image on this context. It also used for the reinforcement which partly reveal here. Concrete in this touch stone become a medium, contain and transmit two contrast image created by the lost formworks.
Acrylic formwork- Synthensis material - Smooth surface
Bamboo formwork- Nature material - Rough surface
Newcastle figure groundPerfurated parten - local image
Reuse formwork element to made bookshelf. Potential to be funiture in the building
NewcastleGatehead culture map
The design arise from simple architectural principle which response to the context. Three distinctive volume was propose to respose to three diffirence context woven in the site. The top volume try to respose to city scape, can be see from Tyne bridge and have a panoramic view of the city. The middle volume, follow the street scape by careful considers in heigh and facade. The bottom volume, response to the underground system in the site, connect with the subways. This three volume then be connected by a continuous circulation - a spiral from bottom to top, and the Exchange Hall. The building become a continuos route, not just only inside but also link all the disconnected route due to level differences in the site.
Combination of exiting organization
Adult Learning Center Newcastle City Council Language Classes Workshops
Training for Immigrants English training classes Job related Training Workshop
Culture Exchange Centre
Culture Connection Workshop Exhibion Cookery school
cafe - restaurant 200m2
language labs 5 x 75m2
reception & shop 100m2
foyer - exhibition debating chamber 150 m2
media space 150m2
auditorium 350 seats 500m2
workshops 5 x 75m2
Exchange Hall Concept
CAFE - BAR- RESTAURANT ROOF GARDEN LANGUAGE LABS LANGUAGE LABS FUCTION ROOM
CULTURAL WORKSHOPS Circulation
ROOF GARDEN LANGUAGE LABS LANGUAGE LABS MEDIA LOUNGE OFFICE SHOP
1:500 process models
The exchange hall is a room with bamboo formwork and aclylic -site map formwork woven together. The spatial quality contributed by the solidness of concrete wall, with two top-lit opening bring light down to a united platform. This is the place of encounters and understanding for fragmented cultures. As a multi funtional space, it can be used as a exhibition of diversity culture, or a event room for diffirent communities, or even a debating chamber for social problems which may create conflict and seperation.
1:200 spatial study casts
1:200 process models
N-S site section
Vault floor -2
Vault floor -1
Roof garden - Fifth floor
Cafe - Restaurant Bamboo roof garden
Structure Bankâ€™s vault, Shear walls, Columns
Floors, Ramps, Stair, Roof Language centre Library, Media lounge Offices
Ventilation - Stack effect
Reception & Shop Exchange Hall
Lighting - Summer - winter sun
Auditorium Art gallery Workshops
14 Explode Axonometric
W-E perspective section
N-S perspective section
Locate at the gate of Newcaste, this facade was try to response for the need of a new lankmark. It also try to response to the whiteness of the surrounding, and the play of mullions is a refection of the fast movement of the roundabout.
PRIGRIM ST ENTRANCE
Meanwhile, Prigrim St facade was try to depict the odinary of the ajacent building, with careful consider on roofscape and oppening. The entrance box was located in the begining of a alley lead to a new public square, gave a smoother transition into the building.
A place is a place in so far as it is both global and local. - Adrian Forty -
Auditorium in the bank vault
Cafe - Restaurant with panoramic view of the city
Jouney - a countiuous route with rooms as object
Language labs - objects on the route
Walkway - rough and smooth, nature and synthensys 21
Roof details: - Bamboo plant - 600mm soil - Filter - Drainage - Waterproofing Menbrane - 100mm Insulation - 250mm Concrete Slab
Wall details: - 40mm polycarbonate cladding - Cladding transom-anodised aluminium - 40x32 cladding edge trim - Steel mullion support bracket - 50mm Insulation fixed - 150mm insulation in all gap - 40mm polycarbonate internal cladding
Intermediate floor details - 1000x1000x50mm traveltine floor tile - 50x50x200 mm steel support bracket - 250mm concrete flat slab
Ground floor details - 50mm traveltine floor tile - 150mm Screed with Pine work - 150mm Insulation - 250mm concrete slab - Waterproofing Menbrane - Gravel
1:20 Juctions details
Located in the centre of the old industrial district Poblenou, Can Ricart is a 19th century industrial heritage of not only the district but of Barcelona and Spain. Historically used as a textile factory, then a chemical factory, Can Ricart nowaday was left over as a ruin, surrounded by new high-rise development of the city. Recenly ocupied by the Hangar, a centre for contemporary art, a new direction for the development of Can Ricart are open up. The brief was create a micro-city within the existing structure, create a factory of synergies between productive, creative, social and educational programs. The masterplan of the project was extend beyond the brief. As the license for the old master plan was expired, we decided to redesign the South block of the site. Visibility form the Diagonal to the main facade of Can Ricart was frame by new housing block, abring the image of Can Ricart as a first class listed heritage back to the city. A high office tower was introduced, with careful consider on the shadow, intend to be a new landmark of the city, bring people to the new public square next to it, and to Can Ricart in general. productive creative social & educational
Inside-outside study model
By introducing different route on different level, a new experience of the space was create. Using a coherent architectural language as the white box arround the site and existing structure, the seperation of inside and ouside now be blur, create the feeling of a microcity inside the existing structure. 28
Masterplan and landscape strategies
Macro scale: The master plan of the project was gone beyond the brief, taking the whole 4 block as the site. For visibility connection from the Diagonal to the main facade of Can Ricart, the new master plan also trying to re-open Can Ricart image back to the city, draw people in to the new development of this micro-city. Instead of the original master plan with dense blocks, a high office tower was introduced, intend to be a new landmark of the city and create a large public space. Shadow of the tower was considered, giving shade for the site in the afternoon. The experience of space in the old town of Barcelona with narrow alleys lead to â€˜unexpectedâ€™ public space was applied to this site. The quality of Can Ricart itself with the confusion of inside-outside spatial qualities of the existing structure was also become the concept for the design. This can be done by turning interior space to have the quality of outdoor space, continue the green routes into inside the existing structure. But to emphasize that quality, a basic architecture element: boxes were incidentally spread throughout the whole site, interlocked with the existing structure. This will create a language throughout the whole site, applied for varied use of the brief. All of those elements create an experience of a blur distinction between inside and outside, between architecture and landscape.
1 The Hangar 2 Outdoor artist studios 3 Outdoor cinema, exhibition and theatre 4 Cinema office incubator
1:200 site model 1 4
1 The Hangar 2 Outdoor artist studios 3 Outdoor cinema, exhibition and theatre 4 Cinema office incubator
To emphasize the blur spatial quality of inside-outside, a coherent architecture elements as white boxes were incidentally spread throughout the site, interlocked with the existing structure. This create a consistant architectural language over the site, applied for varied use of the brief. Those elements created an blur experience of architecture and landscape. Attempt to lanscapeing the existing interior, the design intend was turn the roofless existing structure to be an outdoor space. The interior of the building now become a landscape which use for exhibition at day time and cinema at night time. Trees and grass was runing into the interior, give a sense of continuity throughtout. White boxes was place between the existing wall, reinforced by material consistant and opening ,also blur the distinction of inside and outside.
tower and outdoor cinema plan
site 32 perspective section
The contrast between decaded existing structre and the non-decade material as tranlucent polycarbonate is a juxtapose bewteen the old and the new. Milky polycarbonate act as the background for the old fabric to be proudly displayed. The boxes glow at night time by the light of cinema and theatre performence inside.
As an interior landscape at day time, the asmostphere of this place is a blur distinction between in side and outside. Tranlucent material give a blur image of the existing structure, tree, people, evoke a mythetical feeling of this historical fabric.
Micro scale: Constructional studies
Roof details • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
8mm canvas 500x500x5000mm triangle truss with 3 wheels 100x60mm C shape trays 150x1300 Warren truss 15mm Fiber Reinforce Plastic with clear polyeure coating 40/40/4 mm Galvanized steel SHS rails 70/70/4 Galvanized steel SHS posts 1 mm water repellent windproof layer 140 mm insulated wood-frame structure 0.2 mm polythene sheet vapour barier 19mm plywood sheeting with glazed finish 3mm clear rooflight fluorescent lighting strip
Itermediate floor details
. 30x120x800mm timber floor board . 0.2mm polythene sheet vapour barier . 140mm insulated wood-frame stucture . 140x140mm wood beding structure . 200x100mm rectangle steel beams . 200x200mm I beam
lle is the projector room/ artist nstructed by timber stud 140x70mm, of sitting inbetween the old struced to be water proof and thermal
Ground floor details
. 400x400 Traveltine floor tiles ( inside and outside) . 50mm screed . 20mm Damp proof menberance . Concrete T Beam for foundation
The construciton part I chosen for the microscalle is the projector room/ artist studio. Cantilever out of the existing wall, it constructed by timber stud 140x70mm, and several 140x140 square stud. The position of sitting inbetween the old structure. The fuction of a projector room which need to be water proof and thermal insualted .
1:50 final model 37
Base on the win - win ecology concept, this project aske to design a temporary structure which dedicated not just for human use but also for other species. As a important node on the wild corridor of Newcastle, the concrete vacant pool in Heaton Park was chosen as the location for the British Sience Festival 2013, followed by the Bio Blitz programs. The concept of the design was to try to create a cellulos structures in varies of scales to inhabit different species simultaneously. Six structures with distictive material such as ivy, branch of the old tree, canvas, mud was place centripetaly around the pool, bring different species togerther. The main structure , cover by branch of the old oak tree, with two insect wall on two side, is a meetiing room and a observation hut. A canvas structure is used as a media room at day time, and a moth trap at night time. The bird tower is an oblivion for the oak tree. All together bring a sense of co-existance , avery primative feeling of human being. 38
1:200 site model
1:50 final model
PLAN B. Newcastle’s Byker Bridge: Taking advantage of the existing space within the arches of the Byker bridge by accomodating studios, galleries and/or cafes in southfacing spaces, raised from the ground, thus resisting the overwealming height of the bridge and creating a ‘tree house’ feeling for the visitors.
1. View over Ouseburn valley 2. Elevation 3. Perspective view of Byker Bridge
summer internship bamboo structure model 1:50
I was born in a Vietnamese village, surrounded by bamboo hedges, where there is a long tradition of utilized this material in daily life. Bamboo symbolizes the Vietnamese hometown and the Vietnamese soul: the Bamboo is a natural material with a long history of attachment with gentlemanlike, straightforwardness, hardworking, optimism, unity and people in South-East Asia countries like China, Japan and Vietnam. This 1 adaptability. Growing up and moving to the city where concrete towers long relationship created a strong influence of bamboo on human’s life, 11 aacross rise“bamboo every coming a bamboo hedges my childhood when I wasday; born in Vietnamese village, surrounded by bamboo hedges, where there is a long tradition of utilized this material in daily life. Bamboo symand created the culture”. Bamboo often lends itself to a evoke regional identity ofbolizes tropical, rural, humidity pastoral settings. I used to make toys out ofand bamboo (fig.1). Myand grandparent’s house, a soul: the gentlemanlike, straightforwardness, hardworking, optimism, unity and adaptability. the Vietnamese hometown the Vietnamese Therefore, emphasizing a specific local example is the best way and for people typical cottage built by mud, bamboo thatch, was the place held my Growing up and moving to the city where concrete towers rise every day; coming across a bamboo hedges evoke my childhood when I used to make to understand deeply about the versatile utilization of bamboo and its memories also replaced by a concrete frame house in 1997. Although toys out of bamboo. My grandparent’s house, a typical cottage built by mud, bamboo and thatch, was the place held my memories now also now cultural meaning to people in that location. And Vietnam which has a long is still abundant; the long handcraft tradition and bamboo history of usingbamboo bamboo, along with a high respect for the contribution of replaced by a concrete frame house. Although bamboo is still abundant; the long handcraft tradition and bamboo architecture are facing the risk of bamboo to Vietnam’s culture, will the focus for of thisof chapter (fig.8). architecture arebefacing the risk being only in museum. This being seen only in museum. Thisseen problematic contradiction of bamboo in modern society is the reason I have chosen to explore it in this dissertation. The journalist Thep Moi (1924-1991) wrote an essay titled “Vietnamese problematic contradiction of bamboo in modern society is the reason I Bamboo is an old-age construction material which is trying to come back to modern context. It actually is giant grass which grows often in tropical bamboo” in 1955, which begins as follows: have chosen to explore it in this dissertation.
Figure 1 Traditional bamboo flute kite – The toy I often made in childhood, made of bamboo frame and bamboo cane because of bamboo’s strength and lightweight properties- sing when it fly.
Figure 8: Luy tre Lang, Nguyen Nhat Bang, 2003. Oil on canvas. A typical traditional Vietnam village with bamboo hedges and thatch cottages,
“Vietnam is green from its manyintrees, all of which are country Asia, Africa andbeautiful SouthandAmerica (fig1). For thousand years bamboo has been used in people’s daily lives in a variety of ways: from paper, valuable. But Bamboo bamboo is is theanmost cherished tree of all. It shades and old-age construction material which is trying to come back medicine, food, basketry, furniture and especially construction material. Richard Weston and many other modern architects notice that bamboo is covers our hamlets. Under the green canopy of bamboo we have to modern context. It actually is giant grass which grows often in tropical “very fast-growing an impressive strength-to-weight ratio”, and “buildings with bamboo looked back on an ancient tradition in the regions in preserved our culture. Beneath the green canopywith of bamboo, over the countryour inhomes Asia,and Africa and South America (fig.2). For thousand years 12 centuries, we have built made our rice which plant grows in fields.” abundance”. It also appeared in art, literature and philosophy. Hence, it is not just a material but something central to people’s
bamboo has been used in people’s daily lives in a variety of ways: from
For thousands of years, from culture being a plant the adaption to man’s life asThe ‘bamboo culture’ will be specified through the relationship of bamboo with Vietnamese culture in chapter 1. local intoSouth – East Asia. paper, medicine, food,bamboo basketry, and especially construction a material, even in extreme situation, alwaysfurniture has a close The industrial revolution changed the face of building construction process, and the globalization brought the international style of the Machine Age relationship with Vietnamese people, personified a “friend”. The material. Richard Weston and as many other modern architects notice that to developing countries where bamboo is abundant. The new materials like concrete and steel have replaced bamboo as the traditional construction ‘friendship’ ofbamboo bamboo with Vietnamese people can be told in three is “very fast-growing with an impressive strength-to-weight stories below: material, and plastic transformed a large number of objects which used to be made out of bamboo. Due to bamboo’s irregular dimension, inhomo-
ratio”, and “buildings with bamboo looked back on an ancient tradition in 2 geneous characteristics, did not match requirements in industrial context which is based on the standardization for mass production. It led to a the regions in which plant grows initabundance”. It alsothe appeared in art, 10 decrease in the use of p.93 bamboo in people’s lives, becoming just a “poor man’s wood”. Industrialization of bamboo was supposed to solve these Jonathan Hill, Immaterial architecture Routledge, 2006) literature and ,(London, philosophy. Hence, it is not just a materialdaily but something 11 See Nancy Moore Bess, ‘Bamboo in Japanese Culture’, Bamboo in Japan, problems; of this process like‘bamboo ply bamboo central to people’s localproducts culture in South – East Asia. The culture’ and glue laminated bamboo are innovations which were based on the traditional working (Tokyo, Kodansha International Ltd, 2001)and pp.13-25 12 Thep moi, ’Vietnamese Bamboo’, Thepmoi’s essay collections Lan Phuong (ed.) (Hanoi: will be specified through the relationship of bamboo with Vietnamese technique of bamboo combined with lessons from the wood industry. Bamboo cane was split out, and then pressed together with glue to become Kim Dong press, 2005) pp.45-8. First appear in the movie “Vietnamese bamboo” in 1955. Entered student text book: Literature grade 6 in 1990 culture in first chapter. product. This process helped bamboo become suitable for the standardization, created products which have better strength and solid, board-like
Figure 2 Geological distribution of bamboo
Figure 3 Board-like industrial bamboo product, substitute for hard wood
Figure 5 Bamboo can grid shell model, Frei Otto, 1985
daily lives, became justduration a “poor man’scompared wood”. Industrialization of bamboocounterpart. However, the advantage of the hollow structure, the elasticity and most important the identity was lost with wood’s The industrial revolution changed the face of building construction was supposed to solve these problems; and products of this process like through this process, as its board-like appearancestyle makes process, and the globalization brought in people often misrecognize industrial bamboo as a piece of wood. This is the problems which ply bamboo and glue laminated bamboo are innovations which werethe international based on the traditional working of bamboo combined introduced in the second chapter of this dissertation. architecture totechnique developing countries wherewith bamboo is abundant. The new lessons from thematerials woodThe industry. Bamboo on cane was splithave out,was and then like concrete and steel replaced as the traditional research bamboo risingbamboo in architectural academic context in early 1960s when there was a variety of attempts to rediscover the potential pressed together with glue to become solid, board-like product (fig.3). construction material, and plastic transformed a large number of objects of regional and local building techniques, and building with bamboo played a central role. Researches of architects and engineers were divided into This process helped bamboo become suitable for the standardization, used to strength be made outlooking ofcompared bamboo. Dueappropriate to bamboo’stechnology irregular created productswhich whichtwo have better and duration directions: one foreven the while the other trying to get an alternative technology for this material. The Institute for with wood’sarchitecture. counterpart. However, the advantage of the hollow dimension, inhomogeneous characteristics, it did not match the Material culture whichat has rising attention in design Lightweight Structure Stuttgart University by Dr. Frei Otto and his staff were interested in bamboo as natural construction material and as material structure, the elasticity and most the culturalwhich identityis of requirements inforimportant industrial context based on‘Concrete the standardization research recently, example Adrian Forty’s new book for this lightweight structure, used bamboo in the and clean lines like steel cable, and experienced to build modern curve grid shelf structure (fig.2). Meanbamboo was lost through process. Industrial bamboo now is using for mass production. It for led the to acultural decrease in the use of bamboo in people’s Culture’ of, also suggests meaning of bamboo in the just as a substitute for hardwood, as Jules its board-like appearance makes while, DR. Janssen of the Technical University of Eindhoven worked on the structural analysis of bamboo, trying to reduce redundancy and im4 Therefore, by researching on a wider context of industrial context. people often misrecognize industrial bamboo as a piece of wood. Those 1 prove efficiency of- Bamboo, the structure, creating new of joinery and more conventional structural system (fig.3). Many other modern architects like Huu Ngoc, Borton, Cây Tre Vietnamese Culture (Hanoi:method The gioi a Lady more comprehensive understanding of series bamboo in problems willmaterials, be introduced and analyzed in the second chapter of this Press, Shoei 2006) p.15 Yoh in 1989 and Renzo Piano in 1997 also experimented to find a more high-tech bamboo joinery (fig.4). Recently, a range of research in both 2 dissertation. architectural perspective will be and informed. All of that serves as the proof Richard Weston, Material, form Architecture (London: Routledge, 2003), p34
academic anddissertation. practice is trying to do experiments using bamboo’s industrial products, such as Shigeru Ban in 2002 and Richard Roger in 2005 in for the hypothesis this This dissertation is attempting to of research on bamboo asalso a material for construction from an architectural perspective. The question is how to theirondesigns. The research bamboo was rising in architectural academic context in design with bamboo in the industrial context and still maintain the This dissertation to research on bamboo as a material for construction from an architectural perspective. The question is how to deearly 1960s when there was is a attempting variety of attempts to rediscover the respect for the material’s structural properties and cultural identity. I potential of regional and local in building techniques, context and building with bamboo the andwith still maintain the respect for the material’s structural properties and cultural identity. I want to follow want to follow Richardsign Weston’s idea that materials in the industrial twenty-first bamboo played a Weston’s central Researches of architectsin and engineers century should be used to maximize theirrole. varied potential, Richard idea that combine materials the twenty-first century should be used to maximize their varied potential, combine traditional and industrial, traditional and industrial, ratherinto thantwo standardized products lose the for the appropriate were divided directions: onethatlooking 3 rather than standardized products that lose the material’s diversity. Not simply adopting the standardization solutions from the wood industry, archimaterial’s diversity. Not simply adopting standardization solutions technology for this technology while the otherthe trying to get an alternative tects andand designers around thenow world now are trying to modernize bamboo basing on its structural advantages like strength, elasticity and lightness. from the wood industry, architects designers around the world material. The Institute for Lightweight Structure at Stuttgart University by are trying to modernize bamboo basingthe on itscultural structural advantages like bamboo are intentionally reconsidered and remain in the design process nowadays. In a word, this is the hypothesis Moreover, factors of Dr. Frei Otto and his staff were interested in bamboo as natural strength, elasticity and lightness. Moreover, the cultural factors of of reconsidered this study, is also main discussion in chapter 3. construction material andwhich as material forthe lightweight structure, used bamboo are intentionally and remain in the design process With the aims mentioned above, this dissertation will not cover all aspects of bamboo. Instead, it will just focus on the issues related to design probamboo in the clean lines like steel cable, and experienced to build nowadays. In a word, this is the hypothesis of this study, which is also the 5 main discussion in the last chapter. modern cess curve grid shelf structure (fig.5). Meanwhile, DR. Jules Janssen of bamboo architecture. My experience in of practice this summer with bamboo construction, serves as a collection of experiences for clearer un-
Figure 6 Bamboo truss tests, Dr. Jule J.A Technical University of Eindhoven on the structural analysis of Janssen, 1977 With the aimsthe mentioned above, this dissertation will not worked cover all aspects
derstanding of bamboo, will be presented in the last chapter. The main information resource still based on the existing research on bamboo, included
of bamboo. bamboo, Instead, it will just to focus on theredundancy issues related to design trying reduce and improve efficiency of the literature in biology, architecture, engineering and cultural history. Material culture which has rising attention in design research recently also suggests process of bamboo architecture. And new insteadmethod of researching globally, Iand will more conventional structure, creating of joinery the cultural meaning ofculture’ bamboo in the industrial context. Therefore, by researching on a wider building materials context, a more comprehensive 6 just focus mostly on for South-East Asia, where ‘bamboo is structural system (fig.6). Manythe other modern architects like Shoei Yoh in acknowledged and playunderstanding a central role. Therefore, the great contribution of bamboo in architectural perspective will be informed. All of that serves as the proof for the hypothesis of this dissertation. 1989 and Renzo Piano in 1997 also experimented to find a more high-tech of South American ‘bamboo architects’ like Simon Velez and Jorg Stamm 7 bamboo(fig.4). joinery Recently, a range of research in both academic will not be mentioned My(fig.7). experience in practice this summer with and practice also is trying to do experiments using bamboo’s industrial bamboo construction, 1.Lady serves asBorton, a collection experiences for clearer HuuofNgoc, Bamboo (Vietnamese Culture series) (Hanoi, The gioi Press, 2006) p.55 products, such as Shigeru Ban in 2002 and Richard Roger in 2005 in their Routledge, 2003), p34 understanding of bamboo, will be presented in the last chapter. The main 2.Richard Weston, Material, form and Architecture, (London, information resource based on Dunkelberg, the existing research designs.8still There were several researches onbamboo, modernization of (bamboo, 3.See Klaus IL 31:onBambus – Bamboo Stuttgat: Institute for Lightweight Structures, 1985) included literature in biology, cultural history, engineering and and the research of Dr Xiaobing Yu for the modernization of bamboo in a
4.Jules J.A Janssen [Eds.], A series of articles on the use of Bamboo in Building Construction (Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1982) pp.131-61
Figure 4 Simón Veléz, ZERI Pavilion, Hanover Expo 2000. This pavilion has change the norm in Germany for using nature material, regain reputation for bamboo.
9 wide context was aAachen, useful guild for my dissertation. 5.RWTH Construction with bamboo – Bamboo Connections
Figure 7 Renzo Piano(1997) and Shoei 3 Weston, op. cit., p.35 Yoh(1989) experiment with bamboo joinery
bambus.rwth-aachen.de/eng/PDF-Files/Bamboo%20Connections.pdf, access 26/11/2012 6.Weston, op. cit., p.35