Page 1


WindWatch page 33 February 2017

The technical resource for wind profitability






Foundations that Floating turbines have significant advantages over their fixed offshore counterparts Decommissioning Canada’s oldest wind farm: Alberta’s Cowley Ridge Wind Farm

.c ng m Azt ec bo lt i

WPE FEBRUARY 2017_Cover_Vs2.indd 1

2/14/17 8:20 AM




High Speed Shaft Solutions

Zero-Max Wind Ad r3.indd 53 1 Zero-Max_2-16_Vs1.indd

1/19/16 10:15 1:11 PM 2/14/17 AM


Editorial Director | Windpower Engineering & Development |

What if the nation went wild for wind power?


uppose our nation decided that as coal and nuclear-powered facilities reached the end of their useful life, they would be replaced by wind-generated power. How many turbines would it take to generate that power and how much land would they occupy? Credit for the idea must go to Jeff Grybowski, CEO of Deepwater Wind, who suggested the goal at the recent AWEA Offshore Wind conference. To start, sources put U.S. power use at about 4.986 x 109 megawatt-hours in 2013. Let’s round up to 5 x 109 MWh. The EIA says those sources plus petroleum produced 54% of the nation’s power. That means our wind project must eventually replace: A|S|B|P|E Fostering B2B editorial excellence

American Society of Business Publication Editors

2016 National


Revenue of $3 million or under

A|S|B|P|E Fostering B2B editorial excellence

American Society of Business Publication Editors

2016 Regional


Revenue of $3 million or under


P = 5 x 109 MWh x 0.54 = 2.7 x 109 MWh. This experiment does not remove natural gas from the mix. Natural gas generators cycle quickly up and down, and would be needed to accommodate the variable nature of wind power. Let’s think big and use turbines rated at 5 MW and a capacity factor of 35%. (The consulting firm Make Consulting recently commented that some capacity factors in North America are getting close to 50%.) Therefore, for a full year, one 5-MW turbine would produce: Pturbine-year = 5 MW x 365 days x 24 hr/day x 0.35 (the capacity factor) = 15,330 MWh/year

To space the turbines, draw a tic-tac-toe grid, assume one mile on a side, and place a turbine in the center of each square. In this scheme, one square mile can fit nine turbines or 0.11 mi2/turbine. For the total land area to accommodate 176,125 turbines, use: Atotal = 176,125 turbines x 0.11 mi2/turbine = 19,374 mi2 An online list of state sizes ( statesize) tells that West Virginia has about 24,078 mi2, enough for one massive wind farm that would keep some of the state’s former coal miners off unemployment rolls. Or, to build a North American energy powerhouse, flat and windy North Dakota (68,976 mi2) has enough land for three such wind farms and the proximity to generate power for all of Canada as well. Costs can be brought down by standardizing on one turbine size that several manufacturers can produce. The same would happen on the construction side if, for example, a 120-m tower was the standard. What about costs? Recent reports are that a wind farm in Iowa constructed by an experienced team cost about $1.7 million/MW. Hence: Cost total = = ~

176,125 turbines x 5 MW/turbine x $1.7 million/MW $1,497,063 million $1.5 trillion

Fostering B2B editorial excellence

American Society of Business Publication Editors

2016 Regional

DESIGN Award Winner Revenue of $3 million or under


Editorial_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 1

To find the number of turbines needed: N = (2.7 x 109 MWh/year) / 15.33 x 103 MWh/ year-turbine = 176,125 turbines, the number needed to replace the retired coal and nuclear power plants.

Spreading the project over 30 years would call for a private investment of $49.9 billion per year. Of course, transmission is the fly in this ointment so portions of the project would have to be built at several sites in each state. Does that sound doable? It’s just a thought. W



2/14/17 4:36 PM









DR JOHN COULTATE is the Head of Engineering Development at Romax Technology’s InSight division. His experience includes analysis, design assessment, and failure investigation for wind-turbine drivetrains, as well as research and development and condition monitoring. Coultate has worked at Romax for 10 years, and has a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Nottingham, UK. JIM FITCH is the CEO and co-founder of Noria Corporation. He has a wealth of “in the trenches” experience in lubrication, oil analysis, tribology, and machinery failure investigations. Over the past two decades, Fitch has conducted hundreds of courses on these subjects and has published more than 200 technical articles, papers, and publications. He serves as a U.S. delegate to the ISO tribology and oil-analysis working group, and has been awarded numerous patents. Since 2002, Fitch has also been the director and a board member of the International Council for Machinery Lubrication. Reach him at KERRY HEID is the President and CEO of Shermco Industries Canada Inc., a leader in electrical power systems reliability, engineering, and field services. After beginning his career with Westinghouse Service, Heid started with the Magna Electric Corporation office in Regina in 1996 and became president of the company in 2001. It grew to over $125 million in revenue with over 1,000 employees, and won many awards including “Canada’s 50 Best Managed Companies” and “Canada’s Top 100 Employers.” Heid is a past president of NETA, an international electrical testing association, and has served on their board of directors for over 10 years. He is also the technical committee Chair of CSA Z463 on “Maintenance of Electrical Systems” and has been on the technical committee for CSA Z462 “Workplace Electrical Safety” since its inception in 2006.


Contributors 2-17_Vs4.indd 2

JACK KLINE, Consulting Meterologist at RAM Associate, has a BS in meteorology from Florida State University and MS in atmospheric sciences from Georgia Tech. He is a Certified Consulting Meteorologist (AMS #535) working in the wind energy industry since 1982, first as meteorologist at US Windpower (later Kenetech) in 1982 and then at Howden Wind Parks in 1986. He has been consulting since 1989 and has made numerous presentations at industry conferences and workshops. One of several contributions to the wind industry include identifying anemometermounting configurations on tubular towers that produced significant errors in measured wind speed, which brought about a major change in how towers are configured. Kline was also the first to report on the effects of atmospheric stability on wake losses at wind farms. Reach him at BECKI MEADOWS is a Business Development Manager for Romax Technology’s Insight North America division. She graduated from the University of Michigan with a degree in mechanical engineering, and went directly to work as a field engineer for General Electric’s Power Generation division. There, she inspected and repaired steam turbines and generators at small and medium-sized power plants across the country. Prior to working at Romax, Meadows worked as a senior engineer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). PAUL MUDGE, President of Mudge Fasteners Inc. , has owned the Corona, California-based company since 1975. The firm distributes specialty bolts and screws to manufacturers and construction trades throughout the United States with a special emphasis on the clean energy sector.


2/14/17 2:32 PM

Follow the whole team on twitter @Windpower_Eng




Editorial Director Paul Dvorak @windpower_eng

Web Development Manager B. David Miyares @wtwh_webdave

Videographer Manager John Hansel @wtwh_jhansel

Senior Editor Michelle Froese @WPE_Michelle

Digital Media Manager Patrick Curran @wtwhseopatrick

Videographer Bradley Voyten

Associate Publisher Courtney Seel 440.523.1685 @wtwh_CSeel

DESIGN & PRODUCTION SERVICES VP of Creative Services Mark Rook @wtwh_graphics



Senior Web Developer Patrick Amigo @amigo_patrick Web Production Associate Skylar Aubuchon Web Production & Reporting Associate Jennifer Calhoon @wtwh_jennifer

Art Director Matthew Claney @wtwh_designer

Digital Marketing Director Virginia Goulding @wtwh_virginia

Graphic Designer Allison Washko @wtwh_allison

Manager Webinars Stacy Combest @wtwh_stacy

Traffic Manager Mary Heideloff

Marketing Manager, Social Media & Events Jennifer Kolasky @wtwh_jen

Videographer Derek Little @wtwh_derek

FINANCE Controller Brian Korsberg Accounts Receivable Specialist Jamila Milton

2014 Winner

2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

Production Associate Tracy Powers

2013 - 2016

Director, Audience Development Bruce Sprague

2014 - 2016

WTWH Media, LLC 6555 Carnegie Avenue, Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103 Ph: 888.543.2447 • Fax: 888.543.2447 WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT does not pass judgment on subjects of controversy nor enter into disputes with or between any individuals or organizations. WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT is also an independent forum for the expression of opinions relevant to industry issues. Letters to the editor and by-lined articles express the views of the author and not necessarily of the publisher or publication. Every effort is made to provide accurate information. However, the publisher assumes no responsibility for accuracy of submitted advertising and editorial information. Non-commissioned articles and news releases cannot be acknowledged. Unsolicited materials cannot be returned nor will this organization assume responsibility for their care. WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT does not endorse any products, programs, or services of advertisers or editorial contributors. Copyright© 2016 by WTWH Media, LLC. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, or by recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: Free and controlled circulation to qualified subscribers. Non-qualified persons may subscribe at the following rates: U.S. and possessions, 1 year: $125; 2 years: $200; 3 years $275; Canadian and foreign, 1 year: $195; only U.S. funds are accepted. Single copies $15. Subscriptions are prepaid by check or money orders only.

Durable and safe access solutions up to 367 ft.

SUBSCRIBER SERVICES: To order a subscription or change your address, please visit our web site at WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT (ISSN 2163-0593) is published six times per year in February, April, June, August, October and a special issue in December by WTWH Media, LLC, 6555 Carnegie Avenue, Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103. Periodicals postage paid at Cleveland, OH and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Windpower Engineering & Development, 6555 Carnegie Avenue, Suite 300, Cleveland, Ohio 44103

Staff page_WIND_2-17_Vs1.indd 3


3 or 352-895-1109 2/14/17 12:06 PM

FEBRUARY 2017 • vol 9 no 1


D E PA R T M E N T S 01

Editorial: What if the nation went wild


AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 guide


Windwatch: Nextwind, Forging a supply


Projects: Decommissioning Canada’s


for wind power?

52 Bolting: What wind technicians should know about bolted joints 56 Blades: Cracking the icing problem on turbine blades 59 Safety: Safely managing electrical power assets on wind farms

chain, University of Austin Research, O&M Conference in Dallas, Updated wind maps

oldest wind farm

Policy: Guidance on IRS “Beginning

62 Software: The basics of software for predictive wind assessments

64 Condition monitoring: The Industrial Internet of Things promises smarter turbines

96 Ad Index

construction rules” for wind projects


The floating windturbine platform from the University of Maine uses an unusual material: concrete.


73 New developments in affordable wind-turbine monitoring

An effective CMS system can help wind-farm operators schedule personnel for pre-planned maintenance, order parts in advance, and group other repairs to save costs. But despite its benefits, there are still many wind turbines without a system installed.

Foundations that float

xx 76



Table of Contents_2-17_Vs3.indd 4

Wind turbines on floating platforms have significant advantages over those mounted on fixed offshore foundations. For instance, there is much more deep water than shallow and the platforms can be anchored out of sight from land, just over the horizon, yet still close to load centers. Four designs discussed at the recent AWEA conference reveal the promises and challenges in many ideas at work.




2/14/17 2:27 PM



Castrol’s ashless option introduced over 10 years ago and protecting 25,000 megawatts globally…and growing every day. • Lowest water ppm in the market – 7 year field average 76 ppm • Higher viscosity index and long-term viscosity stability to provide increased protection over a wider temperature range • Superior micro pitting protection and foam control that outperforms other competitive oils • Ease of changeover from other competitive oils. Can cut labor and downtime costs up to 50% on conversion Contact our expert engineers to discuss how Castrol can extend oil change out intervals and reduce O&M costs. Learn more at or 1-877-641-1600.

© 2017 BP Lubricants USA Inc.

Castrol 2-17.indd 29

2/14/17 10:05 AM

Cross-sectoral thinking

Our solutions for wind energy ■■

■■ ■■ ■■ ■■

 obileserviceappandback- M officesolution–tosupportservice processes Predictiveanalytics/preventive maintenanceofwindturbines R FIDforoptimizingmaintenance cycles IntelligentITsolutionsfortechnical documentations Augmentedrealitysystemsand voicecontrolmakeworkeasier

Theexperiencewehavegainedin mappingmaintenanceprocessesfor Lufthansaarebeingappliedtothe windenergyindustry.

Learn more: Phone:+17866149031

Lufthansa 2-17.indd 29

2/14/17 10:13 AM

AWEA Wind Project O&M AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 and Safety Conference 2017

AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 7

February 28 - March 1, 2017 Paradise Point Resort & Spa in San Diego, CA February February 28 28 -- March March 1, 1, 2017 2017 Paradise Paradise Point Point Resort Resort & & Spa Spa in in San San Diego, Diego, CA CA

2/14/17 4:21 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 TERAWATT SPONSORS








AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 8



2/14/17 4:21 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Acknowledgements: AWEA thanks the 2017 Wind Project O&M and Safety Program Chairs for their hard work and dedication in developing the conference program. Krys Rootham, Acciona Energy USA Global LLC Gemma Smith, Pattern Energy

AWEA also thanks the Program Committee for the time and effort they have spent helping shape the program and leading sessions. John Amos, Siemens Wind Power Inc. Scott Bramlett, EDF Renewable Services Christopher M. Daniels, MA Mortenson Construction Ron Grife, Leeward Renewable Energy, LLC. Peter Lukens, Gamesa Wind USA

Lauren Miller, EDP Renewables North America LLC Christopher Nolan, Vestas - American Wind Technology, Inc. Kevin Schroeder, Invenergy LLC Jeffrey Wehner, Duke Energy Renewables Peter Wells, Vestas - American Wind Technology, Inc.


WIND is an American resource creating American jobs.



WINDPOWER contributed more new electric generating capacity in 2015 than any other source. WINDPOWER is on a path to generate 10% of American electricity by 2020. WINDPOWER is the choice of iconic brands like Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Walmart, General Motors, IKEA, and Yahoo! to name just a few. WINDPOWER has a Brand New Attitude. And AWEA WINDPOWER – the largest North American wind energy trade show -- will introduce our Brand New Attitude in Anaheim, California this May. Don’t miss it!


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 9



2/14/17 4:21 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Time

Monday, February 27

9:00AM - 5:00PM

Pre-Conference Seminar: Slinging and Rigging Training, presented by Lift - It Manufacturing

10:00AM -12:00PM

AWEA EHS Steering Committee Meeting (Sunset I)

1:00PM - 3:00PM

AWEA Workforce Development Steering Committee Meeting (Sunset II)

1:00PM - 3:00PM

AWEA EHS Steering Committee Meeting Continued (Sunset I)

2:00PM - 4:00PM

Pre-Conference Seminar: NERC Gads Reporting

3:00PM - 5:00PM

AWEA O&M Steering Committee Meeting (Sunset I)


Tuesday, February 28

7:00AM - 8:00AM

Meet the AWEA CEO Session (Garden Room)

7:30AM - 8:30AM

AWEA Operations Steering Committee Meeting (Sunset I)

7:30AM - 8:00AM

Networking Breakfast sponsored by CC Jensen


(Exhibit Hall)

Welcome General Session (Paradise Ballroom) Sponsored by

9:00AM 9:30AM

Paradise Ballroom

Mission Bay

Sunset Ballroom IV - V

Beyond Design - Beyond Design – Maximizing Wind Farm Life (10:30-11:45)

State of the Art Fault Detection Solution for Wind Turbine Main Bearings with Case Studies (10:30 - 10:55)

Oil & Grease - Sampling, Testing and Analysis (10:30 -11:30)


Exploring Arc Flash Studies for Wind Energy Projects (11:05 - 12:05)




Analytics within workflow - A hybrid approach to using data to drive value (11:55-12:20)




AWEA Quality Committee Meeting (12:00 - 1:00 in Sunset I)

Networking Lunch sponsored by Amsoil (12:00-1:30 on Paradise Terrace)



Industrial Athlete - Impact of Ergonomics and Fitness for Duty (1:30-2:30)

Show Me the Money: Getting the Most Out of Your SCADA Data (2:40 - 3:05) Mainshaft Bearings: Bearing Arrangements, Failure Trends and Technology Advancements (3:10 – 3:35)

Handover between OEM and ISP (1:35 – 2:00) Smarter Weather Monitoring for Your Wind Farm Through Weather and Climate Analysis (2:05 - 2:30) PMT Outgassing - Fatal or Just Indigestion? (2:35 -3:35)

Proven Aircraft Fire Protection Systems In Renewable Energy (3:40 – 4:05)


Growing & Maintaining a Strong Industry Workforce (4:05 - 5:05)

Implementing Lean Tools and Concepts Throughout the Windfarm Lifecycle (4:15 – 5:15)

AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 10

The Mystery of the Missing Production (12:10 - 12:35)

How Cutting Edge Machine Learning Analytics Reduce Safety Issues (1:05 - 1:30)

Networking Break sponsored by CC Jensen (3:35 - 4:05 in Exhibit Hall)

5:00PM - 6:30PM

Lead-time to Drivetrain Component Failure and the Impact of Your O&M strategy (11:40 - 12:05)

Trends and Key Drivers of O&M Metrics (12:40 – 1:05)



(Exhibit Hall)

Debunking Cable Failure Myths & Implementing Recommended Practices for Greater Reliability (1:30 - 2:30)

ENSA Wind Warrior Competition Demo (8:30 am - 5:00 pm on Sunset Terrace)


Networking Break sponsored by CC Jensen

Exhibit Hall Open (7:30 am - 6:30 pm in Sunset Pavilion)


Partnering to Manage Construction Safety (2:40 - 3:40)

Foundation Considerations for Aging Projects (4:05 - 5:05)

Networking Reception sponsored by Shermco Industries Meet the AWEA Quality Committee Information Session (Sunset Terrace)

2/14/17 4:21 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Wednesday, March 1 Paradise Ballroom

Sunset Ballroom IV - V

Networking Breakfast sponsored by CC Jensen


(Exhibit Hall)

LOTO in the 21st Century (8:00 – 9:15)


Are your claims for curtailed energy leaving you short-changed? (8:00 - 8:25)

Repowering: Extending the Life of the Equipment and the PTC (8:30 - 9:45)

9:00AM 9:30AM

Best Management Practices for Mitigating Bat Fatalities (8:35 - 9:35) Human Element in Major Accident Hazards (9:25 -10:20)

10:00AM 10:30AM 11:00AM 11:30AM 12:00PM

Balance of Plant - The Wind Farm’s Link to the Marketplace (9:50 - 10:15)

Upgrades and Improvements to Wind Turbine Pitch and Yaw Electronics (9:45 - 10:10) Vibration Analysis Strategies for O&M Excellence, Warranty and Insurance (10:15 – 10:40)

Networking Break sponsored by CC Jensen (10:20 - 10:50 in Exhibit Hall) Keeping the Workforce Focused (10:50 - 12:05)

Data that Drives Operational Excellence (10:50 - 11:50)

Smarter Blade Design for Maintenance & Optimal Performance (11:10 -12:10)

Troubleshooting and Safety Simulator for Wind Technology Education (12:10 -12:35)

Quality Assurance Tracking To Build A Professional Experience Portfolio (11:55 – 12:20)

Networking Lunch Sponsored by Amsoil (12:00 - 2:00 on Paradise Terrace)


PTC Renewal – Does it Pencil Out for Your Assets? (12:25 -12:50)


Making Sense out of Multibrand Services (12:55 - 1:20)


ENSA Wind Warrior Competition Demo (8:30 am - 4:40 pm on Sunset Terrace)

7:00AM - 8:00AM

Mission Bay

Exhibit Hall Open (7:00 am - 6:00 pm in Sunset Pavilion)


ENSA Wind Warrior Featured on Sunset Terrace Key Ingredients for Effective Fall Protection & Rescue Training (1:20 - 1:45)


Building Infrastructure to Ensure Operational Success (2:00 – 3:00)

2:30PM 3:00PM

Managing Your Contractor Management Program (2:05 - 3:05)

Networking Break sponsored by CC Jensen (3:00 - 3:35 in Exhibit Hall)

3:30PM 4:00PM - 5:00PM

Round the Hub: Partnering for Operational Excellence

5:00PM - 6:00PM

Preparing for the NERC CIP Evolution (2:00 - 3:00) OSHA Requirements for Machine Guarding (3:05 - 3:35)

(3:40 - 4:40 in Paradise Ballroom)

Networking Reception sponsored by Vestas





* Thursday schedule continued on following page


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 11



2/14/17 4:22 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 * Continued from previous page


Thursday, March 2

8:00AM - 9:00AM

(EHS) AWEA Safety Data Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset I) (O&M) AWEA Data Reporting Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset II) (EHS) AWEA Safety Award Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset III) (O&M) AWEA Operations Subcommittee (Sunset IV)

8:00AM - 10:00AM

(WDET) AWEA Workforce Data Subcommittee Meeting - Compensation (Sunset V)

9:00AM - 10:00AM

(EHS) AWEA Operations and Maintenance Safety Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset I) (O&M) AWEA Blades Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset II) (O&M) AWEA Tower Auxilary Meeting (Sunset III)


(EHS) AWEA Training and Education Safety Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset I) (O&M) AWEA BOP Meeting (Sunset II) (EHS) AWEA Safety Campaign Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset III) (EHS) AWEA Electrical Safety Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset IV) (WDET) AWEA Veterans Transition and Training Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset V)

1:00PM - 3:00PM

(EHS) AWEA Fitness for Duty Task Force Meeting (Sunset I) (O&M) AWEA Condition Monitoring Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset II) (WDET) AWEA Wind Technician Training and Education Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset III) (O&M) AWEA Tower Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset IV) (O&M) AWEA End of Warranty Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset V)

3:00PM - 5:00PM

(EHS) OEM Safety Networking (Sunset I) Owner/Operator Networking (Sunset II) (EHS) AWEA Construction Safety Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset III) (O&M) AWEA Gearbox Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset IV) (O&M) AWEA Generator Subcommittee Meeting (Sunset V)

5:00PM - 6:30PM


AWEA Workforce Development, O&M, and EHS Committees Meeting (Sunset III)


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 12


2/14/17 4:22 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Pre-Conference Sessions Monday, February 27, 2017

Pre-Conference Session: Slinging and Rigging (9:00am – 5:00pm) The interactive training presented will explore many of the ingredients necessary for successful load handling activities and will also offer various alternatives to mitigate detrimental contributory factors. The Sling and Rigging training presented by Lift-It Manufacturing consists of interactive classroom instruction in basic to intermediate rigging activities and addresses two primary areas of information: sling use and inspection. Participants are trained to perform the frequent (pre-use) inspection from a perspective that rigging is either acceptable or must be removed from service and not used for any purpose. Participants are tested and receive a certificate issued by Lifting Equipment and Engineers Association (LEEA). In addition, participants will receive many valuable deliverables including: 500 Page Rigging Resource Guide, Rigger's Handbook, Rigger Reference Card and a Sling Angle Protractor. More details can be found in the app.

Pre-Conference Session: NERC GADS Wind Energy Training (2:00pm - 4:00pm) This two-hour training session provides the participant with the essentials for registering to report to NERC’s new GADS reporting application for wind plants. NERC has implemented GADS reporting requirements for wind plants on a voluntary basis for 2017 with mandatory reporting starting in 2018, based on plant size. Learn how to register for access to the GADS Wind reporting application, data types and formats to report.

Michael Gelsky, Sr., Chief Executive Officer, Lift-It Manufacturing Michael Gelsky, Jr., Vice President and General Manager, Lift-It Manufacturing

Presentation Access: Presentation handouts can be accessed through the app.

AWEA EHS Steering Committee Meeting (10:00am - 3:00pm) (break for lunch) AWEA Workforce Development Steering Committee Meeting (1:00pm - 3:00pm) AWEA Operations & Maintenance Steering Committee Meeting (3:00pm - 5:00pm)

Donna Pratt, Performance Analysis Manager, Data Analytics, North American Electric Reliability Corporation Conference Features & Attendee Tools:

Audience Response System: A link in your app can be found for the interactive tool, Slido, to submit your questions for speakers and respond to audience instant polls. Join at with and enter these codes for each room: Paradise Ballroom - #paradise Mission Bay - #missionbay Sunset IV – V – #sunset ENSA Wind Warrior Competition Demo The ENSA Wind Warrior™ Competition is designed as a competitive training program for wind technicians. Each team competes in rescue, firefighting, trauma first aid, crane lifts and electrical/electronic troubleshooting. Teams of 2 to 3 technicians rotate and completes each station. The team who completes each station with the most technically correct skills and safest tech WINS. The employer can use the documented results to verify and review techs annual skills. Wind Warrior Comp provides a fun and engaging way to reinforce safety and adherence to work processes.

Conference Sessions Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Program as of 2/10/17. The most up-to-date and detailed information that includes speaker bios, presentations, locations, and more can be found in the conference app

Welcome General Session (8:30 am – 10:00 am) Program Co-Chair’s Remarks Krys Rootham, Vice President, Operations, Acciona Energy Gemma Smith, Manager, Environment Health and Safety, Pattern Energy CEO Welcome & Industry Outlook Tom Kiernan, CEO, AWEA

Meet the AWEA CEO Sessions (7:00am - 8:00am)

Excellence in Operations Award Safety and Health Excellence Award

AWEA Operations Steering Committee Meeting (7:30am - 8:30am)

Operations Steering Committee and Committee Highlights Jeff Wehner, Duke Energy and Peter Wells, Vestas

Networking Breakfast (7:30am – 8:30am) Sponsored by

The Welcome General Session is sponsored by


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 13



2/14/17 4:22 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Networking Break (10:00am – 10:30am) Sponsored by Beyond Design – Maximizing Wind Farm Life (10:30am - 11:45am) This session takes a higher level look at current challenges that wind is facing on questions of extending wind farm lifetime, increasing production and repowering. Each of these are forms of maximizing wind farm value. Key topics of discussion will be exploring the limitations and risks in maximizing wind farm assets and understanding the long-term economics well enough to make good decisions today. Oil & Grease - Sampling, Testing and Analysis (10:30am - 11:30am) This session examines the recommended and best practices governing oil and grease sampling. Understand the various codes and standards that attempt to standardize methods for testing, monitoring, and analysis. Speakers will discuss the testing methods which can impact data results and operations of the turbine components and hydraulic systems. State of the Art Fault Detection Solution for Wind Turbine Main Bearings with Case Studies (10:30am - 10:55am) An ideal CMS should be able to provide the health monitoring coverage of all the drivetrain components in real time. This presentation proposes a solution using low cost, high sensitivity MEMS sensors embedded with industry leading state of the art algorithms to assess the health condition of the main bearings. The proposed solution has been applied and blind tested on commercially operated turbines with great successes. The methodology along with several successful case studies on will be presented in details. Exploring Arc Flash Studies for Wind Energy Projects (11:05am - 12:05pm) This session explores the Arc Flash phenomena. Understand if there are significant differences between the IEEE and NFPA approaches. Hear presenters discuss their Arc Flash studies – what is an Arc Flash study, how does it work and what do Arc Flash studies tell you? Lead-time to Drivetrain Component Failure and the Impact of Your O&M Strategy (11:40am - 12:05pm) Learn from Brüel & Kjær Vibro GmbH expert diagnostic group regarding the advancements in prediction of useful life within a variety of drivetrain configurations and wind farm scenarios. From an Owner/Operator‘s vantage point, it is vital to have a clear understanding and visibility into all of the CMS information; past and present. Equipped with this data, one can select the optimized maintenance strategy to protect their assets, streamline site level activity and ultimately gain a rapid payback on the CMS investment.

Trends and Key Drivers of O&M Metrics (12:40pm – 1:05pm) This presentation is a roundup of useful trends observed from DNV GL’s database of actual operating cost, reliability, and availability data. Having evaluated many O&M service contracts, reviewed countless monthly operating reports, and conducted hundreds of site inspections, we translate the observed trends into recommendations for mitigating operational risks and improving wind farm performance. How Cutting Edge Machine Learning Analytics Reduce Safety Issues (1:05pm - 1:30pm) As more wind turbines are built, more accidents are prone to happen. Cutting edge technologies such as machine learning and artificial intelligence offer solutions to optimize operations and predict the likelihood of catastrophic events before they occur. DeepNLP, a machine learning approach, can help wind operators generate insights from collected data, detect irregular patterns, and minimize safety issues in operations and maintenance processes. The Industrial Athlete - Impact of Ergonomics and Fitness for Duty in the Wind Energy Industry (1:30pm –2:30pm) Workers in the field are subject to high physical demands and its important employers recognize and prepare techs properly to ensure long, satisfying careers. Much like professional athletes prepare for sport, wind techs as industrial athletes should be trained to help prevent injuries and to maintain productivity. This session examines how to minimize the risk and impact of turbines on the body, looking at both the design of the turbine and programs aimed at honing the Industrial Athlete. Debunking Cable Failure Myths and Implementing AWEA Recommended Practices for Greater Reliability (1:30pm –2:30pm) Understanding how cable systems fail is one of the key elements to ensure collector system reliability. Insight into empirical evidence and lessons learned after profiling over 130 million feet of installed 5kV to 500kV class cable systems will debunk some common theories and myths associated with solid dielectric cable failure. This insight has led to a greater understanding with product selection, system design, installation practices, commissioning, system operation, assessment of aging infrastructure, and repair and replacement strategies. Data and case studies based on over a decade of experience and the assessment of more than 30,000 wind farm cable systems will be presented.

AWEA Quality Committee Meeting (12:00pm - 1:00pm)

Handover Between OEM and ISP– Lessons Learned (1:35pm – 2:00pm) In a drive to maximize value and save operating expenses, some owners are opting to contract with an Independent Service Provider (ISP) rather than renew with the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). This brings a number of challenge include dealing with OEM Intellectual Property and ensuring there are no gaps in Service scope coverage, large drive train component failure, replacement parts availability, turbine specific OEM special tools, reference publications and documentation. With experience this brings a number of lessons that can be learned. What do changes in the market suggest regarding the use of ISPs in the future?

The Mystery of the Missing Production (12:10 pm -12:35 pm) During the first year of operations of a ~20 MW wind farm, the owner has found that 35% of production is missing, compared to the budget. They called us in to investigate the forensic data and shed some light on this mystery. Our data detectives dove deep into the SCADA records and deployed a number of different methods and tools. This presentation will highlight the real-world potential for this kind of SCADA data analysis, focusing on several case studies. Each of the identified culprits accounted for part of the lost production, and led to actionable intelligence to resolve the problems and improve future production. The lessons learned from this case can inform the future operations for this site and any closelywatched wind farm.

Smarter Weather Monitoring for Your Wind Farm Through Weather and Climate Analysis (2:05pm - 2:30pm) This presentation will examine how O&M personnel can deploy smarter methods of monitoring their wind farm for hazards such as lightning, through a climate and weather analysis of the area. Wind farms are located in diverse geographic and climatic areas and local weather patterns and terrain influences play a large role in storm development during the convective season. Weather monitoring rules for a wind farm in Iowa do not necessarily have to be applied to a wind farm in the Southern California Desert. The presenter will examine how smarter weather monitoring could increase productivity and production at some farms.

Networking Lunch (12:00pm – 1:30 pm) Sponsored by



AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 14


2/14/17 4:22 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 PMT Outgassing – Fatal or Just Indigestion? (2:35pm -3:35pm) The use of distribution transformers in wind facilities has led to some designs to produce dissolved gases in the oil. This session begins with a general discussion on Pad Mount Transformer – off gassing, various designs, and ways operators are addressing the issues. Show Me the Money: Getting the Most Out of Your SCADA Data (2:40pm-3:05pm) Minimizing repair costs and production revenue loss through a proactive maintenance strategy should be a priority for operators. Such a strategy relies on condition-based equipment monitoring to detect equipment degradation well before catastrophic failure. Without the need for additional instrumentation, SCADA-based condition monitoring can be implemented, at a fraction of the cost for vibration monitoring. Case studies presented will demonstrate the advantages of detecting major component failures using (a) temperature trending, (b) basic regression modeling, and (c) advanced physics-based modeling as a means to detect major component failures. The estimated financial benefits of minimizing repair costs and production revenue loss are also presented. The results of this study will give operators the ability to significantly reduce operating costs and revenue loss by making data-driven decisions to manage major component failures. Mainshaft Bearings: Bearing Arrangements, Failure Trends and Technology Advancements (3:10pm -3:35pm) Each main bearing arrangement in wind turbines has advantages and disadvantages, leading to a variety of documented bearing damage modes. For each turbine main bearing arrangements, this presentation will examine the advantages and disadvantages of the design, explore the observed bearing failure modes, review upgraded technologies, and discuss maintenance strategies to detect, delay, or prevent damage modes. Partnering to Manage Construction Safety (2:40pm -3:40pm) Wind energy construction involves multiple entities including: the project owner, turbine manufacturer, the general contractor, and their subcontractors. Safe and effective completion of these wind projects require constant coordination and communication between these entities, and will focus on how they work together to bring the project to completion. Networking Break (3:00pm - 3:35pm) Sponsored by

Aircraft Fire Protection Systems In Renewable Energy Market Space (3:40pm – 4:05pm) This presentation explains how proven aircraft fire protection systems combined with new innovative technology, when applied to renewable energy (RE), will mitigate the risks of fire, safety, and financial. The enclosed areas where fires can occur in RE are similar to Aircraft fire zones. Of importance are the inspections and tests of the aircraft FPS’s which have already been witnessed by the Authorities around the world, proving reliable early detection, fast fire suppression, and a duration of protection for the critical time needed for air to ground, and safe evacuation. AAE’s proven FPS combined with their new innovative technologies will provide the Renewable Energy Industry quick fire detection and the suppression/extinguishing of RE facilities. Growing & Maintaining a Strong Industry Workforce (4:05pm -5:05pm) According to the Department of Labor, wind technicians are one of the fastest growing professions in the U.S. making the need for standardized training and career development paths increasingly pertinent to the success of the industry. Speakers in this session will discuss these types of workforce needs and what can be done to grow and maintain the industry workforce. Join this open dialogue with techs and owners. Foundation Considerations for Aging Projects (4:05pm -5:05pm) Turbine foundations are critical in the long term performance of wind turbines. Foundations are critical to the long term performance of wind turbines. As turbines age the structural integrity needs to be considered especially when repowering and life extension are under evaluation. This session will address certain important questions related to repowering and design of wind turbine foundations. Experts will provide a better understanding of life cycle extension and the loading behavior of wind towers and foundations and demonstrate how tensioning studs beyond yield limit improves the extreme and fatigue properties. Implementing Lean Tools and Concepts Throughout the Windfarm Lifecycle (4:15pm – 5:15pm) Lean tools and concepts are proven to optimize a company’s day-to-day operations. Companies are currently leading the industry to improve site performance by implementing Lean principles throughout the lifecycle of the windfarm. From initial project development, wind siting, construction and operations there is a great opportunity to reduce cost and increase performance through the implementation of tools meant to eliminate waste and drive sustainable continuous improvement. This panel will discuss Lean tools and concepts currently being implemented in the wind industry. Individuals working in all phases of windfarm project are encouraged to attend. Networking Reception (5:00pm - 6:30pm) Sponsored by


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 15



2/14/17 4:23 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Wednesday, March 1, 2017 Networking Breakfast (7:00am – 8:00am) Sponsored by LOTO in the 21st Century (8:00am – 9:15am) Lock-out Tag-out is a critical part of any safety framework and is one element that can help us ensure the safety of our workers. The goal of isolating the worker from any hazardous energy and creating a safe working environment can be difficult task when faced with new technologies, working with multiple contractors, and ensuring verification of LOTO when teams may be working in remote or difficult to access environments. These are only some of the challenges we may face in preserving an effective lock-out tag-out program. This panel hopes to discuss some of these challenges and how we are addressing them in the wind industry now and in the future. Are Your Claims for Curtailed Energy Leaving You Short-Changed? (8:00am - 8:25am) For this presentation we will explain the adverse financial impact of direct use of nacelle anemometer data under periods of abnormal operation and a possible method to correct the nacelle anemometer wind speed measurement. Application of the proposed corrective measure has resulted in significantly higher curtailed lost energy estimates on some wind power plants. For wind plants with any reimbursable claim associated with lost energy (curtailment, business interruption insurance), this can have a significant impact on profitability. Repowering: Extending the Life of the Equipment and the PTC (8:30am – 9:45am) Wind turbine sites are typically designed and certified for 20 years life while Production Tax Credits (PTCs) are provided for the first 10 years of operation. With technological advances of new wind turbine designs, many owners are looking to update their turbines (Repower) to allow the sites to run beyond the original 20 years and to retain another 10 years of PTCs. The repower scope is typically less than 100% change out of site components. This session will look at some of the challenges and considerations or repowering and will also share a case study of one of the first repowered sites. Balance of Plant - The Wind Farm’s Link to the Marketplace (9:50am - 10:15am) This presentation will focus on the wind farm BOP electrical system including the pad mount transformer, collection system cabling and substation. The focus of the presentation will be to share maintenance inspection, testing and corrective actions for each area as well as discuss new and innovative solutions emerging in the marketplace. There will be a detailed look at the pad mount transformer oil analyses, infrared inspections and even vault replacements. For the collection system cabling, this presentation will cover common causes of ground faults and best practices for repair. Finally for the substation, regulatory protocols and methods to comply and best practices for achieving inspections and repair will be covered. Best Management Practices for Mitigating Bat Fatalities (8:35am -9:35am) Scientific studies show that fully feathering the wind turbine blades under the normal manufacturer’s wind cut-in speed so that rotor rotations are less than 2 RMP at night during the late summer/early fall bat migration season can reduce bat fatalities by up to 30 to 40%. Many wind site operators continue to implement this best management practice (BMP), however the diversity and vintage of turbine OEMs, their associated SCADA systems and other operational parameters can present challenges. This session will examine various operational aspects of the BMP, including, but not limited to: SCADA challenges (including cost for SCADA upgrades), net generation loss/gain; turbine component wear and tear, documenting (for compliance purposes and otherwise) actual turbine operation status, etc.



AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 16

Upgrades and Improvements to Wind Turbine Pitch and Yaw Electronics (9:45am - 10:10am) The proper operations of pitch and yaw systems are critical to both improve uptime and to produce the full rated power. One way to address costly downtime and expensive replacement components is to upgrade and improve the design of the existing electronics. One specific example of this is a battery charger used for pitch system back up batteries. This critical device is used to keep back up batteries fully charged in case of a power loss emergency. Underrated components inside this unit are susceptible to failure during normal operation. Elevated temperatures in the hub intensify this failure mode. The solution to this problem is to replace the failing components with higher rated components which will be much less susceptible to failure. Vibration Analysis Strategies for O&M Excellence, Warranty and Insurance (10:15am – 10:40am) Vibration analysis and condition monitoring is used in many points in the asset life for O&M, commissioning as well as insurance and development. The major strategies applying Condition Monitoring (CMS) for OEM acceptance, owner acceptance, commissioning, end of warranty, post repair, due diligence and validating OEM CMS data. Owner perspective on what is important for RFQ's, OEM systems, fixing underperforming CMS and a brief explanation of vibration analysis. Insurance perspective to understand and preventing risk exposure, repair validation and risk mitigation through understanding health of drivetrain components. Lastly, from the investor/developer perspective to understand what they have built or are considering purchasing from an asset health report. Human Element in Major Accident Hazards (9:25am -10:20am) Accidents happen but what can be learned from them to prevent them from occurring again in the future and avoid costly downtimes? This panel will discuss major accident hazards within the wind energy industry. Panelists will present several incident scenarios and discuss the facts of the incidents and lessons learned. Networking Break (10:20am – 10:50am) Sponsored by Keeping Your Workforce Focused (10:50am –12:05pm) Maintaining workers focus on EHS responsibilities during difficult or uncertain times is a difficult task for anyone to keep up with. PTCs come and go, companies struggle with finances from failed IPOs and mergers and workers who are on the front lines may not be able to focus on identifying and mitigating the hazards for the work they are performing during these times. To guard their most valued asset, their employees, the timely integration of their Safety Management Systems and, ultimately their cultures, is critical to ensuring the ongoing health and safety of all employees. Looking at other industries such as aviation, medicine and nuclear power, taking their experiences and learning from the Human Performance (HU) strategies they developed. Identifying and capturing wind industry experience is essential to building a strong safety culture. Balancing ground up experience and top down expertise to develop a unique safety program for your organization will improve the overall safety culture. Data that Drives Operational Excellence (10:50am –11:50pm) As operators look to improve equipment reliability and availability while decreasing operating costs many have turned to the vast amounts of data being collected for answers. Come learn how companies in different sectors of the industry analyze and make decisions off this collection of data to improve in these areas.


2/14/17 4:23 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Smarter Blade Design for Maintenance & Optimal Performance (11:10am -12:10pm) Hear industry experts discuss considerations for smarter blade designs for maintenance and optimal performance. Key topics of focus will in the area of blade add-ons, upgrades, modifications, manufacturing and potential changes and updates to industry blade design standards

Key ingredients for Effective Fall Protection & Rescue Training (1:20pm -1:45pm) Organizations have several options to develop and deliver fall protection and rescue training to their staff. This session will discuss the critical ingredients that must be present in training programs to be effective and withstand the scrutiny of audits or litigation. Organizations can develop their own training, hire outside training vendors, deliver OJT, on-line, or some combination of blended program (on-line / classroom / field work). This session will review the main objectives of conducting fall protection and rescue training and the key ingredients of the training program, regardless of the delivery method.

Networking Lunch (12:00pm – 2:00pm) Sponsored by Development of a Troubleshooting and Safety Simulator for Wind Technology Education (12:10pm -12:35pm) Many newly-hired wind turbine technicians lack sufficient training to use troubleshooting in a real-world environment, resulting in “grasping in the dark” to track down issues. A web-based 3-D simulator is being developed to provide education modules and interactive troubleshooting scenarios that teach students effective troubleshooting techniques. The simulator features education modules for troubleshooting, safety, electrical, mechanical, and hydraulics. The simulator also ties SCADA systems to troubleshooting and provides a library of fault-based scenarios based on real life wind turbine scenarios to let students experience the challenges associated with troubleshooting in a real wind farm environment. This paper will discuss methodology and development associated with the project, and provide information on utilizing virtual training in the wind energy industry. Using Quality Assurance Tracking To Build A Professional Experience Portfolio (11:55am – 12:20pm) A discussion about how Historian, Maintenance Tracking and/or Quality Assurance (QA) systems can be used to support professional accreditation schemes in producing evidence of experience, helping professionals to build a portfolio of past work and capability. We developed a system that allows us to stream individual’s blade repair data including significance of repair, quality of repair and number of repairs to build a certified portfolio to present to their company or Client within an accredited belt scheme. This presentation discusses how we achieved this harmony between software and accreditation scheme, and how we can apply this to the industry for other areas, complementing an already well-established map of competencies to provide better transparency and confidence in specialist fields.


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 17

Managing Your Contractor Management Program (2:05pm - 3:05pm) Considering the quality, safety and environmental risks found in our industry, the size of an ad in a phone book or a firm handshake are no longer options for sourcing and managing contractors. Companies now have elaborate evaluation processes, probation periods, improvement plans, and can impose penalties when expectations are not met. In this session you will hear multiple perspectives of how companies in our industry manage contractors once they pass the initial evaluation. From structured ISO programs to culture development, companies have recognized that failure to establish contractor management practices can have long term impacts on their company’s culture, reputation and businesses. Preparing for the NERC CIP Evolution (2:00pm – 3:00pm) If anything was learned from 2016 is that cybersecurity is important and has grave consequences for those that fail to take it seriously. This session will help prepare for the changes to NERC CIP regulations from version 5 to 6 and beyond. Speakers will look at the impacts and challenges to wind operations and increased cybersecurity expectations of turbine suppliers. Is there tension between compliance and security? Which NERC CIP requirements, if any, require additional interpretation or consistency within the industry and with the regulators?

PTC Renewal – Does it pencil out for your assets? (12:25pm -12:50pm) The most recent PTC extension provided both unprecedented long-term market outlook for the wind industry and opportunities for new and existing turbine owners to qualify projects and assets for the PTC. Currently, approximately 10 percent of that existing US installed base is 10 years or older. While a turbine has a design life of 20 or more years, the PTC benefits asset owners can only claim the first 10 years. That leaves another 10 years of the operating life without any PTC benefit. Many of these owners face agonizing choices – after the 10- year expiration of PTC benefits, some of those assets no longer pencil out to continue operating. Faced with either shutting down, or operating at a loss, Repowering or Refurbishing now gives owners a third option – requalify their aging fleet for a new 10-year PTC benefit and upgrade and modernize with newer technology. Making Sense out of Multibrand Services (12:55pm - 1:20pm) In light of recent market consolidation amongst turbine OEMs and service providers, multibrand services have come to forefront of the wind services market. This presentation will highlight the potential benefits and challenges associated with deployment of multibrand services, especially as they pertain to large scale IPPs engaged in self-perform maintenance programs. Developing a value added service portfolio is critical to avoiding a race to the bottom on multibrand service pricing. OEMs must make difficult decisions with respect to their multibrand strategy, balancing risks associated with their lesser understanding of competitor technical issues and access to proprietary parts against market demand for lower cost, tailored service agreements from sophisticated asset owners.

Building Infrastructure to Ensure Operational Success (2:00pm – 3:00pm) Ensuring the operational success of a wind energy project starts at the beginning. This panel will investigate the best practices of project development, construction, and the operational phase of a project and how the planning and construction of the infrastructure of a wind project will impact the operations. Understand the impact of optimizing capital costs versus long term reliability of the life of the project.

Networking Break (3:00pm – 3:35pm) Sponsored by OSHA Requirements for Machine Guarding (3:05pm -3:35pm) As OSHA turns a more informed eye on wind turbine technology, it appears they have focused on machine guarding for rotating equipment with a revived intensity. Many if not all of the OEM’s have failed to consider current U.S. OSHA regulations in regard to protecting Wind Techs from rotating equipment hazards. As a result, many conditions which expose Wind Techs to such hazards can be found in most wind technologies in use today. We are seeing that some of the hazards are now being addressed in the newer designs, however 2015 and earlier designs exhibit areas of concern. Several ramifications and concerns in regard to the inevitable enforcement of current OSHA regulations, as they relate to up tower rotating equipment hazards, exist and will be discussed in the presentation. More details about this presentation available in the app. Round the Hub: Partnering for Operational Excellence (3:40pm - 4:40pm) Closing Networking Reception (5:00pm – 6:00pm) Sponsored by



2/14/17 4:23 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Speaker List: Use the conference app for the most-up-to-date list, speaker bios and presentation details. Kevin Alewine, Shermco Industries

Ron Grife, Leeward Renewables

John Amos, Siemens Wind Power Inc.

Jaimeet Gulati, EDP Renewables North America LLC

Benjamin Allen, Salient Power Engineering, LLC

Victor Hall, JMS Wind

Jacob Baker, Invenergy LLC

Bruce Hammett, WECS Electric Supply Inc

James Barfield, Duke Energy Renewables

Jeffrey Hammitt, NextEra Energy

Derek Berry, NREL

Dwyer Haney, Renewable NRG Systems

John Boyle, Apex Clean Energy

Tim Hayes, Duke Energy Renewables

Dan Brake, NextEra Energy

Scott Bramlett, EDF Renewable Services

Thomas Brazina, EDP Renewables North America LLC David Bressert, RES System 3 LLC Richard Brooks, The Timken Co.

George Brown, Acciona Energy USA Global LLC Rob Budny, RBB Engineering, LLC

Wilo Castillo, Gravitec Systems

John Chamberlin, Siemens Wind Power Inc. Matt Chase, Wind Tower Technologies, LLC David Clark, CMS Wind

Matthew Conwell, Invenergy LLC

Stuart Creed, Vestas - American Wind Technology, Inc. Daniel Cushman, Shell Wind Energy George Daly, ENSA North America

Christopher Daniels, MA Mortenson Construction Steven Davis, BHI Energy

Justin Johnson, EDP Renewables North America LLC Kristen Kocon, Duke Energy Renewables Gretchen Kowalik, MRG Laboratories

Aaron Lawson, PSI Repair Services, Inc. Kyle Layman, Avangrid Renewables

Gary Lee, EDP Renewables North America LLC

Shannon Lehmkuhl, Iowa Lakes Electric Cooperative

Timothy Leier, Vestas - American Wind Technology, Inc.

Gregory Lilly, E.ON Climate & Renewables North America Peter Lukens, Gamesa Wind US

Tiffany May, MA Mortenson Company Marty McKewon, Indji Systems Lauren Miller, EDP Renewables Brent Mitchell, Pattern Energy

Stephen Dictor, Uptake

John Moreland, Purdue University Northwest

William Enk, AAE, LTD.

Judah Moseson, Cooke Power Services

Dariush Faghani, Arista

Rayshon Myles, Vestas - American Wind Technology, Inc.

Euan Fenelon, Natural Power


Ryan Fonbuena, SunEdison

Gary Garcia, Nextera Energy Resources

Michael Gelskey, Jr., Lift-it Manufacturing Co

Michael Gelskey, Sr., Lift-it Manufacturing Co

AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 18

Paul Idziak, Shermco Industries

Benjamin Lanz, IMCORP

Alex Byrne, DNV GL


Mike Hornemann, Romax

Brian Kramak, AWS Truepower, LLC

Chris Buller, DAVE App Limited


Reynir Hilmisson, Brüel & Kjaer Vibro

Byron Jessee, Duke Energy Renewables

Katy Briggs, DNV GL

Stuart Gillen, Spark Cognition

Ryan Griffin, MA Mortenson Construction

Christopher Nolan, Vestas - American Wind

Technology, Inc.

Fritz Oettinger, Vestas Wind Systems A/S

Obum Osineme, Virginia Transformer Corporation


2/14/17 4:23 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Speaker List Continued: Use the conference app for the most-up-to-date list, speaker bios and presentation details. Francis Pelletier, Arista Renewable Energies inc.

Gemma Smith, Pattern Energy

Donna Pratt, NERC

Justin Stover, C.C. Jensen

Chris Petrola, Acciona Energy USA Global LLC

Sally Starnes, DNV GL - Energy Advisory Americas

Ken Puetz, Solomon Corporation

Karen Tucker, Wanzek Construction

Shivakumar Puranikmath, Gamesa Wind US

Len Tully, Invenergy LLC

Diego Ramirez, EDP Renewables North America LLC

Brad Tweeten, Siemens Wind Power Inc.

Kevin Schroeder, Invenergy LLC

Jeffery Wehner, Duke Energy Renewables

Charles Shannon, EDF Renewable Energy

Darren Weiss, Eurus Energy America Corporation

Johanne Sharp Sermania, Gamesa Wind USA

Peter Wells, Vestas - American Wind Technology, Inc.

Daniel Shreve, MAKE Consulting

Junda Zhu, Renewable NRG Systems

Brad Simpson, Invenergy LLC






Want to learn more about how you can take the LEAD with AWEA? Get in touch today! AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 19

2/14/17 4:23 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Upcoming AWEA Events: 3.20

AWEA Wind Project Siting & Environmental Compliance Conference 2017 3/20 - 3/22, Austin, TX


AWEA Wind Resource & Project Energy Assessment Conference 2017 9/27 - 9/29, Snowbird, UT


AWEA Wind Energy Fall Symposium 2017 11/7 - 11/9, Albuquerque, NM


AWEA WINDPOWER 2017 Conference & Exhibition 5/22- 5/25, Anaheim, CA


AWEA Offshore WINDPOWER 2017 Conference 10/24 - 10/25, New York, NY


AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2018 2/27 – 2/28, Hotel Del Coronado, San Diego, CA


AWEA Regional Wind Energy Conference 2017 – Northwest 7/25 - 7/26, Renton, WA


AWEA Wind Energy Finance & Investment Conference 2017 10/25 - 10/26, New York, NY

Recognition of Participants Recognition of Participants AWEA Safety Data Collection Report: AWEA sincerely thanks its member companies and other organizations for their contribution to the industry data provided in this report. AWEA strives to provide the best information on the wind industry—for the industry and by the industry—and therefore welcomes your comments. AWEA sincerely thanks its member companies and other organizations for their contribution to the industry data provided in this report. Data Collection Report Participants AWEA strives to provide the best information on the wind industry—for the industry and by the industry—and therefore welcomes your comments. Puget Sound Energy Gamesa Acciona Energy USA Global LLC RENEW Energy Maintenance GE Energy Aeolus Energy Servicing Data Collection Report Participants 2016 AWEA Data Collection Report Participants RES – Renewable Energy Systems Americas Inc. Goldwind Americas AES Wind Generation Puget Sound Energy Gamesa Acciona Energy USA Global LLC Rope Partner, Inc. Iberdrola Renewables Airway Services Inc RENEW Energy Maintenance GE Energy Aeolus Energy Servicing Run Energy LP Infrastructure & Energy Alternatives, LLC ALLETE / Minnesota Power RES – Renewable Energy Systems Americas Inc. Goldwind Americas AES Wind Generation Sempra Energy Invenergy LLC Alliant Energy Corporation Rope Partner, Inc. Iberdrola Renewables Airway Services Inc Senvion USA Corp. Iowa Lakes Electric Cooperative Apex Clean Energy, Inc. Run Energy LP Infrastructure & Energy Alternatives, LLC ALLETE / Minnesota Power Shell WindEnergy Inc. Kalamazoo Valley Community College Auwahi Wind Energy Sempra Energy Invenergy LLC Alliant Energy Corporation Shermco Industries Leeco Steel, LLC Avanti Senvion USA Corp. Iowa Lakes Electric Cooperative Apex Clean Energy, Inc. Siemens Leeward Renewable Energy BHI Energy Inc Shell WindEnergy Inc. Kalamazoo Valley Community College Auwahi Wind Energy Signal Energy Constructors Mallory Safety and Supply LLC BP Wind Energy Shermco Industries Leeco Steel, LLC Avanti Suzlon Wind Energy Corporation MD&A Renewables Services Complete Wind Corporation Siemens Leeward Renewable Energy BHI Energy Inc Tech Safety Lines, Inc. Michels Corporation Diamond WTG Engineering & Services, Inc. Signal Energy Constructors Mallory Safety and Supply LLC BP Wind Energy Terra-Gen LLC MidAmerican Energy Company DNV GL Suzlon Wind Energy Corporation MD&A Renewables Services Complete Wind Corporation Third Planet Windpower, LLC Mortenson Construction Duke Energy Tech Safety Lines, Inc. Michels Corporation Diamond WTG Engineering & Services, Inc. TPI Composites, Inc. NaturEner, LLC E.ON Climate & Renewables North America Terra-Gen LLC MidAmerican Energy Company DNV GL UpWind Solutions, Inc. NextEra Energy Resources EDF Renewable Energy Third Planet Windpower, LLC Mortenson Construction Duke Energy Vestas – American Wind Technology, Inc. Nordex USA, Inc. EDP Renewables North America LLC TPI Composites, Inc. NaturEner, LLC E.ON Climate & Renewables North America Wanzek Construction, Inc. OlsenBeal Enbridge Inc. UpWind Solutions, Inc. NextEra Energy Resources EDF Renewable Energy XCEL Energy Pattern Energy Group LP Enel Green Power North America, Inc. Vestas – American Wind Technology, Inc. Nordex USA, Inc. EDP Renewables North America LLC Portland General Electric Company Everpower Wind Holdings, Inc. Wanzek Construction, Inc. OlsenBeal Enbridge Inc. Power Climber Wind / Safeworks Exelon Corp. XCEL Energy Pattern Energy Group LP Enel Green Power North America, Inc. Portland General Electric Company Everpower Wind Holdings, Inc. Power Climber Wind / Safeworks Exelon Corp.

Don’t forget to participate in the 2017 AWEA Safety Data Collection Report. Data Collection Report Open: February 16, 2017. Data Collection Report Closed: April 3, 2017.


American Wind Energy Association

Safety Data Collection Report 2016 I Page 1

American Wind Energy Association

Safety Data Collection Report 2016 I Page 1

AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 20

2/14/17 4:23 PM

Market reports Event presentations Market reports Webinar recordings Event presentations Webinar recordings Safety training Safety training White papers White papers

Photo credit: PhotoE.ON credit: E.ON


thenew newAWEA AWEA Publications atatthe Publications AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 21

2/14/17 4:24 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Exhibitor Contact Details:

3M Company Dustin H. Schneider 3M Center, Bldg. 235-2W-70 St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (503) 330-4016

American Chemical AeroTorque Corporation Airway Services Inc. Technologies, Inc. Doug Herr Brad Gryder Steven Kovanda 1441 Wolf Creek Trail, PO Box 305 5001 Christoval Highway 485 E Van Riper Road Sharon Center, OH 44274 San Angelo, TX 76901 Fowlerville, MI 48836 (330) 416-5735 (512) 581-5515 (517) 223-0300

Avanti Wind Systems Kent Pedersen 11311 West Forest Home Ave. Franklin, WI 53132 (262) 641-9101

Axis Renewable Group, Inc. George Tapia 1157 Cushman Avenue San Diego, CA 92110 (619) 937-3961

BazeField AS Veronica Williams +4594800600 Moen 15 PO Box 1124 Porsgrunn N-3905 Norway

Breeze Caroline Mizael +46 (0) 760 38 57 88 Kungsportsavenyn 33, 411 36 Gothenburg, Sweden

BSI Components and Repair LLC Francisco Paxtor 14419 NE 13th Ave., S-9 Vancouver, WA 98606 (360) 977-7121

C.C. Jensen, Inc. Justin Stover 320 Coweta Industrial Pkwy, Ste. J Newnan, GA 30265 (360) 933-4362

Campbell Scientific Matthew Perry 815 W. 1800 North Logan, UT (435)227- 9000

Castrol Industrial North America. Inc. Cristina Hohmann 1500 Valley Road Wayne, NJ 07470 (800) 462-0835

Cintas Corporation Jay Skie 6800 Cintas Blvd. Mason, OH 45040 (513) 754-3544

Dakota Riggers & Tool Supply, Inc. Ben Kuhns 704 E. Benson Road Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (609) 335-0041

DNV GL Kevin Smith 1501 4th Street Seattle, WA 98101 (206) 718-1862

Dreisilker Electric Motors Inc. Chuck Kohut 352 Rooseevelt Road Glen Ellyn, IL 60137 (630) 469-7510

E.ON Climate & Renewables North America Mike Cossentine 353 N. Clark Street, Suite 3000 Chicago, IL (512) 695-0920

EDF Renewable Services Justin Forbes 15445 Innovation Drive San Diego, CA 92128 (858) 521-3717

Elevator Industry Work Preservation Fund Carisa Barrett 7154 Columbia Gateway Dr. Columbia, MD 21046 (253) 561-4902

en-Gauge Inc. John McSheffrey 11c Commerce Road Rockland, MA 02370 (781) 616-0544

ENSA Mallory Safety Rob Siegel 5038Bafield Drive Waterford, WI 53185 (262) 705-4558

Envision Energy USA LTD David Hall 1201 Louisiana Street, Suite 500 Houston, TX 77002 (832) 879-2349

Firetrace International Angela Krcmar 8435 N. 90th Street Ste.2 Scottsdale, AZ 85258 (480) 607-1218

Fuchs Lubricants Co. Don Brazen 2740 S. 88th Street Kansas City, KS 66111 (800) 323-7755

GasTOPS Andrew German 1011 Polytek St. Ottawa, Ontario K1J9J3 (613) 744-3530



AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 22


2/14/17 4:24 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Exhibitor Contact Details:

Gram & Juhl North America Inc. Jeff Walkup 9800 Mt. Pyramid Court, Suite 400 Englewood, CO 80112 (970) 640-3437

Gravitec Systems, Inc. Wilo Castillo 21291 Urdahl Rd NW Poulsbo, WA 98370 (360) 626-1122

Helwig Carbon Products Inc. Tom Leunig 8900 West Tower Avenue Milwaukee, WI 53224 (414) 354-2411

Hydrotex Eli Lester 12920 Senlac, Ste 190 Farmers Branch, TX 75234 (972) 389-8500

HYTORC Betsy Tapp 333 Route 17 North Mahwah, NT 07430 201-512-9500

Indji Systems Marty McKewon 8605 Santa Monica Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90069 (650) 641-2635 Ext. 103

Integrated Power Systems Megan Thompson 3 Independence Pointe, Suite 100 Greenville, SC 29615 (864) 451-5636

Iowa Lakes Community College Jolene Rogers 19 South 7th Street Estherville, IA 51334 (712) 362-0431

Librestream Technologies Inc. Charlie Neagoy 895 Waverley St., Suite 110 Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5P4 Canada (860) 976-5555

Lift-It Manufacturing Co., Inc. DeQuoy Weaver 1603 W 2nd Ave Pamona, CA 92504 (909) 524-8508

Liftra Ryan Huff 10831 Joslyn Drive Cincinnati, OH 45242 (513) 745-0880

Lighthouse Global Energy Ruben Guerrero 3550 Maple Street Abilene, TX 79606 (325) 692-7278

Lind Jensens Machinery Inc. Gregory Kocsis Kroghusvej 7 Hoejmark Midtjylland 6940 Denmark +4597343200

Lufft Instruments Abraham Aguilar 820 E. Mason Street Ste.A Santa Barbara, LA 93103 (805) 335- 8500

Malloy Electric Michael Feltman 809 W Russell St Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (605) 679-5019

MBA Construction Cory Martin 33126 Magnolia Circle Magnolia, TX 77354 (832) 302-4050

Midpoint Bearing Henry Barragan 1155 W Brooks St #100 Ontario, CA 91762 (909) 391-1466

Morgan Advanced Materials George Finley 251 Forrester Drive Greenville, SC 29602 (307) 660-1232

Mortenson Construction Shylite Jones 700 Meadow Lane N Minneapolis, MN 55422 (763) 287-3442

Natural Power Consultants LLC Jim Adams 63 Franklin Street Saratoga Springs, NY 12866

New World Technologies Inc. Rad Torque Systems Kevin Campbell 30580 Progressive Way Abbotsford BC V2T 6Z2 Canada (800) 983-0044

Nord-Lock Inc. Pam Corn 100 Gregg Street Carnegie, PA 15106 (412) 279-1149

Olympus David Park 48 Woerd Avenue Waltham, MA 02453 (908) 672-0611

Poseidon Systems Mark Redding 200 Canal View Blvd. Rochester, NY 14623 (585) 633-8552

Power Climber Wind Colby Hubler 365 Upland Drive Seattle, WA 98188 (877) 729-4631


AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 23



2/14/17 4:24 PM

AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2017 Exhibitor Contact Details:

Randack Fasteners Americas, Inc. (RFA) Mario Hernandez 920 Donata Court Lake Zurich, IL 60047 (847) 847-1280

RBB Engineering Rob Budny 245 Kentucky Street, Suite A-2 Petaluma, CA 94952 (805) 280-9044

Romax Technology Becki Meadows 2108 55th Street, Suite 105 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 808-7281

Run Energy LP Greg Shetton 5009 South Dannville Dr. Abilene, TX 79602 (325) 795 -1550

Shell Lubricants Carl Stowe 910 Louisiana Houston, TX 77002 (626) 744-1248

Shermco Industries Paul Idziak 2425 E. Pioneer Drive Irving, TX 75061 (972) 793-5523

SKF USA, Inc. Ryan Greenfield 890 Forty Foot Rd Kulpsville, PA 19443 (267) 436-6473

Sky Climber Wind Solutions, LLC Chad DiFranco 1800 Pittsburgh Drive Delaware, OH 63017 (850) 281-3789

Skylotec North America LP Kurani Seyhan 4845 Pearl East Circle, Ste.101 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 544 2120

Snap-on, Inc. John Tremblay 2801 80th Street Kenosha, WI 53141 (815) 451-6676

SparkCognition Victoria Salas 4030 W. Braker Lane Austin, TX 78758 (512) 956-5570

TEAMSESCO Stuart Smith 7101 Cessna Drive Greensboro, NC 27409 (336) 202-9432

Tech Safety Lines Diane Waghorne 3204 Skylane Drive Suite D Carrollton, TX 75006 (214) 987-4680

The High Ground of Texas Kevin Carter 201 W. 6th Street Plainview, TX 79072 (806) 291-3211

The Last U.S. Bag Company William Macia 3000 Columbia Blvd., Suite 114 Vancouver, WA 98661 (360) 993-2247

THRIVE WORKWEAR CO. Dale T. Pelletier 1500 W Hamden Ave., #4H Englewood, CO 80110 (720) 638-5698

Tuff Bucket Bryce Merrick 361 4th Ave West Twin Falls, ID 83301 (866) 575-8833

TWR Lighting, Inc. Raudel Barrera 18010 West Little York Road, #130 Houston, TX 77041 (713) 973-6905 x125

Ty-Flot, Inc. Patty Knowlton 305 Massabesic Street Manchester, NH 03103 (603) 669-5169

UL, LLC Kevin Denman 333 Pfingsten Rd. Northbrook, IL 60062 (847) 224-4635

Wind Secure Jesse Tarr PO Box 699 Lake Orion, MI 48361 (248) 563-6234

World Wind & Solar Daryl Ragsdale 915 Tehachapi Willow Springs Road Tehachapi, CA 93561 (661) 822-4877

Wind Composite Services Group – WECS Electric Supply Inc. WindCom Bruce Hammett Gary Kanaby PO Box 0278 5151 World Houston Parkway North Palm Springs, CA 92263-0278 Houston, TX 77037 (760) 251-0040 (281) 906-9572



AWEA Insert 2-17 Vs6.indd 24


2/14/17 4:24 PM

Elevator 2-17.indd 29

2/14/17 10:09 AM

FORGING A SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE GREAT LAKES WIND PROJECTS YOU MIGHT THINK that a small six-turbine offshore wind farm in shallow, fresh water would be a piece of cake. Nothing could be farther from the truth. A small group of passionate visionaries have been working to turn a dream into reality since 2009. Recently at a ballroom in a Cleveland Holiday Inn, some nearly 300 invited company representatives showed up to offer their services to the project manager of Icebreaker Wind, the farm slated for Lake Erie. Dr. Lorry Wagner, President of the Lake Erie Energy Development Co (LEEDCo) and the project lead, explained that Icebreaker is a Department of Energy funded demonstration project to better chart the permitting processes, marine logistics, and operations involved, and will serve as a stepping stone to build an offshore 26


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 26

wind industry in the Great Lakes, an ideal location for renewable energy given the region’s growing energy needs, historic air quality problems, and the availability of local manufacturing and other businesses to service this industry. The project is planned and financed, and permitting is underway. Two-thirds of the wind farm’s power output has been purchased and the companies are looking for a buyer for the remaining one-third. LEEDCo is also looking for local companies to supply materials, engineering, construction, logistics and many other services before construction can begin in 2018. The 20.7-MW project has to contend with the fact that a lot of Atlantic or Gulf coast equipment cannot pass through the St. Lawrence Seaway into the Great Lakes.


2/14/17 12:38 PM

Photos courtesy of


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 27



2/14/17 12:39 PM


Dr. Wagner kicked off the meeting explaining the scope of the project and work details. For instance, the project is broken into five major contracts that include the wind turbine, its foundation, a submarine cable, an onshore substation and grid connection, and marine operations and logistics. Fred.Olsen Renewables will be the prime contractor and representatives were available to discuss each subcontract. “Be sure you get your company name and contact information listed and find the contract lead to better understand different aspects of the project and ways to get involved,” said Wagner. “Our strategy partitions the project into five contracts,” said Dave Karpinski, LEEDCo VP of Operations. “There is a great deal of opportunity for work under each of the various elements of the project. Vestas and Universal Foundation are the two lead contractors and they each will need the service of several subcontractors.” Wagner introduced Oyvin Lund, with wind-farm developer Fred.Olsen Renewables (FOR), as the project manager responsible for delivering the project safely, on time, and on budget. Lund was chosen because he has managed similar projects around the world.

LEEDCo and FOR must put a lot of moving parts into place to get steel in the Lake. For example, a jack-up barge or vessel will be needed to provide a stable platform for lifting turbine nacelles onto towers. But no such vessel exists on the Great Lakes, so one may have to be built. Joachim Lund Nærø, responsible for Marine operations and logistics (Fifth column in the Local opportunities chart below) said his team would first conduct an inventory of Great Lake ports to see what is available. If he finds nothing suitable, he would consider how the available equipment might be modified to accommodate the project. Another example of work: Nikoli Halum, from Universal Foundation, will manage the engineering and fabrication of the six suction-bucket foundations. The welded structure is quite large, about 25-ft diameter and 20-ft long with a transition piece (tower connector) extending above that. A contractor has been selected in the Cleveland area capable of handling the foundations. Building it will require support from welding contractors and other suppliers. The Port of Cleveland will serve as a staging area.

Universal Foundation is the main contractor for the mono or suction bucket. The company is responsible for engineering, fabrication, delivery, support of installation, and commissioning. The 450-ton foundations will be fabricated somewhere near Cleveland.

Wagner added that the December supply chain event was the first step to let the community better understand the supply chain process. There will be other events to connect people and companies. W

The six Vestas turbines will be mounted eight miles offshore and tie into a substation at Cleveland Public Power.



Wind Watch_2-17_Vs4.indd 28


2/14/17 12:46 PM


Solving O&M issues on a peer-to-peer forum WIND-FARM OWNERS representing about 12% of global wind-turbine assets have founded a peer-to-peer online platform, called o2o Wind. The o2o Wind forum takes down the barriers to information exchange that typically get in the way of optimizing wind energy assets. It is the first initiative of its kind aimed at fostering wind-farm O&M best practices through a collaborative approach. Members share the common objective of optimizing turbine yields and many problem-solving discussions relate to issues with components, such as rotor blades, gearboxes, or substations. Although the topics addressed on the forum are mostly technical, they may contribute to important investment decisions. The platform also hosts many discussions on offshore O&M. “When it comes to trouble-shooting many of the O&M issues encountered, wind-farm owners are not competitors,” said Mårten Nilsson, head of the o2o Wind platform. “On the contrary, they are in the same boat, and that’s why adopting a collaborative approach to problemsolving makes a lot of sense.” A strict member-selection criteria is intended to maintain integrity along with a high level of expertise throughout the network. “Our members recognize that the most valuable information for turbine owners is the hands-on experience held by their peers,” said Nilsson. W WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT 

Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 29


2/14/17 12:39 PM


12-MW outputs and more are not as difficult as you think, says inventor THE 10-MW TURBINE has turned into a more difficult target to hit than most OEMs thought. Consider that a few years ago, three OEMs boasted of having 10-MW designs in their CAD systems. But nothing came of them. In fact, one of those companies has gone out of business. A turbine with that power rating has turned into a stretch goal. However, a few engineers think a 10-MW rating and more is not that far off and is possible with existing components. William Miller, for one, CEO of Nextwind Inc, and partner Rain Byars, have detailed such a design made from existing components and manufacturing methods. What’s more, they say their methods could accommodate 12 to 21-MW turbines. “The 5 to 8-MW range is the upper end of what can be achieved by just enlarging current utility or MW-scale architecture,” says Miller. “Companies will find that for a conventional 10-MW offshore turbine, weights are high, installation equipment is not commonly available, and the cost of energy is not on par with that available from 1 to 3-MW onshore turbines.” The question to address, they say, is: How is it possible to upscale beyond this limit, and further push electric costs down? Miller and Byars say their Nextwind Gaia architecture overcomes the barriers to upsizing existing wind-turbine technologies and aims at large-scale offshore wind plants, which can beat the initial cost and cost of energy of land-based wind farms. In every turbine model, designers must consider the driving design requirements, which influence the return on investment. The two designers say design goals should consider structural integrity and operational safety, upfront costs (including materials, transportation, and installation, maintenance and service costs), and annual energy production. Their design, The Gaia, is an upwind, horizontal-axis offshore wind power plant with active control of yaw position, blade pitch, rotor rpm, structural loads, and power 30


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs4.indd 30

Designers Miller and Byars provide a detailed look at the components of their proposed turbine.


2/14/17 12:46 PM

A Radical Change in Bolting is Coming Your Way Norbar Torque Tools Introduces a New Generation in AC Powered Torque Multipliers

EvoTorque 2 ®

It’s Time to Change the Way You Think About AC Powered Torque Multipliers • • • • • • • • •

Operating ranges from 100 lb-ft to 4500 lb-ft Measures in Torque, Torque and Angle, and Torque Audit mode for pre-tightened bolts Versions for 110 VAC or 230 VAC Lightweight at only 23lbs. Factory calibrated and certified to ± 3% accuracy regardless of fluctuating voltages USB and Bluetooth® 4.0 data transfer (also called Bluetooth® Smart) 3,000 readings in internal memory, time and date stamped Includes PC software ‘EvoLog’ for data management and tool configuration From factory to field; for fabrication, installation, verification and maintenance

Norbar Torque Tools, Inc.

Let’s Talk Torque Norbar_8-16_Vs1.indd 7

440.953.1175 PH 440.953.9336 FX

2/14/17 10:13 AM


(TOP) The drivetrain is comprised of a long main shaft supported by two main bearings, two main gear assemblies, and six generators, the blue components.

output. “The design assembles like a bridge. The top tower structure is comprised of bolted standard shapes, and is intended for assembly (BELOW) The foundation assembly could use any of several different on site with a standard crane. Each drivetrain spring elements, such as Bellville springs, rubber disks, and other designs component can be repaired or replaced on already in use by the oil and gas industry. site without dropping the rotor. Individual components then become replacement parts, instead of structural parts, and the structure can be maintained for an extended life,” adds Miller. “The mainshaft attaches at the upwind side to the a modular rotor. The main bearings – upwind and downwind – can be removed from each end of the main shaft and can be serviced or replaced up tower,” says Miller. The main gear assemblies are supported on the main shaft between the two main bearings. “The gear assemblies are segmented, so each segment can be serviced or completely replaced up-tower. The gear assemblies have a singlestage planetary configuration with multiple output shafts. This layout eliminates bearing wear associated with high-speed stages, and helps distribute and reduce tooth contact loads. The housings of the gear assemblies are supported on hydraulic dampers,” says Byars. Each output shaft of the gear assembly drives a permanent-magnet generator. “Dampers and torque-limiting couplers will mitigate torque loads. The generators, several per turbine, would be manufactured to a common frame size with minimal tooling investment,” he adds. The two say they have considered that the enormous size, weight, and loads on a conventional direct-drive generator with a 12-MW output would present a challenge to manufacturing and transportation, as well as reliable operation and field service. “So we propose medium-speed generators. These have a higher power-to-weight ratio and use less rare earths and copper compared to a directdrive generator. Their relatively compact size and low weight allows low-cost transportation and easy replacement in the field.” The entire drivetrain mounts on a support frame made of standard forms bolted together. “This eliminates costly tooling, This layout eliminates bearing wear associated with high-speed as well as manufacturing stages, and helps distribute and reduce tooth contact loads. The limitations and housings of the gear assemblies are supported on hydraulic dampers. transportation restrictions associated with massive cast structures,” says Miller. The designers also propose a modular rotor system and active frequency tuning. W 32


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs4.indd 32


2/14/17 12:45 PM


Back by demand: The owner-operator workshops return at Wind O&M Dallas 2017. These let attendees benefit from one-onone interactions with wind-farm owners and provide a networking forum for knowledge sharing and new connections.

What to expect at Wind O&M Dallas 2017


THE U.S. ONSHORE WIND ENERGY SECTOR could see operations and maintenance (O&M) costs drop by up to 20% in the next five years, according to data presented at the Wind O&M Dallas conference in 2016. This was attributed to higher quality components and greater collaboration between wind companies. Now in its ninth year, Wind O&M Dallas 2017 is working further toward that goal by bringing the wind O&M industry together again this April. Organized by Wind Energy Update, an information and networking platform for the global wind industry, the Wind O&M conference provides a forum for industry professionals to connect, network, and discuss ideas for maximizing turbine performance and wind-farm returns. “To succeed in this industry, issues such as major power purchase investments from industrial giants, the explosion of independent service FEBRUARY 2017

Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 33

1. Turbine Reliability: Gain exclusive insights on how you can optimize O&M resources to enhance reliability, avert major failures and slash turbine downtime 2. Asset & Risk Management: Learn how to maximize wind revenue, increase AEP, eliminate major operational risks, and evaluate the future of wind generation. 3. The Pursuit of MWs: Understand how market and policy forces will reshape the way you build wind revenue, and learn what market leaders have done to achieve sustainable growth in renewables.



2/14/17 12:39 PM

W I N D W A T C H “Capture every megawatt-hour” is the theme for Wind O&M Dallas 2017. This annual event has enjoyed a 30% growth in attendee quality since 2012, and provides the platform for wind energy professionals to come together, share insights, maximize assets, and move the global wind industry forward.

companies, advanced energy storage technology, the utility of data-driven software, and more, demand a complete re-think,” said Kerr Jeferies, Project Director at Wind Energy Update. And part of that “re-think” means sharing O&M insights and collaborating as an industry whole. “It is important to harness the collective strength of the growing global O&M market by bringing thought leaders

This year, the event will also include new case studies, workshops, and keynote panels. “We want to ensure attendees leave with all of the critical tools, insights, and connections they need to protect the integrity and transform the productivity of their portfolio well into the future,” said Jeferies. The conference will start with a high level session followed by two tracks spread

failures, deploying drones, and more. Track 2, “New Asset & Risk Management,” will hold sessions on portfolio management, warranty extensions, cyber security, repowering turbines, and others. “We’re also excited to present a brand-new ‘Asset & Risk Management Track’ to go alongside our premier ‘Rethink Reliability – The Core O&M Topics Track’ to ensure that asset value can be protected, nurtured, and grown by asset managers chasing risk, revenue, It is important to harness the collective strength of the growing and reward,” added Jeferies. Much like a good O&M strategy global O&M market by bringing thought leaders together. for wind energy can make or break the business case for a wind farm, across four different conference rooms. a well-executed asset management together,” said Jeferies. Indeed, a report by For example, Track 1 is called “Rethinking approach can unlock long-term economic GlobalData predicts that the global wind Reliability: The Core O&M Topics,” and opportunities for an entire wind portfolio. O&M market is forecast to grow to $17 includes sessions on condition monitoring, Download the full agenda here: billion by 2020. The growth of the wind maintaining blades, understanding gearbox W market is fueled by the declining cost of wind-generated power thanks, in part, to improvements in O&M. At the same time, it is perhaps of little surprise that the Dallas O&M conference has also developed over time and enjoyed a 30% growth in attendees yearon-year since 2012. This year, attendees Along with connecting industry professionals in the wind O&M market, the Wind O&M Dallas 2017 event also recognizes those in the industry can expect a combination of new and old. who go above and beyond. A special awards gala on April 10 pays The owner-operator workshops are back tribute to professionals who work diligently to drive standards in the by popular demand, according to the wind industry higher and to help augment the value of wind energy in organizers. The workshops let attendees North America. Learn more at exchange knowledge and information in one-on-one interactions with asset-owning operators in an informal setting.




Wind Watch_2-17_Vs4.indd 34


2/14/17 12:44 PM

AeroTorque Double Warranty FP Ad1HR.pdf



4:20 PM

No Spalling, No Axial Cracks, No Damage, Period! For a limited time, if you install an AeroTorque WindTC when you install new bearings, AeroTorque will











Protect your investment before the damage begins! *Conditions apply - contact AeroTorque for details.

AeroTorque RE Handbook 17.indd 29 330-590-8105 2/14/17 10:03 AM


Natural gas & wind provide the lowest-cost generation for much of U.S. says UT Austin Research

The map shows the lowest cost electricity generation technology in every U.S. country.

NATURAL GAS AND WIND are the lowest-cost technology options for new electricity generation across much of the U.S. when cost, public health impacts, and environmental effects are considered, according to recently released research by The Energy Institute at the University of Texas, Austin. Researchers there assessed generation technologies that included coal, natural gas, solar, wind, and nuclear. The work has produced a series of white papers that provide an in-depth assessment and examination of various electric power system options. One paper, New U.S. Power Costs: by County, with Environmental Externalities, provides a series of maps illustrating the cost of each generation technology on a county-by-county basis throughout the U.S. Another paper, Full cost of electricity is part of a comprehensive study 36


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs5.indd 36

coordinated by an interdisciplinary team that combined expert analyses from faculty members and other researchers across the university, such as engineering, economics, law, and public policy. “These are complex, interrelated issues not adequately addressed from one perspective,” said Tom Edgar, director of the Energy Institute. “We assembled a cross-disciplinary team to provide a fuller understanding of these costs and their policy implications.” Researchers analyzed data for the most competitive sources of new electricity generation. Wind is the lowestcost option for a broad swath of the country, from the High Plains and Midwest and into Texas. Natural gas prevailed for much of the remainder of the U.S., nuclear was found to be the lowest-cost option in 400 out of 3,110 counties nationwide. Researchers categorized the electricity system into three principal components:

consumers, generation technologies, and lastly the wires, poles, storage and other hardware required to connect end users to generators. The white papers assess the interaction among these components, as well as costs often considered external to the electricity system, such as environmental effects and public health impacts. For the white paper on power generation costs, researchers used data from existing studies to enhance a formula known as the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). In addition to including public health impacts and environmental effects — which the LCOE typically does not — the research team used data to calculate county-specific costs for each technology. The team also developed online calculators ( edu) facilitate a discussion among policymakers and others about the cost implications of policy actions associated with new electricity generation. FEBRUARY 2017

2/14/17 4:37 PM


"Cost estimates are based on a series of assumptions that researchers debated at length,” said Joshua Rhodes, postdoctoral research fellow at the Energy Institute and lead author of the paper. “We think our methodology is sound and hope it enhances constructive dialogue. But we also know that cost factors change over time, and people disagree about whether to include some of them." "We wanted to provide an opportunity for people to change these inputs, and the tools we’ve created allow for that,” he added. In the LCOE with Environmental Costs calculator allows a side by side comparison of two U.S. counties. “The ‘overnight costs’ take into account (as best as we could) the cost of the capital plus construction financing — that’s why nuclear cost are so high at $8/W." The maps do not really let a user extract county-by-county data, but they can use the side by side calculator here to get all the information associated with a given county. If you start typing in a county name in the first box, you should be able to find

all in the lower 48 states. The same data underlies both maps. The fuel price in the map-based calculator is the U.S. average and the default value. However, users are free to change that value. The exact value for that location is here: http://energy. UTAustin_FCe_ LCOE_2016-C.pdf. The full cost of electricity study examined numerous factors affecting the cost of electricity generation, including:

Pull up the calculator (, type in your county name

at the top left, and see how it compares to electricity in Austin, Texas, home • Operating and capital the University of Texas engineers who constructed the calculators. power plant costs • Environmental and health • Fuel costs such as variability costs, such as air quality and and full-fuel cycle greenhouse gases • Integration of renewable and • Infrastructure costs, such as distributed energy resources transmission & distribution lines, • Energy efficiency and subsidies. W rail, and pipelines

The map shows where different generation methods dominate. And where is wind?


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs5.indd 37



2/14/17 4:37 PM


Minimizing costs using financial risk analysis

Repair, replace, run to failure, or re-invest? There are plenty of questions to consider when deciding how to move forward with an aging wind fleet. Fortunately, researchers are working on a support tool to help wind-farm owners make wise investment decisions when assets reach their expected end-of-life.



Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 38

GIVEN ENOUGH TIME, even the bestengineered machines begin to break down and wind turbines are no exception. Reliability, efficiency, and power production drop considerably with age in turbines, and so does the likelihood of finding compatible replacement parts for those that wear. Most wind-farm owners can expect a lifecycle of about 20 to 25 years from their fleet. With manufacturers’ warranty periods lasting between eight and 20 years, O&M planning for aging turbines is a potentially tricky process. Reactive maintenance (waiting until something breaks) can result in time-consuming and extremely costly repairs, so there is motivation for replacing turbine components that still work quite well. “When a component stops working, such as a generator, you need to order a crane, wait for it to arrive, hire technicians, and then decide on whether to repair or replace the generator, which may require an order for a brand-new one,” said Dr. Rupp Carriveau, an Associate Professor at the University of Windsor in Canada, who is researching the most profitable O&M options for extending turbine life. “Of course, while waiting, the wind-farm owner is losing money because their downed turbine is not producing power.” Proactive maintenance lets a windfarm owner plan ahead, order components and a crane in advance, and reduce turbine downtime. “The owner may also decide to replace the generators on five turbines at once to take advantage of having a crane on site.” This sounds ideal. However, as Carriveau points, out how can a site owner know when the best time is for proactive maintenance? “What year in a turbine’s life are component replacements ideal — year six or 16?” he asked. “And how do you know when the right time is to buy a new generator, for example, so that it makes the most sense from a financial standpoint?”

After all, there is an option of holding onto those purse strings and not spending money on a component that might last years longer than anticipated. It costs a pretty penny to have generators sitting in storage or to replace five of them on aging wind turbines “just in case” one breaks down in the near future. Planning for failure So proactive or reactive maintenance at a wind farm? That is the question Carriveau and a team of researchers are currently investigating. Led by the University of Windsor, with help from Western University Ontario and three industrial partners (Enbridge, Kruger Energy, and the Wind Energy Institute of Canada), the goal is to build a financial risk-analysis model that supports wind-farm owners and operators when deciding on the best O&M strategy for their facility. “Our aim is really about making good business decisions,” said Carriveau. “Wind turbines represent a large investment and without accurate planning, those dollars are easily wasted. The objective of this academic and industrial collaboration is to maximize the output of wind-turbine assets to ensure that every last cent put into these machines is maximized.” The research project is called YEAR21 in reference to the year following a wind-turbine’s 20-year life expectancy. Each project partner has committed $C42,000 to the research over two years, and the team has also applied for a grant from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. “We are conducting our research with data that is already available that may not be fully leveraged. There is so much excellent and accessible third-party data, but it can be challenging to get a handle on what to look at and what is most useful,” said Carriveau. For example, he compares a wind turbine to owning an aging car. “Should you buy brand-new tires if the car FEBRUARY 2017

2/14/17 12:40 PM


Relax, tomorrow has already been tested. Say goodbye to hardwiring with HARTING connectors. may not last as long as the tires? Or should you try to make the vehicle last an extra five years with repairs and upgrades?” The YEAR21 team has already begun analyzing data from wind farms and learning what data inputs are most relevant for more financially savvy O&M

also the option of completely replacing those generators before necessary in anticipation of failure, and so we came up with two scenarios.” According to Carriveau, the team primarily looked at user hours in this case because as time progressed and

Over time, project owners will need to decide whether to re-wind, new-wind, or unplug wind farms once the investments near their projected design life. Strategic owners will first want to know the potential impact of these actions on the total value of the wind farm over its projected lifetime. YEAR21 is a prognostic investment tool that integrates an asset’s physical conditions with current market dynamics and may help guide investment decisions.

planning. “It is a trial and error process as we learn what data inputs to look at that are most relevant for accurately predicting life expectancy,” he said.

user hours accumulated, the chances of a generator failure also went up. Costs for each scenario were based on these numbers:

Learning from failure In a recent case study, the YEAR 21 team looked at data from a wind farm with multiple turbine generator failure, and tried to determine when the ideal time would have been to buy those generators — before or after they began to fail. “For example, would it have made more sense financially to buy each generator as needed upon failure, or to have purchased some in advance to have on hand in anticipation of these failures?” said Carriveau. “There was

• •

Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 39

Generator costs for one: $6,000 Crane costs: $12,000/week (need for a minimum of one week) Labor costs: $5,000/week

SCENARIO 1. THE PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH “This scenario involved replacing five aging generators at a time to take advantage of when the crane is onsite and minimize turbine downtown,” said Carriveau. “Expect to pay about $69,000 per generator in this pro-active mode.”



Reduce the number of wiring errors, save time and headache. HARTING, first established in 1945, delivers unrivaled reliability, efficiency, innovation and performance in connectors. With HARTING you have a partner who ensures you dependable connections that stand the test of time.

2/14/17 12:41 PM


YEAR21 study aims to leverage years of public domain and stakeholder supplied historical data to produce estimates of Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of major wind energy assets. It then links physical assets RUL with a Business Valuation Model (BVM). The BVM seeks to include the major factors influencing the financial viability of a farm operation. YEAR21 also offers an inclusive model of present-day and forecasted riskadjusted wind-farm valuation based on asset conditions (fed from RUL estimates), market, regulatory, and social factors.

SCENARIO 2. THE REACTIVE APPROACH “Here, no action is taken until a generator fails,” he said. He noted that this scenario must account for additional lost revenue based on the time it would take to order and wait for a crane and work crew to arrive on site. “Considering the downtime and crane costs in reactive mode, which can add up to an extra week or two, the price goes up to about $95,000 per generator.” The YEAR21 team calculated a ratio of 1.37 between the pro-active and reactive scenarios. “This means that a wind-farm owner who decided on a ‘wait and see’ approach in this case would have paid 1.37 times the proactive costs by waiting — assuming that a generator failed over time. But there was always the probability that the generator wouldn’t fail and that the wind-farm owner could hang on to his or her money longer.” To determine which scenario was more likely, Carriveau and his team conducted a life data analysis. “We needed to find out what the break-even point would be.” To do so, he said they looked for a maximum life prediction analysis that best fit their data set, and chose a two-parameter Weibell or continual probability analysis. He admitted that the analysis was based on a small data set that was not statistically significant, but still indicative of a reliable result. 4 0 WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT

Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 40

“Here we found that when we hit a failure rate of 73%, that was the break-even point. So when the generators began to fail at a rate of 73%, it was necessary to become pro-active in order not to lose revenue,” he said. “With our modeling for this data set, year 15 or 16 you hit that point and it was no longer worth waiting to react.” This means that before year 15, the best economic approach was for the windfarm owner to wait and fix the turbines as they failed. By year 16 in a generator’s life, this rule changed and a proactive approach became the ideal choice.

worthy of a pro-active approach, but a dynamic age range of these components.” Ideally, re-analysis would be required to determine the best scenario at this time. “This brought us back to square one,” said Carriveau. “But what it also told us was that if you’re trying to scale models based on a component’s user hours alone, that’s not enough information. The lesson was that more inputs are required for better data analysis.” The YEAR21 team is now focusing on new inputs, such as the cumulative power through a generator over its lifetime including transient loading rates. Transient loads are particularly relevant to the wind industry because of the variable nature of wind. “It’s one thing just to log power through a generator, but we’re also interested in when and where that power served through a transient event because there’s almost

There is so much excellent and accessible thirdparty data, but it can be challenging to get a handle on what to look at and what is most useful. “Sounds simple, right?” Carriveau asked. “However, if you follow this advice, something interesting happens to your data set and you essentially alter the population of your generators.” He explained that as each year goes by and a generator fails and gets replaced, the population changes. Some turbines may still require a generator upgrade at year 15, but others may have just had one. “So by year 15, you may no longer have a large amount of aging generators

always an additional fatigue side to that,” said Carriveau. The team is also considering vibration data and looking at other potential inputs, such as wind speed and turbulence. “We’re ultimately trying to build a financial risk-analysis tool that will improve as the engineering data that drives it improves,” said Carriveau. “By pro-actively mapping these scenarios, we want to help wind-farm owners maximize their assets and investments — just like they might their car or home.” W FEBRUARY 2017

2/14/17 12:42 PM


What wind performance means for your portfolio BY PLACING PROJECT PERFORMANCE in the context of long-term average wind behavior, Vaisala’s maps highlight the occurrence of specific quarterly wind anomalies, which can significantly impact the financial health of an operational portfolio. Wind portfolio performance analyses have been in greater demand in the industry since the socalled “wind drought” of early 2015. Its record-low wind speeds reduced production across much of the United States, particularly in the key markets of California and Texas, which had some of the lowest wind speeds within the entire historical record. But what caused the wind drought? Climate scientists point to the same global climate pattern that produced a large mass of warm water off the U.S. Pacific Coast and a blocking high-pressure system over much of the West. These features are related to oscillations in large-scale climate signals, such as the North Pacific Mode and El Niño, which provide strong predictors of weather. In September 2015, the largest El Niño event in recorded history was developing in the Pacific Ocean. With a climate signal this strong, weather predictability should have been high using past events as a proxy for future conditions. According to typical patterns, El Niño was expected to bring above normal wind speeds to California and the West Coast, and continue to bring below normal wind speeds to the U.S. wind belt, including Texas and the Midwest. However, despite the record El Niño, the event did not manifest itself as forecasted. The largest impact to wind speeds was expected to come in FEBRUARY 2017

Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 41

the winter, but instead arrived in the second quarter. It is likely this El Niño did not produce the expected trends in U.S. wind resource because its tropical ocean warm anomaly shifted west from the more typical location for major El Niño events. The climatescience community has dubbed this type of El Niño “Modoki,” a Japanese word that roughly translates as “the same but different.” While seasonal forecast accuracy remains a challenge, wind operators still must find ways to set annual budgets based on expected project performance. Current forecasting methods are typically simplistic and can result in large inaccuracies. These errors reduce shareholder value and confidence. In a business where revenue can vary extensively based on weather and climate, how can operators set responsible budget expectations? The best approach is to leverage numerical weather prediction modeling and historical data. This lets operators establish reasonable benchmarks across a portfolio, which can be recalibrated on a monthly basis to more accurately forecast revenue. Portfolio diversification is another strategy for mitigating the effects of events, such as the 2015 wind drought. This involves deploying assets across different regions and technol¬ogies to mitigate the financial impact of below average performance in any one area. Although not a new concept in the wind industry, climate-resilient portfolios based on long-term historical weather correlations that help clients reduce performance risk to better maintain investor confidence with steady returns. W

U.S. 2016 Wind Performance Maps (Q1, Q2, and Q3) The quarterly U.S. Performance Maps produced by Vaisala show departures from normal wind speeds across the country and help wind operators reconcile recent project performance against actual wind conditions. Vaisala conducted the study by comparing 2016 data from its continually updated meteorological dataset with 30-year averaged conditions from the same dataset.



2/14/17 12:42 PM


Leadership in wind energy: 2016 THE WIND INDUSTRY OUTPUT grows more every day. U.S. wind energy has now passed the 75-GW mark with over 20 GW under construction or in advanced stages of development. This strong pipeline of projects includes over 2,500 MW of new construction announcements in 2016, and over 1,220 MW of new wind capacity under development. According to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the billions of new dollars in wind energy are owed, in part, to regions such as Iowa and the Midwest that had the foresight to plan for a low-cost, clean energy future by investing in transmission lines that could make it possible. “These lines are called the Multi-Value Projects because they improve electric reliability, reduce electric bills for consumers, and allow new renewable resources to connect to the power system,” says a press statement from AWEA. The result: as of the third quarter of 2016, Iowa became the country’s leader in wind energy, deriving 35% of its electricity from wind. While Texas continues to hold first place as the national leader for installed wind capacity and generation, Iowa produces a higher share of electricity from wind energy than any other state. Wind energy is also responsible for over $12 billion of investments in Iowa, helping lower electricity costs and enhancing the state’s economy. Along with new investments in wind power, there are also new investors. Last year, over 80 companies, such as GM, Google, Walmart, Amazon, Microsoft, and others have committed to run their facilities on 100% renewable. The renewable of choice? Wind energy. “Wind power is the energy source of choice among these companies by a factor of six to one. That’s because you can get a lot of it, cheaply, through stable long-term contracts called PPAs,” said Hannah Hunt, Senior Analyst for AWEA. 42


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs4.indd 42

The falling cost of wind power (averaging around 2 cents per kWh) and policy certainty (thanks to the five-year extension of the Production Tax Credit) has enabled wind power to garner increased attention and scale up so quickly (and successfully) over the past year. However, none of this would be possible without the industry leaders who tirelessly “push the

envelope” and support wind-generated power through new developments, updated policies, and investments in more durable turbines and transmission lines. For this, we at Windpower Engineering & Development commend your dedication and effort. Here are a few of the companies that readers decided were leaders in the wind industry. W

You voted, we report

Bearings Electrical or electronics Fastening & Joining Hardware, Components Lubricants & Hydraulics Support services Sensors Operation & maintenance Towers


2/14/17 1:29 PM

Wind work around North America Wind power showed no signs of slowing down as the industry approached the close of 2016. By the end of the third quarter, over 20 GW of wind capacity were under construction or in advanced stages of development, according to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). Iowa and the Midwest have led the way (in fact, Iowa now gets 35% of its energy from wind), in part because of new investments in transmission. Its lines are called the Multi-Value Projects, says AWEA, because they improve electric reliability, reduce costs, and let renewable sources connect to the grid. The Competitive Renewable Energy Zone (CREZ) transmission lines in Texas are another example of infrastructure investments paying off for the wind industry.




Xcel Energy’s 200-MW Courtenay Wind Farm is now operating in North Dakota. There are 100 wind turbines covering 25,000 acres owned by 60 landowners. The project also includes a 17-mile, 115-kV overhead transmission line that will connect the wind farm to the existing Otter Tail Power substation. Over the course of 20 years, landowners can expect to receive a total of $26.5 million in tax revenues.

3 5

6 2

8 1


Michigan passes energy reform bills


Partnering for renewables in Alberta


Investing in Nebraska wind power



Repowering wind in the U.S.

Vestas received an order from an undisclosed company for its first repowering project in the U.S. It is for 29 MW of V110-2.0 MW components that will enable future turbine upgrades within the customer’s wind portfolio. Repowering aging turbines can provide wind farms greater longevity and higher production returns. Vestas will manufacture the new components at its Colorado factories for delivery in early 2017.


Statoil wins big in offshore New York

Statoil was the provisional winner of the U.S. government’s wind lease sale of 79,350 acres offshore New York. The winning bid: $42,469,725. Statoil will now explore the potential development of an offshore wind farm to provide NYC and Long Island with a significant, longterm source of renewable electricity. The lease comprises an area that could potentially accommodate more than 1 GW of offshore wind power.


Wind Watch_2-17_Vs3.indd 43


First Nations’ wind farm powers Quebec

Forty-seven Senvion wind turbines have started spinning at the 150-MW Mesgi’g Ugju’s’n wind farm in Quebec — the biggest First Nations’ wind-power project in Canada. The wind farm features 46 Senvion 3.2M114 turbines and one MM92. The coldclimate turbines are equipped with an antiicing mechanism. The blades and towers were manufactured locally in the province by developer LM Wind Power.


Transmitting low-cost wind to the Southeast

Pattern Energy is developing the Southern Cross Project, a HVDC transmission line with a base-load capacity of 2,000 MW (delivered after losses) that will link wind power in Texas to the grid and customers in the Southeast. A recent feasibility study concluded that the project is expected to generate a direct economic impact over 30 years of about $1.05 billion in Mississippi and another $1.05 billion in Louisiana. Construction is expected to begin in 2018.

ND wind generating power & tax revenues

The Michigan Environmental Council commended state leaders for approving a comprehensive energy reform package that will continue the state’s transition to a clean-energy economy and reduce electricity costs. The reform package has been in the works for two years, and includes approval of bills S.B.437 and S.B.438. The legislation will increase Michigan’s 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard mandate (which was achieved at the end of 2015) to 15% by the end of 2021.

Boralex and Alberta Wind Energy Corporation (AWEC) have formed the Alberta Renewable Power Limited Partnership, owned 52% and 48% respectively by the two companies. This collaboration aims to leverage the combined experiences of Boralex and AWEC in developing, building, and operating all sizes of wind (and solar) projects. The companies are currently preparing the Windy Point and Old-Elm & Pothole projects for the upcoming Renewable Electricity Program competitions in Alberta.

Allianz Global Investors has invested over $400 million in the Grande Prairie Wind project (GPW), a 400-MW wind farm in Holt County, Nebraska. GPW is the largest wind farm in the state’s history, and is expected to increase Nebraska’s windpower capacity to nearly 50%. It represents the first infrastructure debt renewable energy investment made by Allianz in the U.S. market. Financing consists of unlisted bonds with a 20-year term.



2/14/17 12:43 PM

P ROJ E CTS Michelle Froese Senior Editor Windpower Engineering & Development

One by one, metal sheers on a track hoe cut up the steel tower sections of all 57 Cowley Ridge wind turbines for easier and more efficient hauling and transport off site.

Decommissioning Canada’s oldest wind farm


hey say all good things come to pass and wind farms are no exception. For Alberta’s Cowley Ridge Wind Farm, Canada’s first and oldest commercial wind facility, the end of its operating life came last year. At the time of decommissioning, the 57-turbine wind facility had a total generating capacity of about 17 MW. “To give this some context, the 375-kW turbines were eventually de-rated to 300 kW. And in March of 2016, one turbine at full production was making $4.71/hour,” said Wayne Oliver, Supervisor of Alberta Wind Operations at TransAlta, Canada’s largest publicly traded power generator and marketer of electricity and renewable energy. Oliver was speaking at the Canadian Wind Energy Association’s (CanWEA) Annual Conference and Exhibition, held in Calgary, Alberta in November. “That’s not exactly economically viable,” he added.


Projects_2-17_Vs2.indd 44

Back in its prime, however, Cowley Ridge (located in Pincher Creek, about a two-hour drive from Calgary) was one of the most prominent wind-generating facilities in Canada, serving as an early example of what wind power could bring to the country. “It was a unique experience working on the first wind farm in Canada,” said Chris Ford, about the wind farm’s decommissioning. He was one of the first wind technicians to work on the site and is now a lead operator at the TransAlta Wind Control Centre. “Back then it seemed like you were up so high, different from other types of work. On a great day there was nothing like it.” The wind farm was completed in two phases over 20 years ago, and used Kenetech Model KVS 33M turbines (Kenetech was acquired in 1996 by a company called Zond, which was later acquired by GE Energy). Phase 1 was commissioned in 1993,


2/14/17 12:50 PM

When Minutes turn into Money Wireless Vibration Monitoring System

Detect small problems before they turn into BIG ones, ANYTIME, ANYWHERE. By monitoring equipment during transportation, the OpsWatch system by ShockWatch provides warning of potential damage to equipment before it’s installed. OpsWatch measures both impact and low frequency vibration to identify machine deterioration during operation and detect potential shipping damage to protect equipment, prevent unplanned downtime, maximize utilization, and reduce the cost. • 800.393.7920

Shockwatch 2-17.indd 29

2/14/17 10:14 AM


and Phase 2 in the summer of 1994. The a time when Canada is focused on to the elements while climbing and turbines were mounted on 24.5-m lattice growing it renewables’ base. The working on aging turbines. towers, used variable pitch blades with country currently has over 10,500 “These wind turbines offered a 33-m diameter rotors, and operated in MW of installed wind-power capacity. physically demanding platform to work wind speeds up to 97 km per hour. In “The irony is not lost on me that while on,” explained Oliver. “There were no October 2000, five additional turbines the provincial and federal Canadian engineered anchor points up in the nacelle were added to the site. “Decommissioning It was a unique experience working on the first wind farm in has been an interesting Canada. Back then it seemed like you were up so high, different process,” Oliver said during his presentation. from other types of work. On a great day there was nothing like it. “I’m used to installing governments are investing in renewable wind farms, not taking them down.” or internal chain hoists, so the techs To date, he has been involved in the energy, and while Alberta is committing working up-tower were continually pulling construction of eight wind farms and to some 5,000 MW of renewables by tools and supplies, such as gear oil, up by 364 turbines in Canada. “I literally 2030, here we were taking the country’s hand.” He said workers would place what started at the bottom. I was in the 34-ft first wind farm down. I got a lot of calls they needed into a canvas bag tied to an in the spring asking why,” he admitted. foundation hole, lifting the base bolts 80-ft rope, and pulley it up-tower. “They up into the template that the tower There were three main reasons, would work regardless of rain, wind, sleet, according to Oliver, but the first one section of a wind turbine would then be snow, and cold temperatures, so for safety was key: safety. Because of the open attached to.” issues, we decommissioned the farm.” But this decommissioning project lattice tower and clamshell design of In addition, obsolescence and lack of the nacelle, workers were fully exposed required a different skillset, and at profitability provided two more reasons. “We were seeing a lot of metal fatigue on the towers and had a tough time getting new parts. We had four turbines down for a couple of years because we couldn’t find antiquated blades anywhere that were a match,” he said. Although Oliver and his team at TransAlta eventually found useful decommissioned blades in California, rotors were just one issue. “One can only replace a circuit board so many times, and we were working off old software and even older laptops. If either crashed, we’d be in serious trouble.” The original manufacturer granted the turbines at Cowley Ridge a 20-year lifespan, and they worked to just shy During decommissioning, the of 23 years — which for Canada’s first TransAlta team used an assembly wind farm probably isn’t bad. So with line process that worked from north a growing list of required repairs and to south on Cowley Ridge. Each replacements, it only made sense to retire blade from every turbine on site was the wind facility. Once that decision was taken down by crane, one at a time. made, another one needed an answer: Who will do the work? “I was tasked with the duty of figuring out whether we should self-perform the decommissioning or contract it out.” So Oliver got to work and did his research, at first taking bids and offers for the potential contract. 4 6 WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT

Projects_2-17_Vs2.indd 46


2/14/17 12:50 PM


(LEFT) Better safe than sorry. Two cranes were used to ensure safe handling of the tower sections when lowered to the ground. The decommissioning team typically disassembled two turbines a day. (TOP) Six towers down and more to go. This is a view from the north end of Cowley Ridge, looking south, after a few days of hard disassembly work.

“It was interesting. In a downturned economy [Alberta has been going through a recession], everyone in the province that owned a cut-off saw wanted to help out and take down Cowley Ridge,” he smiled. Other bidders had more creative suggestions, such as simply bulldozing down the site. “And one guy wanted to use shape charges and blow the legs out from under each turbine one by one. Can you imagine the domino effect?” he asked. “Boom, boom, boom, one after the other! I mean it would have been entertaining but messy. Fiberglass and oil would be everywhere.” Needless to say, TransAlta passed on that idea. The company eventually opted to self-perform, so Oliver helped assemble a multi-disciplinary team that included technicians, safety, and environmental consultants, financial planners, interconnection and transmission experts, landowners, the municipal district, a communication group, and others. “We ended up self-performing with the wind technicians who worked on the site, and decided that the least amount of environmental damage would be done by disassembling FEBRUARY 2017

Projects_2-17_Vs2.indd 47

the turbines one by one,” he said. In many ways, the project came full circle. “The process almost became the exact reverse of first building the wind farm. Even the crane operator from Mammoet, who helped take each blade down one by one, originally worked on the site and helped install those blades two decades earlier,” said Oliver. During decommissioning, the team used an assembly line process that worked from north to south on the ridge. Once a nacelle was removed from a turbine, the tower legs were cut and safely tipped over by crane. “But then we were left with about 22,000 pounds of steel, which is not exactly easy or cost-effective to throw up on top of a semi-truck trailer and drive away with,” Oliver said. So a hydraulic sheer was brought in to cut up the steel from the towers. “This machine sliced through 2-cm thick steel as if it were paper. It also has an electric magnet on its shear, so would load up the cut steel bits onto trucks by magnetic force.” Oliver said the team typically disassembled two turbines a day, but sometimes the work was cut short because of high winds in the region. Once all of the turbines were dismantled,



2/14/17 12:50 PM


Once removed from the towers, each nacelle had its lid detached and oil carefully drained before being loaded up on a flatbed truck for transport and recycling off site. Two functioning nacelles were donated to colleges for wind-tech training programs.

the pad-mount transformers were next on the list. One was used for every three turbines. “The nameplate on the padmounts said they had no PCBs in them, but for due diligence I thought I better get them tested,” he said. And it was a good thing. Of the 20 transformers, two had low-levels PCBs. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are a group of organic compounds used in the manufacture of lubricants and dielectric fluids used in transformers. Because of their environmental toxicity levels and possible risk to human health, PCB use and disposal come with strict restrictions in many countries. Environment Canada’s acceptable reportable amount of PCBs in oil is two parts per million. “One of the pad-mounts had a level of 2.2, and another had 2.4 parts per million,” said Oliver. “We retested just to be sure because those numbers were so close to the limit, but the results were the same so we had to contract out special disposal of the oil.” This process involved a specialized company draining the oil, rinsing it

with a solvent, and swap testing all of the windings in the transformers to ensure there were no remaining PCBs after the rinse. “After that, assuming the test is clear, you can dispose of the metal normally. If it’s not, you have to send it out for burn treatment and then the costs go up.” Fortunately, TransAlta was in the clear after this process but Oliver provided the price comparison. “Draining oil from a non-PCB pad-mount transformer is about $C350. Dealing with one with PCBs is $C10,000. It isn’t cheap,” he said. 4 8 WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT

Projects_2-17_Vs2.indd 48

Disposal of the transformers meant phase one of Cowley Ridge Wind Farm’s decommissioning was officially complete but, much like its installation, the wind farm’s dismantling is a two-phase process. “The first phase involved getting rid

One guy wanted to use shape charges and blow the legs out from under each turbine one by one. Boom, boom, boom, one after the other! I mean it would have been entertaining but messy. Fiberglass and oil would be everywhere. of everything above ground, and the next phase will cover everything below ground. We’ll start pulling up all the concrete in 2019,” said Oliver. Why the delay? “We — meaning TransAlta, the landowners, wind technicians that have worked onsite, and so on — really want to repower the ridge once it becomes economically feasible to do so,” he said. “And with Alberta’s new commitment to renewables, we will certainly be involved in the bidding process.” Oliver said it makes the most sense to wait until a repowering project gets a green light before digging up the ridge. “With all of that grassland and the challenge of the rocky ridge, you’d want to wait before tearing up the land, jackhammering concrete, and pulling up the trench, to work on the reclamation and repowering at the same time if — and fingers crossed — that is to happen in the future.” Until then, while there is disappointment Cowley Ridge Wind Farm has past its viable operating life, good has come of the project’s decommissioning. “We donated two functioning nacelles with the control systems, so


2/14/17 12:50 PM


one could apply blades and work the pitch, to colleges,” said Oliver. One went to Northern Lights College in Dawson Creek, British Columbia and the other to Lethbridge College in Alberta. The fully operational nacelles mean college students can simulate and learn from turbine conditions similar to what they'll find in the field. TransAlta also recycled 90% of the Cowley Ridge turbines. “We recycled 48,000 kilograms of steel root ends from the blades, 567,000 kilograms of nacelle metal, 560,000 kilograms from the towers, 17,100 kilograms of copper wiring, and 60,000 kilograms of metal in the pad-mount transformers,” said Oliver. “Overall, the total of metal recycled was over 1,252,000 kilograms.” The company also recycled 44,600 liters of oil. When you consider that the lattice towers do not have as much metal as today’s modern, tubular towers, those numbers are impressive. “We actually recovered 50% of the decommissioning costs through metal sales,” said Oliver. “And for now, that’s the story of Cowley Ridge. Not a bad life but one we hope to repower again.” W



Projects_2-17_Vs2.indd 49


Grand Forks, ND 701.775.3000 Norwich, VT 802.649.1511 Buenos Aires, ARG + 54.11.4722.0163

2/14/17 12:50 PM

P OL I CY G a l e E . C h a n | M a d e l i n e C h i a m p o u Tu l l y Heather Cooper | Martha Groves Pugh Kevin Spencer | Philip Tingle Bradford E. LaBonte McDermott Will & Emery

Guidance on IRS’ “Beginning of Construction Rules” for wind projects A turbine blade is loaded onto a flatbed truck for transport to a wind site, but does this qualify as the “beginning of construction” for the project? The IRS recently released Notice 2017-04 to clarify what counts for tax credit eligibility.


n December 2016, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) released Notice 2017-04, which provides welcome guidance on how to meet the “beginning of construction” requirements for wind energy and other qualified facilities. There has been much uncertainty about when construction of these types of facilities begins for renewable energy tax credit purposes. The Notice extends the Continuity Safe Harbor’s placedin-service date by which a facility can meet the beginning of construction tests for facilities that began construction before 2014. Specifically, the Notice states that if a facility is placed in service: 1. Later than a calendar year that is no more than four calendar years after the calendar year during which construction of the facility began, or 2. December 31, 2018, the facility will be considered to satisfy the Continuity Safe Harbor. Following prior IRS guidance, a facility was considered to have satisfied the Continuity Safe Harbor if the facility was placed in service within the four-year period following when construction commenced or December



Policy 2-17 Vs2.indd 50

31, 2016 — whichever is later. The change in the Notice provides new guidance for projects that began construction prior to 2014, and were unlikely to begin service within the four-year period, but are expected to be in service by the end of 2018. The Notice also provides that the “combination of methods” rule set forth in Notice 2016-31 only applies to facilities where construction begins after June 6, 2016 (the publish date of Notice 2016-31). For example, it provides that if construction on a wind facility began on January 15, 2016, and the facility is placed in service by December 31, 2020, the facility will be considered to satisfy the Continuity Safe Harbor. Furthermore, Notice 2016-31 set forth a “combination of methods” rule under which a taxpayer cannot alternate between the Physical Work Test and the Five Percent Safe Harbor to satisfy the beginning of construction requirement or the Continuity Requirement. So, if a taxpayer relied on the Physical Work Test (this test focuses on the nature of the work performed rather than the amount or cost of


2/14/17 4:28 PM


such work) to satisfy the beginning of construction rules in 2015, and then in 2016 incurred costs totaling five percent or more of the total cost of the facility, the taxpayer could not use the Safe Harbor rule to satisfy the beginning of construction requirement or the Continuity Requirement. Instead, the Continuity Safe Harbor is applied beginning in 2015. Finally, Notice 2017-04 clarifies that for purposes of the 80/20 Rule, the cost of new property includes all costs properly included in the depreciable basis of the new property. Understanding Notice 2017-04 This Notice modifies the Continuity Safe Harbor by providing that if a taxpayer places a facility in service later than a calendar year (that is no more than four calendar years after the calendar year during which construction of the facility began) or by December 31, 2018, than the facility will be considered to satisfy the Continuity Safe Harbor. By changing the date from December 31, 2016, to December 31, 2018, the Notice lets certain projects (on which construction began prior to 2014) qualify for the Continuity Safe Harbor. For example, if construction began on a facility on January 15, 2013, and the facility is placed in service by December 31, 2018, the facility will be considered to satisfy the Continuity Safe Harbor. Under the Prior Guidance, this facility would not have been eligible for the Continuity Safe Harbor, and the taxpayer would have needed to demonstrate that the Continuity Requirement was met under the relevant facts and circumstances. Alternatively, if construction begins on a facility on January 15, 2016, and the facility is placed in service by December 31, 2020, the facility will be considered to satisfy the Continuity Safe Harbor. The Notice also states that the “combination of methods” rule set forth in Notice 2016-31 only applies to facilities on which construction begins after June FEBRUARY 2017

Policy 2-17 Vs2.indd 51

• NOTICE 2013-29: A taxpayer may establish that construction has begun on a qualified facility by demonstrating “physical work of a significant nature” (the Physical Work Test), or by satisfying the Five Percent Safe Harbor. Some examples include the start of excavation for a project’s foundation, setting of anchor bolts into the ground, or the pouring of the foundation’s concrete pad. It is possible to site onsite and offsite work. • NOTICE 2013-60: It is possible to claim the PTC or ITC even if the taxpayer was not the owner of the facility on the date construction began. A facility also satisfies the Continuity Requirement if it was placed in service before January 1, 2016 (the Continuity Safe Harbor). • NOTICE 2014-46: The Physical Work Test can focus on the nature of the work performed rather than the amount or cost of such work. In regards to the Five Percent Safe Harbor rule, if a taxpayer incurred at least three percent of the total cost of such a facility before January 1, 2014, the Five Percent Safe Harbor may be satisfied with respect to some (although not all) of the individual facilities that are part of the larger project.

6, 2016. Therefore, if a taxpayer meets the Physical Work Test with respect to a facility in 2014 and the Five Percent Safe Harbor test for the facility in 2015, the taxpayer can seemingly apply the Continuity Safe Harbor test from 2015. This means the taxpayer must place the facility in service by December 31, 2019 to satisfy the Continuity Safe Harbor. However, taxpayers that begin construction on facilities after June 6, 2016 will be prevented from restarting the four-year window for placing the facility in service by using the other beginning of construction method to qualify the facility as having begun construction in the later year. The Notice provides that, as indicated in the Prior Guidance, a retrofitted facility may qualify as originally placed in service for purposes of the PTC and ITC if the fair market value of used property does not

• NOTICE 2015-25: The Continuity Safe Harbor rule was extended to January 1, 2017, so that the beginning of construction guidance mirrored the statutory extension of the PTC and the ITC under the Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2014. • NOTICE 2016-31: The Continuity Safe Harbor was extended to correspond with the extension and modification of the PTC by the PATH Act. Also, a “combination of methods” rule means a taxpayer cannot alternate between the Physical Work Test and the Five Percent Safe Harbor to satisfy the beginning of construction requirement or the Continuity Requirement. This Notice also revised and added to the list of excusable disruptions that will not be taken into account when determining the Continuity Requirement.

constitute more than 20% of the facility’s total value. The cost of the facility’s new property must be at least 80% of the facility’s total value (the 80/20 Rule). The Prior Guidance indicated that the Five Percent Safe Harbor is applied only with respect to the cost of new property used to retrofit an existing facility, and that all costs properly included in the depreciable basis of the facility are taken into account to determine whether the Five Percent Safe Harbor has been met. The Notice clarifies that for purposes of the 80/20 Rule, the cost of new property includes all costs properly included in the depreciable basis of the new property. Taxpayers had questioned whether indirect costs that were allocable to the depreciable basis could be included for these purposes, and the Notice appears to affirmatively answer this question. W



2/14/17 12:52 PM

BOLTI NG Paul Mudge President Mudge Fasteners Inc

What wind techs should know about bolted joints


ust about everything in a wind turbine is held together with bolts. Wind turbines, however, must tolerate a vibration level infrequently encountered by conventional factory equipment. And there is more working against bolts than vibration. In a nutshell, the reliability of a joint may be compromised by bolt relaxation, vibration, fatigue, and corrosion. Even though wind-turbine OEMs specify the bolt size, material, and tightening torque, these fasteners all behave the same way. Here what wind techs should know about them. Regarding relaxation: All joints experience some relaxation after assembly with an accompanying loss of preload. Additional relaxation may occur during the service life of the joint depending on time, loading type and level, and environment. When a joint relaxes too much, the loss of preload may result in joint separation and failure. To minimize joint relaxation: • • • •

Limit the area of the joint interfaces. Ensure smooth mating surfaces. Control parallelism of the joint surfaces. Use flange-head bolts and flange nuts to reduce bearing stresses against joint material. • Use hardened washers under bolt heads and nuts to distribute bearing stresses. • Use smaller diameter higher strength bolts to increase elasticity. Regarding vibration: In tightened fasteners, frictional resistance develops between the bolt and nut threads and between the bolt head and nut against the joint material. If this resistance is reduced because of wear, even for a microsecond, tensile stress in the bolt will let the mating threads loosen. Locking mechanisms can be used to resist loosening. A few other ways to prevent loosening include: 52


Bolting 2-17 Vs 2 pd.indd 52

Non-rotational loosening comes from several sources such as gasket creep, stress relaxation in the bolt, different thermal expansion rates for the bolt and joint material, and reduction in preload.

The clamp angle refers to the angle of fastener rotation from the beginning of the elastic clamping zone to where tightening stops in the elastic clamping zone. The angle is proportional to fastener tension.


2/14/17 12:56 PM


• Properly preload the bolt. This is the best way. Clamp the jointed material so the frictional resistance exceeds the applied shear force that will occur in service. • Adjust the joint geometry to provide a mechanical restraint. • Use jam nuts or slotted nuts with a cotter pin. • Use anaerobic adhesive to cement threads together. • Use self-locking fasteners such as locknuts, nylon threaded patches, or pellets, or wedge-lock washers.

Rod Ends and Spherical Bearings designed and manufactured to Aurora’s exacting standards for quality and durability.

This equation estimates the relative magnitudes of torque and clamp force and defines a linear relationship between torque and tension: T=kdf Where T = torque, k = a friction factor (dimensionless), d = diameter (in.), and f = force (lbs).

A few k values

Clamp loads are based on 75% of the minimum proof loads for each bolt grade and size. Proof load, stress area, yield strength, and other data is based on IFI 7th Edition (2003) Technical Data N-68, SAE J429, ASTM A307, A325, A449, and A490.

Your Partner moving forward!

Condition or lubricant For waxed or pressure wax as supplied on high-strength nuts Hot-dip galvanized Plain non-plated bolts as received

k 0.01 0.25 0.20

GET YOUR WORKSITE ON TRACK -----100+ models · utvs · atvs · 4x4 trucks · all season tracks-----

Registered and Certified to ISO_9001 and AS9100. From economy commercial to aerospace approved, we’ve got it all!



Aurora Bearing Company 901 Aucutt Road Montgomery IL. 60538

complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:

w w w. a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m FEBRUARY 2017

Bolting 2-17 Vs 2 pd.indd 53

218.683.9800 / 877.436.7800 DIRECT




2/14/17 12:56 PM


Regarding fatigue: Dynamic and alternating service loads will cause a bolt to fracture at a load less than its static tensile strength. Fatigue strength is the max tensile load a material can support before fracturing prior to a given number of loading cycles. Reducing load means the number of loading cycles a bolt can endure increases until reaching a level called the endurance limit, at which a bolt will function without failure against fatigue. A few guidelines: • High preloads protect bolts against failure. • When the portion of the fluctuating service load is less than the bolt’s endurance limit, the fatigue life is essentially infinite. Regarding corrosion: Joints exposed to corrosion will deteriorate. Failure caused by corrosion should receive priority attention. However, even small amounts of corrosion that causes loss of material can result in a loss of preload. For this reason, use corrosion-resistant and compatible materials. Factors that affect the choice of corrosion-resistant fasteners include tensile and fatigue strength, and position on the galvanic series scale of the joined fastener and material. The scale provides a way to judge the electric potential and corrosion rate of two different metals. Consider these factors before selecting a corrosion-resistant protective coating for fasteners: • Temperature limitation. For example, consider whether or not the plating or coating has suitable performance characteristics for the environment in which the fastener will be used. • Embrittlement of the base metal • Effect on fatigue life. Consider: Will there be alternating loads? Is the coating capable of withstanding those forces without developing cracks that would expose the base metal to attack? • Effect on locking torque • Compatibility with adjacent materials • Dimensional changes caused by temperature. Thermal expansion and contraction may cause some coatings to lose their effectiveness. • Thickness and distribution of the coating • Adhesion characteristics. Consider: Will the coating remain intact as the fastener is tightened? Lastly, protect the joint when possible from environmental exposure. This is particularly important for those designing and maintaining offshore wind farms. W 5 4 WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT

Bolting 2-17 Vs 2 pd.indd 54

This is bolt-material science in one graph. The yield point is the load beyond which the bolt material will no longer return to its original shape. A minimum bolt tension is typically considered 75% of the proof load. Engineering specs should provide the required bolt load.

FOR FURTHER READING • Fastener Black Book, 1st Edition, Published by Pat Rapp Enterprises, ISBN 978-0-9580571-3-4 • Understanding the Bolted Joint, by Fastener Training Institute, July 6, 2010. • Inch Fasteners Standards, 7th Edition, Published by Industrial Fastener Institute 2003 • • •

+ Proof load is the published number to which size headed bolts are tested. The bolt is stressed up to the proof load value, and if there is no deformation, elongation, or fracture, the bolt is deemed to have passed. About 92% of ultimate yield strength is often considered the proof load for bolts that do not have a published proof load. ++Clamp load is calculated at 75% of proof load. This allows a safety buffer so that that bolt does not get too close to its proof load. Exceeding the proof load when tensioning a bolt runs the risk of bolt failure. Clamp load is only an estimated number. There may be situations in which the engineer calls for tensioning bolts to a different value.


2/14/17 12:56 PM

NO LIMIT SERVICE FOR A NO LIMIT INDUSTRY Enerpac Bolting Products - Torque Wrenches & Pumps

24/7 Service - Call Us

832-271-5120 Aztec RE Handbook 17.indd 23

Skidmore-Wilhelm Bolt Testers

Stahlwille Torque Tools

Norbar Test Stands / Calibration Equipment

520 Dallas St. League City, TX 77573 2/14/17 12:57 PM

BL A D ES Michelle Froese Senior Editor Windpower Engineering & Development

Cracking the icing problem on turbine blades


hile OEMs strive to build reliable machines, the effects of weather at times are no match for even the most well-engineered wind turbines. Winter icing conditions alone pose a serious challenge to turbine blades without a pre-installed ice-prevention or de-icing system. Ice left to accumulate on a blade will typically cause degradation of a turbine’s aerodynamic performance or halt power production altogether. “Some wind farms report up to 20% annual energy production losses due to icing,” says Matthew Wadham-Gagnon, a Project Manager at TechnoCentre éolien (TCE). TCE is a Canadian organization that supports wind industry development through research, technology transfer, and technical assistance for business. “In addition to production losses, ice accretion can affect the structural design load case of a blade, as well as other components in a wind turbine.” In winter conditions, ice buildup on wind-turbine blades can lead to ice throw or shredding, where fragments of mixed ice and snow fall off the blades. The size, speed, and distance of falling fragments will vary and depend on climate conditions and turbine operation. Regardless, a risk of ice throw must be considered when planning and maintaining a wind farm to ensure a safe work environment, especially when personnel are on site.



Blades 2-17 Vs2.indd 56

For example, ice shedding from a blade can damage other blades or hit the roof of the nacelle, adds Wadham-Gagnon. But quantifying or predicting the exact effects icing may have on a wind farm — say, for a proposal or business case made to a financier — is challenging because weather conditions change. “Icing could have a significant effect on the annual production of a wind project. It depends on the frequency, duration, severity, and intensity of icing, which varies from year to year, site to site, and turbine to turbine,” says Wadham-Gagnon. At first, cold climates presented a small, niche market for wind-turbine OEMs. Only recently have choices in ice-protection systems (IPS) for turbines become available to wind-farm developers and operators. “There are a number of IPS proposed with some offered by OEMs and third parties,” says Wadham-Gagnon. “These include passive systems such as icephobic [or ice-resistant] coatings, and active ones such as hot air or electro-thermal systems.” A passive system, usually a coating or spray, is applied to the surface of turbine blades to minimize icing and maximize heat absorption. “The concept of icephobic coatings is appealing because of their low cost and high efficiency for preventing ice buildup on blades,” Wadham-Gagnon says. “However, while some coatings show promise, most if not all are still a few years away from showing their full potential.” These systems also typically require some maintenance or re-application over time, or after a serious icing event. This means sending a wind tech up-tower, which is not ideal in winter conditions. Active systems typically work to heat turbine blades using thermal devices, such as built-in electric foils or heated air. “These systems, depending on the ice-detection method, power available for the IPS, severity of the icing event, and local health and safety requirements, may be activated while the turbine is in operation or may require that a turbine come to a complete stop before activation,” he explains.


2/14/17 12:59 PM


So, what system is ideal for preventing ice buildup on turbine blades in cold climates? The answer depends on a number of variables such as site location, turbine type, and severity of icing conditions — which vary each year. A better question may be: Are wind-farm owners maximizing the performance of their cold-climate assets by implementing ice-protection systems? Despite an increase in wind-farm development in colder regions and more choices in ice-protection turbine systems, it seems there is some lack of concern. Just ask Fred Carrier, Founder and Co-President of Hélicarrier Helicopters, a company that operates helicopters for specialized work in extreme environments, such as the Canadian arctic. A helicopter can provide a safer option for turbine blade O&M in cold

TechnoCentre éolien is working with Senvion to fit its turbines with meteorological instruments and icing sensors to test the operation and structural load data in icing conditions.

climates, particularly when iced blades, falling ice, or severe conditions prevent technicians from safely climbing up-tower. Carrier equipped his company’s Eurocopter AS350 B3 chopper with a Simplex Aerial Cleaning and De-Icing System. It is designed for maintaining turbine blades and power lines that experience icing events. Carrier says it is composed of a high-strength, low-weight FEBRUARY 2017

Blades 2-17 Vs2.indd 57

TechnoCentre éolien (TCE) is working on a three-year project to optimize the control function of Senvion MM wind turbines in icing conditions at several wind farms in Quebec, Canada. The aim is to maximize energy production, while minimizing risk to the structural integrity of the turbines and its components. The turbines will be fitted with meteorological instruments and icing sensors, and the meteorological, operational, and structural load data will be analyzed and correlated. Based on the results, TCE intends to adjust

composite water tank and high-pressure spray boom that can be sprayed over icy blades. “This product is used after an icing event has occurred,” he explains. However, the chopper-ready de-icing system has been sitting idle for a year. “Initial project plans fell through so, for now the wind-turbine de-icing system sits unused for lack of interest,” explains Carrier. “It is unfortunate because I have no doubt there is a business case — and unnecessary downtime in the wind industry that comes from a lack of proper de-icing measures for blades.” It is unfortunate, too, that there are no international standards or regulated methods for assessing icing on a turbine or energy loss because of

the turbines’ control function for optimal production in cold climates. “Over the past few years, we developed an expertise in icing characterization and video image analysis. Today, this expertise lets us undertake this large and important research project with Senvion Canada,” said Frédéric Côté, General Manager of TCE. “TechnoCentre éolien intends to help improve icing detection, validate icing loads, and optimize the turbine’s control parameter during icing events.”

icing conditions at a wind farm. “The wind industry has recently expressed a need for IPS standards or guidelines,” says Wadham-Gagnon. “Some type of guidelines would be especially beneficial for moving forward in IPS performance expectations and warranties.” According to Wadham-Gagnon, a wind-farm developer or owner should ask three key questions before choosing an IPS for a site. 1. What are the anticipated energy losses at the site due to icing? A site icing assessment may be required. 2. Of the estimated losses, how much power can be recovered with the IPS? This may require some comparisons between systems. 3. What is the cost and durability of the IPS?



2/14/17 12:59 PM


(TOP) Can you guess the blade equipped with Nordex’s Anti-Icing System? That’s right, the blade on the right has the system installed and activated. Energy-efficient heating prevents ice from accumulating on the blades. (BOTTOM) Thermal images show the anti-icing system in the Nordex rotor-blade testing facility (left) and fitted to a turbine in the field (right).

ICE-PREVENTION SYSTEMS AT WORK The International Energy Agency (IEA Wind Task 19) published a 2016 report on “Available Technologies for Wind Energy in Cold Climate,” which states there are at least eight OEMs that now offer iceprotection systems for turbine blades, and four independent suppliers. Here are some of those products. • Gamesa’s Bladeshield consists of an anti-icing “paint” formulated to prevent the formation of ice on turbine blades and boost the product’s resistance to erosion. “Most anti-icing solutions on the markets reduce blade paint´s resistance to erosion,” explains José Antonio Malumbres, Gamesa's Chief Technology Officer. “Gamesa has attempted to remain one step ahead, using nanomaterials to create a system that not only prevents ice formation but also improves anti-erosion performance.” • Vestas’ De-icing System (VDS) was developed to detect and efficiently 58


Blades 2-17 Vs2.indd 58

remove ice formed on wind-turbine blades, while letting turbines operate at full power. VDS is an active de-icing system that consists of an ice-detection system and a hot airflow unit built into the blades. “The hot air targets a blade’s most critical parts to efficiently melt ice build-up without negative impact on the noise level or overall turbine performance,” said Chief Technology Officer Anders Vedel. Vestas also offers an integrated ice-detection (VID) option that stops turbine operation when ice has buildup and certain condition are met. This is to prevent the risk of ice throw. • Nordex’s Anti-Icing System consists of an ice sensor mounted on a nacelle and heating devices built into turbine blades. The sensor continuously monitors conditions and, if an icing event appears likely, the blade’s heating elements are automatically activated. There is no requirement to stop or reduce turbine operation while the antiicing system is at work.

Answers to these questions may lead to more cost-effective options. “For example, the project developer may then chose a lower-cost IPS, which may be slightly less efficient but a decent choice for a moderate icing site. For severe icing sites, however, the developer may opt for a high-quality system regardless of cost to maximize turbine up-time and production,” says Wadham-Gagnon. Additionally, identifying the need for an IPS early in the project’s development typically means more choices and likely at a lower cost than a ‘wait and see’ approach. “If icing is only identified after a project is in operation, and no IPS has been integrated or applied to the turbines, there are fewer options. Certainly, retrofit systems are available but they are limited and generally more expensive compared to an integrated solution,” he says. Although there is no “one size fits all” system for wind turbines situated in cold climates, Wadham-Gagnon says a well-organized O&M plan is a must. “Iced blades equate to lost production time at a wind farm whether that’s because a turbine has stopped working or because technicians cannot safely access it for maintenance due to the risk of shredded and falling ice from the blades. This can lead to unnecessary and extended downtime, so consider your options and plan ahead.” W


2/14/17 12:59 PM

SA FETY Kerry Heid President & CEO Shermco Industries Canada

Safely managing electrical power assets at wind farms A circuit breaker is the most critical components of an electrical system. It is designed to detect faults and protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overcurrent, overload, or short circuit. A proper understanding of how a circuit breaker works and is tested (including how those results are analyzed) is critical for a well-maintained site — even if repairs or overhauls are performed by an outside contractor. Ultimately, the facility owner or manager is responsible to ensure all breakers and electrical systems are routinely tested for reliability and, most importantly, safety.


few years ago, the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA — an organization that offers standards and accreditation of third-party electrical testing) conducted a study that showed 23% of protective devices in electrical distribution systems, such as circuit breakers, do not follow their proper operating characteristics. In fact, the study also found that over 10% of installed circuit breakers failed to function at all. While the likelihood of a faulty protective device in an electrical system depends on several factors, such as usage, design, manufacturing type, and the operating environment, NETA’s results serve as an important safety reminder to the utility and wind industries. Typically, components that are engineered to protect electrical equipment (and worksite personnel) upstream are relied regularly on, but can sit idle for weeks or months at a time. They remain “mechanically frozen” until one day these devices are expected to kick-in and work on demand.


Safety 2-17 Vs2.indd 59

One downside of component failure in non-life threatening mechanical equipment is downtime and lost revenue. Component failure of an electrical system, however, can have devastating results. Engineers and technicians working in electrical environments today often take extra precautions against flash hazards by suiting up in full flame-resistant gear with flash-resistant face shields — even when opening an inverter enclosure or a transformer that’s in seemingly ideal working order. An “arc-in-a-box” – the incident energy for an arc in an enclosure also called flashover – means that opening the door sends all that energy directly outside toward the worker. Safety must remain paramount at electrical sites. That is the message from organization such as NETA and the CSA Group, which provide guidelines and best practices on how to work more safely around electricity. These guidelines have been of particular relevance in Canada, which only recently published a national guideline for electrical equipment maintenance. CSA’s Z463 – Maintenance of Electrical Systems is an



2/14/17 1:03 PM


Along with electrical contractor licensing, it is important that site workers receive specific training regarding electrical power plant maintenance and testing, and that employers hire staff with the appropriate qualifications. Here qualified workers are performing a medium-voltage test as part of the site’s regular electrical system maintenance program.

advisory document intended to close the gap in Canada between safe electrical equipment design and installation (covered by the Canadian Electrical Code) and O&M equipment procedures. CSA Z463 is currently a voluntary guideline but it is based on principles of predictability, due diligence, expected failure modes, and pre-emptive scheduled maintenance to avoid system downtime and, most importantly, risk of serious personnel injury. In combination, NETA and CSA standards cover switchgear, transformers, power cables, switches, circuit breakers, relaying protection, and rotating machinery. CSA Z463 is currently going through a revision process, which will convert it to a standard that’s released in 2018. Unfortunately, most hazardous electrical events happen when someone is operating the equipment, posing significant risk of personnel injury and loss of equipment. That is why it is imperative to follow good standards and ensure 60


Safety 2-17 Vs2.indd 60

electrical equipment and devices are in good working order from the start. Here are some tips. Acceptance testing & commissioning Field-acceptance testing should adhere to NETA standards and occur before electrical systems are energized for the first time. This process involves certified engineers and technicians going to a site with appropriate field-testing equipment to: • Fully test and re-test equipment such as cables, transformers, and generators. This includes stressing the insulation of cables and looking for defects in terminations. • Inspect equipment for manufacturers’ faults or defects from transportation or installation issues. • Check engineering design functions of components and make sure instructional drawings match the installation work. • Test contractor’s installation methods and craftsmanship.

• Verify that equipment works together as a system. It is important to log this process because it provides a critical baseline of data prior to powering the system. This baseline data should be used for the lifespan of the electrical power-distribution equipment. Routine maintenance Once equipment is verified and off to a good start, it is essential to set up a routine maintenance program. Equipment maintenance is critical to the reliability of electrical distribution systems, system uptime, and to avoid a catastrophic failure or dangerous arc or ground faults. There are two types of maintenance for electric distribution systems: online and offline. Offline testing involves powering off all energized systems to safely access equipment (so it is safe to touch by hand) for testing. Technicians will need to partially disassemble electrical systems to


2/14/17 1:03 PM


hook up the appropriate test equipment. It is important to test all cables and insulation systems, and simulate faults to check for ground and arc faults, and potential short circuits. NETA is an ideal source to follow for electrical equipment maintenance because it provides specific and step-by-step guidance on equipment testing and what to look for with each different component. Online testing means there is a lot that technicians can check without shutting electrical equipment down. For instance, it is possible to use infrared scans and corona cameras. Infrared cameras locate heat sources and can be used to check electrical connections and spot temperatures that exceed expected operating temperature. A corona camera (corona is the ionization of the nitrogen in the air, caused by an electrical field) can

measure arcing across an insulator and help spot insulation degradation issues. It is also advisable to test oil samples from transformers, another basic online maintenance practice. A routine online and offline maintenance plan is essential to avoid electrical downtime and prevent more serious problems. Worker qualifications Worker competency has become a major issue in the electrical industry. Just as it is essential to ensure electrical equipment is in top working order, it is also important to ensure those installing, testing, maintaining, and working near electrical systems are fully qualified to do so. Just because someone is an electrician does not mean they are certified to work on a balance of plant at a wind farm. He or she may know how to safely work around

live wire but if their career was focused on residential or commercial construction, those electrical systems are very different than at a power plant. Electricians, engineers, and technicians all have different skillsets and qualifications depending on the sector worked in. Specified training and experience are keys to properly installed and maintained utility and wind-power plants. Training is also imperative to worker, and full crew and site safety. Beyond electrical contractor training and licensing, it is important that workers receive specific training regarding electrical power plant maintenance and testing — and that employers hire staff with the appropriate qualifications. NETA currently offers four levels of certification for electrical test technicians for electric distribution power systems. W


Add class to your career



Demand for composite techs expands with every new application. We offer active training in engineering, manufacturing and repair of composites. One 5-day course provides the skills needed to move your career ahead. Gain the Abaris Advantage – take the

ROTOR TECHNIC USA, LLC Blade Inspection & Repairs • Wind Turbine Spares  Blade Inspection with Reports  Leading Edge and Protective Coating  End of Warranty Inspections and Repairs with Reports  Gearbox Borescope Inspection with Reports

first step here:

SPARES FOR LEGACY TURBINES:  Vestas V-27, V-39, V-47  NEG Micon 225/250/400 KW  DANWIND 160  Zond 750

+1 (775) 827-6568


Safety 2-17 Vs2.indd 61

WWW.BS-ROTORUSA.COM (888) 44-ROTOR (76867)



2/14/17 1:04 PM


Jack Kline Consulting Meteorologist RAM Associates Brentwood, Calif.

The basics of RAMWind software for predictive wind assessments


ind speed variability at project sites is an on-going puzzle and challenge in wind-resource assessments. At many wind-farm sites across the Great Plains and elsewhere, the surface roughness of the terrain is fairly even, so variation in wind speed is due to something else. Met site locations with high wind speeds are typically referred to as “good exposure” sites. Conversely, low wind speed sites have “poor” or “low exposure”. The term “exposure” is, for the most, part an abstract concept, but one that people can relate to at least in general terms. In 2006, I decided to devise an objective calculation of terrain exposure to help understand wind speed variability. These calculations became the basis for the RAMWind modeling software. My thought was that the overall wind force and atmospheric conditions at a project site were typically consistent, and that wind speed variability displayed at the met masts was largely due to varying levels of terrain effects. One theory suggests that the wind speeds at all met masts at a site could be combined into a holistic approach to wind-speed modeling, based on terrain exposure, so long as there were no significant surface-roughness variations. An equation produced by that work integrates the elevation differences between a given location (initially a met mast) and the surrounding terrain, at various radii from the met mast, evaluated in 16 to 22.5° direction sectors. The values, sectorwise terrain exposures, were used as a reference in analysis of wind speed variability. Wind speed variability can be viewed several ways. Average wind speeds at a site is the simplest. Another method looks at the variation in wind speed as a function of wind direction. A simple way to express the differences in wind speed between sites is a wind speed ratio. The graph, WS ratios vs WD, shows wind speed ratios of two sites with met masts, as a function of wind 62


Software 2-17 Vs2 pd.indd 62

direction. One easily sees a pattern in the windspeed ratios. But why does the wind speed vary between the two sites? It is not a random variation.

Wind speed ratios are a function of wind direction at two met sites.

Experimentation with the sector wind speed ratios and sector exposure values for the two sites led to analyzing the sector wind speed ratios with respect to the difference in sector exposures (Site 2 – Site 1), figuring that relatively higher exposure would be related to higher wind speeds. Testing revealed that the higher-value WS ratios were in sectors where Site 2 and higher downwind exposure than Site 1, and vice-versa. [Downwind exposure refers to the terrain exposure values in the direction downwind of a given incident wind direction. In WS ratios vs WD the highest wind speed ratio is in the SW direction (225°), so the downwind direction is northeast (45°).] This was an interesting and unexpected finding.


2/14/17 1:07 PM


Sector WS ratios vs Difference in DW exposure shows the same wind speed ratios from the first illustration, compared to the difference in downwind exposure values (in meters). The data shows that the wind speeds at Site 2 have higher values than at Site 1 in sectors, but only where it has higher terrain exposure in the downwind direction. The data also show that having higher upwind exposure tends to produce lower wind speeds.

The wind speed ratios are from two met sites plotted against the difference in their downwind exposure values.

The continued work with annual average wind speeds at met mast sites compared to terrain exposure has led to the development of average exposure values, where sector exposures are weighted by the frequency of wind direction. In this type of application, the weighting is applied to produce average upwind and downwind exposure values. Analysis of average wind speeds compared to upwind and downwind exposure revealed that higher downwind exposure is typically favorable over higher wind speeds. Normalized WS vs DW exposure shows normalized average wind speeds for five met mast sites versus their respective average downwind exposure values.

One last example is an analysis of a wind-related quantity, the observed free-stream turbine capacity factor versus terrain exposure. Turbine power is a function of wind speed, and a higher power output (or capacity factor) is associated with higher wind speeds. In this analysis, turbine SCADA power data were filtered for the prevailing wind direction and all 32 wakefree turbines were on line. Their average power output was converted to capacity factor (Cf) and plotted versus their terrain exposure values, shown in Free stream Cf vs Terrain exposure.

The observed capacity factors are for 32 free-stream turbines plotted against terrain exposure.

These analyses demonstrate that terrain exposure, as calculated in the RAMWind model, can be a useful tool in diagnostic analysis of wind speed variation at wind project sites. Converting the analysis from diagnostic to predictive has been performed for wake-model validation studies and as project resource assessment. The application of predictive modeling can be challenging, but can produce good results. W

Normalized wind speeds are plotted against their average downwind exposure.


Software 2-17 Vs2 pd.indd 63



2/14/17 1:07 PM


Paul Dvorak Editorial Director Windpower Engineering & Development

Internet of things brings new capability to condition monitoring


t wind farms today, most condition monitoring involves turbines sending data about operating conditions to a home base, where the wind-farm operator reviews it and makes decisions. At the wind site, the controls in each turbine look for conditions that might damage the unit, such as violent wind gusts, and then shut the turbine down. Most restarts call for human intervention at the site, a time consuming task. But what if the turbine controls, with input from surrounding turbines and a forecast, could make that decision themselves and restart the turbine?

In a Node-RED demo, developer Nick O’Leary drags device modules from the stack on the left and drops them into the work area. The connecting lines imply the network connections. The output of the software is the control instructions that would be loaded, for our purposes, onto a turbine control.

This concept is made possible by the Internet of Things (IoT), which is morphing into the Industrial IoT (IIoT) and demonstrating intelligence and capabilities that will make the wind industry’s investments more profitable. IIoT today At first, the IIoT sounds like a network. But it is more, explains Craig VanWagner, Research & Development 6 4 WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT

Condition Monitoring 2-17 Vs2 pd.indd 64

Engineer with Scada Solutions, Inc. The company specializes in design engineering and data acquisition systems. The IIoT, he says, takes a big step beyond condition monitoring and lets machines swap actionable information, such as wind forecasts and power demand. That means the machines can make decisions when a human wind farm operator is not available. “It’s quite a bit more than an advanced network,” adds Matt Newton, Director of Technical Marketing at Opto 22. “More goes into it from a software perspective and in terms of communications capabilities, new data sets, and analytics. It goes well beyond just physical devices transmitting electrical signals.” But how can actionable data be produced and communicated? Are operators going to install a Linux system in a new device and run that OS along with a lot of support software? “Previously, a developer would have to use a database or OTC server to get multiple machines communicating. There had to be code in the system that somebody programmed to speak different protocols,” says VanWagner. “A better idea is to develop something quick and light to communicate out.” Thanks to the IIoT, that is now possible. “With the IIoT there is now a software module that makes it easy to share data,” says VanWagner. “I think we will see a lot more things coming out of this IIoT.” CMS tomorrow This step in the evolution of condition monitoring is just getting underway. At present there are few components and protocols that let devices and systems swap useful information. However, several companies and organizations are working to tackle that problem through the invention of new technologies. One of those technologies, called Node-RED, (nodered. org) was originally created by software developers at


2/14/17 1:12 PM


California ISO makes information of this sort digitally avialable online. It can become the input for IIoT turbine controls, signallying shut downs when power prices go too low.

IBM and is now part of the JS Foundation, a Linux Foundation Project. Node-RED is described as a visual software tool for wiring together hardware devices, APIs (application program interfaces), and online services in new and interesting ways. In an online demo, Node-RED developer Nick O’Leary says the IIoT is about accessing information and letting the intelligence in the equipment do something with it. This idea is called actionable intelligence. O’Leary says Node-RED consists of small, pre-built programs called nodes, used in the NodeRED development environment. “Software tools integrate right into the development environment for controls, which allows you to wire together all kinds of information sources and actions, and to do neat stuff without writing a lot of code.” So instead of developers taking time to figure out or remember how to access a simple serial port through their software development tools, Node-RED provides prebuilt, reusable code blocks to do that. Developers can focus on creating something new with real value instead of doing repetitive software development tasks. In a demo, O’Leary drags device protocols from a list, drops them onto a workspace, and connects them with lines. The devices include inputs, instructions as to what should happen to the data from the inputs, and where the data should go—that is, the outputs. A similar graphic user interface and design technique have been used before to assemble wiring diagrams and fluid power systems. “The industry needs tools that make it easier for developers at all levels FEBRUARY 2017

Condition Monitoring 2-17 Vs3.indd 65

to bring together different streams of events, physical and digital, that make up the IIoT,” says O’Leary. Another plus: If a manufacturer can make a device along with a Node-RED module, then it becomes available to anyone who needs data from the device. “Now people can, for example, poll a device or send data into a device with instruction software written by simple drags and drops. As development tools like Node-RED become more widespread, wind farms will get smarter and more profitable,” adds VanWagner. As usual, the IIoT concept is simple, while making logical connections is complex. “As people build more devices, they are incorporating a greater ability for the devices to talk to others on the Internet or a network,” says VanWagner. “The IIoT has protocols available to make it easier for developers to connect devices.” What's more, manufacturers and network connectivity devices are getting smaller and less expensive, so it is possible to put network connectivity into more devices. Opto 22 has developed a line of industrial controllers, I/O modules, and systems that work with Internet applications through a RESTful API, and also serve as the industrial control logic.

The big apps A big application for the wind industry is in predictive maintenance, figuring out when something is going to break before it breaks. “Then it would be possible to know of the right parts to service the equipment and have them on hand the first time a technician visits the site. IIoT proliferation will accelerate now that we are past the initial introduction point and people are beginning to see the possibilities,” says Newton. VanWagner adds another example. An application in Southern California monitors the market price for electrical power. If the price goes up, a wind-farm operator may put more generation online. Just as important, if the power price drops or goes negative, through the IIoT the turbine can interrogate a website for the market price, autonomously make a decision, and send a control signal to its components to shut down. Negative pricing means the wind-farm operator pays the utility to take the power. “During the Christmas period 2015, the price dropped to negative $250/ MWh for hours,” says VanWagner. “Had a windpark operator left the site running, he would have had to write a $30,000 check to the utility. That is what he would have earned for the week.” That is a big deal, because the industry is not ordering curtailments as often as before. Instead, organizations responsible for power, such as CAISO (California Independent System Operator), are relying on negative pricing to control production. “So if an operator can get real-time information on pricing, and the price goes below a reasonable profit threshold or negative, then the operator can make better decisions,” says VanWagner. He also predicts that a significant number of companies will be showing IIoT connectivity at the upcoming American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Windpower show. W



2/14/17 4:35 PM

Foundations that P a u l D v o r a k • Editorial Director • Windpower Engineering & Development

Wi n d turbi nes on fl oat i n g p l a t fo r ms h a v e si g n i fi ca n t a d v a n t a g e s o v e r th o s e mou n ted on fi xed offs h o re fo u n d a t i o n s. Fo r i n st a n ce , t h e re i s mu c h m o re d e e p wate r than s h al l ow an d t h e p l a t fo r ms ca n b e a n ch o re d o u t o f si g h t, j u s t o v e r t he h ori z on , yet s ti l l cl os e t o l o a d ce n t e r s. Fo u r d e si g n s d i scu sse d a t th e re c e n t AWEA confe re n ce reve a l t h e p ro mi se s, ch a l l e n g e s, a n d ma n y i d e a s a t wo rk .



Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 66


2/14/17 1:16 PM


session at the recent AWEA Offshore Windpower 2016 conference – Technology Spotlight: Floating Wind – presented four competing ideas for floating platforms that appear close to commercialization. Their timing is right because about 58% of the U.S. wind resource potential is on water with depths greater than 60 meters, a distance monopile foundations would find hard to tap. The floating platforms are in a range of development stages. One is in commercial use, two have passed prototype stages and are in pre-commercial phases, and one advanced concept appears to combine the advantages of the others without their drawbacks.

Statoil’s Hywind Scotland Statoil’s Hywind Scotland, the world’s first floating wind farm, uses a spar buoy design. There have been individual floating concepts but this will be the first floating wind farm. “We need several technologies and several markets for this idea to work,” said Trine Ulla, Head of Wind Asset Management, New Energy Solutions, Statoil ASA. Although the project is under construction, Ulla said the

Offshore wind turbines are mounted on at least five different types of foundations, and a few hybrids, not shown.

story starts in 2001 when someone in the oil and gas company had the innovative idea that you could supply an offshore oil and gas plant with wind generated power. That, however, required new technologies. “Such technology could open up a new global renewable market, and supply markets with electricity in large scale,” said Ulla. “In 2009 we installed a demo offshore Norway - the first full-scale version using a 2.3-MW turbine, which was then stateFEBRUARY 2017

Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 67



2/14/17 1:16 PM

Foundations that of-the-art. That turbine is still producing power with excellent results. With the opening of the pilot park offshore Scotland, we’re now verifying that this concept is really working in a multiturbine setting, and that all technical

with the forces from the wind, waves, and current along with forces that comes from the wake affects between the turbines,” she said. Ulla added that the company’s goal is to demonstrate the economy of scale, even with the relatively small scale of five turbines. When viewed on a per MW basis, the £200 million ($249 million) investment is already producing a huge cost reduction from the demo project in Norway. Average site wind speed is good, about 10.1 meters/sec, with fairly challenging

marine operations also affect the design. We did not manage to bundle the turbine and tower contract in one because the tower is purpose built for floating and the turbine supplier is used to mass production for fixed. One contract should be possible in the future. In the two years preceding construction, we’ve already seen that it is possible to reduce costs for a commercial scale windfarm by more than 20%. A lot of things are going on in Europe, and we have a lot to learn from the fixed-bottom industry.”

(TOP) The connecting cable array for Statoil’s HyWind project will look like this.


(BOTTOM) The sub-structure, under construction in Spain, measures 95-m long and 14-m diameter. The fabrication methods have been adjusted several times.

systems are functioning well. Statoil’s Hywind Scotland is sited in water 90 to 120-m deep and uses standard turbines. The Hywind Scotland project will be commissioned in 2017, with 6-MW turbines on five platforms, similar in size to Block Island. “Other than that, we also want to prove that this wind farm concept will work 68


Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 68

weather conditions, such as an average wave height of 1.8 meters. The cable will be 13km long from site to a substation onshore. Suppliers for the project have been selected from all over Europe while smaller components and engineering come from all over the world. “We’ve had design changes that affected the sub-structure, because the

The prototype from Principal Power has floated for five years offshore in Portugal and produced 18,000 MWh from a Vestas V80, 2 MW turbine. In that period, it survived several bouts of bad weather that generated 17 to 18-m high waves. Its recent decommissioned also marks the start of the project’s phase two, which will be two wind farms in Europe. “One value proposition for WindFloat is its potential to bring it to shore with commonly available tugs and in relatively shallow water in the event it requires a large unanticipated corrective action,” said Kevin Banister, VP of Business Development at Principle Power Inc. The design differs from Statoil’s Hywind in that it does not penetrate the water column as deeply and it’s inherently stable. He adds that the design came out of the gas industry as did the spar buoy. Decommissioning was a fairly simple process, he says. “We detached the electrical cable from WindFloat and then from its moorings. The demonstration project used four catenary mooring lines, like the spar buoy, one line from each of the two foundation columns that do not hold the turbine, and then two mooring lines from the column on which the turbine was mounted.” The overall budget for the decommissioning operation was less than €500,000. “That should give a sense of O&M costs for larger wind farms with tens and tens of turbines. It’s quite likely that large corrective actions on the turbine will be needed in the project’s life,” said Banister.


2/14/17 1:16 PM

The WindFloat rests at keyside during its recent decommissioning in Portugal. It was deployed in 43 m of water and came online in 2011.

mooring system going from four lines to three,” said Banister. “We’re proud of the fact that as a small company we did all the planning, and conducted the operation ourselves. Although we sub-contracted two tugs, but planning was done in-house. A final investment decision on the project could come early 2017. He adds that the project will follow the traditional finance models so commercial banks are involved.

VolturnUS He added that the company met all its goals. “We demonstrated an understanding of how the project works and identified ways to reduce costs from all its aspects − Capex, Opex, and de-com or decommissioning expenditures.” The advantages he sees for WindFloat include the fact that it uses drag anchors so it does not rely on pilings for installations. The design addresses some of the Right whale issues in this market and does away with some of the Jones Act compliance issues that more traditional bottom fixed projects might face. The project is in phase two, a precommercial demonstration phase of a 25MW project off Portugal in 2019 and a 24 MW project off the coast of Mediterranean France in 2020. The successful decommissioning demonstration was important, “because there was no waiting for a special handling vessel or jack-up barge to come available. This also gave more options when selecting a port. So real-time savings come with the potential to bring this thing to shore.” The good news is that costs come down as projects move to full commercial scale. “Reductions can come from commodity costs such as future reductions in the weight of the steel hull. Bids from the real world that show a path to meeting expected FEBRUARY 2017

Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs3.indd 69

markets around the world,” said Banister. A lot of the off-shore wind technologies respond well to economies of scale at the project size and the individual unit size. So the larger the turbine, the more efficient our structure becomes,” he said. For instance, the next demonstration project will use Vestas V164 turbines which have been upgraded for this project to 8.3 MW. The power production capacity from each foundation will increase four fold, but the hull only increases by 30% or 40% in weight. The next deployment will be for a 25-year duration. “We’ve taken advantage of many structural improvements and optimizations, equipment improvements, better accessibility, and we’ve improved the

This design, also a semisubmersible, comes with a twist in that the hull is made of relatively inexpensive concrete. What's more, its prototype boasts of being the first grid connected offshore wind turbine in the U.S. Dr. Habib Dagher, executive director, University of Maine’s Advanced Structure and Composite Center began with the project goal: Get the cost of this technology to compete on the grid without subsidies. Good news: He thinks his team is getting close. Dagher is also the principal investigator of the 12 MW, DOE-funded Aqua Ventus I offshore wind advanced technology demonstration project. Dagher says he and his team spent years figuring out how to drive costs down. “We didn’t just think of submersibles. We looked at spars and at tension line platforms as well. In fact, we tested these three different (LEFT) The WindFloat during its initial sea trial was anchored off the coast of Portugal. (RIGHT) Team Dagher’s proof of concept mounted a 20-kW turbine on a floating concrete platform. The initial project was a 1:8 scale of a 6 MW floating turbine launched in the Gulf of Maine in 2013. The next project will be a modest farm of two 6-MW floating turbines anchored about 14 miles off the coast of Maine near Monhegan Island, for which the DOE provided a $39.9 Million grant.



2/14/17 4:27 PM

Foundations that

The VolturnUS design from the University of Maine uses a floating concrete hull with the turbine on a composite tower. The inset table provides more details on the next phase. More immediate plans are to reach financial close next year, start construction 2018, and be in the water in 2019.

hull designs at 1:50 scale in 2010, each under about 50 different metocean conditions and came to the conclusion that for our application, submersibles made more sense.” The University maintains an elaborate and large wave-wind basin, featuring a movable wind tunnel over a wave basin that allows physical more realworld model testing. Furthermore, he says, it made more sense to make the hull out of concrete. “We modeled the design after highway bridges that cross bodies of sea water. We were thus developing a whole different supply chain to help us drive costs down. Our numbers show, at least in the U.S., it is feasible to drive hull costs down by 50% over other types of floating hull technologies. To prove that back in 2013, we went from a 1:50 scale to 1:8 scale turbine. Next is a 6-MW machine.” The VolturnUS1:8 scale concrete foundation was launched in May 2013. Dagher’s team kept the prototype at sea for 18 The VolturnUS1:8 is towed out to sea. Dahger says many simulations made sure that it was stable when towed and that it can be towed in variety of sea conditions.



Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 70

months with 60 sensors. “The beauty of a 1:8 scale is that we were able to see a lot of extreme wave conditions relative to the hull size during the deployment.” “We collected a lot of valuable data during the storms. The one pictured (bottom page 53) is from Winter Storm Electra, in December, 2013. It had a 50-year return period wave environment. A 50-year wave has a probability of 2% of being exceeded in any single year. Winds were about 45 mph along with the 50 year waves, yet you barely see or measure the structure moving. That’s a major advantage of the VolturnUS concrete hull design, it has more mass than a steel hull and that drives natural hull motion periods higher than the extreme wave periods. Also the particular design and geometry of the VolturnUS hull moves a significant amount of added water mass, further elongating the natural periods while increasing motion damping. So waves are less likely to affect the motions of the turbine. The hull design can limit both pitch motion and nacelle accelerations.” The 18-month deployment exposed the platform to 40 storms, each relative to the hull dimensions is between a 50-year and a 500-year return period. “A wealth of useful of data came from the sensors. One thing that we learned is the maximum nacelle acceleration in all these storms was less than 0.2g, an important result. And the maximum heel angle was less than 7° in a relative 500-year storm. That’s the kind of data one needs to prove out

One value proposition for WindFloat is its potential to bring it to shore with commonly available tugs and in relatively shallow water in the event it requires a large unanticipated corrective action. prediction models and to build confidence with turbine suppliers and sponsors. We demonstrated that a turbine designed for a fixed bottom application is going to successfully operate and stay within its design parameters in the floating bottom environment,” he said. Two 6-MW full scale hulls, the next step in the project, will be sited two and a half miles south of Monhegan Island, Maine. Dagher adds that the project has site control and a 20-year PPA Term Sheet approved for the project. Construction will start in 2018 and complete in 2019.

TetraSpar Each of the three previous designs comes with advantages and disadvantage. Henrik Stiesdal, formerly with Siemens and now president of his own company, suggested that there might be a way to combine the advantages into a design without the disadvantages. “Like everybody else, this idea is about reducing costs by industrializing,” he said.


2/14/17 1:16 PM

Stiesdal suggests that the shaded areas and markers indicate the response of experts for the LCOE for several floating platforms. Source: Berkeley National Lab

Stiesdal first evaluated three floating platform concepts. “The spar is an extremely simple platform. It’s stable and has small wave loads. Its only problem is that it needs a minimum of 80 meters water depth in the harbor and all the way out to the site which is not that easy to find,” he says. “The semisubmersible makes it is easy to install the turbine in port, and the design handles most water depths. However, it is somewhat lively in some sea conditions, and so needs either moveable water ballast or great weight to limit tilt angles.” The tension leg platform (TLP) has low weight, the turbine can be installed a quayside, and towed to site. It also generates moderate wave loads and has low dynamics. On the downside, the tether arrangements are demanding and expensive, and it calls for a complex steel structure. There are also limitations on water depth unless supplementary mooring is used. Installation typically requires assistance from a purpose built vessel. “Why not combine the best of those three?” asks Stiesdal. For example, the spar’s dynamic behavior is solid like a rock. The semi-sub allows quayside turbine installation and it is easy to tow. The TLP allows a relatively lightweight structure. “The logic is if you build a FEBRUARY 2017

Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 71

structure that acts like a semi-sub when you assemble the turbine in the harbor and once out, it becomes a spar,” he said. His proposed design works this way: “When in port, the keel or the counter weight of the structure floats because it displaces more than it weighs. So it floats when full of air. Then it is towed to the site, the air of the keel is replaced with water, it becomes heavier than water, sinks, stays in position and stabilizes the structure. It’s a simple trick,” says Stiesdal.

The proposed design includes all four options: the semi-sub as it is towed, the TLP for medium water depth, the Spar for deep water, and to complete the picture, the fixed-bottom when there is insufficient water to make a floater possible. You can even reinflate the keel and bring it to the surface for inspections. All that operation would require is one person and a compressor. Stiesdal says that while the design is clever, the second part of the story, even more important, is about industrialization. For instance, a problem with floating structures is that they invariably end up quite large and not suited for mass production. That is a critical omission. “We know how much mass production matters. It dropped the cost of solar cells from about $100/Watt in the 1970s to about $1/Watt today. The same thing can happen to bigger equipment.” Stiesdal suggests using what has worked well onshore and applying it to offshore designs so the structure is built with components that have the same familiar dimensions and weights and they are less expensive onshore – just assembled by the ocean. A TetraSpar would be towed to its site with the keel up. Once on site, mooring lines would be set and the keel would be lowered to act as ballast.



2/14/17 1:18 PM

Foundations that

The cast transition piece (TP) would have the same diameter as a tower for a 6 MW turbines. Some things could be made of fiber glass. And assembly on a dock would mean there is no Jones act to deal with.

If the components are supplied from existing onshore suppliers, a new supply chain is not needed. “You just pick from those already there, and you don’t need an installation vessel. The existing supply chain provides volume benefits as it has for turning out towers and other equipment. We have reduced the weight because of high quality welds as in onshore towers that eliminate fatigue issues. These developments have led to energy costs that the experts predict to be 6.3¢/kWh for land based, 13.6¢ for fixed-bottom offshore, and 15.6¢ from a floating device, all in 2025. That’s what the experts believe.” According to Stiesdal, a cost on the order of 15¢/kWh is too high. “We have to compete with land-based wind, and solar plus storage, so 15¢ is not low enough. I think it is eminently possible to be in the range of 5 to 10¢/kWh. You might be tempted to say, come on, the experts have spoken. However, let’s not forget what happened this year. In July, DONG won the Netherlands tender with a bid of 10¢/ kWh including all transmission costs, and

in September Vattenfall won the Danish tender for near-coastal offshore wind farms with a bid of 7¢/kWh, so expert predictions should be taken with a grain of salt. Nobody believed that today land based wind would be competitive to natural gas. Nobody predicted that, but that’s where we are. Let’s do the same thing offshore.” W

Expert predictions should be taken with a grain of salt. Nobody believed that today land based wind would be competitive to natural gas. Nobody predicted that, but that’s where we are. Let’s do the same thing offshore.

Stiesdal envisions a dock-based assembly area like this with many smaller components that have costs driven down by mass production.



Feat_Floaters_2-17_Vs2 pd.indd 72


2/14/17 1:18 PM

New developments in

AFFORDABLE wind-turbine monitoring Dr John Coultate

Head of Engineering Development

Romax Insight North America

Becki Meadows

Business Development Manager

• R o m a x Te c h n o l o g y L t d .

Co n di tion monitoring is an O & M to o l tha t hel p s w i nd - fa rm o w ners a nd op e r a t or s m o n i to r the heal th of tu rbine c o m p o nents a nd rel a ted el ec tri c a l s ys tem s . A l t houg h it s pur po se is to pred ict maintena nc e i s s u es , no t a l l wi nd - fa rm o wners a re c on v in ce d t he sy ste m costs ou tweigh the bene fi ts . M o re a ffo rd a b l e a nd rel i a b l e co nd i ti o n - m on it or in g sy stems are need ed to ens u re wi d es p rea d a d o p ti o n i n the w i nd i nd us t r y .

IT WAS NOT LONG AGO that the benefits of condition-monitoring systems (CMS) were debated in the wind industry. Wind-farm owners were unsure whether retrofitting turbines with CMS hardware was worth the cost and effort. Since then, the systems have proved their value by helping detect damage in turbine machinery, typically before they become problems or lead to serious downtime. FEBRUARY 2017

Feat_Romax_2-17_Vs2.indd 73

An effective CMS system can also help wind-farm operators schedule personnel for pre-planned maintenance, order parts in advance, and group other repairs to save costs. CMS is now more widely accepted and used in the industry. But despite its benefits, there are still many wind turbines without a system installed. Hence, condition monitoring still faces a few challenges.



2/14/17 1:31 PM

The pros & cons The business case for CMS is complex, but four main benefits stand out: 1. Avoiding catastrophic component failures in wind turbines

2. Reducing turbine downtime 3. Diagnosing drivetrain problems early for easier troubleshooting and onsite or up-tower repair 4. Minimizing crane costs by planning for multiple repairs at once

a positive track record. Recent insights have led to new ideas and designs for vibrationmonitoring systems that reduce cost and strengthen the business case for their use. For example, past limitations on data storage and transmission are no longer

The table provides an example of a main bearing fault that was detected using ecoCMS and Fleet Monitor. The blue line shows data from a turbine with a main bearing defect as indicated by the frequencies and spacing of the peaks in the frequency spectrum. For comparison, the green line shows data from a healthy, nearby turbine.

In the monitoring report for this wind turbine, Romax recommended an immediate inspection of the bearing, which confirmed the severe macropitting shown.

These advantages of CMS are clear, but some wind-farm owners and operators struggle with justifying the return on investment because effective CMS products are costly. In fact, most onshore turbines still do not have installed vibrationmonitoring systems. Recent figures from researchers at MAKE Consulting suggest that over 95% of wind turbines in the U.S. rated at less than 1.5 MW lack installed condition-monitoring systems. In the 1.5 to 2.29-MW range, the majority of turbines (59%) still are without CMS. Only on larger machines, 2.3 MW and greater, is CMS typical and installed on over 91% of wind turbines. However, this is because most turbines of this size are already equipped with factory-installed CMS.

Breaking down costs Not all wind-farms owners have bought into the idea that the benefits of CMS outweigh its costs, despite research and 74


Feat_Romax_2-17_Vs2.indd 74

relevant. Additionally, the idea of putting “intelligence� in the sensors or data acquisition box has proved unnecessary — this only drives up product costs. The rapid growth in embedded computing, which does not require an additional operating system, means that high-performance systems can be deployed at a much lower price compared to conventional systems, which typically use more costly and complicated architecture. Another factor that has hindered widespread use of CMS in wind turbines is detection reliability. Many conventional systems fail to effectively detect faults in low-speed turbine components, such as the main bearing and planetary stage. To more accurately detect such faults, CMS needs suitable sampling parameters, and this means its analysis software must have proper signal-processing methods that are tuned to a specific application. This is easier said than done.


2/14/17 1:31 PM

While much of the mathematics required for the process dates back to the 1960s, correct use of the calculations requires a deep understanding of the application and its operating conditions. For wind turbines, this means gaining experience through many years of condition monitoring, data analysis, and inspections. To this end, wind-turbine drivetrain and gearbox specialists at Romax Insight have developed a condition-monitoring and software product specifically aimed at making CMS affordable and effective for the wind industry.

Cost-effective monitoring Romax Insight has combined Cloud-based software with cost-effective hardware. The result: ecoCMS, a system that samples data intelligently from up to 12 acceleration sensors on a turbine’s drivetrain and streams the data to the Cloud. With the addition of

Fleet Monitor software, ecoCMS assists with the accuracy of wind-turbine diagnostics by integrating data from turbine inspections, maintenance activity, SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition), and vibration. Of course, a track record is important. ecoCMS has been installed and proven on turbines from leading OEMs — including Vestas, Siemens, GE, and MHI — in North America, Europe, and Asia. Quantifying the benefits of CMS is possible by looking at previous detection examples, failure rates, and cases where costs have been saved through the early detection of failures. For example, many wind-farm owners are only aware of main bearing failures after SCADA temperature alarms alert them of an issue, which all-too often corresponds to the final stages of bearing deterioration. Typically, the outer raceway of the bearing releases large pieces of metal at the bottom’s center, and the raceways

and rollers will become pitted and cracked as a result of final bearing deterioration. Combining SCADA temperature data with vibration data gives owners a more comprehensive toolset to detect main bearing damage and degrading lubrication conditions early on. Coupled with followup inspection reports, this helps to fine tune fault-detection algorithms and improve remaining useful life forecasts. Romax InSight’s remaining useful life model, RomaxRepair, uses mathematical models, empirical data, and engineering experience to forecast remaining useful life on wind-turbine components after damage has been detected and confirmed. With this information, wind-farm owners can prioritize maintenance visits and optimize future repair costs. It is possible to minimize downtime by shipping replacement parts to the site early or share in the costs of crane mobilization with other planned repairs on site. W

Romax InSight’s analysis team uses Fleet Monitor software to detect and track bearing damage on wind turbines, often providing a 12 to 18-month lead time on a failure by using advanced algorithms applied to the raw vibration data feed.


Feat_Romax_2-17_Vs2.indd 75



2/14/17 1:31 PM

2017 I N T R O D U C TI O N [ L E A D E R S H I P I N W I N D E N E R G Y ]

Vote for the company you think has provided leadership to the wind industry The year has just begun, but 2017 has a lot to live up to in terms of wind power if it is to grow and best last year’s accomplishments. The U.S. wind industry installed over 2,000 MW during 2016.


ONLINE Nominate the company you think has provided leadership in the wind industry.

Just flip through the pages of this issue and you’ll get a sense of the innovation that permeates the wind industry. For instance, it’s getting a good grip on what causes gearbox problems and how to solve them. Improved reliability is driving down the cost of windgenerated power to the point that wind energy is less expensive than gas-generated power. That has caught the eye of many utility CEOs. There is more. For instance, in the U.S. the offshore industry has finally launched with more wind farms



WPE Intro 2017_Leadership_Vs3.indd 76

to begin construction soon. And because U.S. waters are deeper than the North Sea, expect to see floating wind farms as well. The feature story in this issue highlights a small but innovative group ready to put their ideas to work. Rather than a single concept, the monopiles that Europeans rely on, the U.S. floating-wind industry will have a range of platforms to choose from. Make note of what the competition for ideas can produce. To keep wind-power flowing successfully, we at Windpower Engineering & Development know it is important to recognize the leaders that continue to push the industry forward. In the pages that follow, you’ll see the accomplishments of fellow engineers and companies in a range of categories. Your vote for one or more the companies listed will be recorded on our website through November 2017. Winners will be recognized in the first issue of 2018.


2/14/17 12:31 PM




Abaris Training Resources, Inc. is recognized as the leading provider of advanced composite repair training for wind blade repair technicians worldwide. Abaris has over 30 years of experience teaching composite structural repair techniques and methodologies to the aerospace industry and has in recent years transferred that knowledge to those now serving the wind energy industry.

Windblade repair solutions Blade repairs in the past have mostly been based upon old “polyester and fiberglass” repair techniques, similar to those used for years in the marine industry. Current materials and techniques may not be sufficient for today’s structures. As turbine blades grow in size and are being designed using new materials and optimized fibers forms, the importance of producing high-performance structural repairs becomes even more critical to the durability and efficiency of the blade. Abaris specializes in teaching technicians how to best identify and remove damaged structure in away that minimizes the risk of damaging good structure. Repairs are then carried out in a manner which results in maximum load replacement and consideration to both the aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance of the blade.

Abaris Training Resources, Inc. 5401 Longley Ln, Ste 49 Reno, NV 89511

The good news is that the repair materials used, and methods and techniques taught by Abaris instructors apply to all composite wind turbine blades (and other structures), both currently in service and those still in design. An Abaris trained technician learns not only “how” to perform repairs but “why” each step in the process is vital to the end result. Knowledge and skills necessary to that of today’s workforce.



ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Abaris Training_WP17_V1.indd 77



2/14/17 10:33 AM




AeroTorque roots are in managing torque in extreme machines in a wide variety of industries for 35 years. Their sister company, PT Tech, has products that can be found in many of the toughest equipment in the world, from computer controlled clutches for diesel engine drives in rock crushers to brakes and clutches in

The data is in: The WindTC reduces damage to your gearbox! Hard stops are more common than you may think and can cause excessive loading that affects from the blade tips to the turbine base. The following data plots show a fairly common fault code in a modern 1.6MW turbine. The loads are more significant than previously understood:

mining operations and tunnel boring. Our

Torque trace on a stock 1.6MW turbine:

approach is to bring innovation to the

Forward loading oscillations have significant magnitude and frequency and will likely leadto fatigue in drive components.

Torque reversal at the end occurs after the turbine shaft stops, causing an impact load on suddenly loaded and likely misaligned rollers, a root cause of white etch damage.

drivetrain by improving the entire system rather than just working on a symptom. We work to improve the overall performance by increasing the productivity, availability, reliability and safety of the equipment.

With WindTC installed: •

By reducing the energy stored in the drivetrain, the peak to peak loading is reduced dramatically.

The most damaging load on the stopped shaft is eliminated entirely.

AeroTorque Corporation 1441 Wolf Creek Trail

A difference you can see! •

Overlaid, you can see how the excessive loading is damped, signficantly reducing damage. In hard stops, these loads are significantly higher without asymmetric protection.

These loads occur every time your turbine sees a hard stop. Each of these events could cause a root cause failure in your turbine’s components.

P.O. Box 305 Sharon Center, OH 44274-0305 Phone: 330.590.8105 Fax: 330.239.2012



Only the WindTC from AeroTorque offers this level of protection from transient loads in your turbine! Control torque loads, control turbine life! Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



AeroTorque_WP17_Vs1.indd 78


2/14/17 10:35 AM




AMSOIL specializes in developing synthetic lubricants that offer innovative answers to the greatest challenges equipment presents. The extraordinary performance of AMSOIL synthetic lubricants in a range of markets has made our influence in the industry unmistakable and our brand highly respected since 1972. AMSOIL’s reputation for producing the highest quality lubricants sets us apart from others in the market. With cuttingedge research and technology, our process guarantees the highest in cleanliness standards on all main gearbox, pitch, yaw and hydraulic lubricants we produce.

AMSOIL IS DEVOTED TO PROTECTION Perfected in the lab, then proven in the field, AMSOIL PTN 320 has provided unparalleled protection for over 8 years and to over 15,000 MW class turbines. Approved OEM lubricant for factory and service by today’s top OEM’s, owners and operators, it’s no wonder AMSOIL continues to be the number one choice for real world solutions.



AMSOIL INC. 715.399.6305


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Amsoil_WP17_V3.indd 79

Wind turbines live in a harsh environment and AMSOIL creates lubricants that can handle rain, heat, cold and anything else thrown at installations, no matter the environment. Proven water resistance, AMSOIL PTN repels water, is non-foaming, protects from micropitting without additive loss and is proven to extend gearbox life.

AMSOIL IS DEVOTED TO QUALITY AMSOIL gets it right the first time. We invest heavily in product research to remain at the synthetic industry forefront. It’s what sets us apart from the competition. The right oil shouldn’t be a guessing game. Maximize your ROI with AMSOIL PTN 320 – one oil, no guessing.



2/14/17 10:36 AM




Aurora Bearing Company was founded in 1971 and manufactures the world’s most complete range of rod end and spherical

Aurora Bearing Co’s new LCOM Spherical Bearings outperform “LS” bearings

bearings. Configurations range from 2-piece economy commercial and molded race construction through 3-piece precision designs. Aurora also produces a full line of military spec rod ends, spherical bearings, and journal bushings. Custom designed rod ends, spherical bearings, and linkages are a specialty. For more information, contact: Like all Aurora Bearing spherical bearings, the LCOM series features a one piece steel raceway, swaged around the ball for a smooth, precise, close tolerance fit, along with the benefit of the strength and vibration resistance of steel. In addition, this series is optionally available with Aurora’s proprietary AT series PTFE liner, for a zero clearance, self lubricating fit.

630-859-2030 Fax: 630-859-0971

Aurora Bearing Company 901 Aucutt Rd. Montgomery, IL 60538 Ph: 630-859-2030 Fax: 630-859-0971


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



AuroraBearing_WP17_V1.indd 80

Aurora LCOM Spherical Bearings were designed to offer a higher level of performance with dimensional interchangeability for the “LS” spherical bearing category; a market segment which has remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. “LS” bearings are characterized by being of 3 or 4 piece construction, with an inner ball, an outer ring, and a one or two piece brass, bronze, or copper alloy race between. Since the early 1950’s users of these bearings, which are also marketed with a “FLBG”, “RS”, or “VBC” prefix, have had to accept their low strength and poor vibration resistance due to the low strength race material. Aurora’s LCOM bearings incorporate superior materials and manufacturing processes to overcome the performance deficiencies associated with “LS” bearings.

COMM-M Bearings are stronger choice for DIN ISO 12240-1 applications

Metric spherical plain bearings built to DIN ISO 12240-1 (formerly DIN 648) schedule K often are made with inner races or rings made of brass, bronze or copper. For many low demand applications these bearings have proven to give satisfactory service. However, in applications with high loads or high vibration levels or both, the bearings can quickly develop excess clearance due

to a deformation of the relatively soft race material. This weakness is addressed in the Aurora Bearing Company’s COM-M series spherical bearings. Like all Aurora inch dimension spherical bearings, these metric bearings all feature a 1 piece steel raceway, cold formed around a chrome plated, alloy steel ball for strength, precision, and structural integrity. Aurora COM-M series bearings are available in sizes from 3mm to 30mm., and follow the dimensions of DIN 648 schedule K. Bearings are optionally available with Aurora’s self lubricating AT series ptfe liner, for a smooth, zero clearance fit that is self lubricating and maintenance free.

Maintenance free & corrosion resistant rod ends from Aurora

The Aurora CM/CW-ET series rod ends offer a combination of features unique in the rod end industry. Instead of the low strength steels typically found in stainless rod ends, the ET series features bodies made from heat treated 17-4PH material. Not only do they offer excellent corrosion resistance compared to conventional rod ends, they provide greater load capacity, strength, and durability as well. The ET series comes standard with Aurora’s exclusive AT2100 PTFE liner. This, combined with a heat treated 440C stainless ball, gives a durable, zero clearance, self lubricating, maintenance free bearing interface to go with the benefits of the heat treated body. Their two piece design allows exploiting these high performance features to be exploited at an economical price. The Aurora ET series bearings can be used to enhance the performance of equipment in wash down, marine, and other environments that require extra corrosion resistance.


2/14/17 10:37 AM




AZTEC BOLTING SERVICES, INC. has been a leading provider of bolting tools to the wind energy industry for over 27 years. Aztec Bolting utilizes the latest products from Enerpac to Skidmore for all your torque and tension requirements. We offer the finest tools available for sale or rent, including hydraulic tools that can yield up to 80,000 ft./lbs. Aztec Bolting also provides calibration services and repairs through our mobile fleet and at the ISO 17025 accredited calibration facility at the company headquarters in League City, Texas. Working alone, or onsite with your labor force, Aztec is committed to delivering the right solution, to meet your timing and budgetary requirements. Aztec Bolting Services, based in League City, TX offers a state-of-the-art mobile fleet division providing clients with on-site training and more with office locations also in Corpus Christi, Midland, and Sweetwater, Texas, and Oklahoma City, Okla.

AZTEC BOLTING is at the forefront of wind turbine and generation construction and maintenance. Vigorous research, innovative designs, and superior technology identify Aztec Bolting as an industry leader providing the finest wind turbine tools. We have been supplying quality wind turbine tools and equipment since 1987, offering an in house ISO 17025 Accredited Calibration lab for services and repairs as well as on site services with our new Mobile Calibration Fleet. Our hydraulic torque wrench systems are fundamental in wind turbine applications. Aztec Bolting is a proud distributor of Enerpac Bolting products, Skidmore-Wilhelm, Stahlwille, and we also proudly carry Hydratight Wind Tensioners, Norbar hand torque wrenches, electronics, and torque multipliers.

“Aztec’s mission is to provide quality products and services to meet every torque and tension need with the utmost care, quality and service.” Aztec Stratus Electric Tensioner Pump

Aztec Bolting Services 520 Dallas Street League City, TX 77573 802 Navigation Boulevard #106 Corpus Christi, TX 78408 1113 Lamar Street Sweetwater, TX 79556



ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Aztec_WP17_V4.indd 81

In addition to our quality Enerpac, Norbar Torque Wrench, and Stahlwille products, we are proud to offer our new generation electric tensioner pump designed for critical bolting applications, specifically in the wind generation industry. The new Stratus tensioner pump has a unique footprint featuring portability and compact design at 65% smaller than anything else on the market. The Aztec Stratus tensioner pump also features the fast pressureup and retract and a hi-tech, calibrated digital gauge. The product also has a multi-functionality intrinsically safe remote control and certified one point lift. Aztec Bolting continues to collaborate with the best companies to produce leading edge technology to fulfill our customers’ needs.

Enerpac S-Series

Aztec Bolting offers the finest in industry technology, and is proud to support the Enerpac S-Series Hydraulic Torque Wrench. The Enerpac S-Series is the fundamental square-drive torque wrench. This incredibly versatile torque wrench is light and sleek, yet muscular, delivering up to 25,140 Ft/lbs of torque. S-Series torque wrenches have 360 degree swivel manifolds and durable rigid steel design.

Enerpac W-Series

Another example of a quality tool is the Enerpac W-Series Steel Hexagon Torque Wrench sets the standard in versatility, reliability, and durability. The innovative W-Series sports a pinless construction with quick release drive and auto crank engagement. This hexagon torque wrench has a 360 degree swivel manifold and you won’t need tools for changing hexagon heads. And because Aztec Bolting is an authorized national distributor of Enerpac products, you can count on a lifetime warranty. Aztec Bolting and Enerpac products are guaranteed.



2/14/17 10:40 AM




Bronto Skylift manufacturers high-reach truck-mounted aerial devices from 36m to over 112m working height for wind turbine blade and tower inspection, maintenance and repair and other overhead applications.

Photos courtesy of TGM Wind Services

Bronto Skylift 47 Taft Vineland Road Orlando, FL 32824


Over 7,500 aerials built and in operation Bronto machines have been used in wind farms globally for over 50 years and have been time-tested in the toughest conditions. Over 7500 Bronto aerials have been built and are in operation throughout the world. Aerial work platforms are by far the safest and most productive method of accessing turbine blades. And, they produce huge savings in both time and money for operators of wind farms over methods like rappelling or using a crane basket. When using aerial work platforms workers are lifted to the overhead area in an 8-foot x 3-foot platform that they control directly from the platform. They control how fast it rises and where it is positioned, and they can lift up to 1000-pounds of men and materials to full working height in a matter of minutes. And, because the platform is telescoped up from a stable base on the ground, it can withstand winds speeds up to 28 mph (12.5m/s) when fully elevated. Bronto aerials can also be configured with a variety of options that increase productivity when elevated. They can be equipped with electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic and water lines running inside the telescoping boom from the ground to the platform so that workers can operate powered tools and washers in the platform. This not only saves time, it is much safer as it eliminates having lines or hoses running down from the overhead platform to ground level.

ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



Bronto Skylift_WP17_V2.indd 82


2/14/17 10:39 AM




BS Rotor Technic USA, LLC has been servicing the wind industry in the US since 2009, and is committed to providing prompt technical and professional services to wind farm owners and operators. With several years of experience with one of the world’s largest rotor blade manufacturers, we can utilize our technical knowledge and expertise in the service and repair of wind turbine rotor blades. We specialize in wind turbine rotor blade inspections, repairs, tower cleaning, and spare parts.

Accurate Inspections and Quality Reports The founding member of BS Rotor Technic USA worked for one of the world’s largest rotor blade manufacturers. Having the technical knowledge of the rotor blade manufacturing process, allows us to professionally approach the service and the repairs of wind turbine rotor blades. Taking advantage of specialized wind turbine rotor blade access systems, we provide cost saving solutions to our customers eliminating crane costs when possible. We have made a strategic alliance with Nu tech Industrial Parts to provide spare parts for wind turbines.

BS Rotor Technic USA, LLC 2200 E. Winston Road Anaheim, CA 92806 888.44.ROTOR


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


BS Rotor Technic_WP17_Vs2.indd 83



2/14/17 10:41 AM




Castrol, one of the world’s leading lubricant brands, has a proud heritage

Leading lubricant supplier

of innovation and fuelling the dreams of pioneers. Our passion for performance, combined with a philosophy of working in partnership with manufacturers, has enabled Castrol to develop lubricants and greases that have been at the heart of numerous technological feats on land, air, sea and space for over 100 years. Castrol is part of the BP group and serves customers and consumers in the automotive, marine, industrial and energy production sectors. Our branded products are recognized globally for innovation and high performance through our commitment to premium quality and cutting-edge technology. To find out more about Castrol please visit With over 30 years’ experience in the industry, we know how challenging the wind energy business is today.

Castrol 150 W Warrenville Rd Naperville, IL 60563



Our parent company BP owns and operates over 2000 megawatts of wind energy, giving us unique insight into your operations, both as a supplier and an operator We understand that our customers need to maximize uptime and minimize operation and maintenance costs. We can share with you the many ways a lubricant can impact this performance. We recognize owners have specific criteria for their gearbox oils based on turbine OEM, change-over procedure, environment and O&M strategies. To meet these differing demands, Castrol is the only lubricant supplier that offers FIT FOR PURPOSE Technology solutions. We can work with you to determine the solution that will meet your performance needs and financial objectives. This includes our unique proprietary technology that can extend oil changes well beyond any other competitor – all while delivering exceptional wear protection. We bring expert support to help you maximize the output of your assets, and reduce the cost of each kilowatt of energy produced. This includes every area of turbine mechanics from gearboxes, to main bearings to hydraulic systems. Using our condition based monitoring expertise, we can provide vital insights into the health of your gearboxes and support predictive maintenance techniques all while housing your fluid analysis data in one location, available any time you need it. Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Castrol_WP17_V3.indd 84


2/14/17 10:42 AM




Dexmet Corporation manufactures precision expanded metal foils and polymers for applications in aerospace, power generation, filtration and automotive industries. Dexmet was founded in 1948 and is based in Wallingford, Connecticut. For over 60 years Dexmet has been at the forefront of expanding technology and has redefined the standards for micro mesh materials providing the greatest range of products and capabilities for foil gauge metals and thin polymer films. Dexmet manufactures thin, light-weight precision expanded Copper and Aluminum from .001” thick and widths reaching over 48” that can meet specific weight, conductivity and open area requirements required by aerospace or wind generation applications. Precision MicroGrid® materials from Dexmet are the industry standard for expanded materials used in lightning strike protection, on carbon fiber structures with OEM aircraft manufacturers as well as EMI/RFI, and ESD protection for sensitive internal instrumentation. The Dexmet Quality System is ISO 9001:2008 and AS9100 certified.

Dexmet Wallingford, CT 203-294-4440


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Dexmet_WP17_Vs1.indd 85

AS THE POWER OUTPUT requirements increase for wind turbines, wind generator manufacturers are moving towards larger blades to rotate these larger turbines at lower wind speeds. As the wind blades increase to over 45 meters in length, blade construction is moving away from the more traditional all fiberglass construction to utilize more carbon fiber. The carbon fiber provides a substantial weight savings and increased strength to combat the extreme stress loads exerted on the blades during operation. Carbon fiber, however, is conductive and more prone to be struck by lightning. Without proper protection, they are susceptible to severe damage and catastrophic failure. For two decades Dexmet has been working with aircraft designers developing precision expanded MicroGrid foils for lightning strike protection on carbon fiber composite aircraft and its components. Benefiting from the development work done in the aircraft industry, Wind Blade Manufacturers are now realizing the importance of having the proper lightning strike protection for larger carbon fiber blades and incorporating Dexmet’s precision expanded MicroGrid® materials into their designs. Dexmet MicroGrid® materials are thin, open area products applied to the top adhesive layer of the composite and are capable of achieving the critical conductivity required to dissipate a destructive lightning strike, protecting the carbon fiber layer below. Dexmet’s expanded copper and aluminum MicroGrid meshes are essential at extending the life of carbon fiber composite blades. In addition to protecting blades, lightning strike materials can also be incorporated into the composite turbine nacelles for additional protection of the structure.

Dexmet MicroGrid® Proven Lightning Strike Protection

• • • •

Proven Technology for Lightning Strike Protection Highly Conductive Patterns Matched to Specific Requirements Open Area Design for Easy Dry or Wet Layup without Delaminating Easily Repairable for Low Maintenance Costs and Minimal Downtime

MicroGrid® Materials For Wind Generator Applications

As with Aerospace applications, weight is always critical so Dexmet provides different conductive materials to minimize the weight based on the different strike zones. As with all rotary blades, lighting is more prone to hit the leading edge and the outer blade surfaces towards the tips where the highest amount of static energy is generated. For these locations, the heavier, more conductive materials are utilized. As you move towards the root of the blade, a lighter weight material can be incorporated to reduce weight and cost. The variability with Dexmet’s expanding process provides the capability of producing a custom material based on desired weight, conductivity, or open area to meet exact application requirements. To learn more about the benefits of Dexmet materials, witness its lightning protection performance or understand how it can reduce your maintenance costs and down time, contact us at or visit our web site and let us show you how to incorporate the innovative MicroGrid® materials into your composite designs and start recognizing the benefits today. WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT  


2/14/17 10:43 AM




EAPC Wind Energy provides engineering and consulting services for wind farm development throughout North and South America. We help developers achieve their financial goals by providing intelligent wind farm design, accurate energy assessments, and bankable reports. EAPC Wind Energy provides energy assessment and feasibility studies, development consulting, contract negotiation and review, technical due diligence, financial and economic analysis, balance of plant design and engineering, strategy consulting, wind measurement services, and windPRO software sales and support. windPRO is the world’s most comprehensive software package for wind farm project planning and design. EAPC regularly conducts windPRO training workshops across North and South America.

Wind Energy Assessment From wind prospecting and preliminary assessments to comprehensive “bankable” reports, we use a variety of sophisticated computer tools to perform wind resource and energy assessments, including windPRO, WAsP, and WAsP CFD. We have experience in all types of terrain, from simple to complex.

Wind Measurement Services We sell and install wind measurement systems. Our highly professional crews, operating from offices in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, have installed, commissioned and serviced hundreds of met masts over the course of the last two decades. Our tower configuration and commissioning documentation is among the most comprehensive in the industry. We provide data collection, monitoring and reporting services to many of our clients. We also rent and service SODAR units.

EAPC Wind Energy 3100 DeMers Avenue Grand Forks, ND 58201 701.775.3000


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



EAPC_WP17_Vs1.indd 86

Wind Farm Design Relying on wind data and the results of geographic, environmental and infrastructure studies, we identify the optimal location for a wind farm, and then use powerful modeling software and years of industry experience to optimally site the individual wind turbines to maximize energy output and minimize the wind loading on the turbine components.

Software Sales and Training EAPC is the sole North and South American (excluding Mexico and Brazil) sales and support agent for windPRO, the world’s most comprehensive software package for the design and planning of wind farm projects. The windPRO software tool is recognized and used by all leading turbine manufacturers, developers, engineering companies, environmental consultants, utilities as well as local planning authorities worldwide. Our expert consultants regularly conduct windPRO training workshops throughout North and South America.


2/14/17 10:44 AM




HARTING is the global choice connectivity solution provider for Wind Energy and other high demand markets. Although we’re best known for our world-class connector and cabling solutions for getting power, signal, and data quickly and reliably from point A to B, our expertise also includes board level and backplane development and manufacturing, network components for Fast/Full Gigabit Ethernet, complete RFID systems for asset control and management, and, most recently, a product to connect already existing systems, such as wind turbines, to the IIOT.

HARTING: The educational Go-To-Source for engineers

HARTING 1370 Bowes Rd. Elgin, IL 60123

As an expert in the industry, HARTING is committed to educating the North American market. HARTING-U is HARTING’s free, web-based, educational portal that keeps the engineering community up to date with the info they need and empowers them to find the technology that is right for their application. Visit for more information.


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Harting_WP17_V3.indd 87



2/14/17 10:46 AM




HYDAC was founded in 1963 as a company producing hydraulic accumulators and filters. Today, we are internationally active with 8000+ employees, 30+ manufacturing locations and 500 trade and service partners throughout the globe. Our fluid engineering solutions are defined by the scope and complexity of our customers’ requirements. Our products range from individually designed components in the fields of fluid engineering, hydraulics and electronics right up to complete systems for specific functions. All components and systems are conceived and designed in-house. Experienced industrial and product specialists develop innovative products and efficient solutions for high-quality, cost-effective production. Our production facilities share one common goal; quality. We take pride in both our products and solutions.

With a strong nationwide presence and over 50,000 system installations, HYDAC stands out as a leader in the Wind market. Our dedicated Wind field sales and service team is supported by a network of experienced engineers to meet any and all challenges, from new designs and solutions to upgrades and retrofits. Multiple USAbased manufacturing facilities provide our customers the flexibility to meet immediate needs and the ease to develop and implement solutions. HYDAC’s broad knowledge base and product offering includes lube, generator, and converter cooling systems, as well as HPUs and HR flex cable management systems. HYDAC offers numerous upgrades to improve filtration efficiency, increase element life, optimize heat removal, reduce energy use and improve high voltage

With HYDAC’s innovative engineering team, complete lube systems can be re-designed, replaced or modified for repowering and high cycling or to accommodate new IE3 motor requirements. Filtration upgrades are available to remove varnish permanently, via off-line filtration or during maintenance with up tower fine filtration skids. Tank optimization analysis services are available to ensure that tank design is optimized, with baffles and sufficient air separation. Experience, dedication, and innovative design solutions are the HYDAC way.

HYDAC 2260 City Line Road Bethlehem, PA 18017



management. These upgrades include in-line and off-line filtration options, complete filter replacements, system component upgrade/ replacement including heat exchanger and accumulator replacement/rebuild kits, and an exchange program for all Wind Turbines. Add-on filter assemblies, designed specifically for the Wind market, improve ISO Codes and protect heat exchangers. All designs and offerings take into consideration limited tower hatch space.

Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



Hydac_WP17_V3.indd 88


2/14/17 10:47 AM




Since 2004 Indji Systems has been delivering situational awareness solutions to the utility industry and expanded those solutions to the wind industry in 2013. We are a leader in fully automated monitoring and analysis of natural

Smarter-Safer Alerts Wind farms can stretch 20 miles or more in distance. While monitoring a point on a map may work for a baseball stadium or golf course, that method falls short for a 200-turbine wind farm. You need the confidence the entire farm is being monitored, alerts are being generated and delivered earlier based on the entire farm footprint, not a point in the middle of the farm. Only Indji Systems delivers this level of intelligence which results in smarter alerts for your employees.

hazard information. Through innovative and intelligent methods Indji Systems can accurately monitor our customer’s business assets and provide earlier warnings when a hazard is threatening business operations. Indji Watch ( for Wind Farm Operations provides superior awareness of significant weather events that endanger your employees, disrupt your operations and impact your profits. Indji Watch enables quick, intelligent decisions through accurate lightning alerts, the latest in high resolution model forecasts and company wide access to real-time web and mobile mapping interfaces. Built from the ground up to meet the

Innovation Indji Systems has shown leadership through innovation since day one. We were the first to deliver hub height wind speed forecast graphics in our solution and the first to deliver a clean, intuitive, interface focusing on content that matters to the wind industry. Just this past summer Indji Systems introduced high-resolution forecast radar and lightning to our clients based on methods proven and tested by NCAR. (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Now our clients can better plan their day knowing when strong storms and lightning may interrupt work.

needs of the wind energy industry.

INDJI SYSTEMS, INC. P.O. Box 515381, #32775 Los Angeles, CA 90051-6681 650.641.2653

Wind Industry Focused


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Indji Systems_WP17_Vs2.indd 89

With Indji System’s strength in the Utility Industry, it was only natural we moved into renewable energy. Since our product launch in 2013 we have seen strong growth and now monitor wind and solar farms on four continents. That can only happen by focusing on what matters most to the industry, what solutions will help them do their job better, smarter and safer. We listen to our clients and they help us drive the solution to be the best in the industry.

Powerful Lightning Analysis Tools The industry agrees the sooner you find lightning damage and address it the lower the costs of repair and downtime for the turbine. With Indji Systems historical lightning tool you can quickly do a forensic analysis of the event, identify which turbines should be inspected thereby saving time, money and improving production.



2/14/17 10:48 AM




Mattracks, Inc., the world innovator in rubber track conversion systems, with headquarters in Karlstad, Minn. has produced over 100 models of rubber track conversion systems for ATVs, UTVs, vehicles, tractors, trailers and custom applications for the last 22 years.

Mattracks, Inc. 202 Cleveland Ave E. PO Box 214 Karlstad, MN 56732 Phone: 218-683-9800 (direct) 1-877-436-7800 (toll free US & Canada)


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



Mattracks_WP17_V2.indd 90

MATTRACKS CONVERSION SYSTEMS are the most technologically advanced, independent, rubber track systems used for recreation, work, commercial, military and agricultural applications. Mattracks can equip most any four-wheel drive vehicle from a small ATV, SUV or trucks up to 80,000 lbs. GVW. Mattracks is the solution to being mobile in the worst conditions. The rubber track conversion system transforms most any 4WD vehicle into an all-terrain vehicle, capable of traveling over soft terrain like mud, snow, sand, swamps and bog, with minimal impact on the environment. Mattracks has been providing the tracks for what customers need. If mobility is an issue, Mattracks is the answer. “Our trusted, innovative products can provide a new approach to getting where you need to go. We are committed to our customers’ needs and making sure to get them the right track to access their worksites,” said Mattracks CEO, Mr. Glen Brazier. Mattracks equipped vehicles are at work in all 7 continents and over 100 countries, exploring for oil and gas, installing and servicing telecommunication systems, construction, mining, drilling, logging, forestry, surveying, military, power transmission lines and pipeline construction.


2/14/17 10:52 AM




In 1942 the “North Bar Tool Company” (as Norbar was then known), became the first company in Britain to commercially manufacture a torque wrench. The initial demand was driven by the need for the gasket-less cylinder head of the Rolls

Torque Calibration, Measurement & Management System The TruCheck is for click type torque wrenches and comes with a single measurement unit, lbf·ft. There is only one button on the device and that is to zero the display. Operation is simplicity itself and it is virtually impossible to go wrong. TruCheck has an accuracy of +/-1% of reading over operating range of 147.5 to 1475 lbf-ft. (200 to 2000 N·m) and comes with a traceable calibration certificate. TruCheck 250 (shown) has an operating range of 10 to 250 lbf·ft. (13.6 to 339 N-m).

Royce Merlin engine to be accurately tightened. Bill Brodey and his partner Ernest Thornitt obtained a license from Britain’s war-time Government to begin manufacture of torque wrenches and Norbar was born. Since then, Norbar has continued to invest in the very latest design, manufacturing and quality control technology to achieve the highest level

Series 2 Pro-Test Professional Torque Tester Series 2 Pro-Test is an accurate, highly specified and easy-to-operate instrument for testing and calibrating all types of torque wrenches. ProTest is priced to make in-house testing both affordable and precise, especially for the smaller industrial and automotive torque wrench users.

of innovation and precision in the field of torque control equipment.

Pneumatic Wrenches Extend Torque Ranges with Torque & Angle Control Available Norbar Torque Tools, Inc introduces a new gearbox design to its family of Pneutorque® pneumatic torque wrenches. Models in the new Series are now faster, lighter, smaller and easier to handle than other units of similar capacities. Norbar pneumatic wrenches, when combined with Norbar electronics, can provide accurate control of torque and angle requirements, and provide shut-off capabilities with the ability to log torque data. Norbar Torque Tools, Inc. 36400 Biltmore Place Willoughby, OH 44094 Phone: 866.667.2272 Fax: 440.953.9336 Email:



New Design in Torque Wrench Evolution Norbar Torque Tools, Inc introduces one of the most significant new designs in the company’s sixty-five-plus year history, the new TruTorque. The aim of the design team was to produce the best possible tool using the latest materials and engineering techniques, at a competitive price. Key objectives were to produce a wrench that is durable and will stay in calibration for as long as possible, even when used regularly in demanding environments. The TruTorque design has been through 100,000 cycles of testing at 100% of rated capacity – the only torque wrench in the world to have done so.

USM-3 Ultrasonic Bolt Stress Meter Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Norbar_WP17_Vs1.indd 91

The USM-3 Ultrasonic Stress Meter measures load and elongation in fasteners, tie bars and shafts of virtually any material from 1/2 inch to over 50 feet in length. Know the precise load, elongation or stress on your critical bolts. Track preload changes over any time period from minutes to years.



2/14/17 11:24 AM




Rotor Clip is a global leader in the manufacture of tapered, constant section and spiral retaining rings meeting Inch, DIN, ANSI Metric and JIS standards. This includes the manual and automatic tools needed to install/remove every ring we sell. Rotor Clip also manufactures wave spring rings as well as self-compensating hose clamps, all produced in a lean environment dedicated to eliminating waste and ensuring quality through ISO/TS 16949, ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 registration, and AS9100C certification.

It’s all about Service

We focus on producing quality products delivered on time to your facilities around the world. We service you after the sale is made by providing technical advice on how to handle, inspect and install our products and help in selecting the best materials, finishes and packaging for your application.

It’s all about Choice

Rotor Clip manufactures tapered, constant section and spiral retaining rings. One ring isn’t better than the other. Rather, it depends on your application. We help you select the right retaining ring for your requirements, ensuring that you are getting the most effective ring at the best price

It’s all about Quality

Rotor Clip is registered to TS16949, but that isn’t why our customers buy from us. They know we are continuously improving our processes to reduce costs and pass savings on to them. Ours is a culture of analyzing data, uncovering problems and solving them through coordinated actions. The result: our customers can depend on quality, reliable products competitively priced. It’s all about servicing our customers. See how Rotor Clip can make a difference in the retaining rings, wave springs and hose clamps you buy. For more information or FREE samples, visit

It’s all about Innovation

Our experience producing our product spans 55 years. During that time we have improved on every aspect of producing retaining rings. From rings on wire to shrink wrapping and innovative wave spring designs we have set the bar high in our attempt to meet customer expectations.


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.



Rotor Clip_WP17_V1.indd 92


2/14/17 11:00 AM




Monitoring the impact and vibration that sophisticated wind power equipment experiences during transportation and while it is in operation can drive significant savings by identifying potential damage before it leads to a catastrophic failure. OpsWatch, from ShockWatch, is the only dual-mode device in the industry that can help users identify and diagnose issues – before and after installation – reducing operational costs and improving efficiency.

Best of Both Worlds

Reduce operational costs and improve efficiency

In wind power, the installation of faulty components causes untold damage to systems, equipment and the bottom line. By observing and auditing the status of equipment beforehand, costs are reduced while productivity is increased.

ShockWatch 5501 Lyndon B Johnson Fwy

“By observing and auditing the status of equipment beforehand, costs are reduced and productivity is increased.”

Suite 350 Dallas, TX 75240 Phone: 800.393.7920 Email:


ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Shockwatch_WP17_V3.indd 93

generate changes in vibration pattern. The system enables real-time monitoring of low-frequency shock and vibration to identify these changes as they happen. If vibration is outside a normal range, OpsWatch alerts the user and streams condition-based data via Wi-Fi through easy-touse condition monitoring software. Using low-frequency vibration and shock detection allows preventative maintenance before expensive repairs or replacement is required.

OpsWatch allows users to record the environment equipment experiences throughout a journey and to flag severe impacts that could potentially cause damage before installation. With built-in intelligence, OpsWatch adjusts its setting for transport or stationary operation based on the sensed power source. When using battery power, it adjusts settings for transport, and with direct power, it switches to stationary mode. After installation, speed and accuracy are the greatest weapons to find and solve problems. With complete data, companies can take the action that may be required – such as replacing a broken component – and can make informed decisions about managing inventory before immediate action is needed. Equipment that has belts, gears, motors, and other moving components has a “normal” range of vibration that OpsWatch monitors. The shocks and normal wear of usage over time

OpsWatch software can be configured to spec: preset impact event peak values are programmed to record within a user-defined time slot. The user sets warning and alarms levels based on the application/product, which can be customized to existing systems.

In Transportation Mode, the user can record up to 870 events, while setting programmable “wake-up” values to maximize a yearlong battery life. After transport, the device auto-transfers all travel data when connected to direct power. In stationary mode, users record a virtually limitless number of events at a rate of 1,000-5,000 samples per second – and event alarms are only cleared after being acknowledged by the user. Once installed, the software may be configured remotely using any Wi-Fi enabled device, like a cell phone or tablet. OpsWatch measures both impact and lowfrequency vibration to identify machine deterioration during operation and detect potential shipping damage to protect equipment, prevent unplanned downtime, maximize utilization, and reduce cost. WINDPOWER ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT  


2/16/17 10:25 AM




Redefining Innovation & Leadership

Servo Motor Couplings & Motion Control Products.

For over 60 years, Zero-Max, Inc. has created innovative solutions to motion control problems worldwide. With strategic distribution points located throughout the world, Zero-Max can deliver your motion control solution. The Zero-Max team of application specialists can engineer a solution to

With many years of application experience Zero-Max excels in these areas: •

Experienced Practical Application Advice

Responsive to our Customers needs

Predictable high quality

Fast Delivery


High Value

ISO 9001: 2008 certified

meet your motion control requirements. The Zero-Max brand is known throughout the world as a mark of quality and performance. It is not uncommon for us to receive a call from a customer who has had one of our products in service for decades.

Configurable 3D CAD downloads at

Zero-Max Primary Product lines are: Overhung Load Adaptors for Timber Shaft Couplings and Torque Limiters for Zero-Max® 13200 Sixth Avenue North Plymouth, Minnesota 55441-5509 Phone: 763-546-4300

Servomotors, Linear Actuators, Wind Turbines, Printing Presses, Label Printing, Converting Machines, Machine Tools, Test Equipment, Feedback devices, Packaging Machines, Process Equipment, Dynamometers, and other high performance applications.

Variable Speed Mechanical Drives for Agricultural, Printing, Peristaltic Pumps, Food Processing, Pharmaceutical, Packaging, and many other applications.


processing, Brush Clearing, Road Construction, Marine, and other rugged applications that need overhung load protection for hydraulic pumps and motors.

Keyless Locking Bushings for Packaging, Processing, Tooling, Automated Assembly, and applications that would benefit from the unique qualities bushings. Contact us for more information regarding quality motion control components that can solve your motion control problems.

ONLINE Voting for this company will identify it as a leader in the wind power industry.


Zero Max_WP17_V1.indd 94


2/14/17 11:01 AM

Indji_resized.indd 1

2/14/17 10:11 AM



Abaris Training.................................................................... 61 AeroTorque.........................................................................35 Amsoil.................................................................................BC Aurora Bearing Company................................................53 Aztec Bolting............................................cover/corner, 55 Bronto Skylift........................................................................ 3 BS Rotor Technic USA, LLC............................................. 61 Castrol (BP Lubricants USA).............................................. 5 Dexmet Corporation........................................................29 EAPC Wind..........................................................................49 Elevator Industry Work Preservation Fund...................25 HARTING.............................................................................39 HYDAC International......................................................IBC Indji Systems.......................................................................95 Lufthansa Industry Solutions............................................6 Mattracks.............................................................................53 Norbar Torque Tools, Inc................................................. 31 ShockWatch.......................................................................45 Zero-Max, Inc................................................................... IFC

Abaris Training.................................................................... 77 AeroTorque.........................................................................78 Amsoil..................................................................................79 Aurora Bearing Company............................................... 80 Aztec Bolting...................................................................... 81 Bronto Skylift......................................................................82 BS Rotor Technic USA, LLC.............................................83 Castrol................................................................................ 84 Dexmet Corporation........................................................85 EAPC Wind......................................................................... 86 HARTING.............................................................................87 HYDAC International....................................................... 88 Indji Systems...................................................................... 89 Mattracks............................................................................ 90 Norbar Torque Tools......................................................... 91 Rotor Clip............................................................................92 ShockWatch.......................................................................93 Zero-Max, Inc.....................................................................94



Jim Powers 312.925.7793 @jpowers_media

Neel Gleason 312.882.9867 @wtwh_ngleason

Michelle Flando 440.381.9110 @mflando

Tom Lazar 408.701.7944 @wtwh_Tom

Jessica East 330.319.1253 @wtwh_MsMedia

Garrett Cona 213.219.5663 @wtwh_gcona

VP of Sales Mike Emich 508.446.1823 @wtwh_memich

EVP Marshall Matheson 805.895.3609 @mmatheson

Managing Director Scott McCafferty 310.279.3844 @SMMcCafferty

Associate Publisher Courtney Seel 440.523.1685 @wtwh_CSeel





Ad Index_2-17_Vs1.indd 96


2/14/17 2:45 PM

See us at Booth #3344 When the task at hand requires an expert, you can rely on HYDAC to provide not only quality products but efficient and reliable solutions using them. Whether it’s off-road, offshore, agricultural or industrial, HYDAC is the solution for your application. Water and Air Cooling Systems Solutions for: • High speed gearboxes • Converters • Generators • And more!

Replacement Elements

Clamping Solutions | HYD1612-1859 WndPwrEng_FebAd2017_fulpg.indd 1 HYDAC 2-17.indd 29


12/16/16 10:31 AM 2/14/17 10:10 AM


QUALITY AMSOIL’s reputation for producing the highest quality lubricants sets us apart from others in the market. With cutting-edge research and technology, our process guarantees a cleanliness code of 16/14/11 or better on every main gearbox, pitch, yaw and hydraulic lubricant we produce. AMSOIL products are perfected in the lab and proven in the field. An approved lubricant for factory and service by today’s top manufacturers is why owners, operators and manufacturers continue to move up to AMSOIL. Don’t risk your assets with unnecessary filtering or additive treatments. Let the AMSOIL team show you how to maximize the return on your investments.


Amsoil 2-17.indd 29

AMSOILWIND.COM 2/14/17 10:04 AM

Windpower Engineering & Development FEBRUARY 2017  

Foundations that Float; What to Expect at Wind O&M Dallas 2017; Decommissioning Canada's Oldest Wind Farm