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www.designworldonline.com October 2016

INSIDE: MECHANICAL: Bearing friction basics: A primer PAGE 76

3D CAD: How the Internet of Things will bolster design PAGE 98

FLUID POWER: Trends in hydraulic filtration PAGE 90

New conveyors:

tight turns, top speeds APR15-A&C Snipe_Snipe 3/13/15 2:39 PM Page 1

48

OCTOBER DW COVER 2016_fit for gatefold_FINAL2.indd 1

l r o r fo nt d Co e i l & l A n k n tio i Th ma to u A 10/7/16 11:53 AM


We have designed many “field-friendly” features into the Productivity2000 PLC because we understand the pressure that can come with field installations and start-ups. We want you to have everything you need to keep your install on track and your startup on schedule. From OLED displays to QR codes, the features listed here are just a few examples of the many ways Productvity2000 can save you time in the field, which also saves you money!

Field-frien

To get the whole story and see even more ways to save, head on over to www.Productivity2000.com

Trouble-free Troubleshooting The standard OLED message display on the P2-550 CPU gives you instant status on your controller and can be used to display system faults. Also, each analog I/O module includes a high-contrast OLED so you can view fault conditions and analog values such as voltage, current, and temperature without having to disconnect signal wires to get a reading with a meter.

Convenient QR Codes When the pressure is on, don’t waste precious time searching for needed documents. Get wiring diagrams, installation instructions and specifications by simply scanning the QR code tab on each Productivity2000 I/O module.

Configurable Hot Swappable I/O Don’t lose production for simple I/O module changes. The Productivity2000 CPU can remain in the RUN mode without the user-selected I/O modules installed. Choose to allow any module to be removed or configure each module separately.

ZIPLink Pre-wired Solutions The Productivity2000 I/O modules have multiple wiring options available. Use standard terminal blocks, or our ZIPlink pre-wired cables and connector modules (available for most modules). ZIPlinks not only provide tremendous wiring time savings but can also provide fused isolation from field devices, clean wireways with easy, field-traceable connections, and confidence that your panel wiring is correct.

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10/12/16 11:43 AM


d-friendly Features for LESS.

Don’t forget that our field-experienced and highly-trained technical support specialists are ready to help, FREE of charge. Give us a call at 1-800-633-0405, we’re available 9am - 6pm ET on weekdays.

We also offer FREE 2-day shipping and a 30-day money back guarantee for any of those last-minute modifications.

Order Today, Ships Today! * See our Web site for details and restrictions. © Copyright 2016 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.

AutomationDirect gatefold LHP_issuu.indd 87

1-800-633-0405

the #1 value in automation

10/12/16 11:45 AM


Break FREE from the traditional PLC experience and save. Save time and money

NOW... Built-in Cost Savings The Productivity2000 PLC is designed with many built-in cost savers. The CPU comes standard with on-board data logging and more communication options than anyone else (5 comm ports). It also includes three of the most widely used protocols in the industry (Modbus RTU, Modbus TCP/IP, EtherNet/IP) so no separate communication modules are needed!

FREE Intuitive PLC Software

Base (if required)

$69.00 P2-04B

N/A N/A

Power Supply

$69.00

$427.00

The FREE Productivity Suite PLC software works hand-in-hand with many field devices and third party software. This integration gives this PLC a clear advantage, and gives you a head start with system development. Here are just a few examples: • Built-in Function Blocks: Specialized, fill-in-the-blank style function blocks for many operations including communication with EtherNet/IP devices and servo/stepper motor control. • Shared Tagname Database: Export the tagname database from the software and easily import it into C-more HMIs, Point of View SCADA software or other 3rd party database software to jump start your project development. • Auto-discovered Hardware: The Productivity Suite PLC software will automatically configure installed I/O modules - your system is recognized and configured without any manual setup. Up to 16 GS Series AC drives can also be auto-discovered and their parameters stored in the CPU for future reference.

CPU

$255.00 P2-550

$3,220.00 1769-L33ER

Own It, Don’t Owe On It!

16 AC Inputs

$105.00 P2-16NA

$264.50 1769-IA16

16 24VDC Inputs

$69.00

$222.00

8 Relay Outputs

$51.00

$275.50

8 Analog Input Channels (mA)

$199.00 P2-08AD-1

$797.00 1769-IF8

Buying direct with us saves you money. With Productivity2000, you get many standard features that you would pay thousands for elsewhere. Our P2-550 CPU is priced at $255 and I/O modules start at just $40 (P2-08NE3). We aren’t a traditional PLC company - we are here to serve YOU! So check us out!

ASCII Comm Module

$0.00 Built in to CPU

$752.00 1769-ASCII

$0.00 Built in to CPU

$736.00 1769-SM2

Visit: www.Productivity2000.com

Modbus RTU Comm Module Total System Price with USB, Ethernet and Serial

$817.00

$6,694.00

5

COMM PORTS

Ethernet Remote I/O USB RS-232 RS-485

PLC CPU and I/O Comparison

AutomationDirect Productivity2000

P2-01AC

P2-16NE3

P2-08TRS

Allen-Bradley CompactLogix

1769-PA4

1769-IQ16

1769-OW8I

and LATER...

All prices are U.S. published prices. AutomationDirect prices as of 4/27/2016. Allen-Bradley retail prices taken from www.plccenter.com 4/18/2016.

the #1 value in automation * See our Web site for details and restrictions. © Copyright 2015 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.

Outside Front Gate_AutomationDirect 10-16.indd 1

1-800-633-0405

www.AutomationDirect.com

10/5/16 1:54 PM


Save BIG on Pneumatic Cylinders.

NEW!

NITRA Pneumatic Air Cylinders Get high-quality pneumatic cylinders at low prices from AutomationDirect. Our NITRA brand of pneumatic components is constantly expanding and now offers seven different types of dependable air cylinders: • • • • • • •

A-Series Round Body Cylinders start at $11.00 C-Series Inch Compact Cylinders start at $37.00 D-Series NFPA Tie Rod Cylinders start at $101.00 E-Series Dual Rod Guided Cylinders start at $94.00 F-Series All Stainless Steel Cylinders start at $69.00 G-Series ISO 15552 Cylinders start at $57.00 NEW! H-Series Metric Compact Cylinders start at $19.00

And all of our NITRA pneumatic cylinders are available for same-day shipment, have a 2-year warranty, and come with the service and support you deserve!

Order Today, Ships Today! * See our Web site for details and restrictions. © Copyright 2016 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.

AutomationDirect 10-16 DW.indd 1

Pneumatic Cylinders

AutomationDirect NITRA

MSC

Norgren

McMaster-Carr

Non-repairable Air Cylinder 2 inch bore, 4 inch stroke, double acting, pivot/double end mount

$64.00 A32040DD

36697563

$124.44

$89.76

Non-repairable Air Cylinder 3/4 inch bore, 1 inch stroke, single acting spring return, nose mount

$13.00 A12010SN

$24.01 36696458

$17.78 6498K141

Non-repairable Air Cylinder 1-1/16 inch bore, 6 inch stroke, double acting, pivot/double end mount

$29.50

$60.37 36696847

$43.75

A17060DP

6498K478

6498K658

All prices are U.S. published prices. Many other part numbers are available from all vendors. AutomationDirect prices as of 4/27/2016. Norgren prices are from www.mscdirect.com 4/18/2016. McMaster-Carr prices are from www.mcmaster.com 4/18/2016. Prices subject to change without notice.

Research, price, buy at: www.automationdirect.com/air-cylinders

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the #1 value in automation

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ENIDINE INSERT 10-16.indd 1

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ENIDINE INSERT 10-16.indd 2

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OFFSET SHAFTS. SOLVED. Offset Couplings from Zero-Max reduce space requirements for parallel offset shafts in large system applications. These specialized couplings provide machine designers with an important option for reducing overall machine size and footprint. Compact in design, Schmidt Offset Couplings transmit constant angular velocity and torque in a wide range of parallel shaft misalignments. Handling high amounts of parallel offset up to 9 inches, they are available with torque capacities up to 459,000 in-lbs. Schmidt Offset Couplings can be mounted to shaft hubs or directly to existing machine flanges. They are available for shaft displacements of 0.156 inches to 17.29 inches and torque capacities from 55 to 459,000 inch-pounds. Many design configurations are available including specials.

www.zero-max.com 800.533.1731

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5/6/16 1:55 3:33PM PM 10/5/16


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The Only Switch that Matters Is the One You Need And We’ve Got It

In stock and ready-to-ship. See it all at thinkallied.com/switches

1.800.433.5700 © Allied Electronics, Inc 2015. ‘Allied Electronics’ and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc.

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An Electrocomponents Company.

10/5/16 1:55 PM


I n s i g ht s

What will 2026 bring? This month, we’re celebrating the 10th anniversary of WTWH Media and its flagship publication, Design World. As we’ve covered the design engineering space (and branched out to also focus on wind and solar energy, fluid power and medical technology), a lot has changed. We thought it would be interesting to play the role of futurists and predict what will be different in the engineering space in another decade, in 2026. In our special anniversary section, starting on page 129, each member of our editorial team has written about an aspect of technology that they think will bring about major change in the next 10 years. There’s a lot of interesting reading here—our editors tackle everything from how autonomous vehicles will change all sorts of things in the world to what education will look like in a decade. You’ll also hear about topics as varied as robotic-built spacecraft, online AI, creative new materials and additive manufacturing. Additionally, we’ve invited manufacturers to pen their thoughts, too. How will components and technologies evolve? How will areas like new materials, the Internet of Things, 3D printing, advanced sensors and nanotechnology change your job over the next decade? This special section has proved to be a fascinating look forward. It’s difficult to predict even a few years out, and chances are that the thing that most affects engineering in 2026 is something that no one’s even thought of yet. But still, reading through the opinions of so many people with so much at stake in the industry provides a lot of insight into the changes that we’ll all be facing and will have to adapt to. I’d be remiss if I didn’t take this opportunity to thank our dedicated readership— for the past 10 years of your turning to Design World for your need-to-know engineering information. You’ve kept us on our toes, and have been the first to call us out when we chose the wrong word or if you had a question about a formula. But you’ve also sent in countless kind letters and emails to our staff when you’ve enjoyed a particular feature story or column. It’s been a pleasure serving you. DW Here’s to another great decade.

Pa ul J. Heney - Editor ial D i re ctor pheney@wtw hme di a.com

On Twitter @ DW—Editor

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DESIGN WORLD

October 2016

10/11/16 10:02 AM


The Truth About Compressed Air! If you think compressed air is too expensive and noisy - read this. The facts will surprise you!

Compare these Blowoffs

There are a variety of ways to blow the water from the bottles shown in the photo below, but which method is best? To decide, we ran a comparison test on the same application using four different blowoff methods: drilled pipe, flat air nozzles, Super Air Knife (each using compressed air as a power source), and a blower supplied air knife (using an electric motor as a power source). Each system consisted of two twelve inch long air knives. The following comparison proves that the EXAIR Super Air Knife is the best choice for your blowoff, cooling or drying application. The goal for each of the blowoff choices was to use the least amount of air possible to get the job done (lowest energy and noise level). The compressed air pressure required was 60 PSIG which provided adequate velocity to blow the water off. The blower used had a ten horsepower motor and was a centrifugal type blower at 18,000 RPM. The table at the bottom of the page summarizes the overall performance. Since your actual part may have an odd configuration, holes or sharp edges, we took sound level measurements in free air (no impinging surface).

Drilled Pipe

Blower Air Knife

This common blowoff is very inexpensive and easy to make. For this test, we used (2) drilled pipes, each with (25) 1/16" diameter holes on 1/2" centers. As shown in the test results below, the drilled pipe performed poorly. The initial cost of the drilled pipe is overshadowed by its high energy use. The holes are easily blocked and the noise level is excessive - both of which violate OSHA requirements. Velocity across the entire length was very inconsistent with spikes of air and numerous dead spots.

The blower proved to be an expensive, noisy option. As noted below, the purchase price is high. Operating cost was considerably lower than the drilled pipe and fl at air nozzle, but was comparable to EXAIR’s Super Air Knife. The large blower with its two 3" (8cm) diameter hoses requires significant mounting space compared to the others. Noise level was high at 90 dBA. There was no option for cycling it on and off to conserve energy like the other blowoffs. Costly bearing and filter maintenance along with downtime were also negative factors.

Flat Air Nozzles

EXAIR Super Air Knife

As shown below, this inexpensive air nozzle was the worst performer. It is available in plastic, aluminum and stainless steel from several manufacturers. The flat air nozzle provides some entrainment, but suff ers from many of the same problems as the drilled pipe. Operating cost and noise level are both high. Some manufacturers off er fl at air nozzles where the holes can be blocked - an OSHA violation. Velocity was inconsistent with spikes of air.

The Super Air Knife did an exceptional job of removing the moisture on one pass due to the uniformity of the laminar airflow. The sound level was extremely low. For this application, energy use was slightly higher than the blower but can be less than the blower if cycling on and off is possible. Safe operation is not an issue since the Super Air Knife can not be dead-ended. Maintenance costs are low since there are no moving parts to wear out.

Facts about Blowers

Energy conscious plants might think a blower to be a better choice due to its slightly lower electrical consumption compared to a compressor. In reality, a blower is an expensive capital expenditure that requires frequent downtime and costly maintenance of filters, belts and bearings. Here are some important facts: Filters must be replaced every one to three months. Belts must be replaced every three to six months. Typical bearing replacement is at least once a year at a cost near $1000. •

Blower bearings wear out quickly due to the high speeds (17-20,000 RPM) required to generate effective airflows.

Poorly designed seals that allow dirt and moisture infi ltration and environments above 125°F decrease the one year bearing life.

Many bearings can not be replaced in the field, resulting in downtime to send the assembly back to the manufacturer.

Blowers take up a lot of space and often produce sound levels that exceed OSHA noise level exposure requirements. Air volume and velocity are often difficult to control since mechanical adjustments are required. To discuss an application, contact: EXAIR Corporation 11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247 Fax: (513) 671-3363 email: techelp@exair.com www.exair.com/58/423b.htm See the Super Air Knife in action. www.exair.com/58/akvideob.htm

The Super Air Knife is the low cost way to blowoff, dry, clean and cool.

Blowoff Comparison Type of blowoff

PSIG BAR

Drilled Pipes

60

4.1

Flat Air Nozzles

60

Blower Air Knife

3

Super Air Knife

60

Comp. Air

Horsepower SCFM SLPM Required

Sound Annual Purchase Approx. Annual First Year Level Electrical Price Maintenance Cost Cost dBA Cost*

174 4,924

35

91

$50

$4,508

$920

$5,478

4.1

257 7,273

51

0.2

N/A

N/A

10

102

$208

$6,569

$1,450

$8,227

90

$5,500

$1,288

$1,500

$8,288

4.1

55

1,557

11

69

$576

$1,417

$300

$2,293

*Based on national average electricity cost of 8.3 cents per kWh. Annual cost reflects 40 hours per week, 52 weeks per year.

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Te s c h l e r o n To p i c

The mythical unskilled American workforce I once sat through a panel session at a technical conference that featured engineering managers from four large high-tech companies. They all moaned about the lack of youngsters entering the engineering profession and about finding engineers with the right kind of skills. To hear them talk, you’d think skilled engineers were impossible to find. But a funny thing happened when the topic turned to engineers the panelists were hiring themselves. It turned out that companies represented on the panel were generally satisfied with the kind of people going on their own payrolls. So apparently there was a big skills shortage somewhere, affecting other companies, but not affecting any of them. The ambiguity of this incident came to mind with the recent publication of a study by two labor economists who have concluded that, despite shrill claims to the contrary, most manufacturers don’t need workers with high-level skills.

One thing that got U. of Illinois professor Andrew Weaver and Paul Osterman of M.I.T. interested in the subject of manufacturing skills was the results of manufacturing surveys during the great recession. One claimed as many as 600,000 manufacturing jobs were going unfilled during a time when unemployment was at 9%. Moreover, these surveys took place following a period where manufacturing employment had declined by a third, putting millions of trained workers on the street. To get to the bottom of things, the economists contacted 900 plants in a wide variety of manufacturing industries and asked about hiring, vacancies, and the skills of the employees who were most critical to production. It turned out that the most widespread “skill” that manufacturers were looking for was the ability to read an instruction manual. Close behind was the ability to do arithmetic as taught in grade school. Only about 38% of manufacturers needed employees who could do high school math – algebra, trig, and geometry. Just 7% needed workers able to do calculus or other advanced math. Even the computer skills manufacturers needed were modest. Just 28% of them wanted people who could use CAD/CAM software.

It also emerged that more manufacturers had more wide-spread needs for people who had soft skills than for those with hard skills. At the top of the soft-skill list was the ability to cooperate with other employees. Nearly all manufacturers said this factor was extremely important. Following close behind were the ability to evaluate the quality of output and to take action when quality wasn’t right. The researchers took particular interest in manufacturers operating in high-tech industries. Interestingly, these facilities didn’t have significantly higher math demands. Plants that did, in fact, need people with higher math skills tended to be those with TQM programs or where plants used selfdirected teams. Nor did it seem to take manufacturers a long time to find good workers. The average time to fill a critical manufacturing position was about six weeks. And many plants demanding high skills didn’t report a significantly higher rate of long-term job vacancies. The single factor correlating with lengthy vacancies was a physical location within a cluster of specialized plants, particularly where there was a demand for highly specialized skills. All in all, the picture that emerges from the study is that employers bemoaning the quality of the American workforce may be going by things they’ve merely heard rather than by what they’ve actually experienced. DW

Le la n d Te sc h le r - Exec u t i ve Edi to r ltesc h ler@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—LeeTeschler

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DESIGN WORLD

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October 2016

10/6/16 8:26 AM


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Te c h n o lo gy Fo r wa rd

Additive shows off its manufacturing capabilities 3Dprinting /additive manufacturing (3DP/AM)

has had a bit of an identity problem for the past few years. Is it a somewhat useful tool for makers, artists, and hobbyists? It is a tool for professional engineers to use for form, fit, and proof of concept needs? Is it a machine that will replace CNCs and other legacy manufacturing systems? Is it the third leg of manufacturing— subtractive, injection molding, and now additive?

At this year’s IMTS show in Chicago, what once was known as 3D printing is picking one direction and that one is additive manufacturing—machines that will actually be capable of working side-by-side with CNCs and injection molding systems to produce end-use parts. The major additive manufacturing vendors introduced advanced additive systems specifically targeted at a manufacturing application, often aerospace and automotive. Stratasys turned the Z axis on its side, which enables its newest extrusion based additive system to produce long, long, long parts. The Stratasys Infinite-Build 3D Demonstrator addresses the needs of aerospace, automotive and other industries for large lightweight, thermoplastic parts with repeatable mechanical properties. Stratasys also introduced its Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator, which delivers 3D printing with an 8-axis motion system that enables precise, directional material placement for strength while also reducing the need to use speed-hindering support strategies. Siemens motion control hardware and PLM software deliver the multi axis control. Proto Labs launched its overmolding service — expanding its rapid injection molding offerings. This new capability can produce 25 to 10,000+ custom overmolded parts in 15 days or less. Proto Labs claims the speed at which these parts can be created with its rapid injection molding services is unprecedented.

3D Platform introduced its Excel Series Platform. The Excel series includes a parallel gantry configuration that can support multiple simultaneous processes including additive, subtractive, and robotics. The build table is initially 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft (1.2 x 1.2 x 2.4 m), but is expandable to almost any length by adding gantries. The XL-Delta system has a work area that lets you 3D print an item up to 2.5 m across and 2 m in height. 3D Systems hosted a news conference to announce it is on a new path—one firmly focused on developing systems for manufacturing production. The company has several hardware systems ranging from 3D scanning to metal additive production. It is also focusing on its Figure 4 manufacturing system. 3D Systems’ CEO, Vyomesh Joshi is also focusing on improving the services the company offers. Joshi introduced Jim Heppleman, president and CEO of PTC, to the stage where the two outlined how PTC’s CAD offerings will make it easier for design engineers to shift from CAD to additive and back while in the design phase. The changes coming to the software will mean you stay within a program while analyzing data that will improve the design of your part. This development is a step many users have wanted—a better integration between CAD and 3D printing. Thanks in large part to all the hype from the desktop 3D printer phase of this industry, these companies have been able to develop innovative ways to build or grow parts rather than cut or mold. Additive manufacturing will become the third leg of a manufacturing production system; the proof is here now. DW

Le sli e La n gn a u - M a n ag i n g Edi to r lla n g n a u r@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—3Dprinting 8

DESIGN WORLD

Leslie Column (Technology Forward) 10-16 Vs2.LL.indd 8

October 2016

10/6/16 8:28 AM


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8/18/16 10/5/16 10:19 1:58 PM AM


SMALLEY WAVE SPRINGS: FORCE WITHOUT THE FOOTPRINT. REDUCE OPERATING HEIGHT BY UP TO 50% WITH THE SAME FORCE AND DEFLECTION AS COIL SPRINGS. Looking for a solution for tight spaces where a conventional coil spring simply doesn’t fit? Smalley wave springs deliver precision and high performance in diameters now* down to 0.165". What’s more, a smaller assembly size and less material used means cost savings with no compromise in performance. Let us customize the wave spring that meets your exact requirements.

All Springs Are Not Equal®

Free test samples for your next design are available at smalley.com/samples.

Ask Smalley. Our world-class team of engineers is always on call with free design consultation, downloadable CAD models or no-charge samples for evaluation and prototyping.

THE ENGINEER’S CHOICE™ * Small part manufacturing requires close collaboration when determining design criteria. Please consult Smalley on your next application.

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3/10/2016 9:40:50 AM 10/5/16 1:59 PM


COORDINATED MOTION

ROD STYLES

RODLESS

LINEAR SERVO

RACK & PINION

MOTORS & DRIVES

• Unique continuous belt provides coordinated motion for each axis • Stationary motor reduces weight of the carried axis • Ideal for high speed pick and place applications

• High speed – up to 180 in./sec., with accelerations reaching 5G • Extreme precision – up to 1 micron • Dual-rail comes standard

• • • •

Lead and ball screws Guided for side loads High thrust options Handles loads up to 40,000 lbs

• Vertical loads • High thrust with linear guide rail

• Belt – up to an astounding 85 ft • Ball screw – high efficiency • Lead screw – economical

• Stepper – AC & DC • Servo – AC & DC • IntelliMotor® – control, encoder, motor, I/O, communication • AC & DC controllers • DC drives

GET CUSTOM-BUILT SOLUTIONS FROM IN-HOUSE EXPERTS

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ELECTRIC MOTION

PNEUMATIC I HYDRAULIC I ELECTRIC © Copyright 2016 Bimba Manufacturing Company. All Rights Reserved.

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12/23/15 9:34 PM AM 10/5/16 2:00


» Green Engi neeri ng

n Kai Yu, a former postdoctoral researcher in The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech, sits behind a piece of carbon fiber composite immersed in alcohol. (Credit: Rob Felt, Georgia Tech)

Carbon fiber recycling process could reduce waste n Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta have developed a method to recycle nearly 100% of the materials in certain types of thermoset carbon fiber composites. The new method involves soaking the composites in an alcohol solvent, which slowly dissolves the epoxy that binds and gives shape to the carbon fibers. Once dissolved, the carbon fibers and the epoxy can be separated and used in new applications. “This method we think could have a lot of immediate industrial applications, with lots of economical and environment benefits,” said Kai Yu, a postdoctoral researcher in The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech. The study was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Singapore A*Star Public Sector Fund and the Singapore NRF-supported Digital Manufacturing and Design Centre (DManD). Carbon fiber, prized for its strength and light weight, is used widely in applications from aerospace to automobiles. But a major drawback has been that, unlike aluminum, steel and plastics, it is generally not recyclable. Jerry Qi, a professor in the Woodruff School—and who leads a team of researchers affiliated with the school’s Renewable Bioproducts Institute—said traditional carbon fiber has presented two challenges for recycling.

12

DESIGN WORLD

Green Engineering_10-16_Vs2.indd 12

“The polymer matrix is usually crosslinked, just like the rubber, and it can’t be simply melted; it’s very hard to strip away the polymer to reclaim the embedded carbon fibers, which are more valuable to recycle,” Qi said. The research team focused on carbon fiber that uses a special type of epoxy called vitrimer epoxy to give the composite component its shape. “Vitrimers contain dynamic bonds that can alternate their structure without losing network integrity under certain conditions,” Yu said. “We let alcohol, which has small molecules, to participate in the network of alternating reactions, which effectively dissolved the vitrimer.” The new recycling process might reduce the thousands of tons of carbon fiber waste that is generated each year in the United States and Europe, Qi said. The other advantage of this new recycling process is that it’s simple and straightforward, said Yu, who is now an assistant professor at University of Colorado Denver. “It’s very easy to operate, so there’s no limit to the size,” Yu said. “It can be easily scaled up.” DW

Georgia Tech gatech.edu

October 2016

10/6/16 8:35 AM


Dynamic Machine Control. Empowered by Eaton.

Introducing a whole new way to optimize performance and enhance productivity. With Eaton’s Pro-FX™ Technology Platform, machines can actively sense and dynamically respond to ever-changing demands and conditions, helping operators make smarter decisions that drive significant improvements. It’s more than electronic machine control – it’s Dynamic Machine Control. Empowered by Eaton.

Discover how Eaton is empowering smarter, more responsive machines at eaton.com/DMC

Eaton Hydraulics 3 (log Crane).indd 13

10/5/16 2:02 PM


S p e c i a l

Co nten t s |

1 0

y e a r

a n n i v e r s a r y

October 2016 • vol 11 no 10

|

e d i t i o n

designworldonline.com

F E AT U R E S MOTION 48 LINEAR A conveyor for every need

ENVIRONMENTS 82 HARSH Powering remote harsh environments

56 MATERIALS How to control ESD with plastics The variety of plastics available for ESD management is a benefit, but also a risk. Understanding the variables will make selection easier.

More self-powered remote wireless devices are used in extreme environments. Here’s a look at some of the newer batteries that will help you handle the power needs of these devices in such environments.

90 Trends in hydraulic filtration FLUID POWER

A look at important technology and industry trends, and how they affect hydraulic users Inside: Plug-and-Play Application Solutions - 116 • Small robot family for quick handling in tight spaces - 122

Robotics

CAD 98 3D How the Internet of Things

64 How to weld 3D printed parts MECHANICAL

Can 3D printed parts be ultrasonically welded? In some cases, they can. But differences in resolution, strength, and solidity from the materials and 3D printing technology are key to successful ultrasonic welds. Here’s what you need to know.

www.designworldonline.com

will bolster design

Robotic vehicles take the next step

Data from IoT connected devices can drive CAD design and reduce the number of prototype stages engineers need.

108

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106-127 DESIGN WORLD in

76 MECHANICAL Bearing friction basics: A primer

DESIGN WORLD

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t’s fascinating to see old cell phones in movies from the I’m amazed not just at the obnoxious 80s and 90s. sizes of the devices, the lack of elegance but also at in the designs. That’s who crafted the not to berate the phones, designers come to the forefront but it shows how much the art of design has in engineering today. design to move Steve Jobs famously technology forward. employed With his passing, asking, “Who is many of us are going to lead that charge now?”

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A | S |B |P|E

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Flexible chain conveyors are engineered for tight turns and quick elevation changes at high speeds, useful where floor space is limited.

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Image courtesy of Dorner Mfg. Corp.

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P r e d i c t i n g Te c h n o l o g y i n 2 0 2 6

Au Th tom ink ati All on ied & for Co ntr ol

Rolling element bearings, such as ball bearings and roller bearings, are used in equipment primarily because they support the loads inherent to the machine’s function at a much lower friction level than oil film bearings such as bronze or Babbitt. Here’s a refresher on bearing technology.

ROBO TIP S COVE

A Supplement to Design World - October 2016

New designs and innovative conveyor technologies, such as electroadhesion, give engineers new options to solve material handling challenges.

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Con te n ts

10.20 1 6 D E PA R T M E N T S

tronik24 op | www.ru h s e rc e m B2B e-com

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04 Insights 06 Teschler on Topic 08 Technology Forward 12 Green Engineering 20 Design For Industry 26 Design Notes 34 CAE Solutions 38 Internet of Things 2 00 Products

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38 16

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Click here.

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PowerPact B circuit breakers — efficiency that clicks. The new PowerPact B circuit breakers feature one-click accessories and built-in DIN rail or plate mount capability. Put that into a space-saving size and add Everlink technology to combat cable creep, and your work clicks right into place. TM

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Deceleration & Vibration Technology:

Expect more than Automation Control! Motion Control Custom control of hand forces Vibration Control Isolate unwanted vibrations

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Staff page 10-16_Vs1.indd 18

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October 2016

10/7/16 12:40 PM


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military/aerospace

1

O

0 90

1

ISO 13485

AS

91

» Design for Industry

medical

Material reduces friction in medical device

00

IS

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Tube bending

perfection in stainless Eagle has the expertise and the specialized machinery for bending tubing exactly to spec. Call us for a quote !

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Tube & Fabrication, Inc. Franklin, Massachusetts

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www.eagletube.com DFI 10-16_Vs5.indd 20

When you need to minimize friction, wear and abrasion in medical valves, plungers, caps and seals in medical devices, Quniton may help. This material is a lubricious product with permanent, low coefficient of friction (CoF) surface properties. The lubricity of this material does not adversely affect its bulk properties including compression set, which allows it to maintain its original form and sealing force, retaining integrity throughout a product’s life cycle. The low CoF of Quniton enables it to resist bonding or sticking to a variety of materials and itself and therefore is a good aide in assembly and disassembly operations. Stiction is also greatly reduced, ensuring negligible degradation when the device is not in use. There is no micro-cracking or flaking when subjected to stretching that can occur during installation. Quniton has no impact on extractables or leachables and has a biocompatibility USP 20

DESIGN WORLD

October 2016

Class VI and ISO 10993-5 certification of the base material. This material does not change the performance attributes of the product including chemical exposure to acids, bases and solvents and thermal stability at temperatures as high as 500˚F (262˚ C). DW Minnesota Rubber and Plastics www.mnrubber.com

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10/11/16 10:06 AM


machine tool/aerospace/military

medical

» Design for Industry

2

0

IS

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ISO 13485

AS

91

00

Flush-mountable photodiode for heart rate measurements Photodiode SFH 2440 L saves on mounting height in the design of heart rate sensors. It can be flush-mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB), with longer leads ensuring secure mounting and reliable solder points. The component also features spectral sensitivity for measuring heart rate. SFH 2440 L is a large-area photodiode with the same optical properties as the earlier model SFH 2440. Both register visible wavelengths, whereas most of the infrared light is suppressed by a filter. This sensitivity characteristic addresses a challenge in measuring heart rate. In such applications the sensor sits directly on the skin and emits light directly into the body – green emitters are used, for example, on the wrist. Part of this light is reflected back to the detector in the sensor. Because blood flowing through an artery absorbs more light than the surrounding tissue, the changes in the detector signal over time can be used to deduce the heart rate. However, in most cases ambient light also falls on the area of the body where the measurement is taken. It also penetrates the skin, where it is scattered, causing noise in the detector. This effect is particularly strong for infrared wavelengths. To achieve the best possible signal-to-noise ratio the bandpass filter in the SFH 2440 and the SFH 2440 L therefore sharply cuts off wavelengths above the visible spectral range. In the infrared range the relative sensitivity is only 5% of the maximum value at 620 nanometers. At the same time, the sensitivity for green light is very high. Good signal quality can therefore be achieved for pulse measurements with green light even at a low operating current. The photodiode offers short switching times of 90 nanoseconds so that the detector signals modulated with the heart rate can be resolved with a high level of precision. The SFH 2440 L enables the height of the sensor design to be reduced by the thickness of the PCB used, because the 1.15 mm high photodiode can be installed in a cutout section. It comes with an optimized lead frame in which the length of the leads has been increased to suit the application. This not only ensures reliable solder points but also keeps the footprint on the board as small as possible. The component can be securely mounted on the back of the board. It cannot slip through the cutout when the assembly happens within the usual placement tolerances. DW

Laser machining

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October 2016

DFI 10-16_Vs5.indd 21

DESIGN WORLD

21

www.eagletube.com 10/6/16 3:40 PM


The Only Coupling To Earn Its Wings

The NEW patented Baldor•Dodge® Raptor takes coupling innovation to greater heights. Utilizing a patented winged element design for higher bond strength and improved fatigue resistance, the Raptor delivers:

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Baldor 10-16.indd 22

Raptor’s slotted clamp rings offer more clearance at the bolt holes for an easier installation than competitive designs.

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10/7/16 12:04 PM


semiconductor

POWER TRANSMISSION 4 RETAINING DEVICES &

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Demonstration boards for semiconductor products

maintenance & assembly tools BEARLOK

SHOELOK

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PRECISION NUTS & WASHERS

INCH and METRIC THREADS LEFT HANDED as well as RIGHT -HANDED

ADAPTER SLEEVE ASSEMBLIES

Materials of: CARBON, ALLOY and HARDENED ALLOY STEELS Materials of: ALLUMINUM and CORROSION RESISTANT STEEL

The LTC1668, 50 Msps, 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is for applications with analog frequency content between the audio range and several megahertz. DC2459A is a complete redesign of the original demonstration circuit. Several signal conditioning options are available for the analog output, and digital signals through one of several FPGA development boards. Example FPGA code is provided, which produces digital sine wave data for the DAC. Demonstration boards for semiconductor products enable synergy between the “Maker� community and production designs. A 50Msps DAC requires a carefully laid out board, and a digital signal source to go with it. A benchtop digital pattern generator is the tool of choice, but is an expensive proposition if you don’t own one and you just need to evaluate a DAC. Fortunately, there are a number of boards from the Maker community that provide just the right mix of capability, ease of use and low cost. Boards such as DC2459A provide Makers with access to true high performance devices, example code, and a well laid out PC board for projects and prototyping. One of the digital connectors on DC2459A is directly compatible with the “Mojo� Spartan 6 FPGA board from Embedded Micro. The Mojo also features an onboard ATmega32U4 processor with Arduino bootloader, providing options for controlling the LTC1668, or leveraging Linduino code to add additional analog and mixed-signal functionality. DW Linear Technology Corp. www.linear.com

October 2016

DFI 10-16_Vs5.indd 23

NUTS & WASHERS

HARDENED TONGUE WASHERS

SPLIT COLLAR

RETHREADING DIES

ADJUSTABLE SPANNER WRENCH

BEARING ASSEMBLY SOCKET

W

HI

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A

WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly. Visit our website–whittet-higgins.com–to peruse the many possibilities to improve your assemblies. Much technical detail delineated as well as 2D and 3D CAD models for engineering assistance. Call your local                  or a good distributor. 33 Higginson Avenue, Central Falls, Rhode Island 02863 Telephone: (401) 728-0700 • FAX: (401) 728-0703 E-mail: info@whittet-higgins.com Web: www.whittet-higgins.com

DESIGN WORLD

 

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10/6/16 3:40 PM


3

0

» Design for Industry

off-highway

Pressure transmitters for long-term stability For off-highway vehicles and machines, the less maintenance or

Electronic

Pressure Switches

• Compact Design for OEM Applications Safety: Up to 4X • Overpressure Burst Pressure: Up to 8X Withstands High-Pressure • (IP67/IP6K9K) Washdown and Immersion

repair needed, the better. The TPL Series family of high-performance industrial pressure transmitters is digitally compensated to provide accurate, reliable pressure measurements with excellent long-term stability. They are suited for OEM requirements within the industrial automation, hydraulics and pneumatics, agricultural and off-road vehicle, HVAC, water treatment and general instrumentation sectors. These pressure transmitters offer reliable 0.5 V to 4.5 V ratiometric output and a ±0.25% non-linearity, hysteresis and repeatability specification (BFSL) over an operating temperature range of -40° to +125 °C. Gauge pressure is detected using a fourarm, active strain-gauge bridge incorporating highly stable resistors. The resistors are fused to a high purity ceramic element and changes in pressure on that element result in bridge voltage changes, conditioned by on-board processing electronics. Units are available in a choice of 14 standard pressure ranges (both BarG and PSIG), 20 unique 303-grade stainless steel pressure port styles, and eight unique seal materials, including EPDM for potable water applications. DW TT Elecronics www.ttelectronics.com

• PNP-Output / NPN Output Call for Product Info:

800-473-7313

info@suco-tech.com

www.suco-tech.com 24

DFI 10-16_Vs5.indd 24

DESIGN WORLD

October 2016

10/6/16 3:41 PM


You Design It. We Build It. INTRODUCING

Weber Knapp, leading manufacturer of mechanical motion control solutions, is proud to introduce Vectis™ - the first design your own (DYO) springloaded counterbalance hinges.

Vectis™ by Weber Knapp

Vectis™ utilizes standard parts while taking advantage of computer numerically controlled (CNC) capabilities; providing custom characteristics unique to your application. You design it - we build it. Using our proprietary DYO software, simply plug in your product’s critical load parameters - lid weight plus lid center of gravity (CG) to hinge pivot axis dimensions. The slide bar variables will calculate the optimum torque curve to fine tune the open and close feel; making products more reliable and user friendly. Select the model and quantity desired. Order one or as many as your project requires without the costly expense of tooling or engineering. See the new Vectis™ line at vectiscounterbalance.com or call the Vectis™ Help Line at 800.828.9254 x263 Weber Knapp Company | weberknapp.com

Weber Knapp (Vectis) 10-16.indd 25

10/5/16 2:07 PM


» D e s i g n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

t energy mus red with UV d an h Products cu gt avelen the correct w cure t no be cured with ies will rtain chemistr Ce l. ve le gy bu ener rs can rn sure and othe po ex ht lig w with lo Some of the high dosage. to if subjected to at post cured s must be he .. UV chemistrie rformance maximum pe achieve their

Common causes for adhesive problems High tech adhesives are reliable and issues do

Contamination should be one of the first considerations. Any grease, oil or other impurity on the surface can potentially cause loss of adhesion. Dirty substrates are an obvious potential problem but contamination can be inadvertent. Oils from skin contact, especially on very small parts, could be enough to cause a problem. Components may have been improperly cleaned. Manufacturers sometimes change a production process that does not affect the component performance or tolerances but can unintentionally effect the bonding of that component. Controlling the cleaning process at the usage sight is the best method to ensure occurrence of this potential problem does not arise.

Another possible source of contamination is silicone release agents that can settle onto surfaces and prevent adhesion. Care must be taken to prevent cross contamination when using silicones or any release agent. For this reason, some manufacturing facilities will not allow the use of any silicone compounds.

not occur often. When used correctly, they can resolve many design problems while also saving money, time and effort. However, there are many possibilities for failure when using these materials. Failure can be defined as no adhesion upon cure, reduced adhesive strength or loss of adhesion over time. When any problem occurs, the adhesive is often one of the first components to be examined. Finding the cause of a failure can sometimes become difficult, especially when a failure is intermittent or it started after a long period of success. There are a number of standard issues that should be considered to determine the cause of a failure.

26

DESIGN WORLD

Design Notes 10-16_Vs7.MS.LL.indd 26

October 2016

10/7/16 10:26 AM


Highest Torque in the Smallest Space ... or the largest.

ned as no re can be defi u il fa e iv es Adh ced adhesive on cure, redu e. When adhesion up sion over tim he ad of ss lo often strength or hesive is very occurs, the ad m le . ob pr in y an be exam ed mponents to co st fir e th one of

Maxitorq® clutches and brakes deliver power, reliability and are customized to meet your exact needs. Land, sea and air – CJM is everywhere. AS9100C:2009/Certified

Surface preparation is essential for bond consistency. There are many methods to prepare surfaces, including washing, abrasion and plasma/corona treatment. The best surface preparation will depend upon the specific substrate and adhesive chemistry used. Consult with your substrate provider or adhesive manufacturer for the appropriate preparation. Lack of consistent surface preparation can be a big contributor to adhesion issues. Mix Ratio for many two part materials can be a major issue. Some systems are very sensitive to minor changes in the mix ratio. Many materials are stoichiometrically balanced and an off ratio mix may cause the material to cure erratically or not perform to its optimal capability. Even some materials that are not as sensitive to the mix ratio may exhibit slightly different characteristics when the ratio is varied. Materials that do cure with an off ratio mix may have slightly different finished hardness and tensile strength thus affecting the final performance.

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Design Notes 10-16_Vs7.MS.LL.indd 27

Mixing of two part adhesives is a basic process function but is essential for of these adhesives to work properly. Insufficient mix may result in a partial chemical reaction which leads to partial curing. An insufficiently cured material will most likely result in poor bond strength and lower physical properties.

Also, mixing of the original container can be very important. Fillers or other constituents could settle. Ensuring a homogenous mix of each component prior to mixing (for two parts) is vital to achieve maximum properties.

Application technique is critical. If material is manually applied, ensure that the amount is consistent for each unit. Most adhesives work best with an appropriate bond line. Too much or too little material could produce variable cured strengths. If applicable, make sure that the adhesive is applied in the same location on every component. If automated placement is used, ensure that the equipment is clean when starting and remains clean during use. Some

October 2016

DESIGN WORLD

Clutches, Brakes & Power Transmission Products • electrical, mechanical, pneumatic & hydraulic models • system design and integration • expert engineers working on every order

Engineering Solutions for Clutches & Brakes

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27

10/7/16 10:28 AM


» D e s i g n N o te s

adhesives can partially cure in the dispensing apparatus, clogging the unit and preventing a consistent amount of material being applied to each part. Less adhesive could result in decreased strength. •

Incompatibility with substrates can also be a contributor to failure with some adhesives. Certain plastics may contain plasticizers which could seep to the surface over time, causing a bond to fail. This seepage could be inconsistent from lot to lot so that some parts never fail while others lose adhesion.

Some substrates can actually interfere with the cure mechanism of an adhesive. This is usually an issue that is addressed when selecting the adhesive but sometimes appears later.

28

Air entrapment can be a source of failure especially in small applications. Removal of air from a system, prior to application, may be a necessary processing step. Air gaps could prevent the adhesive from interfacing fully with the substrate surface which may result in decreased strength.

Environmental conditions should also be noted as many materials can be effected by their surroundings. For example, high moisture levels can prevent cure in some materials while it speeds up the reaction in others. Carbon dioxide, PH, Oxygen and environmental temperature could all adversely affect the finished adhesive.

As stated earlier, intermittent problems are the hardest to resolve. These are almost always due to a factor other than the adhesive. Of course, a batch of adhesive may have been produced incorrectly but this is actually very rare as reputable manufacturers use reliable raw materials and process controls to ensure a consistent finished product. Greater than 98% of problems with adhesives are not due to the adhesive itself but due to one of the causes previously discussed. DW Epoxyset www.epoxyset.com

Cure time and temperature can also be major factors contributing to incomplete cure and performance of many systems. Some materials must be exposed to certain temperatures in order to cure. Many ovens can vary considerably and thus an adhesive does not seem to cure in its allotted time. Too high a temperature may cause a material to polymerize incorrectly and cause degraded properties. Some materials may cure at lower temperatures but not produce the same physical characteristics as when cured with elevated temperatures. Alternatively, certain chemistries designed for low temperature cure should not be heated when cured.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

Products cured with UV energy have the same issues. They must be cured with the correct wavelength and energy level. Certain chemistries will not cure with low light exposure and others can burn if subjected to high dosage. Some of the UV chemistries must be heat post cured to achieve their maximum performance.

DESIGN WORLD

Design Notes 10-16_Vs7.MS.LL.indd 28

October 2016

www.designworldonline.com

10/7/16 10:26 AM


Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

» De sign Note s

When Size and Performance Matters Medical-Industrial Actual Micro-Coax cable bundle diameter compared to a penny.

test cards Here. Tiffin’s y oad and heav calibrate railr . k scales capacity truc

7.7mm

19mm

Bundle of 128 Micro-Coax Cables (42AWG/85 ohms)

Wireless control and hydraulics help crane soar

Actual catheter cable diameter compared to a penny.

Tiffin Loader Crane’s primary focus is providing lifting, loading, and handling solutions for material handling problems. The previous system of wired controls for calibrating and testing truck and rail weighing scales led to high shock loading, and reduced component life. In addition, it made it difficult to perform fine movements. Seeking wireless solutions in an industry that does not typically use them, Tiffin installed a custom-

19000

4 x 48 AWG Catheter Cable

engineered system to better operate their trolley and winch functions. Magnetek and S. G. Morris created a system solution that offers an integrated package of wireless control and hydraulics, allowing for smoother and easier operations. Enhancing equipment performance and simplifying adjustment capabilities were the goals of the new system install on the industrial scale certifying equipment. Scale test and calibration equipment determines the amount of loaded cargo and ensures the load is within road or rail limits. Several turnkey packages are available including enclosed Class 8 Truck van bodies or knuckle-boom flatbed configurations. Precision weights, which are carried by a mobile transporter in the truck body, are dispatched via trolley and winch systems that raise and lower the carrier and weights to and from the ground. 3,000-6,000 and 8,000 pound test carts calibrate the railroad and heavy capacity truck scales. A receiver output energizes the blocking valve, which can impede movement, to allow hydraulics to enable the trolley and winch control valves. An external limit switch is used to break the command signal to the winch coil at the proper time. This prevents the winch function from lifting a load too far and damaging itself. If the emergency stop button on the Flex Pro is used, www.designworldonline.com  

Design Notes 10-16_Vs7.MS.LL.indd 29

October 2016

DESIGN WORLD

Industrial Ethernet Cables

Options Available: 600V, High-Flex, Ultra-Limp, Oil/Gas/Solvent Resistant, Outdoor.

Material Science Experts Manchester, New Hampshire , USA Tel: +1.603.669.4347 www.hca.hitachi-cable.com

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Âť D e s i g n N o te s the blocking valve signal is interrupted and inhibits oil from entering the hydraulic control valves. The Flex Pro/ MHR wireless radio control system operates the trolley function that transfers the scale carrier and testing weights in and out of the truck trailer. The wireless transmitter allows the operator to run the trolley further from the drop zone than the previous system, integrating a safer design. A Flex Pro radio remote control incorporates proportional technology and offers precise management and smooth movement of all functions. The MHR controller is easily adjustable, which allows it to be modified to operate correctly with existing valves. Adjustments were made on-site and there were no problems with startup and operation processes. A plug-and-play installation detected and replaced the previous system. The new controls

nch e the trolley and wi In this image we se d er the carrier an systems raise and low the ground. weights to and from

produced smoother tracking and lifting motions for the trolley and winch as well as softer acceleration and deceleration movements for the truck ramp. Steadier movements decreased the risk of dropped loads and potential damage to equipment. The system improvement included simpler adjustment and training periods, which diminished the necessary on-site repairs. Tiffin was trained to modify the system without using a computer, which allowed the company to save time and money. Sourcing for Tiffin was eased by S. G. Morris’ integration of a complete hydraulic system including Magnetek’s industry-leading wireless controls. DW Magnetek www.magnetekmobilehydraulic.com

1.800.933.4915 30

DESIGN WORLD

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October 2016

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Chassis system drives 24-station medical assembly Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

A west-coast medical parts manufacturer was recently faced with the challenge of creating a closed female luer valve with a robust system featuring 24 install stations for a 3 to 5 piece assembly production process. This manufacturer’s medical product line provides patients and caregivers with devices that help improve patient outcomes by

a yle chassis features The TR1100 ring st ese Th er. ris d ry plates, an ring indexer, stationa me octagon-shaped fra are all housed in an on th a guarding system design enclosed wi ntrols co to ss ce tective ac the lower half for pro s wa tem mation. The sys and mounting auto d, mounted, and ma manufactured, toole hby, WEISS at its Willoug chined complete by OH facility.

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October 2016

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» Desi gn Notes

minimizing bacterial ingress that can cause bloodstream infections, and prevent exposure to infectious diseases or hazardous drugs. To create the valve the company sought the help of WEISS and its subsidiary WEISS North America, Inc. For the project WEISS completed three, turnkey TR1100, ring-style chassis systems. had to build a base WEISS engineers ate 24 at could accommod The TR1100 ring style chassis machine chassis th le size ltip mu a 3-to-5 piece features a ring indexer, stationary install stations for luded: mbly process that inc plates, and riser. These were all housed medical valve asse k rasonic welding, lea in an octagon-shaped frame design, loading, pressing, ult . and ejecting that was enclosed with a guarding testing, inspection system on the lower half for protective access to controls and mounting automation. The system was manufactured, tooled, mounted, and machined complete by WEISS at its Willoughby, OH facility. aluminium dial plate is 1.00-in. thick and the 44-in. diameter stationary tool plate is 1.25-in. thick. All chassis system plates featured a hard coat anodized Here’s how they did it. finish that is essential in providing superior durability. TR1100 rotary indexing rings specs: TR1100 / MEDICAL MULTI-TASK CHALLENGE: • Dial ring outside diameter: min. 1100 mm WEISS engineers had to build a base machine chassis • Dial ring inside diameter: max. 800 mm that could accommodate 24 install stations for a 3-to-5 • Ring thickness: min. 25 mm piece multiple size medical valve assembly process that • Overall height of assembly (from base to top of ring): 70 mm + ring included: loading, pressing, ultrasonic welding, leak testing, thickness inspection and ejecting. At the heart of the system, the • Indexing precision (degree seconds): ± 18" TR1100 Series rotary indexing rings have a large central • Indexing precision in radian measurement: ± 0.048 mm (at ø 1100 mm) opening (up to 1750 mm), flat design, and high-level parts HP70 / SPEED & ACCURACY ACCESSORY: accuracy. The ring-shaped design allows extra free design For mounting automation inside the guarding frame, it was also requested space, and the rotating aluminum ring can be adjusted to that WEISS engineers mount some of their HP70 Pick-and-Place direct-drive specifications in terms of diameter and thickness. components. The HP70s delivered 70 mm of vertical stroke with 225 mm of The TR1100 modified chassis design was based on the horizontal stroke. The HP70 tops out at over 100 cycles per minute with repeat client‘s request for the octagon shaped frame beneath the accuracy of 0.01mm. top plate. This fully enclosed guarding undercarriage system Key to the HP70’s design, is a drive concept that works with two linear is made from a combination of aluminum extrusion and motor axes that feature a ‘knuckle‘ design on the y/z axis−eliminating the need sheet metal fabrications that included six bolt-on panels and for another linear motor for the z axis. two swinging door panels for access to controls. The entire Ultimately, the WEISS engineering group provided a one-source medical frame was powder coated. parts assembly solution−delivering a 1.25 second index cycle time with an The frame extrusion also needed to be flush with both indexing table speed of .33 seconds−from station to station. DW the top plate and the mount enclosure doors. The index table has a 2-in. thick aluminum riser, the octagon table top WEISS is 63-in. across flats and 1.25-in. thick. The 48-in. diameter www.weissna.com www.designworldonline.com  

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» CA E S o lut i o n s

Software optimizes parts for 3D printing

The latest verion of Siemens’ NX software (NX 11) offers Convergent Modeling, a new modeling paradigm that simplifies the ability to work with geometry consisting of a combination of facets, surfaces and solids, without the need for data conversion. Convergent Modeling will help you optimize part designs for 3D printing, speed up the overall design process and make reverse engineering a more common and efficient practice in product design. In addition, NX 11 includes multiple enhancements throughout the integrated computer-aided design, manufacturing and engineering (CAD/CAM/CAE) process, such as next generation 3D CAE, powered by the newly announced Simcenter 3D software, and improved CAM productivity with tools like robotics machining and hybrid additive manufacturing to help improve productivity. Traditional CAD technologies are built to support traditional manufacturing methods and have limitations when trying to optimize designs for additive manufacturing. Convergent Modeling removes 34

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these limitations by giving users the flexibility to rapidly create optimal shapes leveraging the materials and techniques made available through additive manufacturing. Similarly, Convergent Modeling simplifies the process of working with scanned data. Reverse engineering of existing designs has traditionally been an expensive and tedious process because the scanned data can require time-consuming manual conversion of the faceted geometry into surface and solid form before it can be used for further modeling. Irregular shapes, in particular, require extensive rework so that they can be used for 3D printing, mold design, analysis, or other uses. Convergent Modeling reduces the need for this rework by bringing the scanned data in as facets that can be worked directly in NX 11, so there is no need to map surfaces, create solids, or do other manual shape creation.

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» CA E S o lu t i on s

“We anticipate Convergent Modeling will remove the limitations associated with traditional CAD modeling when it comes to optimizing parts for 3D printing. NX11 simplifies the design process and supports the evolution of additive manufacturing to help companies realize a new level of creativity in product development,” said Joe Bohman, vice president, Product Engineering Software, Siemens PLM Software. Convergent Modeling helps users to immediately use scanned data to create molds based on the shape, include it in an assembly, analyze it, or perform any other normal CAD operation. This, combined with the 3D Print function in NX11 enables users to 3D print designs directly from NX, simplifying the additive manufacturing process. This scan, edit and print workflow uses the Microsoft 3D print capabilities and supports the 3MF format to help ensure wide compatibility. NX 11 also includes several other enhancements. Simcenter 3D now powers all simulation capabilities in NX for predicting product performance. Simcenter 3D, which is also available as a standalone application, gives NX users a seamless experience as they move between design and simulation tasks. Fast and accurate solvers power structural, acoustics, flow, thermal, motion, and composites analysis, as well as optimization and multiphysics simulation. DW

• Ready to use right out of the box • High strength, low weight • Modular construction • Thin–wall, investment cast aluminum • Includes switch access panel

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» CA E S o lut i o n s

Accelerate CAE modeling In the sixth release of MSC Apex, the program has advanced from a productive model-preparation tool to a complete simulation system. One simulation example involves vibration. Vibration has to be addressed anytime a part or an assembly is subjected to a cyclic load, such as those found in cars, airplanes, consumer equipment, and so on. Apex Fossa allows design exploration to happen in the analysis result space, without having to go back to CAD and redesign the entire part or assembly. This reduces the time for a power-user to achieve the optimal solution (from days to hours) and makes vibrational analysis accessible to more users. Engineers can see how a part or a structure responds to input parameters in real-time. Users can explore a variety of “what if” scenarios, by adding or removing mass, damping or stiffness, as well as determine if they are observing a global or local behavior without leaving the Apex environment. This allows engineers to rapidly determine which part of the structure is not behaving as expected, and to quickly propose an effective solution. Feature highlights include: • Modeling – More productivity can be achieved in geometry clean-up, mesh generation and clean-up. This includes new connections, loads and boundary conditions (such as local coordinate system, distributed coupling, moments and dynamic forces), new meshing enhancements, geometry tools (such as slicing mirroring and Boolean operators), and additional export formats.

Simulation - Computational parts-based generative framework has been extended from linear statics to include the first phase of dynamics, Frequency Response. This includes, Structural, Modal, and Material Damping, Multi-Step Analysis, Point Sensor, XY-Plotting and Frequency Response results exploration. Extensibility- Initial Python scripting capability is introduced in Apex Fossa. Python API has been carefully designed for compliance with Python standards. The API is based on true Python idioms and uses built-in, native Python data structures. The Python community of libraries makes customization powerful and easy.

Apex Fossa makes the CAD-to-Mesh process faster, gives more access to frequency response analysis and makes the overall FEA process more effective, more efficient and more enjoyable. DW MSC Software www.mscsoftware.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

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» CAE Solu t i ons

EPLAN Platform 2.6 avaliable EPLAN Platform version 2.6 6 includes additional productivity enhancing features for terminal design and project data management, the representation of piping in fluid power engineering, and optimized IT integration. Plus, this software supports the Turkish language. For electrical design, these enhancements simplify and accelerate project tasks. They include the ability to depict used accessories when processing and managing terminal strips. Automatically or manually defined jumpers can be easily identified. Users also can display the current terminal status as it is represented in the Navigator. A new connection-oriented view highlights which terminal connections are still free and therefore available. Using the Quick Input Filter for project management makes it easier to process and manage projects and project data. Subprojects are freely definable and can be saved individually, and there is more flexibility in name allocation. For instance, users can update only the main project instead of storing sub-projects with the goal of bringing the main project up to date. In project structure management, certain structures can be searched for and revised throughout the entire project, simplifying project oversight. The definition of sequencing pages for print or PDF outputs has also been enhanced. For hydraulics and pneumatics, numerous applications require the use of pipes or hose lines to transport media such as air or oil. EPLAN Fluid Professional, including the EPLAN Pro Panel add-on, lets users represent piping and hydraulic hose lines directly in 3D with complete layout functionality. An export function is also provided to transfer the pipe geometries to an external manufacturing software for pipe bending.

User management is easier: existing users can be imported into an IT infrastructure instead of creating a new user. EPLAN user rights management was expanded with support for Active Directory. The use of SQL databases has also been made simpler: a selection list of available SQL databases is available from which to select the correct one. DW EPLAN Software & Service www.eplanusa.com

Invented here. Perfected here. Poorly copied over there. We’re flattered that our competitors have admitted the superiority of Rittal’s patent-protected modular enclosure system. With more than 10 million Rittal TS 8 modular enclosures sold worldwide, it’s clear to see why Rittal is acknowledged as the industry leader. So why settle for a cheap imitation when you can have the original? Rittal…when quality matters. And to our hopeful competitors…nice try.

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Change for the Better.

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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ Iot cabling selection tips for ...... .... harsh environments .. Jay Bartsias • Senior Product Manager • Turck Connectivity Laura Schweitz • Product Manager • Turck Connectivity

Working on the northern Canadian plains in winter

Rugged Industrial Ethernet connectivity units offer a dependable solution for industrial applications.

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often means wrestling with negative double-digit temperatures every day. These harsh conditions created big cabling problems for an oil and gas company. Where they operate, cable jackets were cracking as they unspooled, and frozen cable wouldn’t lay flat. Their initial cables were the best available. As they reexamined the market, they found a new solution that could stand up to the brutal winter temperatures and prolonged exposure to the elements. New materials and robust overmolded designs are improving dependability across harsh applications, where temperatures, shock, vibration, moisture, oils and dust are everyday concerns. When connectors were assembled by hand in the field, a gland was used on the back end to seal the connector and protect it from the environment. This was a timeconsuming process, with risks of moisture ingress and mis-wiring during installation. Overmolded designs changed this situation. All critical connector and cable connection elements were protected against ingress by a mold body, and no assembly was required. Overmolded designs are increasingly popular for harsh applications, as they deliver better durability, simpler installation and fewer errors. These benefits ensure shorter downtime during replacement and maintenance because connectors can be shipped directly to the field and plugged in, out of the box. In one example, a manufacturer of refined petroleum dispensing systems had an ongoing problem with its connectivity solution. The dispensing systems rest on trailers, and are constantly traveling to resupply gas stations. This movement led to recurring ingress issues because the cables were not properly sized to the connector, and the overmold wasn’t well constructed. Rather than continuing to replace connectors with the same design, the manufacturer switched to an overmolded connector and cable with stronger approvals and better fit.

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10/7/16 11:06 AM


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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. Complete assembled cable packages can come with hazardous location approvals. More manufacturers are looking to stainless steel to protect connectivity in harsh environments.

Modern material options expand capabilities The material of a connector-cable unit has a huge impact on its performance because it must withstand the chemicals, temperature fluctuations and hazards of the environment. Plastics are the most common housing material for connectors and cables, and new variations are coming out to advance where and how they can be used. Common plastics used in connectivity solutions include: • Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU): This is the most prevalent plastic found on overmolded connectors. It typically holds up well to common oils and cutting fluids, but isn’t suitable for use with alcohols or solvents. • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): This plastic is suitable for a range of temperatures (typically -40° Celsius to 105° Celsius) and washdown environments. It is not suitable for weld slag resistance, alcohols or solvents. • Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT): These materials best tolerate heat and won’t reflow at high temperatures. • Polypropylene (PPRO): This suits washdown applications or when caustic materials are present. • Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE): This plastic suits welding applications, alkalines and alcohols. It’s not suitable for use with solvents or greases. Some manufacturers use potted stainless steel housings to offer the next layer of protection. Different grades of stainless steel are suitable for different environments, but 316 is recommended for harsh applications. Lower grades, such as 303 and 304, may corrode with highly caustic chemicals and are less durable. Design tips to choose the best connectivity solution Beyond overmolding and materials, there are four main criteria when choosing a cable or connector for harsh environments – ingress protection, chemical compatibility, vibration and temperature.

Guide to ingress protection (IP) ratings for harsh environments IP ratings of IP65 and higher are often required in harsh environments. Here’s a quick look at what these ratings mean. IP65: No penetration of dust; jet water – water which is hosed against the enclosure from every direction may not cause damage. IP67: No penetration of dust; temporary immersion in water – water may not enter the enclosure in such quantity as to cause damage when the enclosure is held under water for a set period of time using predetermined pressure (1 meter deep for 30 minutes). IP68: No penetration of dust; continuous immersion in water – water may not enter the enclosure in such quantity as to cause damage when the enclosure is held under water for a set period of time using predetermined pressure (depth and time greater than IP67, as determined by the manufacturer). IP69K: No penetration of dust; water at highpressure/steam jet cleaning – water which is directed against the enclosure from every direction with extremely high pressure may not cause any

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Ingress protection: Ingress ratings have evolved with new ratings for harsh environments. Most harsh applications require at least IP65 protection. IP69K carries the toughest and most aggressive water and

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damage (14 to 16 liters/minute at 8,000 to 10,000 kilopascals (kPa)).

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10/7/16 11:08 AM


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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. Overmolded connectors offer better protection for harsh applications. They are completely assembled during manufacturing to deliver improved durability, simplified installation and reduced errors compared to fieldassembled connectors.

•

•

•

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ingress benchmarks for a product. Food and beverage applications along with any washdown environments are best fits for IP69K, but this rating is also increasingly requested for other applications. NEMA test standards are also helpful to determine ingress protection. Chemical compatibility: Chemical compatibility ensures that a product will handle specific chemicals and compounds in an application. For example, PVC does not hold up to weld slag, whereas a TPE material is excellent at resisting weld slag. Manufacturers and distributors can advise the appropriate material. Vibration: Vibration can be particularly hard on connectors and cables. The connector must have features that maintain the proper torque of the connector and prevent it from loosening. Contact design is critical so that vibration does not damage the contact-mating interface. Additionally, the materials and plating of the contacts are important to provide strength and durability as well as electrical performance. For example, machined or turned contacts are typically more robust than stamped and formed pieces, and gold plating will offer better electrical properties over tin plating. High-stranded wires are recommended to improve cable flex, especially for robotics or C-track applications. Temperature: Low and high temperatures can affect cable and connector operation. Product specifications typically include optimal operating temperature ranges to ensure reliable performance. In applications where the temperature can fluctuate, there is risk of ingress from condensation and pressure changes. It is important to have a connector with IP ratings suitable for that type of environment.

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Key considerations for Industrial Ethernet systems As mentioned earlier, Industrial Ethernet is increasingly being adopted for harsh environments because of its speed in data transmission. Some additional considerations should be taken for connectivity in these systems. The first is the connector design. Standard office or commercial Ethernet connectors are RJ45 designs, which aren’t suited for demanding applications. Circular M12 connectors are a better and more robust option. The design is often overmolded, and higher IP ratings mean that these connectors can be used outside the panel. Commercial RJ45 connectors are typically rated IP20 for use inside a panel or other protected environment. For cables, choose a solution approved for industrial use rather than a commercial Ethernet cable. Because of the environment, Industrial Ethernet cables may be moved, stepped on or flexed. For these applications, choose a cabling option with an extruded jacket, which will hold pairs together and keep them properly aligned, minimizing opportunities for cross-talk. Per NEC Article 800, a CM-rated cable approval works well for Industrial Ethernet installations, and in some instances can be installed in cable trays. For hazardous locations, it is recommended to use Industrial Ethernet cables with ITC/PLTC approval, which are suitable for use in Class 1 Division 2 areas. UL inspectors commonly look for 600 V cable rating on Industrial Ethernet jackets, which indicates a cable is suitable for use near other 600 V cables when best installation practice is followed. DW Turck www.turck.com

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Iot gateway enables smart operations Powered by Intel Atom processor E3826, the NISE 50 IoT gateway offers data acquisition, edge computing, and cloud integration with a thin client and provides an easy way to scale IoT applications with optional IoT Studio, helping enterprises implement continuous improvement across organizations. To inject intelligence into daily operations, the gateway is equipped with dual-core Intel Atom processor E3826, cloud connectivity, and a variety of I/Os for data collection and preliminary data processing. The collected and processed data can be stored locally or uploaded to cloud platforms, such as Microsoft Azure, IBM Bluemix, and SAP HANA for further analysis. To create seamless end-to-end connections between devices and cloud services, the optional IoT Studio is available to help users deploy hundreds of thousands of units of NISE 50 easily. On the premises, the gateway can communicate with sensors, devices, cameras, and systems to give real-time updates and visuals on onsite activities and health status of industrial facilities. Integrated with cloud platforms, the

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.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. Rapid development for IoT and wearables ........... ........ ...... .... ..

For the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearables market, the WaRP7 development platform enhanced by NXP Semiconductors, addresses key challenges, including size, battery life and connectivity. The open source design and software package of WaRP7 let you innovate without licensing restrictions. It suits a range of applications including smart home, sports and heart rate monitors and wearables. Features include: Battery Life: it is based on the NXP i.MX 7Solo applications processor. The heterogeneous multicore architecture enables low-power modes critical for most IoT and wearable designs, but also provides the power to drive a higher-level operating system and a rich user interface. Connectivity: it offers a variety of connectivity options enabling a range of usage models including near-field communications. The Murata-type 1DX multi-radio module offers 802.11b/g/n + Bluetooth 4.1, classic and low energy.

Usability: it is flexible enough to offer all the advantages of traditional development tools and is free of licensing restrictions due to its opensource design. Miniaturization: it is one of the smallest development systems with the size of its main CPU board of approximately 2 x 4 cm. DW element 14 www.element14.com/WaRP7

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Connecting devices wirelessly The Anybus Wireless Bolt is a wireless access point to be mounted on a machine or cabinet to give wireless access through WLAN, Bluetooth or Bluetooth Low Energy. This access makes it possible to do configuration through a regular tablet or smartphone or connect to a cloud service. Mounted on a machine or cabinet it delivers a robust, IP67-classed wireless interface. It is typically used for configuration purposes. For example, the Bolt makes it possible to Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) such as a tablet or smartphone to a machine and use it as an HMI. Another typical use case is connecting a machine to a cloud service. It can communicate wirelessly up to 100 meters through WLAN, Bluetooth or Bluetooth Low Energy. On the wired side, it can communicate with devices on serial (RS232/485), CAN or Ethernet. Regardless of communication method, it has the same connector (2x9p Plug Connector) for both power and communication. DW

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A conveyor

for every need New designs and innovative conveyor technologies, such as electroadhesion, are giving design engineers new options to solve material handling challenges.

Stacy Johnson

Dorner Mfg. Corp.

1 Z-Frame conveyors are designed with one or two pivot points to move product up or down to the next process.

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Walk through any modern-day assembly and packaging facility and the conveyor systems may well resemble roller coasters at an amusement park – going up steep inclines, down drops, twisting and turning around equipment and machinery as they move product along its track. Conveyors have evolved to become critical, integral components of material handling systems both large and small. Many of these systems are using elevation and motion control to maximize a facility’s available space, especially where space has become a premium in many manufacturing facilities.

More complex processing requires conveyor systems to work in sync with other conveyors and functions within the larger application. Conveyors need to be robust to withstand 24/7 operation, yet agile and flexible enough to be quickly re-configured to meet the challenging needs of modern manufacturing and assembly practices, such as switching between sizes, shapes, speeds, etc.

2 When floor space is cramped or limited, flexible chain conveyors are engineered for tight turns and quick elevations at high speeds, making them ideal for such applications.

  

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Conveyors How to select a conveyor Conveyors play a key role in packaging and material handling applications. They’ve evolved over the years to become more sophisticated and flexible to accommodate many different types of applications. Conveyors handle many different types of products including metals, food, cosmetics, medical supplies, plastics, and boxes. This is why they come in all shapes and sizes, from belt widths of less than two inches (for moving extremely small parts) to several feet wide for transferring bulky packages. Once viewed as an afterthought, conveyors have become an integral component in many automated facilities and applications. To select the right conveyor for your application, consider these design factors: Product to move: What types of product is the application moving? What is the maximum weight of the product being moved? Conveyors for material handling of bulk product are more rugged than those for moving discrete product. On the other hand, the latter often requires conveyors that can advance product with more precision. Layout/ design type: How does surrounding equipment interact with the product riding on the conveyor? This will make a difference in the kind of conveyor selected. Also, does the application require the conveyor system to have inclines, declines or curves? If so, you may need to look for conveyor features that secure or enclose material or product onto the conveyor. Motion design issues: Does the conveyor need to operate at a certain speed? Are there starts/stops involved or is it continuous motion? Environmental issues: Will moisture be present in the application? Does the application need to be sanitary? You may need to consider rugged or washdown-ready conveyors with open frames.

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These six types of conveyors give designers options for a wide range of applications in material handling.

1 Z-Frame Conveyors Perhaps the most well known method for elevating product is the Z-Frame conveyor. As implied by its name, Z-Frame conveyors are designed with either one or two pivot points, resembling the angled points in the letter Z, to move product up or down along the conveyor. Z-Frame conveyors are ideal for navigating obstacles within the product flow of production. Often, the lack of space prohibits conveyors from going around an obstruction. Z-Frame conveyors can be pivoted at steep angles to move product up and over (or conversely down and under) an obstacle. Various types of friction insert chains or belt cleats keep product in place during incline or decline movement.

2 Flexible Chain Conveyors Flexible chain conveyors are suitable for navigating obstacles as they can snake around machinery and other impediments by making tight turns and steep circular inclines. These types of conveyors allow for incline or decline movement through corners and straights, and provide capability for vertical incline with minimal space. They are capable of twisting 360° turns to move product vertically within an extremely small footprint, all while maintaining speeds and loads through the angled curve. Flexible chain conveyors are also ideal for accumulating, buffering and cooling product between processes or machines.

3 90° Vertical Conveyors Some applications are more challenging than others. Moving bulk products in straight-up 90° applications is one of them. The previous solution was a traditional bucket conveyor, but these had inherent design flaws with the durability and replacement of the belt. A better answer are 90° vertical conveyors. These types of conveyors move product in a straight-up, 90° angle to go up and over an obstacle or to re-connect with another system. A key advantage they have over bucket conveyors is that their stream- lined design allows for greater pocket capacity to lift more products. Also, 90° vertical conveyors have self-releasing side walls for better product release, and a damaged section of the belt can be replaced without removing the entire belt.

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3 Designed to move

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bulk product at a

M ot i o n

90° angle, vertical conveyors have more

4 Belt-over-Belt Conveyors There are some applications, such as moving delicate flexible pouches, where cleated conveyors don’t work very well for incline movement. That’s because if a pouch lands incorrectly on a cleat, the bag could rip, spilling product and leading to costly downtime to clean the conveyor. The best solution for these types of applications is a belt-over-belt conveyor. This design involves two flexible polyurethane belts that are positioned on top of each other. As flexible pouches are moved into position, they are gripped between the twin conveyor belts, which create a pocket to securely convey the product up or down.

5 Pacing Conveyors Products sometime need to be aggregated or herded together on a conveyor line. Other times, applications require that products be spaced out along the conveyor belt. Pacing conveyors can accomplish both tasks by using more than one belt on the same line. These types of conveyors take unevenly spaced product and create even spaces or alternating batches of product, depending on the application, to meet the application’s spacing needs. The system is set up to track both the leading edge and trailing edge of the product, so product does not necessarily need to be the same size or shape in order to be gapped appropriately. As randomly spaced products enter the conveyor, a photo eye detects the product spacing. In response, the servomotor control automatically varies the conveyor speed and conveyor junction placement in order to generate evenly spaced product. An operator controls product spacing, speed, and orientation, preparing products

pocket carrying capacity than traditional bucket conveyors.

5 Pacing conveyors are engineered for applications that call for proper spacing of product on a single conveyor track.

4 Belt-over-belt conveyors are designed such that product is held in place between two flexible belts that move together at the same speed.

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Save Time. Save Space. Save Money. 6 Electroadhesion technology acts as a magnet to secure packages to the conveyor on steep angles at high speeds without the use of cleats.

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6 Electroadhesion Technology Conveyors A relatively new design on the market, conveyors with electroadhesion technology hold boxes and packages securely to the belt for movement on steep inclines or declines, and at fast speeds. The technology acts like a magnet, and is activated by a switch to create a strong holding force between the box or package and the belt. Using a conveyor with a plastic bedplate, a high voltage/low amp controller powers two electrically conductive strips along the conveyor to energize the belt. Electrically conductive patterns meshed into the fabric of the belt create the force to hold products in place during movement. DW

Dorner Mfg. Corp. www.dornerconveyors.com

www.buydeltron.com Designed & built in the U.S.A.

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Haydon Kerk® Linear Actuators...

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Size 34 87 mm2 (3.4-in)2 captive hybrid linear actuator stepper motor. Non-captive and external linear also available.

Size 17 - 43 mm2 (1.7-in)2 non-captive hybrid linear actuator with programmable IDEA™ stepper motor drive Size 8 21 mm2 (0.8-in)2 captive hybrid linear actuator stepper motor. Also available in Single and Double Stack, non-captive and external linear.

Haydon Kerk Motion Solutions hybrid and can-stack linear actuators continue to offer equipment designers new motion control solutions that provide unmatched performance-to-size ratios, patented technologies and thousands of configuration options, and a vast experience in customized solutions. HYBRID actuators are available in six sizes from Size 8: 21 mm2 (0.8 -in.) to Size 34: 87 mm2 (3.4-in.) – capable of delivering up to 500 pounds (2224 N) of force. Travels per step range from .001524 mm (.00006-in) to .127 mm (.005-in), with micro stepping capability for even finer resolution. An integrated, programmable IDEA™ Drive is also available for Size 17 hybrids. The G4 Series represents the industry’s most robust and most powerful CAN-STACK linear actuators. The G4 Series offers diameters of 20 mm (.79-in), 26 mm (1-in), and 36 mm (1.4-in). The can-stack product line also includes motors with diameters of 15 mm (0.59-in), 20 mm (.79-in) , 26 mm (1-in), 36 mm (1.4-in) and Ø 46 mm (1.8-in), available with captive, non-captive or external linear lead-screws. Haydon Kerk Motion Solutions continues to be an innovative motion control technology company with a global network of people, facilities and services dedicated to engineering and manufacturing the world’s most advanced linear motion solutions. For more information: www.HaydonKerk.com > Linear Actuators

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The variety of plastics available for ESD management is a benefit, but also a risk. Understanding the variables will make selection easier. Tom Solon, P.E. • R.H. Murphy Co., Inc.

Why are plastic materials popular for ESD management? Choices among material properties, aesthetics, and cost abound and the material can be tailored to the application. Plastics tend to be lightweight, which is helpful in automation and transportation. Most plastics are naturally insulating, allowing the addition of conductive material to create adjustable levels of electrical conductivity. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the transfer of accumulated electric charge from one object to another. The transfer can cause damage. The most recognized form of ESD, the human model, results from a person becoming charged and then discharging to another object, such as an unprotected electronic component. Another form of ESD is the charged device model, where a discharge occurs when the device being protected has a charge and makes contact with a ground path. If an electronic component has stored energy and its terminals make contact with a low resistance ground path, a rapid discharge will occur with an associated current spike. If not designed to handle the spike, internal circuitry can be damaged or destroyed. If, instead, the ground path is resistive, the discharge rate is slowed and damage avoided. The goal of an ESD-protective material is to protect from ESD originating externally, avoid triboelectric generation, and provide a safe, regulated discharge path for any existing charge on the object being protected. Material resistance is classified as insulating, dissipating, or conducting. Physical chemistry can explain the mechanism by which polymers and compounds can conduct electricity. But controlling the amount of conduction has relied on recipes arrived at through experimentation and empirical measurements. A common source of confusion is use, misuse, and mix-ups of the terms surface resistivity and surface resistance. In simple form, resistivity is a basic material property while resistance is geometrydependent and can vary with the measurement tools used. These are different measurements and it is important use them and report them correctly.

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Carbon-filled materials are naturally black but some coloring is possible.

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» A dedicated resistivity meter improves repeatability and simplifies the process. Surface resistivity relates to properties detected at the surface of an object. The measured units are ohms (Ω) but it is typically expressed in “ohms per square,” with “per square” being a differentiating tag and not a true element of the unit of measure. It is most easily measured on a flat surface and it is a “normalized” measurement because it can be measured with different electrode geometries and still yield the same result. More formally, it is the ratio of dc voltage drop per unit length to the surface current per unit width. These properties make surface resistivity useful to control. It can be measured on a molded test plaque, a thin sheet, a coated surface, a thick block, or finished product. Assuming a good contact patch can be found, the geometry of the sample should not affect the measurement. Resistivity is not a direct measurement however, so use of a surface resistivity meter, which has a dedicated electrode configuration is the easiest way to measure it. Since these meters “know” the separation and size of the electrodes used, they are able to normalize the reading. Different sample geometries may require different electrodes or meters but the readings should be the same for the same material. Surface resistance also relates to properties at surface but, in contrast, surface resistance measurement has been shown to be electrode geometry dependent. It is defined as the ratio of a dc voltage to the current flowing between two electrodes of specified configuration that are in contact with the same side of sample under 58

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test. Surface resistance is also measured and expressed in ohms (Ω). While surface resistance may be important and relevant to a specific application, it is less useful as a material control parameter because of the additional variable of electrode geometry. Specifications Many characteristics define the functional electrical requirements of a material, but most are situational. Surface resistivity is useful because it is a good indicator of material performance and it can be measured readily in many configurations. But there may be other characteristics that are worth specifying for certain applications, such as if the plastic component is used to control intentional discharge. In this case dissipation rate may be critical. Or if electrical testing of a component will be performed while in direct contact with the plastic, resistance may be as important as resistivity since it is important to make sure that conduction through the plastic will not be problematic. When specifying resistivity, it is easiest to use the common ranges of conductive, dissipative, or insulating. These correspond respectively to <104, 104< to <1011, or >1011 ohms/square. But sometimes this will create conflicts with the material options, particularly when using carbon fiber and trying to work in the dissipative range. If the numerical specification requirements are known, it can be useful to include them rather than relying on the more generic ranges.

Testing Methods The use of dedicated equipment for measuring resistivity, resistance, and dissipation rate is common practice. Some care must be used when selecting electrode configurations to assure that good contact occurs and measurements are made appropriately for the intended use. Many molded plastics with conductive fillers will have filler-free “skin.” Measurements made with sharp edged or pointed electrodes that can pierce the outer surface may read differently depending on the amount of pressure applied. It is also important to use an appropriate voltage when testing. Highly resistive materials in the dissipative range can be permanently damaged from too high voltage. In an attempt to get a reading, it is tempting to increase the applied voltage but there is a risk of creating an arc within the plastic. This burns the material and creates a permanent, conductive carbon track in the plastic. Suddenly a low resistance value is obtained and the damage is done. Practical considerations There are several manufacturing options for conductive plastics. The manufacturing method is usually selected based on the part design and quantity. But availability of appropriate materials may be the overriding factor in making the choice. The two most common manufacturing methods are injection molding and profile extrusion. The choice between these two is made based on the part geometry. It is also possible to purchase stock shapes of cast, molded, or extruded material and fabricate parts as one might from metal or wood. Recently, a few dissipative plastics have been formulated for additive manufacturing. So far only low- and mid-temp variations have been offered to the public and they use carbon powder for conductivity, which degrades the mechanical performance and cleanliness. Part geometry can alter the material’s electrical performance. Small features may not get a normal distribution of conductive filler resulting in reduced conductivity. Or, if the features are sized similarly to the filler, individual fibers or particles can bridge the features, providing low resistance “short

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M a t e r i a l s

circuits” across the features. An example where this occurs is in test carriers for semiconductor IC chips. The carriers support and protect the electrical leads during manufacturing, using thin ribs to keep the leads straight and separated. But carbon fibers in the plastic can span the width of the ribs. This situation only creates minimal risk of electrical damage but, during functional testing, the testers can mistakenly read the leakage as a fault in the chip itself.

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Color options might need to be considered. Carbon fill is the most common conductive mechanism for plastics and the default color is black. For high temperature plastics carbon may be the only option. While it is possible to color the carbon-filled materials, the color palette is limited and too much colorant can degrade the material. Lower temperature materials have additional options, including pre-colored inherently dissipative materials or the use of topical anti-static coatings on standard colored plastics. Ultimately, the choice of filler, color and manufacturing method may be dictated by the basic polymer that can fulfill the application’s functional requirements. Here is a short list of some characteristics that should be considered: • Temperature exposure • Chemical exposure October 2016

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» Carbon fiber bridging between leads led to the development of Isopak carriers, which use insulating material between the leads. • Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) • Strength/stiffness • Feature sizes • Flame retardant or self-extinguishing requirements

properties. Here are summaries of the different carbon forms.

Conduction in plastic materials ESD protection relies on the ability to conduct an electrical charge. As most plastics are normally insulators, the most common way this is achieved is to add some form of carbon to the material. But the addition of carbon can reduce the effectiveness of a material’s self-extinguishing

Pros

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Carbon Powder –this form of carbon is very fine, light, and by itself, difficult to handle.

• Relatively inexpensive – lowest cost carbon option • Lower conductivity is easier to control– best suited to higher resistivity ranges • Does not restrict flow much

Cons

• Dirty, powder in sufficient concentration to provide protection sloughs – It rubs off – with the associated risk of contamination – best suited to applications where cleanliness and contamination is not a concern • Reduced mechanical strength – powder is a filler, not a reinforcement – The higher the powder content (increased conductivity), the more loss of strength • Makes material black and limits the ability to offer in other colors

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Carbon Fiber – a reinforcing element, carbon fiber is chopped to short lengths and blended into the base material. Pros

• Increases material strength and stiffness (although stiffness may not be preferred for some applications) • Relatively clean • Improved wear resistance – carbon fiber reinforced materials have good wear properties because of their inherent lubricity, increased stiffness (less hysteresis heat buildup), and thermal conductivity • High conductivity – low loading gives good conductivity Cons

• More expensive than powder • Greater conductivity is not well suited to high resistivity applications • Makes material black and limits the ability to offer in other colors • Risk of clumping when molding product with small features creating non-uniform electrical properties Carbon Nanotubes – very small diameter tubes with very high aspect ratio (length to diameter), these are a relatively new option for conductive plastics. Pros

• Improved control of conductivity compared to regular carbon fiber • Relatively clean • High conductivity

One family of plastics is characterized as Inherently (aka Intrinsically) Conductive Polymers (ICP). These copolymer plastics do not rely on a filler to achieve conductivity. They typically offer surface resistivity in the range of 109 to 1011 ohms per square. Currently they are not offered in high temperature materials. They are colorable, similarly to their non-conductive counterparts, and some grades are transparent. ICPs are considered “clean” materials because they do not have filler material that will rub or dust off. Pricing is competitive with carbon fiber reinforced materials. For applications where low cost is most important, topical anti-static coatings may be desired. Applied to the finished product, the coating dries to leave a transparent layer. Some rely on pulling moisture out of the air and others function similarly to the Inherently Conductive Polymers. Most provide consistent surface resistivity in the dissipative range. These coatings are only on the surface and are at risk of rubbing off when subjected to abrasion and are not suitable for high temperature processing. Anecdotal evidence has shown treated parts to maintain their resistivity after 10 years in warehouse storage but these coatings are not usually considered permanent. Finally, there are other materials that are worth watching. One is coal fly ash, a byproduct of power generation and another is graphene, a thin layer of carbon. Coal fly ash is currently offered commercially in a select group of commodity plastics. Graphene appears to still be in the investigatory stage as an ESD control additive for plastics.

Cons

• Very expensive • Limited availability • Limited information

Checklist An orderly inventory of application requirements will help with decisions about materials and manufacturing processes. The more items on this checklist that can be defined, the easier it will be to make the decisions. • Mechanical requirements – strength, stiffness, impact characteristics • Thermal requirements – maximum temperature exposure, thermal expansion concerns • Chemical resistance – cleaning, processing, sterilization • Electrical conductivity range – specific needs • Aesthetic goals – color, surface finish, transparency • Quantities – feasible for low or high volume manufacturing • Design volatility – how likely are design changes and revisions Resources Experience should weigh heavily in your choice of suppliers. Plastic processors do not generally deal with controlling electrical properties. Techniques and controls used in ESD management are quite different than for electrical shielding. The use of carbon for ESD control involves different materials, designs, and processing than the use of carbon reinforcement for purely mechanical reasons. A good partner should be able to demonstrate knowledge and experience providing the results you seek. DW References • ASTM Standard D 257-99. Standard test methods for D-C resistance or conductance of insulating materials, 1999. • ESD STM 11.11-2001 Standard. Surface resistance measurement of static dissipative planar materials, 2001.

» Inherently Conductive Polymers are available in special colors.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

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M e c h a n i c a l

How to

ultrasonically weld

3D printed parts

Can 3D printed parts be ultrasonically welded? In some cases, they can. But differences in resolution, strength, and solidity from the materials and 3D printing technology are key to successful ultrasonic welds. Here’s what you need to know. Trevor Larcheveque • Applications Development Engineer • Branson Ultrasonics Corp.

As 3D printing (3DP) has become more accessible, affordable, and practical, it has been adopted in many industries including automotive, aerospace, consumer products, and medical. Many manufacturers actively prototype and develop new product designs using 3DP because the technology allows plastic component and part prototypes to be assessed and modified more quickly and economically than traditional fabrication methods such as plastic injection molding. Along with the swelling interest in 3DP, there has been a surge in questions and requests to the makers of ultrasonic welding (UW) equipment about whether and how this commonly used assembly and joining technology can be used with components fabricated using 3DP. To answer those questions, it is necessary to consider the current state of 3DP technology and materials and assess several issues: • Nature of UW and the dimensional and physical demands it places on a part. • Ability of 3DP processes to provide the part resolution, strength, and physical characteristics needed for repeatable UW using 3D-generated parts. • The weldability of materials used to fabricate 3DP parts. Can 3D printed parts be ultrasonically welded? In general, the answer is “sometimes,” but not with the reliability and repeatability characteristic of ultrasonic welds involving injection-molded parts. All 3DP processes and materials yield parts with some of the

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Figure 1: Example of an energy director type joint (left) and a shear type joint (right).

key characteristics needed for reliable and repeatable ultrasonic welding— high resolution, strength, solidity, and weldability—but none yet can consistently produce them in a full range of parts. However, given the continued rapid evolution of 3DP materials and technologies and the substantial installed base of ultrasonic welding equipment, it seems likely that these current limitations will be addressed and overcome. The basics of ultrasonic welding Ultrasonic welding is the application of highfrequency vibrations to two parts or layers of material using a tool commonly called a “horn” or “sonotrode.” These vibrations travel to the interface of the two parts and produce heat through hysteresis and frictional heating,

which melts the material and bonds the two parts together. The technique is fast and efficient, and eliminates the requirements of consumables. Ultrasonic processes can also be used to insert, stake, swage, degate, and spot weld components. Ultrasonic welding is best done on thermoplastic materials. Because thermoset materials undergo an irreversible chemical change and cannot be reformed, they cannot be ultrasonically welded. Additional factors may affect the ultrasonic energy requirements and weldability of a material. Major factors include polymer structure, density, melt temperature, viscosity, stiffness (modulus of elasticity), thermal conductivity, and chemical makeup. Both amorphous and

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M e c h a n i c a l Figure 2: Depiction of the extrusion process.

semi-crystalline polymers may be welded; however, amorphous materials are generally easier to weld, as they have broad softening temperatures and can transmit ultrasonic vibrations to the weld joint. There are two major types of ultrasonic weld joint designs: an energy director type joint, and a shear type joint (Figure 1). Both require a high degree of resolution in the 3D parts, as feature tolerances can be quite small. Energy director type-weld joints. An energy director concentrates energy to rapidly initiate the softening and melting of the joining surfaces. It is typically a triangular bead of raised material located on one of the mating joint surfaces. During the weld process, the energy director melts and flows throughout the joint area and mixes with the opposing melted surface. It significantly reduces weld time. Energy director joints are the most commonly used joints for amorphous materials, though they may also be used for semi-crystalline thermoplastics too. Energy director size will vary depending on part size, but typically range from 0.010 in. to 0.020 in. tall, with an included angle of 90° for amorphous materials and 60° for semicrystalline materials. It is important that the

energy director maintains a sharp point; a radius of 0.002 in. or less is preferred on injection molded parts. A textured surface is often implemented on the surface opposing the energy director. Molding a texture on the mating part can improve the overall weld quality and strength by enhancing frictional characteristics and melt control. Usually the texture is only 0.003 in. to 0.006 in. deep (MoldTech 11040 to MoldTech 11050-6), which may be impossible for some 3D printing technologies to achieve. Shear type weld joints. Semicrystalline resins often have better results than shear type weld joints. Semi-crystalline resins change rapidly from a solid to a molten state, and back again, over a relatively narrow temperature range. As an energy director melts, molten material flowing away from the heated zone could re-solidify before fusing to the adjoining surface; a shear joint prevents premature solidification as the molten material

“All 3D printed processes yield parts with some characteristics needed for reliable and repeatable ultrasonic welding. But none yet can consistently produce them in a full range of parts.” 66

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is retained in the weld area and prevented from contacting the surrounding air. Welding a shear joint is initiated by a small, initial contact area that creates an interference fit between the two parts. Once melting starts, it continues down along the vertical walls of the parts, allowing the parts to telescope together for a strong structural or hermetic seal. The interference of the weld joint may be as small as 0.008 in. with a recommended tolerance of ±0.001 in. for parts with a maximum part dimension of less than 0.75 in. in size. Larger parts (1.5 in. to 3.0 in.) should have a weld interference of approximately 0.014 in. with a tolerance of ±0.003 in. Shear joints require rigid side-wall support to prevent deflection during welding, and the interfering surfaces should come into contact with flat, 90° surfaces. How 3DP technologies affect UW part fabrication While 3DP components can provide precise part geometries, these parts have substantially different physical properties than those of injected, extruded, and machined parts. As a

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M e c h a n i c a l

result of differences in resolution, strength, solidity, and weldability, parts produced using 3DP do not respond to ultrasonic welding with the consistency and predictability of injection molded, extruded, or machined parts. The key to understanding the differences in 3DP parts is to understand and identify the 3DP technology used to create them. Extrusion. Extrusion is the most common and most recognized 3DP technology today. It processes work by melting thermoplastic filament and passing it through a heated extruder. The extruded material is deposited in thin layers that form two-dimensional slices of the final component. These layers are printed consecutively on top of one another, allowing the molten plastic to harden and bond to the layer below, forming a 3D object. Filament materials for extrusion include those frequently used for ultrasonic welding applications, such as ABS, HIPS, Nylon, PC, PC-ABS, PET, and PLA, with ABS and PLA being the most commonly used 3DP

Figure 3: Injection molded specimens (left) and extrusion printed specimens (right).

filament types. Material grades are customized by different manufacturers to achieve special properties. Even if properties are made to mimic injection-molded parts, the physical strength of the printed parts is significantly weaker in the direction that the layers are

Figure 4: Depiction of the selective laser sintering (SLS) process.

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stacked. As a result, these layers may separate during the ultrasonic welding process, or during testing to evaluate the strength of the weld joint. Creating a consistent hermetic joint may be impossible due to gaps between layers or even gaps between print paths of a single layer. Post processes are available that may close surface gaps, but use of these might also smooth over critical joint geometry. The highest resolution (minimum layer thickness) that extrusion printers can achieve is approximately 0.005 in.; however, achievable layer thickness varies based on the 3DP machine and material. Achievable tolerances also vary depending on the size, shape, and orientation of the printed part. For example, parts produced by the Stratasys Fortus 900mc have an accuracy of Âą0.0035 in., or Âą0.0015 in. per inch, whichever is greater. The high tolerances required to obtain repeatable shear joint results may not be possible with extrusion technology. Figure 1 shows two large energy director butt joint specimens: one produced from an injection mold and the other printed with extrusion technology. The part was printed with a Stratasys Dimension Elite 3D printer using Stratasys Dark Gray ABSplus-P430 material in 0.007 in. thick layers. Note that

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due to the limitation of extrusion width, the energy director of the 3DP part is created in two single passes, resulting in a rectangular shape (0.014 in. tall, 0.022 in. wide). Shear joints do not require a sharppointed feature as there is no energy director; however, maintaining precise interference is important for obtaining repeatable results. Figure 3 also shows two shear joint specimens: one produced from an injection mold and the other using the same extrusion process as the energy director specimen. While it is possible to weld extrusion printed parts, energy requirements, weld strength, flash results, and sealing capability may be quite different in comparison to injection molded parts of similar material. In summary, the weldability of extrusion parts may be limited due to variance in the strength of the layers, the inability to build a repeatable shear joint feature due to variance in the interference fit, and the variability

in the shape of the energy director. If these limitations can be overcome in part design and 3DP fabrication, the parts themselves should be weldable. Selective laser sintering. Selective laser sintering (SLS) uses a focused laser directed by a mirror to melt materials in powder form, such as metal, plastic, or glass. Commonly used polymers include variations of nylon and polystyrene. Within a heated enclosure, powder is pushed from a powder supply by a roller and spread in a thin layer across a build surface. A mirror directs a laser through a 2D trace of the printed object, lifting the temperature of the focus point just enough to melt the powder. The build surface is then lowered and another thin layer of powder is deposited on top. The process repeats until the object is completed. SLS processes can produce parts that are more accurate than extrusion processes, although the surface finish may not be as fine

as those produced by 3DP processes that use photopolymer resins. The chosen SLS material will dictate the size of the powder granules. The minimum layer thickness achievable by SLS processes is slightly smaller than that of extrusion, approximately 0.003 in., so better resolution of joint detail is theoretically possible. However, wall thicknesses less than 0.040 in. in size are generally not recommended for SLS processes and fine details, such as the sharp point of an energy director, may be “smoothed over” or lost as a result of the SLS layering process. The sometimes high levels of porosity of SLS-fabricated parts may pose a concern for weldability. Pores in the final printed part can absorb ultrasonic energy and cause part features to compress. Or, they may create stress concentrations throughout the component that can lead to fracturing under the high frequency vibrations required in the ultrasonic welding process. Fractures can

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M e c h a n i c a l propagate from any surface of the part, not just those that are contacted by the ultrasonic horn or the surfaces of the weld joint. As would be expected, significant porosity in fabricated parts might also make it difficult or impossible to evaluate the consistency of design features such as a hermetic seal. So, although SLS processes can produce parts that are weldable, achieving consistent weldability demands that part designers and fabricators carefully manage and overcome challenges associated with feature resolution, part porosity, and part stress. Stereolithography (SLA) / Digital Light Processing (DLP) / Material Jetting. There are multiple technologies that take advantage of photopolymer resins, such as stereolithography (SLA) and digital light processing (DLP). These processes use focused light to cure photopolymer resins layer by layer into a solid object. A third process, material jetting, applies a thin

layer of photopolymer with an inkjet-style printing head, and cures the photopolymer immediately with a UV light source. Parts produced with these methods have high accuracy and smooth finishes, two of the essential elements required for consistent weldability. Unfortunately, a third essential element for weldability is absent. As their name suggests, photopolymer resins cure using ultraviolet light (UV) energy. They cannot be melted, reshaped, or joined using the frictiongenerated heat and pressure characteristic of ultrasonic welding. Though photopolymer-based 3DP processes cannot directly produce ultrasonically weldable parts, they do offer part designers another option. These processes have been used to create injection molds that benefit from the high resolution and smooth surface finishes of an SLA printed/material jetted process. Because these

molds are made from plastic instead of metal, they typically produce only a limited number of parts. But, parts fabricated in these molds more accurately replicate part features and can use the same material that later highvolume manufacturing processes will use. So, part weldability, strength, sealing, and other performance characteristics can be evaluated with a high degree of accuracy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a plus when it comes to reducing lead times and product development costs. Materials with favorable flow characteristics and low melt temperatures (< 300°C), such as ABS, PS, PE, and PP, can use a mold created by a material jetting process as many as 100 times, as compared to only a few uses (roughly 5 to 15) when using more demanding plastics, such as glass-filled nylon or PC. The resolution available with SLA/DLP 3D printed parts is extremely small: the Form 2 created by FormLabs can print with

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h

25 µm photopolymer layers. Material jetting technology, such as PolyJet technology by Stratasys, can achieve layer thicknesses as low as 16 µm. Part design considerations for ultrasonic welding As noted, different 3DP printing technologies produce different resolutions. But claims of higher resolution do not always equate to better or sharper product or joint designs. Figure 6 shows detailed views of energy director joint specimens using injection molding and three different 3DP technologies. The extrusionprocessed part was printed with a Stratasys Dimension Elite 3D printer using Stratasys Dark Gray ABSplus-P430 material in 0.007 in. thick layers. The part created with an SLS process was printed with a 3D Systems sPro 60 production printer using Duraform PA, a nylon powder developed by 3D Systems. The part produced with material jetting was printed with a Stratasys Objet 260 Connex 2 printer using Vero White, a rigid opaque photopolymer developed by Stratasys. Note that, although the material jet component has smoother surfaces and is more consistent along its length, it uses a photopolymer material and therefore will not ultrasonically weld. When designing parts for an extrusion printer, avoid support material in critical weld areas. Removing support material can damage the joint surfaces. The SLS process is self-supporting, unwelded powder simply falls away.

Figure 5: Depiction of the stereolithography (SLA) process.

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Figure 6: Energy director specimens created with an injection mold and three 3DP technologies. Material selection. Material can play a major factor in the weldability of an application. Many engineered resins are created specifically for 3D printing to mimic the behaviors of other materials, and should not be confused with weldable materials. For example, ABS is one of the easiest polymers to ultrasonically weld. Digital ABS, created by Stratasys, mimics properties of ABS resin; however, it is a photopolymer and will not ultrasonically weld. 3DP print orientation. Depending on the 3DP technology used, joint design geometry can vary significantly when parts are printed in different orientations. Joints do not always follow straight paths, and the orientation of a single energy director may lie in more than one direction. This large variance is created by the layer height typically being shorter than the minimum layer width and the tolerances achievable by the printer. Printing a weld joint in three different orientations will produce different results and may also affect the tensile properties of the parts. Generic tooling contact and support. Typically, 3D printed parts are created to reduce time and cost when evaluating part designs. Creating custom ultrasonic tooling for each prototype design would defeat the advantages of 3D printing. To evaluate a joint design, the surfaces directly above the joint should be raised so that all horn contact surfaces are flat and above any other part geometry, as demonstrated in Figure 2. This will allow a generic, flat-faced horn to contact the 3D printed prototype and transmit vibrations down to the joint location. Furthermore, horn contact surfaces should be as close to the weld joint as possible to reduce the amount of energy absorbed by the material before reaching the weld joint. Ultrasonic welding also requires rigid support from the fixture. To avoid a custom-designed fixture, the bottom half of the assembly should have a flat surface below the weld joints so that it can support itself on a hard, flat surface.

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Part infill. It is also important that all part walls between the joint location and the horn contact surface/ supporting surface should be printed with maximum infill settings (100% solid). Some 3D printed parts are designed with internal voids and thin-walled geometries to reduce the amount of material required by the print; however, such voids inside a part can make ultrasonic welding more difficult or impossible by preventing transmission of ultrasonic energy to the weld joint. Even when printed solid, small holes and voids may occur in extruded printed parts along the edges of the layers and between layers. These irregularities may reduce the effectiveness of a shear joint, cause welded parts to leak, or reduce the printâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to transfer ultrasonic energy to the weld joint. Print settings should be set to achieve 3D prints that are as dense as possible. 3D printed parts offer a new and exciting way to evaluate new-product designs. However, the ability to use 3DP parts to directly evaluate their ultrasonic

Figure 7: Flat contact area above (red) and below (blue) weld joints.

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M e c h a n i c a l weldability is at present limited, primarily due to the current limitations of 3DP fabrication technology. Reliable and repeatable ultrasonic weldability requires plastic parts that offer high resolution, strength, and solidity, and that are formed using weldable polymers. To date, parts produced using injection molding have offered this degree of predictability. Of the 3DP technologies noted here – Extrusion, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Stereolithography (SLA) / Digital Light Processing (DLP) / Material Jetting – none have yet demonstrated that they can, with currently available capabilities and 3DP materials, directly print parts with physical characteristics and weldability that match those of injection molded parts. By managing the limitations of 3DP technologies, it may be possible for part designers and fabricators to produce some prototype parts that reduce the resolution, performance, and weldability differences relative to injection molded parts, but this is currently the exception, not the rule. Conclusions made regarding these weld joints may be erroneous and may not reflect final production results. Given the latest advances in new 3D printing technologies and materials, 3D printed injection molds may offer a costeffective solution to producing prototype parts whose ultrasonic weldability and performance can more accurately predict final production results using injection molded parts. DW BRANSON ULTRASONICS CORP. EMERSONINDUSTRIAL.COM

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

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Mechanical_10-16_Vs6.LL.indd 75

Sources: Stratasys. Trend Forecast: 3D Printing’s Imminent Impact on Manufacturing. [Online] 2015. [Cited: May 20, 2016.] https://www.stratasysdirect.com/ content/pdfs/sys_trend-forecast_v10.pdf.

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Stratasys. Frequently Asked Questions: Get to know FDM Technology. Stratasys. [Online] Stratasys. [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://www.stratasys.com/3dprinters/technologies/fdm-technology/faqs. Stratasys. Laser Sintering (LS): Design Guideline. Stratasys Direct Manufacturing. [Online] Stratasys. [Cited: May 23, 2016.] https://www.stratasysdirect. com/resources/laser-sintering/.

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Stratasys. Objet260 Connex3 Specifications. stratasys.com. [Online] [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://www.stratasys.com/3d-printers/design-series/ objet260-connex3#specifications. Fortus 900mc: Industrial strength, durability and scale. Stratasys. [Online] Stratasys. [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://www.stratasys.com/3d-printers/ production-series/fortus-900mc#specifications. Stultz, Matt and Ragan, Sean. Plastics for 3D Printing: An overview of 3D printing filament-from rigid to rubbery to dissolvable. Make: 3D Printing: The Essential Guide to 3D Printers. Sebastopol : Maker Media. Inc., 2014.

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Belter, Joseph T. and Dollar, Aaron M. Strengthening of 3D Printed Fused Deposition Manufactured Parts Using the Fill Compositing Technique. Plos One. [Online] April 16, 2015. [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0122915. 3D Systems. Selective Laser Sintering Printers: Production thermoplastic parts with ProX and sPro SLS printers. 3D Systems. [Online] 2016. [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://www.3dsystems.com/sites/ www.3dsystems.com/files/sls_brochure_0116_usen_ web.pdf. Precision Prototyping: The role of 3D printed molds in the injection molding industry. Stratasys. [Online] [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://www.stratasys.com/ resources/white-papers/precision-prototyping. FormLabs. Tech Specs: Printing Properties. Formlabs.com. [Online] [Cited: May 23, 2016.] http://formlabs.com/products/3d-printers/techspecs/.

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M e c h a n i c a l

Bearing friction basics:

A primer Edited by: Mike Santora â&#x20AC;˘ Associate Editor

Rolling element bearings, such as ball bearings and roller bearings, are used in equipment primarily because they support the loads inherent to the machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s function at a much lower friction level than oil film bearings such as bronze or Babbitt. This reduces the power required to drive the equipment, lowering the initial cost of the prime mover and the energy to operate it.

In this image we see an American Roller BearingsTS. It is a single row, tapered roller bearing with a pin-type cage design. 76

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Different bearing types, because of their internal designs, result in slightly different amounts of internal friction. Here, we see an AD bearing from American Roller Bearing, a single row, cylindrical roller bearing.

While sometimes generically referred to as “Anti-Friction” bearings, there is a small amount of friction or resistance to rotation in every ball and roller bearing. The sources of this friction are: slight deforma-

Table I Bearing Type

tion of the rolling elements and raceways under load, sliding friction of the rolling elements against the cage and guiding surfaces. Different bearing types, because of their internal designs, result in slightly different amounts of internal friction. Lubrication A contributor to bearing internal friction is the lubricant, grease or oil that is continually pushed aside as the rolling elements circulate around the raceways. A proper lubricant will reduce friction between the internal sliding surfaces of the bearings components and reduce or prevent metalto-metal contact of the rolling elements with their raceways. Proper lubrication reduces wear and prevents corrosion, insuring long service lives for bearings.

Deep Groove Ball Bearing

.0015

Angular Contact Bearing

.0020

Cylindrical Roller Bearing, Cage

.0010

Cylindrical Roller Bearing, Full Comp.

.0020

Tapered Roller Bearing

.0020

Spherical Roller Bearing

.0020

Ball Thrust Bearing

.0015

Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearing .0050 FireFly Equipment’s turf harvester is fully autoTapered Roller Thrust Brg. Cage .0020 mated, thanks to a combination of state-of-the-art Tapered Roller Thrust Brg. Full Comp .0050 hydraulic actuator technologies and unique controls Frictional force would simply be: Force = Ρ x μ and communications technologies.

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Coefficient of friction - μ

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M e c h a n i c a l It is important to select a lubricant that will provide a minimum acceptable viscosity at the bearing’s operating temperature, which will usually be between the lowest and highest reference temperatures shown above. Typically, oil viscosity numbers decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. Often, previous experience with an existing similar machine will indicate an acceptable lubricant. In house testing of a prototype or the first machine can indicate operating temperatures. Most machines use a lubricant that is selected to match the most severe demand of one component in the machine such as a bearing, gear, and so on. Coefficients of friction for the various types of bearings are based on a reference value of lubricant viscosity of 20 cSt/100SUS at the bearing’s operating temperature. Coefficients of friction for different bearing types are shown in Table I. If a more accurate calculation of bearing friction taking into account the effects of speed and lubrication is required for an application, the manufacturer should be contacted. More important to the equipment designer than frictional force is the amount of frictional torque that must be overcome. This parameter can easily be calculated using the formula below:

fficiency

Here, we see a two-row spherical roller bearing.

Torque = P x

μ

x dm

2 Lubrication, especially circulating oil, will also remove heat from the bearing. There are two basic types of bearing lubricants readily available: oil and grease. The former is fairly simple to understand being a free-flowing liquid, while the latter is a little more complex. To be a lubricant, all greases have oil that is entrained in a thickened base. This base gives the impression that grease is a more viscous type of oil; however, it is the oil in the grease that does the actual lubricating. Each type of lubricant has its own advantages and disadvantages and is selected based on the nature of the application. Each manufacturer of a lubricant can supply a specification sheet for each of their products, and each sheet will have a list of about 20 properties and values related to the lubricant. The most important property of any lubricant for rolling element bearings is oil viscosity. If the specification sheet is for an oil, the viscosity values will be for the oil. If it’s a grease, it should refer to “Base Oil Viscosity” or another similar term, depending on the manufacturer. Usually, four viscosity values are shown as follows: cSt @ 40° C(104°F) SI units cSt @ 100°C (212°F) SI units SUS @ 100°F(38°C) Imperial units SUS @ 210°F(99°C) Imperial units 78

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where: P = Equivalent Load on the bearing μ = Coefficient of friction dm = Pitch diameter of bearing Lastly, the amount of power consumed by bearing friction can be easily calculated using the appropriate SI or Imperial formula knowing the resistance torque and RPM. Vibration frequency factors More and more manufacturers and end users use vibrational analysis to monitor the operation of their equipment to detect the onset of component failure. The primary suspects are bearings and gears, two components that are subjected to the highest stresses in operation. However, other machine components subjected to cyclic stresses can also deteriorate and eventually fail. There is often a

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M e c h a n i c a l window of opportunity between deterioration and complete failure when the machine component will announce its condition by an increased level of vibration or noise. An increase in vibration level can affect the quality of the product produced, but the greatest value of vibrational monitoring is the early warning of an impending failure. This allows plant operators to schedule a convenient shutdown time and maintenance workers to efficiently plan the removal and replacement procedure. Another advantage of having foreknowledge of impending component failure is to be able to remove the component before total failure thus preventing pieces of the failed component from getting into and damaging other components. A bearing, like a gear or other machine component, can predictably generate an impulse whose frequency is directly related to the input RPM of the machine. When the spectrum of a vibration monitoring indicates a higher than normal amplitude at a certain frequency, the analysis proceeds to match this frequency with the machine component that could produce this frequency, thus identifying the cause and eliminating other components from consideration. Each typical bearing has four major components and, if damaged, can produce an impulse at different frequencies proportional to the operating RPM of the bearing. These bearing components are: cage, outer race, inner race and rolling elements. When multiplied by the RPM of the bearing, each factor would indicate the expected frequency or harmonic that would be picked up by vibrational analysis. This assumes a defect can occur on each bearing component, which might be the beginning of a fatigue spall, denting damage from the piece of another component, or some other type of wear or damage. The four Fundamental Frequency

PERFORMANCE

Factors are: • Fcage • Fouter race • Finner race • Froller

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Manufacturers and users of equipment should be aware of the fundamental frequencies that each machine component can produce and keep on file all these values for reference purposes. The Cage Factor, Fcage, is related to the number of revolutions the cage makes compared to the inner race of a radial bearing and the rotating race of a thrust bearing. For 90 degree thrust bearing, it October 2016

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M e c h a n i c a l is 0.500, while for most radial bearings it is slightly less. A typical value might be 0.410, and what this means is the cage will make 41 revolutions for every hundred that the inner race makes. The inner race and outer race factors relate to how often a Roller passes over a defect, such as a small spall of dent in the roller path. With a rotating inner race, the Finner race value is always larger than the Fouter race. The rolling element factor, Froller or Fball, relates to the RPM of the element and the defect contacting both the inner race and outer race during each revolution. DW American Roller Bearings www.amroll.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Sources of bearing friction are: slight deformations of the rolling elements and raceways under load, sliding friction of the rolling elements against the cage, and guiding surfaces. In this image, we see an exploded view of a TDI bearing and its two row, double cone, tapered roller, pin-type cage design.

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H a r s h

E n v i r o n m e n t s

Powering

remote wireless applications in

harsh environments More self-powered remote wireless devices are used in extreme environments. Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a look at some of the newer batteries that will help you handle the power needs of these devices in such environments. Sol Jacobs

VP and General Manager Tadiran Batteries

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We live

in an increasingly wireless world, where self-powered remote sensors and communication devices are becoming essential to almost every type of industrial application, such as asset tracking, system control and data automation, and machine-to-machine (M2M), to name a few. This trend will undoubtedly accelerate as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) takes wireless devices to once unimaginable environments. For battery-powered devices, the effects of extreme environments can compromise data integrity and reliability, add significantly to the total cost of ownership, and place workers who are trying to install and maintain these devices at greater risk.

Make sure the benefits outweigh the costs The fast-growing market for self-powered wireless devices is being driven largely by economics, since wireless devices can eliminate labor, logistical, and regulatory expenses associated with installing a hard-wired device. Installing something as simple as an electrical switch can cost upwards of $100 or more per foot: an expense that increases in remote, environmentally sensitive locations.

â&#x20AC;&#x192;â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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H a r s h E nv iro nm ents LiSOCL2

LiSOCL2

Li Metal Oxide

Li Metal Oxide

LiFeS2

LiMnO2

Primary Cell

Bobbin-type with Hybrid Layer Capacitor

Bobbin-type

Modified for high capacity

Modified for high power

Alkaline

Lithium Iron Disulfate

CR123A

Energy Density (Wh/1)

1,420

1,420

370

Power

Very High

Low

Very High

185

600

650

650

Very High

Low

High

Voltage

3.6 to 3.9 V

3.6 V

Moderate

4.1 V

4.1 V

1.5 V

1.5 V

Pulse Amplitude

Excellent

3.0 V

Small

High

Very High

Low

Moderate

Passivation

Moderate

None

High

Very Low

None

N/A

Fair

Moderate

Performance at Elevated Temp.

Excellent

Fair

Excellent

Excellent

Low

Moderate

Fair

Performance at

Excellent

Fair

Moderate

Excellent

Low

Moderate

Poor

Operating life

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Moderate

Moderate

Fair

Self-Discharge Rate

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

Very Low

Very High

Moderate

High

-55°C to 85°C, can be extended to 105°C for a short time

-80°C to 125°C

-45°C to 85°C

-45°C to 85°C

-0°C to 60°C

-20°C to 60°C

0°C to 60°C

Low Temp.

Operating Temp.

Table 1: Each battery chemistry offers unique features, including varying temperature ranges. These chemistries include alkaline, iron disulfate (LiFeS2), lithium manganese dioxide (LiMNO2), and lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries.

Designing a wireless device to be as small as possible without compromising performance or system functionality is always a challenge. Intelligent power management approaches are required to use battery power efficiently and cost effectively, especially in extreme environments.

Start by thinking small A common practice is to specify batteries that are overly large or that deliver unneeded capacity to achieve the required battery operating life. But selecting an oversized battery carries hidden costs, including the expense of transporting batteries to remote, hard-to-access locations, where the labor and logistical expenses can be high. Increasingly restrictive UN and IATA shipping regulations can further add to these transportation costs. A compact, lightweight, long-life power supply can offer other tangible benefits. For example, scientists conducting experiments to monitor the changing size and position of ice flows in the Arctic Ocean want the device to be as small and lightweight as possible in order to be deployed by helicopter. Conversely, a utility linemen carrying line fault sensors up and down utility poles seeks a compact, lightweight solution that reduces fatigue. Of course, specifying an undersized battery to achieve product miniaturization goals could result in excessive battery replacements throughout the life of the device.

Oceantronics’ hybrid lithium pack provides the same operating life with smaller size for use in GPS/ice buoys. The original battery pack (left) used 380 alkaline D cells (54 kg). The new battery pack (right) uses 32 lithium thionyl chloride D cells and for hybrid layered capacitors (3.2 kg). 84

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Extreme temperatures can impact battery performance Many primary battery chemistries are available, each offering unique performance features, including varying temperature ranges. These chemistries include alkaline, iron disulfate (LiFeS2), lithium manganese dioxide (LiMNO2), and lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries (see Table 1). Exposure to extreme temperatures reduces both battery

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H a r s h E nv iro nm ents Size matters in battery selection. Selecting an oversized battery carries hidden costs, including the expense of transporting batteries to remote, hard-to-access locations, where the labor and logistical expenses can be high. A utility linemen, for example, carrying line fault sensors up and down utility poles seeks a compact, lightweight solution that reduces fatigue.

life and voltage under pulse, especially if the battery already has a limited temperature range. In such situations, an oversized battery may be required to compensate for an expected voltage drop under pulsed load.

One solution is to specify a bobbin-type lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) battery that features high capacity, high energy density, and can deliver high pulses at extreme temperatures, thus eliminating the need for extra capacity or voltage. Bobbin-type LiSOCl2 cells can also be modified for the extreme temperatures associated with the medical cold chain, where frozen tissue samples, transplant organs, drugs and pharmaceuticals must be continually monitored and maintained at -80°C. Bobbin-type LiSOCl2 batteries can also handle extreme heat, including use in medical asset tracking RFID devices that can withstand autoclave sterilization temperatures of up to 125°C without having to remove the battery. Since it takes more than twice as many 1.5 V cells to deliver the same voltage as a single 3.6 V cell, using a fewer number of higher voltage cells can effectively minimize size, weight, and cost.

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Extreme temperatures can also negatively impact the annual self-discharge rate of a battery, which is an acute problem for battery chemistries already prone to high annual self-discharge. For example, certain conditions can cause an alkaline cell to fully self-discharge in less than a year, thus requiring an oversized power supply to compensate for such energy losses. By contrast, an industrial grade LiSOCl2 battery that features a lower annual self-discharge rate can permit a smaller power supply while also eliminating the need for future battery replacements. Annual self-discharge rates vary significantly depending on how the battery is manufactured and the quality of the raw materials. For example, a superior grade bobbin-type LiSOCl2 battery can deliver a self-discharge rate as low as 0.7% per year at ambient temperature, and thus retain more than 70% of its original capacity after 40 years. A lesser grade LiSOCL2 battery could have a self-discharge rate of 3% per year at ambient temperature, causing the cell to lose 30% of its original capacity every 10 years, making 40-year battery life impossible, especially at extreme temperatures.

Factoring in high pulse requirements Remote wireless devices increasingly require high pulses to power advanced two-way communications and remote shut-off capabilities. A prime example is AMR/AMI utility meters, which are often buried in underground pits, then called upon to query and periodically transmit data between a meter transmitter unit (MTU) and a host computer. Consumer lithium batteries can deliver the high pulses required for AMR/AMI metering applications due to their high rate design. However, consumer grade lithium batteries are completely unacceptable for AMR/AMI applications due to their low voltage (1.5 V), limited temperature range (-0°C to 60°C), and a high self-discharge rate that reduces their life expectancy to as short as 1-2 years, making the AMR/AMI network highly unreliable and costly to maintain. Supercapacitors are commonly used in consumer products to deliver high pulses while minimizing transient minimum voltage (TMV). However, supercapacitors are ill-suited to many industrial applications due to serious drawbacks such as bulkiness, high selfdischarge rates of up to 60% per year, and a limited temperature range. Power supplies made up of multiple supercapacitors also require balancing circuits that draw energy and add to the cost. Standard bobbin-type LiSOCl2 batteries can deliver the long life required by AMR/AMI applications. However, these cells are not designed to deliver periodic high pulses, as they can experience TMV. To overcome this challenge, a standard bobbintype LiSOCl2 battery can be modified to deliver periodic high pulses with the addition of a patented Hybrid Layer Capacitor (HLC). The bobbin-type LiSOCl2 battery and the HLC work in parallel, with the standard battery supplying background current in the 3.6 to 3.9 V nominal range, while the single-unit HLC works like a rechargeable battery to store and deliver high pulses. As

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an added benefit, the HLC features a unique end-oflife performance curve that allows controllers to be programmed to issue ‘low battery’ status alerts. Bobbin-type LiSOCl2 batteries are also available that can deliver moderate to high pulses with virtually no voltage delay or TMV, yet do not require an HLC or possibly can use fewer or smaller HLCs. These long-life lithium batteries also operate efficiently, especially in extreme temperatures, which extends their operating life up to 15%.

Make sure the environment is right for rechargeable batteries Certain remote wireless applications may be well suited for energy harvesting devices that extract energy from solar, wind, thermal and kinetic energy, or RF/EM signals, and then store the energy in rechargeable Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Consumer grade Li-ion cells have drawbacks, including a limited temperature range and an inability to deliver high pulses, making them illsuited for applications that require advanced two-way communications. Consumer grade rechargeable Li-ion batteries also have a limited lifespan of approximately five years and 500 full recharge cycles. If the wireless device needs to operate beyond 500 recharge cycles without battery replacement, then extra cells may be required to reduce the average depth of discharge per cell. Fortunately, an industrial grade rechargeable Liion battery offers up to 20-year battery life with up to 5,000 full recharge cycles. These ruggedized cells also feature a temperature range of -40°C to 85°C, and can deliver the high pulses needed to support advanced two-way communications. Power supply options are growing for selfpowered remote wireless devices, especially for extreme environments. Primary and rechargeable lithium batteries are available that help minimize size and weight while reducing the total cost of ownership. DW

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Trends

in hydraulic filtration

A look at important technology and industry trends, and how they affect hydraulic users

Proper filtration, without a doubt, plays an important role in ensuring that hydraulic

Ulrich Seeger Head of Product Management ARGO-HYTOS GmbH

systems operate as expected. High-performance filters maintain fluid cleanliness over their entire service life and, while application requirements vary widely, customers are clearly requiring longer filter-change intervals, higher reliability, higher efficiencies, and an increased compatibility with new-generation hydraulic oils.

Filter performance At first glance, one might get the impression that standard filter elements have changed little over the years. However, while todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s filters may look similar to those of the past, actual performance capabilities have changed quite a bit. Consider the important parameters of dirt-holding capacity and pressure loss. A typical ARGO-HYTOS filter element with 10 Âľm(c) fineness had a specific dirt-holding capacity of approximately 6 mg/cm2 in the year 2000. Today, this capacity has increased by more than 130% to approximately 14 mg/cm2 and, at the same time, pressure loss has been reduced by

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Today’s high-efficiency filters have higher dirt-holding capacities, are more efficient, and last longer.

approximately 50%. There are several reasons behind these improvements. For one, research into materials technology has led to better filter media. Raising the dirt-holding capacity of glass-fiber media—while maintaining the same pressure drop—were strong drivers behind improved performance. Pore volume is a key parameter. Finer fibers allow the highest possible volume of pores and create more capacity for dirt capture and holding. As media improved, it also resulted in a lower pressure drop across the fibers. This, in turn, led to filters with additional layers. In the past, filters typically had a single glass-fiber layer to capture and hold the dirt particles. Now most high-performance filters have a double-layer design. It consists of a coarser pre-filter layer to capture larger particles and a finer main layer to capture smaller particles. The combination of preand fine-filtration layers increases the overall dirt-holding capacity of the filter while improving oil cleanliness.

The Exapor Max 2 element reduces pressure losses by up to 50%, compared with previous versions.

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In addition to better media, a significant reduction in pressure drop came from enhanced designs of support and protection meshes. Glass media, by itself, is soft and will collapse under pressure. Thus, wire meshes—typically comprised of steel or stainless steel—provide structural integrity on the inner and outer surfaces of the media. Changes to the mesh weave pattern have made a significant impact. In the past, wires were typically woven in a square grid. The danger, however, was that under pressure, this pattern permitted the wires to pull together and completely close the pleat. Now, alternative higher-strength mesh constructions mean that completely constricting the pleats is not possible. Even under load, the element always maintains a minimum gap in the pleat and, in turn, efficient filtration with low pressure drop. As one example, optimizing the structure of the filter material in the Exapor Max 2 element reduces pressure losses in the pleat by up to 50% and up to 40% in the filter element. Conversely, at constant pressure loss, the filter elements can achieve a flow rate up to 65% higher. The customer benefits in several ways through improved dirt-holding capacity and increased performance. Filters of the same size now enjoy longer filter-change intervals, improved oil cleanliness and higher nominal

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Fl uid Power

flow rates. Or, with the same filter-change intervals, customers can use smaller and, therefore, less-expensive filters. This protects the environment and conserves resources.

Replica filters While filter manufacturers have undoubtedly made sizeable product improvements, it doesn’t mean better products are necessarily getting in to the hands of the users. The spread of replica or “knockoff” filters is a growing trend, and has become more of a concern. Suppliers of replica products crossreference filters from major manufacturers and claim their products are exact replacements, with the same performance. In reality, they’re usually based on substandard designs with inferior media and poor quality control. Unfortunately, many users simply purchase such replacement filters based on cost, fit and function, and are unaware or unconcerned how they affect their equipment.

• Flow fatigue strength of the filter material ensures the required oil cleanliness is maintained despite changing volume flow. • High dirt-holding capacity, provided that the unit has the requisite flow fatigue strength and is compatible with the hydraulic fluid, allowing for long filter- change intervals. • Excellent differential pressure stability guarantees intact and functioning filter elements despite frequent cold starts that stress the material due to the low viscosity of hydraulic oil. The filtration performance of replica elements suffers in all these areas, compared with original filter elements. Unfortunately, making side-by-side comparisons of original and replica elements generally requires evaluating them on a laboratory test bench under standard conditions. Users often learn the hard way that replica filters have only a

“In recent years there has been a trend toward using environmentally friendly fluids in hydraulic systems. These involve higher-refined basic oils because of their improved technical characteristics, such as aging resistance.” It’s important to note that while many filter elements appear similar, they are actually complex hydraulic components. In addition to parameters like dirt-holding capacity, filter fineness and pressure loss, users should consider other critical operating characteristics. These include:

• Filtration efficiency of a filter element, characterized by filter fineness, is essential for oil cleanliness in a system over the entire service life.

small fraction of the life of original elements. That means more frequent change-outs, a higher risk of equipment damage and greater total cost of ownership. To address the problem, there is a recent trend away from standard filters and toward customized filters. By clever functional or system integration of the filters—such as mounting them inside hydraulic tanks— it complicates replacement because a replica now requires greater engineering effort; or prevents it due to proprietary rights.

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Electrostatic discharge can burn holes in filter media. Special filters, often used with environmentally friendly fluids, prevent damaging discharges.

Thus, original spare filters are used and the required oil cleanliness is maintained over the entire service life. This makes it possible to extend warranties and ensure superior equipment performance.

Environmentally friendly fluids In recent years there has been a trend toward precision half page.pdf

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using environmentally friendly fluids in hydraulic systems. These involve higherrefined basic oils because of their improved technical characteristics, such as aging resistance. However, all these oils have a lower conductivity. Newer additive packages considerably affect conductivity as well.

In the past, conventional hydraulic oils often used zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) to protect against wear and corrosion and act as an antioxidant. But now being classified as harmful, users have turned to zinc-free oils. Reducing the amount of metal-organic additives like ZDDP lowers the conductivity of oil. Therefore, eliminating this additive,

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such as in environment-friendly oil, reduces conductivity and increases the danger of electrostatic build-up. If a non- or low-conductive hydraulic oil flows through a system, electrostatic charge can build at the interfaces between oil and non-conductive surfaces like filter fleece and hoses. Fast separation of two non-conductive surfaces creates this charge. Filter elements have a large non-conductive surface, and charge build-up will grow with increasing flow velocity of the oil. If the charge is large enough, it will discharge as a spark or flash. Conventional filter material may be selectively destroyed due to discharge flashes and the related high temperatures. This creates holes through which dirt particles may pass through unfiltered. As a result, there is increased wear of hydraulic components and, subsequently, malfunctions and machine failure. Hightemperature discharge flashes also lead to premature oil aging, a deterioration of oil performance characteristics and shorter oil life. Oil-aging byproducts reduce the life of filter elements. Also, electric discharges may damage adjacent electrical components. To prevent such problems, the charges must be balanced. For this, a special filter element structure has been developed that provides charge balancing and prevents damaging discharge flashes. Glass fibers in a filter element themselves are not conductive but, as mentioned previously, the inner supportive mesh and outer protective mesh are metal. The Exapor Spark Protect filter elements

electrically connects the two meshes with a pleated metal film. This allows an electrostatic load to pass through the conductor, rather than building up and permitting a sudden, violent discharge through the material. Exapor Spark Protect completely avoids destructive discharge flashes and is advised whenever the electrical conductivity of the hydraulic oil in a system is below 500 pS/m. The filter elements are compatible with standard filter elements like the Exapor Max 2 and, thus, require no modifications to the hydraulic system. Other than added

The Multifunctional Filter System is an example of a customer-driven complete filtration solution. It includes not only the filter element and housing, but also fluid quick-couplings, special mounting hardware, adapters for horizontal mounting, and a breather and cap.   

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“The trend to improve machine reliability will continue, and it will be backed by the need for more information and sophisticated monitoring and control algorithms. Even machines running in remote locations will be warned of impending breakdown, preventing unscheduled downtime and reducing operating costs.” electrostatic-discharge protection, all other filter characteristics remain the same.

System solutions Another continuing trend is that filtration manufacturers are moving toward providing complete system solutions. Today’s customers want more than a filter housing, they want everything around it, from mounting hardware and fluid connectors to pressure switches and temperature sensors. With the increasing importance of supply chain management among OEMs, there is a clear demand for more-complex integrated solutions from fewer key suppliers. This includes functional and system integration with particular focus on reducing the number of interfaces, as well as offering pre-assembled and tested units. As just one example, a customer was supplied a customized suction filter that included a pressure-retention valve for the lubrication circuit, a pressure switch, a temperature sensor and a modular, patented connection system tailored to fit the user’s unique space requirements. This reduced installation time, effort and expense. Industry 4.0 The Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 are not major drivers for filtration technology right now. But the capability to digitally connect factory-floor devices, such as filters, to the cloud offers exciting possibilities. Take the example of a data signal from a filter. Today, an on/off indicator on a tractor may simply tell if an element is operating normally, or is clogged. However, a smart indicator could link with the machine’s www.designworldonline.com  

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electronic controls to monitor parameters like temperature, flow and engine speed, and potentially track filter behavior, such as during cold start. With a simple algorithm, users can gain information on whether the system is operating within preset limits—or whether operation is outside the norm, such as the element restricting flow more slowly or quickly than expected. These signals let users acquire more complex information and enable flexible service concepts like predictive maintenance. Much like the technology on some of today’s automobiles, sensors can track operating hours, engine speed, oil-temperature range, and the number of cold starts—and use this data to develop service-life software models. In the end, the user may receive a service indication for oil replacement or filter change when it is actually needed, rather than changing filters at regular intervals regardless of duty cycle. This technology will be adapted to filtration systems of the future. The trend to improve machine reliability will continue, and it will be backed by the need for more information and sophisticated monitoring and control algorithms. Even machines running in remote locations will be warned of impending breakdown, preventing unscheduled downtime and reducing operating costs. DW ARGO-HYTOS GmbH argo-hytos.com

October 2016

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How the Internet of Things will bolster

design

Data from IoT connected devices can drive CAD design and reduce the number of prototype stages engineers need. Jean Thilmany â&#x20AC;˘ Contributing Editor

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3 D C AD

According to many companies, the Internet of Things holds value for servicing and repairing existing products. “Not so well known is the insights the IoT brings to product design,” said Paul Sagar, vice president of product management at PTC. “In the near future, designers will be able to use the real-world data returned by the IoT to build better products and revamp already existing ones using PTC’s computer-aided design software Creo,” he said. Connected machines and devices are increasingly used to monitor machines in distant or hard-to-access locations, like an oil well in a remote area with little infrastructure, to keep tabs on a system otherwise out of reach. Early next year, PTC will link its Creo computer-aided design system to the company’s ThingWorx IoT development platform. Developers use the platform to build and deploy enterprise-level IoT applications. By calling upon a network of sensors and actuators attached to products—anything from machines to industrial robotics to consumer products—the IoT can offer continual feedback on how those products are performing in real time. “When IoT applications developed on the PTC platform are tied to its CAD system, feedback from sensors drives design, whether the product is being updated or hasn’t yet been created,” Sagar said. And that’s important. Technology research group Gartner Inc. predicted that by 2020 nearly 20.8 billion devices will be connected on the IoT. “Harnessing feedback from those connected devices and using it to power design could make for equipment uniquely optimized to its exact use and operating conditions,” he added. IoT data—for more than maintenance The IoT already makes maintenance for connected equipment proactive because sensors on those products are linked to automation software that continually monitors

The image of the bike depicts how a user would capture an already-created object, the bike, using ThingWorx on a device before creating a digital twin of a product could reveal its inner mechanisms. Image courtesy of PTC.

October 2016

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The Creo CAD system from PTC includes a mechanism design feature that allows designers to understand the kinematic relationship between parts. Image courtesy of PTC.

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equipment operation. Real-time alerts notify service and maintenance personnel that a machine is about to break or is running poorly so they can take quick action to prevent a breakdown, maximizing uptime and keeping customers happy. The sensors also return a myriad of other information, including part temperature, part functioning, airflow, and more, which helps maintenance workers hone in on equipment issues. “Now it’s the equipment and product design engineers’ turn to reap the insights the IoT can offer and use them to drive product development,” Sagar said. The link between CAD and the IoT is a natural, he added. Engineers already use CAD software to create industrial equipment, high tech electronics, automotive components, consumer goods and many other parts and products. The link will allow them to call upon IoT feedback to analyze potential product behavior. After the ThingWorx and Creo interface is complete, engineers will be able to instrument their CAD model with virtual sensors that act in the same manner their real-world counterparts do; that is, they monitor and report back about particular features of part or system operation. These virtual sensors can offer more insight into model behavior than the what-if questioning and virtual experimentation engineers now use to explore model performance, Sagar said. The sensors can help answer questions like: is the virtual system running hot in a

October 2016

certain area? Is airflow too high or too low? “With those questions answered, designers can redesign and repeat the process until they’ve optimized the model to meet—perhaps even exceed--specifications,” Sagar said. When used with CAD in this manner, the virtual sensors complement the computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis software engineers now use while virtual prototyping and redesigning. The IoT’s advantage here is in offering feedback that closely mirrors exactly how the product would perform in realworld operating conditions, he added. “So engineers could analyze and optimize the design at any given point using the real information to drive the design,” he said. “They could perform structural analysis based on the virtual sensor readings rather than on assumptions about what the sensors would read.” Using data to improve existing designs The IoT, and the sensor information that goes along with it, can also enhance the design of existing products, Sagar added. For example, engineers may need to update or redesign an automotive suspension system. In this case, the systems already in use under automobiles would have been outfitted with sensors. Engineers

www.designworldonline.com

10/11/16 1:39 PM


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3 D CA D could actually plug that IoT feedback into their original CAD models. “The IoT information could eliminate the number of prototype stages engineers need because they have real information driving CAD system,” Sagar said. “If I can feed sensor information directly into the CAD system, I can use that information to get insight into, for example, exactly how a suspension system that already exists and is being used is working.” This method works best when a system is fitted with sensors and has been operating for a while, he added. Obviously, there’s not a lot of insight into suspension performance if engineers use feedback garnered after only two days of driving. “But if I have a strategy to instrument my products and I’ve got them out on the field today, the IoT tells me exactly how users are using my product. I know what forces are being exerted on the product,” Sagar

Early next year, PTC will link its Creo computer-aided design system to the company’s ThingWorx IoT development platform.

said. “That gives me exact requirements for my next design. I can design the next iteration with actual information rather than assumption.” There’s yet another way the linkage of CAD with PTC’s IoT development platform can help optimize equipment already in place, he said. “Say I can’t put a sensor on a particular place for thermal or environmental or field reasons but still want to understand what’s happening at that location,” Sagar said. “If you have sensors at other locations and you feed all that information into CAD, the CAD system--through kinematic understanding of your assembly--can triangulate and tell you what sensor readings would be in that location.” In that way engineers can determine if a part of the machine is running hot, for example, even if they don’t have sensor feedback from that area of the machine.

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3 D CA D In the same way, a CAD system can actually be used to answer questions about machine operation, maintenance and servicing in—if not real time—something quite close to it. “Lets say I’ve got a product in the field and we see a spike in something, which automatically triggers an analysis of that data” Sagar said. “But just because there’s a spike, does that mean the product has failed or is about to fail? Should I have a service engineer take a look at it? Are there safety measures I should immediately take? “I need a clear understanding of what’s happening,” he said. With the Creo and ThingWorx link, engineers will be able to feed all IoTreturned information about the spike into the CAD system, where they can analyze the malfunctioning assembly or machine part. With results in hand (perhaps engineers

have found the part is indeed about to fail and could take out other pieces of the equipment), service engineers can take quick action. The Internet of Things age is nearly upon us. And this data-rich environment has much to offer design engineers, Sagar said. When connected devices become the norm, the products we use everyday will offer keen insight for the designers of the products we use only a few years later. DW

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Inside: Plug-and-Play Application Solutions - 116 â&#x20AC;˘ Small robot family for quick handling in tight spaces - 122

Robotics www.designworldonline.com

A Supplement to Design World - October 2016

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Robotic vehicles take the next step What happens when deeper insights from artificial intelligence are applied to complex material transport systems? Everything changes for the better. Steve Meyer â&#x20AC;˘ Contributing Editor

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R o b o t i c s

Manufacturing effectiveness can be measured at the level of individual pieces of machinery, at the work cell level or at the plant level. At the overall plant level, a critical parameter that measures effectiveness is the amount of time work is performed on the product versus the amount of time that material waits or is moved from point to point. It is clear that a small change in the amount of wait time or transfer time makes a huge difference in the effectiveness of the manufacturing plant. One of the biggest changes in modern manufacturing took place in 1973 when Volvo implemented a sweeping change in one of its largest production facilities. The company put 280 computer controlled guided vehicles into service moving heavy parts throughout the factory. The success of that plant was a milestone in manufacturing and launched the new industry of guided vehicles. Thus began what would evolve into a nearly $2 billion dollar industry over the 40+ years that followed. Fixed versus flexible infrastructure Modern material transport systems have become more sophisticated, but have developed their own bottlenecks. There are many sources of power and degrees of automation, from manual hydraulic lifts and forklifts, to highly automated guided vehicles that provide infrastructure to warehouse logistics. What these systems all have in common is navigation by following some form of track. Guidance of the load is based on using sensors and targets. The sensing options vary; reflective tape or targets with optical sensors, magnetic targets, laser or other proximity sensors detect solid boundaries for the vehicles.

It may look like a conventional AGV, but there is nothing conventional about it. vNo track, no wire, no optical markers, this self-driving vehicle operates safely in a warehouse of a manufacturing floor environment. Ocotber 2016

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R o b o t i c s

Though the popularity of delivering applications with the cloud is growing... “the decision to move pertinent applications to the cloud isn’t a no brainer,” said R. Andrew Sroka, CEO, Fischer International Systems.

Otto is engineered to the dimensions of the standard unit of handling, the pallet, and carrying capacity to 1500 kilograms.

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To improve material movement beyond the current state of the art, a flexible system would be required that can operate the infrastructure of traditional systems. Clearpath Robotics successfully pioneered its Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) perception and navigation technology to enable any mobile platform to operate in an unstructured environment, much like the technology developed to enable Google driverless cars. By combining a mobile platform that can navigate its environment with an operating system that can manage tasks and schedules, a next generation of material transport is made possible and OTTO Motors, a division of Clearpath, is doing just that. This system strategy enables the fleet of vehicles to maximize their throughput by moving freely in the lowest-traffic paths—based on traffic laws that the users provide. In addition, a scheduling algorithm can create optimum patterns of traffic to move material efficiently.

Safety first Ever since the advent of the collaborative robot—and acceptance of emerging standards, such as ISO 10218—new autonomous equipment design has required unique control system strategies to ensure safety. In the case of the OTTO self-driving vehicle (SDV), each vehicle is outfitted with laser and camera systems to provide complete situational awareness. OTTO’s software ensures that sudden changes in the environment, humans moving around randomly or proximity to other vehicle traffic, is sensed and collisions avoided. In addition, the vehicle trim includes an array of configurable colored LEDs that provide humans with an indication of what OTTO intends to do next. The OTTO platform OTTO is based on a simple mechatronic architecture of 2-wheel drive with an electronic differential between the wheels. The mechanical system includes four corner casters that help overcome minor obstacles and misalignments in floor surfaces. This mechanical arrangement also makes it possible for the unit to turn on center

October 2016

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Ease of use Development of an easy-to-use interface is always a challenge in new systems. Clearpath created its own operating system as an independent platform for integration of its autonomous systems. The Clearpath Fleet Manager acts as a software environment for overall fleet management, scheduling and prioritization of tasks for the individual OTTO self-driving vehicles. Users can access the Fleet Manager from computers, tablets or cell phones anywhere in the facility using traditional wireless networks. The Fleet Manager tool can be accessed and managed by the Clearpath App, an operations display, which is available to key personnel in the plant. Here, tasking can be added or deleted and the priority of tasks can be changed. The overall strategy of a serverbased Fleet Manager and a selfcontained vehicle navigation system eliminates computational overhead for both systems, allowing for a straightforward ‘division of labor’ Unique charging strategy between high-level scheduling of tasks A major breakthrough in fleet effectiveness and Clearpath’s on-vehicle self-driving comes in the charging strategy. Traditional operating system. Each dispatch from forklifts require long charge cycles during the Fleet Manager is downloaded which equipment is stationary. Sometimes, to the vehicle and executed by the extra equipment is purchased to keep Clearpath OS. This significantly reduces operations moving 24/7. Instead, the amount of data traffic between OTTO systems use small charging the server and the individual units. docks scattered throughout the Each SDV unit also provides extensive facility and the scheduling system condition monitoring data available sets up ‘opportunity’ charging that is monitored by the Fleet Manager tasks whenever the unit is not software. The condition monitoring busy. Based on this charging allows the Fleet Manager to schedule strategy, the vehicles are always charging and manage the tasks so available and the size of battery maximize throughput. required is reduced at the same time. Custom control algorithms Benefits were integrated into the motor OTTO’s increased throughput controllers to further extend increases manufacturing’s operational battery performance and life. effectiveness by decreasing the amount of time that work-in-progress inventory waits to be processed. By applying a self-driving vehicle with anti-collision

H EL U KA BEL

and maneuver tight spaces easily. The drive train motors are brushless dc motors for maximum efficiency and use planetary gear reducers for gearing, enabling OTTO to move 1500 kg loads at speeds up to 2 meters per second. OTTO is powered with lithium-iron-phosphate batteries with charge life of more than 2000 cycles. A second version of OTTO is available with a 100 kg capacity for smaller loads. OTTO’s mechanical structure is based on a modular design for easy repairs if required. No special tools are needed and all the subsystems are commercially available and industrially rated for maximum vehicle uptime. Focus in the design process was to optimize the SDV’s availability, so more emphasis was placed on programming the higher level behavior of the system while relying on high reliability, readily available components on the mechanical side for underlying reliability. Not having to reinvent all of OTTO’s components greatly reduced lead time to market and simplified reliability testing.

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R o b o t i c s capability to the task of moving heavy material, costs associated with injuries, accidents and insurance claims are significantly reduced. With the opportunity charging strategy, OTTO eliminates the need for battery bays, watering, and other costs of material handling vehicle and battery maintenance. Ultimately, by decreasing wait times, raw material inventory can be better managed, further reducing costs.

This view of Ottoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s internals shows the highly integrated two-powered wheel drive and four corner castors that make up the unique drive train and suspension.

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Precision Positioning R o b o t i c s

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The big change still being explored is the opportunity to finally connect factory processes seamlessly from raw material inventory through every stage of manufacturing. The Clearpath API can directly interface with MES and ERP systems from companies like SAP and Oracle or traditional PLC-based control systems, and represents the next layer in the evolution of automation. OTTO can interface to these complex data base products and autonomously deliver product where and when it is needed. The flow of material in the manufacturing sector will permanently change as the OTTO technology is adopted. John Deere has signed an agreement for Clearpath to supply the OTTO vehicle for its Horicon, Wis. operation. And GE Healthcare Repair Operations Center in Milwaukee, Wis. is using OTTO SDVs to supply parts to the field and work cells that do repairs. DW OTTO Motors, a division of Clearpath www.clearpath.ai

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“It’s a fundamental paradigm shift in the way robots are viewed.” Stewart McMillan, CEO, Task Force Tips

34 days was all it took for fire hose manufacturer Task Force Tips to pay for its Universal Robots through productivity savings. CEO Stewart McMillan has installed four Universal Robots: three tending CNC machines while the fourth is mounted to a table on wheels and moved between tasks.

Watch how two UR5 robots working in tandem use vision guidance to pick blanks off a conveyor for CNC milling, with huge gains in productivity and quality. The application requires no scripting and was created by a journeyman machinist with minimal training.

Scan code to read case study and watch the video: www.universal-robots.com/case-stories/task-force-tips/ Find your distributor: www.universal-robots.com/distributors

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The Universal Robots+ is a showroom of plug-and-play application solutions offering a new level of simplicity for companies that want to hit the ground running when installing their next UR robot application.

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Ro b o t i c s

UNIVERSAL ROBOTS LAUNCHES PLUG-AND-PLAY APPLICATION SOLUTIONS

Edited by Mary C. Gannon • Senior Editor

Universal Robots (UR) launched Universal Robots+, a showroom of plug-and-play application solutions offering a new level of simplicity. When choosing accessories, end-effectors, and software solutions from Universal Robots+, both distributors and end-users get high security and predictability, ensuring that applications will run well from the start. This can save weeks or months in the integration process from concept to operation of the UR collaborative robots or “cobots” as UR calls them. In addition, UR has launched +YOU, a free-ofcharge developer program, offering a marketing and support platform for the eco-system of URrobot application developers. With Universal Robots+, the company enables applications revolving around the collaborative robot arms UR3, UR5 and UR10 to be developed and showcased. The so-called URCaps—accessory

components that extend the UR robots’ capabilities— can be customized hardware components, software plug-ins, or a combination of both. The aim of Universal Robots+ is to reduce implementation periods, increase user comfort and reduce costs for all parties involved. “With Universal Robots+, we create an unmatched win-win-win situation benefitting the developer community, our distribution partners and our end customers,” said Esben H. Østergaard, CTO and cofounder of UR. “The participants in the developer program +YOU will receive free support from Universal Robots when developing URCaps. By integrating the URCaps showcased at the Universal Robots+ Showroom, our distribution partners and end users reduce spending on application development and testing when they deploy the URCaps as simple plug-

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Ro b o t i c s and-play solutions. In short, Universal Robots+ is easy access to efficient, well-proven, and safe automation solutions that we elevate to the next level by collaborating with a crucial component: the developers of today and tomorrow.” How developers and distributors will benefit “When a URCap has received our approval for development within Universal Robots+, we will support the developers via our local subsidiaries by providing robots for testing and optimizing URCaps. On request, robots can also be purchased at a reduced price, given that they will be used exclusively for the development and testing of new URCaps,” says Stefan Tøndering Stubgaard, Manager of Universal Robots’ Corporate Technical Support. After completion of a URCaps prototype, the developer will send it to UR for examination. Stubgaard said, “Before a new product can be presented in our showroom, we

verify its quality. In comprehensive functionality tests, we test whether the application can be implemented and operated easily and if the product conforms to Universal Robots’ quality requirements.” In addition, developers can also get their URCaps certified by the company. To receive this additional quality certificate, developers must document that their solution is already operating in a real application and used successfully by a customer. Having URCaps featured in the Universal Robots+ showroom is free of charge for developers. This allows UR to offer all developers a professional marketing platform granting them access to an ever expanding, global customer network. Sales of URCaps will continue to be provided through the company’s established network of distribution

partners. In this way, distributors also benefit from this central platform, where they can both offer and access applications developed specifically for the use with UR-robots. Universal Robots+ is the toolbox that tailors the optimal solutions for their individual customer needs. First URCaps developed The first approved URCaps developed by the developer community will accompany the Universal Robots+ launch; one new URCap is the pick-and-place image processing solution of Robotiq, the Canadian manufacturer of flexible robot grippers and sensors. According to Samuel Bouchard, CEO of Robotiq, “The UR robot arms can be equipped with our new camera and vision system and deployed right into

Universal Robots+ makes extensive use of the company’s URCaps capabilities, in which accessories can be developed with its UR3, UR5, UR10 collaborative robot arms. Here, a URCap is showcased with the Robotiq Camera and Vision System. 118

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assembly within five minutes. There is no need for an external computer to set up, program, or operate the camera. Everything can be done within the robot’s user interface. In developing this solution, we managed to meet the need of Universal Robots and our customers demanding an easier and faster implementation of a camera and vision system that can be deployed by anyone.” Entering the Universal Robots+ community Developers need only complete a few steps to get their application solutions featured in the Universal Robots+ Showroom. Registration for developers is free in the +YOU community forum where developers can submit their application ideas. To become a member of the +YOU community, the following conditions must be met: • Submission of a first draft detailing which type of URCaps is being developed. The following categories of URCaps can be chosen: 1. End-effectors: All types of endof-arm-tooling (EOAT) such as grippers, force-torque-sensors, screwdrivers, and many more 2. Accessory components: Hardware products, which do not belong into the category of endeffectors—for instance, cable guidance, protective covers, communication modules, vision systems, HMI-panels, etc. 3. Software: These are either software plug-ins, which have been developed with the URCaps Software Development Kit (SDK); PC programs, for example, for the simulation of robot systems or programming; or UR-Library Plug-ins for the software of third parties such as the PLC programming suite.

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Moreover, the developer needs to offer an established supportservice with a response time of maximum 24 hours on weekdays. The developers must present a website with valid contact data.

After verification of the URCaps by Universal Robots, the developers will receive access to the +YOU online forum, where they can exchange questions and ideas. All members of the community will receive access to the company-internal developer support, which will assist (if necessary) in developing a market mature URCaps application. Additionally, the URCaps Software Development Kit can be downloaded free-of-charge. Software release reduces implementation time Alongside the launch of Universal Robots+, a new update for the robot arm’s operating software has been published. The new release (Software Version 3.3) includes updates such as the Profinet IO device functionality. The new compatibility with Profinet protocols opens up numerous additional areas of deployment and activities for robots. “A key feature of the update supporting the Universal Robots+ platform is the ability for providers to now offer solutions that interface seamlessly with the UR software,” said Østergaard. Until now, the software enabling communication between developer applications and the UR robot arms had to be implemented by using relatively complex script code, which is time consuming and a difficult task for the majority of end users to handle. As the Software Version 3.3 now consists in parts of open source software, the developers can implement their software as an addon, reducing the time needed for implementation at the end customer’s

premises significantly, thus reducing both price and potential risks. Availability Universal Robots+ and the +YOU forum are accessible now at universal-robots.com/plus and universal-robots.com/developer. The first URCaps are already on display in the Universal Robots+ Showroom. DW Universal Robots www.universal-robots.com

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Bring Your Machine To Life With Custom Motors Aerotech can partner with you to design a custom motor optimized for your specific application at a minimized price. In our concept machine above, the legs utilize both rotary and linear motion requiring special motor designs. For both the rotary and linear motion, we would customize the motor’s mechanical characteristics (torque/force, length, width, height) as well as the electrical characteristics (bus voltage, resistance, inductance, pole pitch, and current) required for the application. Aerotech can accommodate your custom motor requirements even for low-volume projects. If you have an application requiring minor customization, major customization, or a completely new motor design, contact Aerotech today.

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Ro b o t i c s

Small robot family grows for quick handling in tight spaces Edited by Mary C. Gannon • Senior Editor

After releasing its Racer3 robot last year, Comau is once again expanding its small robot family for quick applications in restricted spaces, including handling, assembly and pick-and-place operations. Two new robots—Racer5-0.63 and Racer5-0.80—are both controlled by the R1C 19-in. rack-mounted controller, which can be integrated into a single cabinet to control an entire line. The robots are also available in the openROBOTICS version where the robot is directly integrated into the existing machine/line automation controlled by B&R technologies. Comau first launched this small machine robot solution last June with the launch of the Racer3. Both robots are built on the Racer3 technological platform, thus offering solutions that share the same components and parts, in a strategy aimed at expanding the integrated range of robots.

Comau’s new Racer 5-0.63 robot builds off last year’s Racer3 model, but offers a longer reach of 630 mm for pick-and-place and handling applications.

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The Racer 5-0.80 here, and below, is similar to the Racer5-0.63 but has even longer reaches of 809 mm, with six axes of motion and repeatability of 0.03 mm.

The two new robots expand the capacity of Racer3 in terms of payload and reach. Racer5-0.63 offers a reach of 630 mm and payload of 5 kg. Racer5-0.80 is also rated for a payload of 5 kg, but has an extended reach of 809 mm. Like the original Racer3, the longer-reach Racer5 models feature a compact design manufactured from lightweight materials and offer great stiffness. The sleek, fluidic designs can all be mounted to the floor, ceiling or wall. All three Racer models feature six axes and repeatability of 0.02 mm for the Racer 3 or 0.03 mm for both Racer5 models. DW www.robotics.comau.com www.comau.com

October 2016

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AEROTECH ​​ Superior motion is at the heart of all controls development for Aerotech. Users can program in a variety of languages including G code, PLC (ladder, function block, and structured text), .NET (C#, VB.NET), C, MATLAB®, or LabVIEW®. All parameters and variables are settable or gettable at runtime and can be initialized statically with an off-line configurator. Aerotech will customize the controller for your needs with our plug-in architecture that allows special algorithms to be placed at the firmware, real-time OS, or the application layers. Plug-ins we already created include bar code algorithms, special encoder algorithms, and multiple settling criteria that can be monitored in your application code. Aerotech’s standard controller can control motion in seven segments for precise position, velocity, and acceleration. However, if this is not enough, we can create special trajectories that you can call from your program and that meet your exact motion needs.​

Phone: 412.963.7470 Email: sales@aerotech.com www.aerotech.com

DieQua Corporation Robotic Joints Need High Rigidity and Torque Density Robots and robotic positioners are required to provide precise movements to achieve their task. With cantilevered loads and quick movements, mechanical play and material torsion are enemies of accuracy. To maximize load capacity and increase cycle times you need a reduction unit with high torque density, zero backlash, and high rigidity for it’s size. The Spinea Twinspin is the solution. This revolutionary design has zero backlash along with high transmittable torque and the best rigidity for their size. 3 models are the smallest cycloidal reducers in the world, down to 50 mm diameter, which provides 3 times the end of arm performance over flex spline alternatives. 7 larger models, up to 300 mm diameter, are ideal for controlling axis motion in the other joints of robots with multiple degrees of freedom.

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Contact Info:

Contact Info: DieQua Corporation 180 Covington Drive Bloomingdale, IL 60108 Phone: 630-980-1133 www.diequa.com

October 2016

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Robotics Robotics

Harmonic Drive Ultra-flat, Zero-Backlash Gear Units The CSF-2UP gear unit is the newest model in the CSF mini-series product line. These new zerobacklash gear units have an ultra-flat configuration and feature a large cross-roller bearing with highmoment stiffness. Harmonic DriveÂŽ gear units are comprised of a zero-backlash gear integrated with a housing and precision output bearing. These new models are very lightweight and extremely flat. Utilizing a large cross-roller bearing at the output flange allows direct mounting of the load without the need for any additional support, enabling compact robot designs. These bearings have excellent axial and radial run-out characteristics and provide high load capacity as well as high-moment stiffness to achieve precise, repeatable positioning of the robot arm. The CSF-2UP mini gearheads are ideally suited for robotic joints, wheel drives or manipulators requiring an ultra-compact solution.

Contact info: Harmonic Drive LLC 247 Lynnfield Street Peabody, MA 01960 Toll Free: 800-921-3332 Tel: 978-532-1800 Fax: 978-532-9406 www.harmonicdrive.net

HELUKABEL USA HELUKABEL offers complete cable protection systems and cable routing systems for robotics. The systems are developed and manufactured as individual and special solutions, depending on the type of customer-required application. The product range includes dress package systems and associated systems for automation, handling, and spot welding, as well as gas-shielded and laser welding. HELUKABEL also offers robotic cables that are extremely resistant to mechanical stress, including BUS cables, control- and motor supply cables, and pre-assembled specialty cables. Contact HELUKABEL USA for more information.

Contact info: 1490 Crispin Drive Elgin, IL 60123 Phone: 847.930.5118 robotics@helukabel.com www.helukabel.com

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maxon precision motors, inc. Service Robots Use Flat Motors Service robots being designed for the disabled must be reliable, safe, and easy to use. Having the right motion system components is essential for these highly specific applications. Kinova Robotics (Quebec, Canada) turned to maxon motor to bring their engineering expertise when designing the Jaco2 Robotic Arm. The arm was designed using six joints from a shoulder-type joint through to a functional wrist joint. It moves around six degrees of freedom through the use of six lightweight and efficient flat maxon motors. Quiet operation of the motors only added to their overall appeal for the application, especially because of the human-robot interaction. All the motors in the arm are daisy-chained using a single cable that runs through the system. The tight form factor dictated the size and type of motor the company could use, and they were able to match their needs to maxon devices. For more details, visit www.maxonmotorusa.com

Contact info: maxon precision motors, inc. 101 Waldron Road Fall River, MA 02720 T: 508-677-0520 www.maxonmotorusa.com

MICROMO The Most Powerful DC Motor In Its Class For The Most Demanding Robotics Applications The 3890 CR DC Motor, the most powerful in its class, is just one of many FAULHABER technologies that drive demanding applications in robotics and automation. Its graphite commutation, powerful neodymium magnet and particularly high copper content in the FAULHABER rotor winding provide the compact 3890 CR Coreless DC motor with an enormous amount of power. For drives in applications such as autonomous robot systems, electromechanical orthotic systems and exoskeletons, high dynamics and torque in the smallest possible space are central requirements. In addition to the oneof-a-kind power density (rated torque per volume), the high efficiency of the 3890 CR series is also a decisive factor. Thanks to the further development of the commutation system, the motor achieves high service life values (even with extremely heavy loads). Since 1961, MICROMO has partnered with customers to deliver custom motion solutions across markets. How can the MICROMO Team help you deliver your next innovation to market first?

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Contact info: MICROMO 14881 Evergreen Ave. Clearwater, FL 33762 USA Phone: (800) 807.9166 www.micromo.com

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AH1215


Robotics

Universal Robots Robotics Within Reach Universal Robots has reinvented industrial robotics with flexible, collaborative robot arms. Innovative forcesensing technology makes the robot stops operating when encountering an employee, eliminating the need for safety guarding in most scenarios.  Unlike traditional industrial robots that stay hardwired in a cage, the lightweight UR Robots can be moved around, automating high mix low volume production runs. Programming is intuitive; simply grab the robot arm to teach the desired movement, or use the touch screen.  The Polyscope GUI runs on a Linux OS platform for easy customization of specific tasks and tools. Product portfolio includes the UR3, UR5 and UR10 robot arms named after their payloads in kilos, they all feature 0.1 mm repeatability and span in reach from 19.7” in to 51.2”. Sold in more than 50 countries worldwide, the average payback period for a Universal Robots is only 195 days, the fastest in the industry.

Contact info: Universal Robots USA, Inc. 5430 Data Court, Suite 300 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 United States Phone: +1 844.462.6268 Email: ur.na@universal-robots.com

Aerotech Cartesian Robots

Maximize Your Application Throughput

Aerotech supplies Cartesian robots for many of the world’s largest manufacturers. These systems are carefully engineered to provide superior performance in a variety of applications. With our extensive line of products, Aerotech can deliver the ideal gantry customized to meet your unique application requirements.

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• Minimal Tracking Error • Flexible and Configurable Options

• Laser Cutting and Welding • Laser Micromachining • PCB Marking • Photovoltaic Manufacturing • Printed Electronics • Profiling • Robocasting • Stencil Cutting

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Dedicated to the Science of Motion AH1215A-LPM

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Thank You We at Design World thank our charter advertisers from our first issue in 2006 for taking a chance on two guys with a dream. Ten years later, we are still dreaming and appreciate the chance to continue to work for the entire community.

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Vision for the future

Paul J. Heney Editorial Director @dw_editor

Looking to the future of AI What will the manufacturing world be like in 2026? How will it be different? How will the job of a design engineer change? A lot of people will guess that something we’re well aware of today—such as 3D printing or nanotechnology or the Internet of Things—will explode and take over some aspect of manufacturing, if not the entire enterprise. While such a thing is certainly possible, and maybe even likely, I surmise that something totally new will be what we’re talking about in a decade. The jumps we’ve seen in technology over the last generation or two have mostly consisted of things that were almost unimaginable only a few years prior. My gut feeling is that Artificial Intelligence will be the major change agent for our careers, but not in the “humanoid robots are taking over” way that TV and movies like to focus on. Instead, I think that AI will have evolved online to create a whole new suite of tools that engineers will use in designing systems—tools so complex that we can hardly even envision them today. Perhaps you’ll describe every variable you know—say loads, speeds, physical dimensions, the task that is being completed—and the system will spit out the two or three

most intelligent solutions. You’ll be able to select the one that best fits your vision. Then, through a process that would appear to an engineer today as chatting with a coworker, questions will be asked about more specifications, how soon we need the system to be built, and other issues, and the final system design will be more and more refined. The process could allow us to select a single component— say, a hydraulic cylinder or an electric linear actuator—that best fits into our existing system. Maybe we’re revamping a process, or maybe we’re simply looking for a more efficient product to fit in that space. AI will take a lot of the specifying tasks—not to mention factoring in price and delivery, if we so wish—off of our shoulders. Maybe this AI will learn over time, so the tools that you use in your job will learn your specific preferences and understand industry regulations, safety protocols, your customers’ needs, and more. Again, all of this seems impossibly complex to today’s engineer—there are too many variables, each with a different weight, and untold billions of possibilities. But computing power, Big Data’s growth online and the relentless evolution of AI may well converge in some quite interesting ways for the design engineer of 2026. Stay tuned.

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Leslie Langnau Managing Editor @dw_3dprinting

Technology forward Can you think differently? The signs are here. Additive manufacturing is already demanding that users think differently. The Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence make the same demand. In the next ten years, the question of whether additivemanufacturing machines can be used for production will be definitively answered. They will. Already, major vendors are introducing this next phase of additive manufacturing. Ten years from now, additive machines will handle large parts of five to ten meters routinely, and produce them quickly. But the quest to use these machines for mass production, replacing older subtractive technology, will be abandoned. Ten years from now we will have many engineers who will have grown up with today’s 3D printers, learning how to think differently, to think “additively.” The creativity of these engineers, in turn, will help advance the capabilities of additive machines even further. For example, not only will additive manufacturing machines print their own replacement and upgraded parts, they will do so for traditional manufacturing machines and processes. And on top of that, additive technology will initiate an era of new materials, ones stronger, and engineered for specific purposes. Already some engineers are beginning to explore this possibility. Virtual reality will aid engineers in developing these materials as well as new products. Concurrently, a form of what we call artificial intelligence will be in every machine, whether it’s for subtractive or additive processes. Artificial Intelligence will usher in a huge development phase. The seeds of it are already happening as IoT connectivity is added to any and every device. The addition 132

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of “smarts,” courtesy of AI, makes every product new again. Instead of being viewed as intelligence with the potential to rival human capabilities, AI will be viewed more as “smartness,” and used to supplement a person’s need for information retrieval or storage. The Internet of Things (IoT) will play a key role in this future. But, notes Kevin Kelly, author of The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future, the internet will be more of a web presence that you relate to rather than a “place,” (such as cyberspace) visited through a connecting device. This combined AI/IoT will enable devices to diagnose themselves, upgrade themselves, and take over many functions and tasks employees handle now. A key skill for employees in the next ten years will be how well they work with all of this automation. Between now and then, the need will be for software algorithms to develop this future. For example, algorithms and computation now do much of the work physical camera glass lenses used to do in today’s smart phones. As engineers learn to describe more actions through algorithms, such software will replace more physical devices. Thinking, and in particular, thinking differently, will be the differentiator behind successful companies. Noted Kelly, “In a super-connected world, thinking different is the source of innovation and wealth.”

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Vision for the future

Leland Teschler Executive Editor @dw_leeteschler

Robots will build spacecraft in orbit The days of launching complete satellites and similar extraterrestrial objects into orbit may be numbered. Instead, orbiting robots will construct them in space. The basic principles of this concept are being perfected by a company called Tethers Unlimited Inc. in Bothell Wash. under a NASA contract. Tethers’ SpiderFab: Architecture for On-Orbit Construction of Kilometer-Scale Apertures, will enable onorbit fabrication of super-large objects such as antennas, solar panels, trusses, and other multifunctional structures. In ten years, Tethers expects to perfect the technology to a degree that will make possible self-fabricating, selfassembling satellites. Techniques for building satellites in space eliminate the need to design-in enough ruggedness to survive the severe vibrations and g levels of an earth launch. Tethers CEO Rob Hoyt says a significant fraction of today’s engineering cost and launch mass goes toward launch survivability. Additionally, large structures built to be orbited today need hinges, latches, and other complex mechanisms so they can expand once in place. Eliminating these components reduces the parasitic mass of the structure. Besides, approaches involving deployable structures and inflatable components generally run out of steam for space systems that must expand beyond several dozen meters. TUI’s approach is to borrow ideas from additive manufacturing and automated assembly technologies. This will let NASA use small, low-cost launch vehicles to deploy systems dramatically larger than possible with current stateof-the-art technologies. One of TUI’s ideas is called the trusselator. It is a machine that uses 3D printing and robotic assembly to fabricate long, high-performance truss structures. One aim is www.designworldonline.com  

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for the trusselator to construct large support structures for systems such as multi-hundred-kilowatt solar arrays, large solar sails, and football-field-sized antennas. There are problems with 3D printing in space, though. Most terrestrial additive manufacturing uses gravity to help position and bond each material layer to those laid down previously, a feat not possible in the microgravity of space. But the lack of gravity also lets structures be built up in any direction without concern for distortions such as the drooping of long, thin members. So supports for overhangs and delicate structures would be unnecessary in space. This opens up possibilities for 3D-printing sparse structures of slender elements in a way analogous to how a spider spins its web. The firm is also developing a compact, dexterous robotic arm. The aim is to equip robots with fabrication heads. In space, the robots will translate across the component under construction and position structural elements for assembly. They’ll then fabricate structural elements using special tools. One tool is called an extruder spinneret. It converts spools of wound yarn or tape into high-performance composite tubes or trusses. It then uses another tool called a joiner spinneret that adapts 3D printing to create high-strength bonds between the structural elements. Once the support structure is complete, the robots will crawl around the structure and apply elements such as reflectors, membranes, meshes, or other components to the support structure.

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Lisa Eitel Senior Editor @DW_LisaEitel

Driverless cars a done deal If you’re leery about riding in a car sans steering wheel, you’ve got company. But everyone from Google and Apple to Tesla Motors and Uber to Delphi and Daimler to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is banking on the coming tide of autonomous vehicles. Cars ruled this year’s Consumer Electronics Show, and in 2017 they’ll get a designated Autonomous Vehicles Marketplace. Audi engineers showcased zFAS controllers and how they’ve optimized radar sensors for drive-assist functions (which in turn are proving grounds for autonomous-vehicle utilities). Likewise, Ford detailed its driverless fleets’ use of lightbased LiDar PUCKs from Velodyne, $8,000 3D sensor arrays that scope areas to 200 meters at centimeter-level accuracy in realtime, with more than two million data points per second. Most innovative is their replacement of spinning lasers with solid-state sensors. In fact, three main sensing technologies—cameras, radar of various scopes, and LiDar—give today’s autonomous vehicles environmental feedback. These complement controllers running algorithms based on recorded tracks of machine learning called deep learning—a relatively new branch of adaptive programming—to navigate countless driving scenarios involving traffic signs, road conditions, vehicles, and pedestrians. Ever-improving vehicle-to-vehicle communications, superfast wiring architectures, advanced navigational mapping, and artificial intelligence spurred by military applications and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) competitions are other options for autonomous-vehicle automakers. As there’s commonality between the smarts of self-driving and electric car functions, many predict a specific trend towards driverless electric cars.

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BMW, Toyota, GM, and Nissan say they’ll offer autonomous cars by 2020 or sooner. U.S. Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx anticipates self-driving cars in use globally by 2025. So within the next decade, driverless-car technology will come to change the way we move about the world—and change how we conceptualize transportation. It will eliminate jobs associated with movement of goods ... and force truck and taxi drivers to yield (pun intended) to efficiency. It will give new mobility to the elderly and disabled. It will streamline delivery services and roadway policing. It will bestow more free time to commuters and enable flexible carsharing. It will (with anonymized traffic feedback to the cloud) prompt optimization of roadways and related infrastructure. It will abolish parking-lot space hunting and prompt the insurance industry to resize itself. Most importantly, self-driving technologies will prevent some of the million-plus automobile deaths caused annually by driver confusion, distraction, frustration, and drunkenness. On Valentine’s Day this year, a Google car collided with a bus in a minor traffic accident. No one was hurt, but this first-ever fleet failure underscores that no technology outputs perfect results. As we adjust to autonomous vehicles on our roads, the tragic inevitability of roadway deaths will confront us with that limitation. When this happens, let us remember how driverless cars will save a great many more from the perils of human error. By 2026, new AI we can’t now fathom will make our most dangerous daily activity safer, all thanks to their use in driverless cars.

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Vision for the future

Miles Budimir Senior Editor @dw_motion

Sorry, but technology won’t save us Is technology our friend or foe? Is it here to save us or to help finish us off? The questions seem urgent given that there is growing anxiety over some recent directions in technological development, particularly the rise of automation. Automation, in the form of both robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) and the increasing decision-making power of these systems, has the potential to make disruptive societal impacts. And certainly the situation looks grim. With a growing world population and ever-increasing automation, the trend is towards less jobs and tasks for humans to do and more for machines and automation. So if technology won’t save us, what will? A conscious decision to think and act differently, to adjust our values to align with common human and global goals, chief of which is survival. The problem isn’t a lack of technology but our alltoo-human nature, favoring shortsighted short-term interests, satisfying short-term needs, not thinking long term, etc. But also our excessive pride, greed, pettiness, and so on through the long catalog of human folly. As for AI, there is a budding interest in its long-term social and economic consequences, such as the impact on jobs for humans. In fact, some of Silicon Valley’s tech elites are even proposing something like a basic guaranteed income for everyone as a viable solution, an idea also championed by R. Buckminster Fuller back in the 1960s.

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What’s more, recently tech giants Microsoft, Google, Amazon and a few others have formed a group to address ethical issued raised by AI. The goal is to work towards a standard of ethics for the creation of artificial intelligence based on the potential impact of AI on jobs, transportation, and warfare. Such efforts recognize the need for a balance between technological development and our human limitations. Our basic problem is this; technology may change, rapidly and in surprising and unforeseen ways, but the humans that use it haven’t changed all that much over the years. Recognizing this basic fact protects against the twin illusions of technological utopianism on the one hand (a blind trust in the view that technology is always wonderful and beneficial, with no thought given to consequences) and a psychological fatalism on the other hand (that is, that human nature is unchanged and that therefore we are doomed to repeat the same mistakes over and over again.) The broader point may simply be to not lose sight of the human. To not give ourselves over to fascination with technology. If we’re to remain human, we must be in charge of our technological development, not the other way around. And the way to do this is to plan and design and act with broader human and societal values in mind. Our future depends on it.

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Mary Gannon Senior Editor @dw_marygannon

A new (and old) way to look at STEM education I am a big believer in the need of a good education for all young people. And there has been so much STEM hype over the last 10 years or so. As such, you’d think that I believe that we should encourage these young people to pursue as much post-secondary education in science, technology, mathematics, or engineering as possible. But I’m not. As manufacturing continues to rapidly evolve with automation and AI—and as the current college format skids towards a bursting bubble of backbreaking debt— something is going to change. It has to. Perhaps we will see a return to greater prominence of the technical school, where students can gain handson experience in machine operations and designs. For example, statistics shared by The Atlantic in 2014 indicated that only about 5% of American youth train in apprenticeship programs, while in Germany, that number is about 60% and there, these apprentices both study and work at the same time. In the U.S., trade school training is viewed as necessary only for kids who can’t or don’t want to go to college, but in Germany, this idea is the best way to develop talent. What an ingenious idea. This could lead to skilled labor entering the workforce to operate and maintain the complex, automated machinery that is key to modern manufacturing. Or perhaps some of these students will discover a passion for machinery design and move forward to traditional fouryear colleges, where they will study engineering.

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I would love to see more partnerships between manufacturers and four-year college institutions and technical schools. I am not sure why the apprenticeship idea has gone away in American manufacturing. If it still has a place in many other trades, however, I don’t see why more manufacturers don’t invest in future employees by teaching them the skills they will need to operate, maintain, design and build the machines of the future. This sometimes is a much better path for a 17- or 18year old who may not have a career in mind. Especially in a field where nearly 75% of all holders of bachelor’s degrees in STEM disciplines don’t have jobs in STEM occupations, says a 2014 U.S. Census Bureau report. Perhaps those students bought into the STEM hype without being truly passionate about those fields. Or perhaps they were not as prepared to enter the fields as they could have been. But with more hands-on technical training in the post-secondary arena, we could begin to see qualified, passionate engineers abound who are going to design the next big thing. A revolution is coming in post-secondary education. And looking forward to 2026, it makes sense that the ideamakers, the designers, the inventors, will be the ones to push that particular needle forward.

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Vision for the future

Mike Santora Associate Editor @dw_mikesantora

Old component, new tricks: the future for mature technologies There is no shortage of new engineering concepts in 2016. But there are components (bearings, couplings, hoses etc.) where it has been years, if not decades, since we’ve seen major design advances. By now, many of these motion system staples are old standbys and the improvements are more incremental in nature. Plus, customization bridges the gap for any application-specific nuances in an engineer’s design. So what does the future bring for the components that already have everything? Better materials and better connectivity. In interview after interview, design engineers tell me that materials and data communication are the areas where mature system components have the most room for growth. Interest in developing completely new designs isn’t going away—but getting better products to market even faster seems to be the immediate trend. Like it or not, the Internet of things is going to be even more important in the next few years. And it’s going to cost—talk is cheap, but not between machines. Even with the dollars and cents of better communication still, most companies are on board. Even the holdouts that are lukewarm on IoT’s ROI potential seem to be coming around. Right now, the IoT is being used not just for connecting design engineers with better component data on the manufacturing floor, but for also expediting the path to the end in end user—supply chains will be more efficient from start to finish. That’s good business.

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How will this be achieved? I expect we’ll see the “sensing” and “responding” elements of the IoT equation crystallizing the customer’s view of real-time supply. Artificial Intelligence might also refine its component selection skills for its human engineer. Overall, the tracking of a product from purchase to delivery will be more transparent than ever. This could mean reduced delivery times and better anticounterfeiting procedures. From refrigerators to phones, and more, products everywhere have felt the pressure to get smart. Materials themselves are no different. On the bleeding edge, researchers at Washington State University recently developed a new material that has shape memory behavior, self-healing behavior, and light-activated movement...in one material. Perhaps we could see a material like this coating a ball bearing; Brinelling “healed” by the bearing itself at increased temperatures? Or perhaps machine components preprogrammed to unfold or retract automatically at specific temperatures? It’s hard to even know where to begin. I’m confident though, that the upcoming years will provide all the creative application ideas that I’ve failed to list here myself. In the next decade, we’ll learn to use stronger, lighter, better version of old components, and we’ll learn to make them communicate more efficiently. Which looks promising for the motion system parts you may have thought were all out of fresh material.

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Scott McNeil Global Engineering Director, ACE Controls

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why?

A: 3D or Additive Manufacturing is maturing and will be used increasingly as the costs come down. It will be especially applicable in a field like aerospace or where custom and low volume products like ours are required. At this time the balance between cost, strength and quality is not where it needs to be for our business. We follow this field closely and are testing prototypes so that we will be informed. Historically, new manufacturing methods have led to disruptive changes in industry so we must be prepared. The Internet of Things/Industry 4.0 will likely have a big impact as it brings more of a prognostic approach to manufacturing and quality. The system will be able to communicate the optimal time when machines need maintenance. At the same time maintenance cycles can be extended without the risk of machine damage and unplanned downtime. Use of robotics will increase. The challenges will be training enough workers with the right skills and dealing with the displacement of lower skilled workers. We need to prepare more young people for these roles and for the trades in general. These are great careers that should be well paid and highly respected. We need to change the mind-set that everyone has to get a four-year degree.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade?

A: A materials scientist once said to me that all engineering

The future of chrome plating is under some discussion and could conceivably be banned in the future. Imagine the impact on the materials world from one thing like that. Use of plastics will increase as the strengths improve.

Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing?

A: In the near term I am a big supporter of onshoring. As production costs rise in China and other countries, as shipping costs increase and with heightened security risks, are we going to keep chasing around the world to the next low cost location? Hopefully not with high value added products. We also learn that product development suffers when engineers are not colocated with manufacturing. Our engineers are on the floor every day working with manufacturing to improve the product. This is especially important for advanced products that are still evolving. Additionally it is critical for our national security that we maintain strong capabilities in our country.

Q: What have you learned about your business in the last ten years that would have shocked/surprised you ten years ago?

A: That in spite of all the high-tech advances like 3D, simulation, IoT, etc., most good development stems from strong basics in the areas of staffing, communication, planning, testing, investing wisely and generally good solid practices. It is similar to how blocking and tackling wins championships in football yet quarterbacks receive most of the attention. The most important thing is to have good people on your team and to utilize their talents.

advances stem from materials advances. It seemed extreme at the time but has held up surprisingly well. We are always looking for new materials to address the challenges that our products face like extreme temperatures, corrosive environments, smaller packaging, longer life, etc. One challenge we have are designs that work well in salt water and the high pressures found at the bottom of the ocean. 138

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Download CAD files or our product sizing software at: www.acecontrols.com

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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Don Macleod President/CEO Applied Motion Products, Inc.

Technology Convergence in The Machine The future of motion control devices will be defined by the convergence of multiple technologies into a single device. High performance magnetics, power electronics, processors, software, communications, sensors and wireless technology will combine within 10 years to enable devices functioning as part of a broad network to operate intelligently in localized systems while being highly aware of their own status and that of the immediate environment. Magnetic materials have been known for over 2000 years but it was the development of Alnico (Aluminum, Nickel, Cobalt) alloys in the 1940s that resulted in widespread application of permanent magnets in motors. The subsequent development of Samarium alloys followed by Neodymium in the 1980s through year 2000 has pushed magnetic energy product up an order of magnitude. This combined with other developments in materials like electrical steels and insulation systems has resulted in the application of permanent magnet machines to devices that today affect all walks of life. Semiconductor technology developments have had a similar revolutionary effect on stepper motor drives. Early models with bipolar power devices were controlled with TTL logic circuits comprising perhaps a few dozen transistors. Today advanced super large scale integrated MOS based processors containing in excess of 1 million transistors control every aspect of the drive providing the capability to execute complex control algorithms with significant memory availability for the retention of programs and data. This has had a profound impact on motion control with processor supervision now integral to every element of motor

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operation including overall control, position, velocity and torque loops, current control, communication with external systems and accessory functions such as input/output signaling. As the motor drive begins to look more like a computer they are being more closely integrated into connected to networks, receiving and following commands, communicating status and reacting adaptively to predefined local environmental conditions. Projecting forward it is most likely that a further integration or convergence is about to take place. This is the inclusion of sensors such as MEMS based accelerometers, transducers, and wireless communications technology. The example of a mobile phone has shown that a device loaded with even a few sensors (microphone, camera, GPS) some powerful processing capacity and the ability to store data, can be programmed to achieve an infinite variety of tasks including most that were never foreseen during the development of the device itself. As these trends play out, motion control products will be deployed in networked arrays, providing real time feedback on their environment, interacting with each other, aware of each other’s status and operation and making intelligent decisions. Technology convergence will turn a motion control system into a true cyber physical device operating in a connected cyber physical system performing autonomous tasks many of which will not become apparent until after the convergence is complete. On the unexpected consequences of technology it was Thomas Edison that said “Just because something doesn’t do what you planned it to do doesn’t mean it’s useless.”

October 2016

10/6/16 12:50 PM


A

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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Pamela Kan President Bishop Wisecarver

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the

Q: What have you learned about managing innovation in the

better in the next 10 years, and why?

past ten years?

A:

A: Is it possible to truly “manage” innovation? You can’t call a

IIOT/Sensors – The data and knowledge we will be able to acquire from our internal process to how our products are being used will be staggering and will change much about how we think and manufacture our products.

meeting and force people to be innovative. I’m learning that innovation is more a result of culture and company environment where people are encouraged to be creative and take time to experiment. The companies that create some of the most innovative ideas truly celebrate failure, which can be tough to instill into many work cultures. Most of us have a some level of fear around failure and making mistakes, but these are valuable learning experiences to leverage on the next try. Reading “The Medici Effect” by Frans Johansson was a turning point for my views on innovation. The whole work environment is changing to allow cross functional collaboration and more interaction with the daily manufacturing process and the end product that the company is producing. Innovation requires thinking and ideas from all areas of the business. However, most traditional manufacturing offices were not architecturally designed to allow for easy collaboration or spontaneous meet ups. The production floor is no longer the main hub where all design and engineering discussions take place. We are creatively working around these design challenges to develop spaces where team members from all areas of the company can meet together. For the last two years I have attended Peter Diamondis’ Abundance 360 Summit and once you start to look at business through the lens of the “6 Ds of exponential thinking” your thoughts on innovation really shift. Innovation isn’t just about the product or service being sold, but more about who is making it, who is selling it, and how the workforce changes to the overall business model. Innovation touches both the front stage and back stage of a successful business model.

Material Sciences – We are on the edge of some massive disruptions from the development of new materials. We can’t even comprehend the changes these materials will create. From opening up new product designs and product capabilities, to radically new ways of manufacturing our products - this area really excites me. Additive Manufacturing Processes – We are already seeing the cost impacts of incorporating additive production. We all strive for less waste in our processes and fundamentally, this is much more efficient. When you add in the ability to use new materials that are being developed, the process will become even more viable for many more uses. Robotics/Automation – While many news reports would say it is negative for people to be replaced by robots and automation, it is inherently better in the long term that highly repetitive or repeatable tasks be achieved through these technologies. These type of tasks ultimately take a toll on the human workers performing them, not only from the repetitive stress injuries that are on the rise, but also from a job satisfaction perspective. Workers want to have mental challenges and successes. What we need to focus on is educating the next generation so they can help build, program, and manage the robots doing the automated tasks. Autonomous transport – Logistics will have radical improvements as humans are not required for the movement of goods. Goods will move faster, more efficiently, and with less risk of injury or damages.

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10/6/16 1:05 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Scott Hibbard Vice President of Technology Bosch Rexroth Corporation

Open Core Engineering Adds New Freedom to Machine Automation Programming In a world of machine automation programming, there has been an ongoing effort to make programming languages and platforms easier to use, more accessible, and more “open” to speed machine commissioning. And while standards such as IEC61131 and PLC open have helped improve machine automation programming, “open” is a relative term. Many programmers are well-versed in standard programming languages like C++, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), and Java, or mobile platforms such as Android and Apple iOS. When they start working in an industrial environment, they must learn to program automation applications using languages specific to industrial controls, often based on ladder logic. These programmers may have innovative ideas for new applications that can be created with higher-level languages commonly used in the IT world. But translating those ideas into applications using traditional PLC programming tools can be difficult and time consuming. Open Core Engineering is a new approach to machine automation programming that combines the previously separate environments of PLC platforms and IT programming into one comprehensive software portfolio. With Open Core Engineering, the PLC “core” kernel is opened to enable programmers who use IT industry standard development tools such as C++, VBA and Java to create automation functions and applications, as an alternative to utilizing IEC61131 and PLCopen programming environments. Open Core Engineering is based on a portfolio of software tools, function packages and support for higher-level languages. It helps streamline the automation engineering workflow, from initial configuration to actual production operations. Detailed and time-consuming

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machine process programming can now be replaced by a simple assignment of parameters. Although it was previously possible to create automation applications and motion sequences using higher level languages (instead of PLC/IEC 61131-compliant tools), the process of integrating the programs written in those higher-level languages could be convoluted and difficult to accomplish efficiently. If a machine builder wanted to include a new type of remote diagnostic capability for example, building that capability into the machine’s operating system using standard PLC programming languages might not be easy, and integrating it into the PLC may require added resources such as the purchase of a specialized translation module, revisions to PLC firmware or support from an outside PLC programming consultant. For external applications, a library of Open Core Engineering functions utilizes a programming interface (Open Core Interface) to allow programmers to create high-level language-based applications that communicate directly to the core of the PLC. Up to this point, PLC authoring platforms have typically been standards-based proprietary systems, custom-designed by PLC controls providers. Open Core Engineering will “open” up a new range of possibilities for flexibility and productivity. It means more innovation, as software professionals and programmers who are experienced with technologies like mobile platforms and smartphones will not necessarily need to become experts in IEC 61131 PLC programming languages. The end result is that OEMs and end-users will have a wider range of programming ability to improve machine automation performance.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:34 PM


You're ready. We're set. Let's move. IMS: Glass scale precision in less space.

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10/6/16 1:51 PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Chuck Extrand, PhD Director of Research Colder Products Company

Q:

What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why? A: Today, product quantities and complexity dictate whether manufacturing is relatively manual or highly automated. With expanded automation, the mid-range of manufacturing options should grow. Machines capable of building hundreds of distinct parts will make smaller orders economically feasible. More sophisticated sensors in equipment will provide engineers better information and improved control over manufacturing processes and output. Simulation software, which is becoming easier to use yet more comprehensive, will drive component design optimization resulting in faster, betterinformed decisions during product development and lower per-unit costs. Design cycles will shorten with more iteration happening virtually.

Q:

How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade? A: Device makers already modify surfaces and employ materials to tailor strength, stiffness, wettability and other characteristics for their unique requirements. For example, PEEK (polyetheretherketone) offers good chemical resistance and excellent wear after exposure to both high water pressure and temperature. The connectors attached to PEEK tubing must withstand the same performance specifications otherwise devices may leak, malfunction or fail. We will continue to innovate to ensure our connectors are compatible as materials evolve.

Q:

What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing? A: Mass customization will broaden. Young engineers are used to customization in their lives—cars, athletic gear and computers built to individual specifications. They expect products tailored to their needs. CPC has successfully supplied custom products for years, but that work will change as automation enables greater speed and economy in delivering tailored solutions.

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Q:

Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, what’s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)? A: Five years ago, less than 20% of our prototypes were 3D printed. Today, that number exceeds 90%. After a design is approved, we can turn around a prototype in a day or two, saving tooling time and expense and helping customers better understand how the part will fit into their product and manufacturing processes. To move into full-scale manufacturing of our connectors via 3D printing, though, the strength, reliability, thermal performance and chemical compatibility of 3D printing materials must start approaching the performance levels of injection-molded parts.

Q:

What have you learned about managing innovation in the past ten years? A: We’ve all learned that stage gate models used in new product development aren’t great processes for innovation. Continuous improvement—and the willingness to experiment and fail—also fit well with being innovative. If you manage failure through the small steps of continuous improvement, then it’s not such a risky enterprise. Lastly, you need the right culture for innovation. CPC believes innovation extends beyond new product development and into testing, selling and manufacturing products. Anyone in CPC can submit “Big Ideas” on products, processes or any aspect of how we do business, benefitting both our company and customers.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:04 PM


Connect to something better. Using CPC connectors in your medical applications can mean the difference between connections that are safe, clean and fast and those that aren’t. Whether you’re looking for non-valved, non-spill, reusable or disposable— our team of 70+ design engineers can work with you to find the exact connectors for your needs—including custom-engineered options.

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Smart fluid handling to take you forward, faster. © 2016 Colder Products Company

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10/6/16 1:58 PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Haim Monhait Chief Executive Officer and Founder Elmo Motion Control

Era of lean machinery is upon us Machine manufacturers around the globe use Elmo Motion Control products in industries that demand performance, precision and consistency of operation. Today, we design and produce network-based motion controllers, intelligent digital servo drives, and efficient servo amplifiers for both brush and brushless motors. Elmo drives offer power density in extremely compact packages. Consider the SimplIQ for general-purpose motion control. It’s at the heart of our digital servo drives—offering motor feedback options, programming capabilities, and communication protocols in the smallest footprints in the world. We’re seeing a trend towards machines that are leaner, slimmer, and more agile—especially for applications in AGVs and other unmanned setups, manufacturing, and robotics. Such designs cut costs by replacing manual labor with automation. Elmo doesn’t serve these applications, but another manifestation of lean design instead—those that demand more throughput than ever. Consider how Elmo recently helped one manufacturer increase production to 100,000,000 parts per year, with even higher output planned for next year. The whole manufacturing process must be human free for a truly lights-out shop floor. Here, dozens of automated machines run inline while executing complex tasks in full coordination. Boosting throughput are machines that are smaller to save space, cut energy waste, minimize EMI, and maximize quality. Thanks in part to Elmo controls, this customer makes the same products with the same processes as before its adoption of full automation, but now with double the throughput. How? In short, Elmo supplies motion hardware and software for lean designs that are small and light but mighty in both power and intelligence. Elmo drives make power conversions with the best efficiencies in the industry. They have maximum electromagnetic compatibility and are easy to integrate because they mount anywhere and leverage network-based functional safety. 148

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In fact, safety contributes to lean industrial designs with integrated protection. Case in point: Elmo’s four-in-one packages are certified for IEC 61800-5-2 for adjustablespeed electrical power drive systems. Consider how an Elmo Mandolin—say a MAN-5/400EE or a combination with a MAN7/400EE—has a face area of 112 cm2 while typical servo drives on the market need 750 cm2 or more. That’s because the Elmo four-in-one drives need fewer connectors. In fact, the four-in-one has only one connector for feedback. All the rest is done via the EtherCAT—so even start-stop, limit switch, and general safety tasks use Functional Safety over EtherCAT (FSOE) capabilities. That way, the machine builder can significantly reduce the number of hardware connections. Everything works off the network. Plus builders avoid designing the servo drive to incorporate certified Functional Safety, which is often a torturous and expensive process. Elmo products also support Industry 4.0 (IoT) capabilities by turning machines into high-level-network communication devices. They operate, control, monitor, and support bidirectional data transfer and help maintain machine and human-operator safety. Mount It Anywhere functionality makes motors, switches, and other mechanical subsystems work as intelligent components that communicate with upper-level masters.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:33 PM


THE PERFECT MOTION FOR ANY APPLICATION Platinum Maestro, “Best in Class” Multi-Axis Controller

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10/6/16 1:59 PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Steve Dilts Business Development Manager for Key Accounts Encoder Products Company

In the 25 years I’ve worked in industrial manufacturing, I’ve seen some incredible advancements and innovation. As far as what we can expect in the next 10 years, it’s hard to narrow down, but here are 4 things that I see changing already, and that I think will continue to affect industry.

Moving forward, it’s conceivable that housings or other mechanical features could be tailored to a specific customer’s needs and 3D printed. And it holds promise as an alternative to injection-molded components. To be commercially viable, though, we’ll need some advances in material and speed of 3D printing, and I’m confident we’ll see that.

The Ubiquitous Internet of Things Does the IoT have staying power, or will it be overtaken by the next big thing? It’s really a manifestation of evolving sensor and communication technology, so I expect to see it mature into a mainstream feature of industry. Even today, a plant manager or engineer can use their iPad, tablet, or Smart Phone to check their machines’ stats, look at performance numbers, and find and fix bottlenecks. I think it’s a safe bet that device and machine level communication is only going to grow in scope and scale.

Ever-Shrinking Sensors Like most electronics, sensors are getting smaller and cheaper. As a result, it’s getting easier and more cost effective to distribute sensors throughout the manufacturing process – and even in the finished product. We’ll see an increase in the type and number of points of feedback. This in turn will help with performance monitoring and predictive maintenance, and provide more real-time feedback for on-the-fly optimization of manufacturing processes. And – back to the IoT – all those sensors will produce a flood of data that will need to be managed, processed, and analyzed, probably by a computer.

Jobs Opportunities in Robotics There’s no question that automation has taken over some jobs that were previously performed manually. But in all the laments about lost jobs, this is often over-looked: someone has to take care of the robots. Robots need to be programmed, set up, integrated, and maintained. Manufacturing and industrial jobs in the future will require more skilled labor, but will undoubtedly pay more. Automation will increase capacity, so I’d expect an increase in all the support positions for manufacturing and automation: purchasing, shipping and receiving, sales, marketing, etc. Moving forward, continued automation will help create different jobs – better jobs. Despite the tidal wave of innovation in the last ten years, though, some things have not changed. Customers – even Millennials – still want to be able to pick up a phone and get an honest, informed answer from an expert. Customers still want a quality product, and they want it fast. Industry may change, but people won’t.

3-D Printing For us, 3-D printing plays a vital role in product development. We can make prototypes quicker and cheaper than ever before. Even with the current limitation in materials, some initial functional testing can be completed with a 3-D printed prototype.

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October 2016

10/6/16 1:33 PM


Thankfully, some things NEVER change. There has been tremendous change, growth, and innovation in industry in the last 10 years. But some things have never changed, and never will. For almost 50 years, EPC has been providing encoder solutions for reliable motion feedback. We always have – and always will – provide you with:

Expert Technical Support

When you call EPC, you talk to engineers and encoder experts who will help you find what you need.

Highly-Configurable Encoders

Whether you need a linear encoder solution from our Tru-Trac™ line, a compact encoder module, or a solution from our full line of thru/hollow bore and shaft Accu-Coders™, we’ll get you the right encoder, custom configured for your application.

Industry-Best 3-Year Warranty

EPC is known for exceptional quality and we’ve got a 3-year warranty to back it up.

Fast Lead Times

We offer same day shipping on many models – and our standard lead time is just 4 to 6 days.

Call us today. We’ll help you find the motion feedback solution you need.

Visit us in Booth S2470

1-800-366-5412 • www.encoder.com

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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Praveen Pothapragada President Equipto Electronics Corporation

Future of Electronics Packaging Industry An Airforce pilot can now conduct a critical UAV mission halfway across the globe from an Airforce base on the west coast. An engineer can optimize the stroke of an oil pump from the comfort of his office without being on the oil rig. A student can find the fastest public transportation route to his morning class using real-time data by just installing an app on his cell phone. Retailers can monitor inventory levels of each SKU across all the stores worldwide just with the push of a button. A doctor can now be part of a critical surgery from another continent. My ten year old son can write a paper on an ancient culture without ever setting foot in a public library. Electronics have evolved beyond our imagination. One of our greatest accomplishments in the past thirty years is that we can now have the information we desire at our finger tips and are able to maintain control of critical systems off-site from the comfort of our home or office. Mark Twain once said, “The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior”. Examples above show us how electronics have evolved in the recent past. As engineers, our first priority for the past thirty years has been building smaller and better electronic systems. Packaging those critical state-of-the-art electronic systems, in the past, was mostly an afterthought. However, the vulnerabilities of electronic systems in recent times to different man-made and natural forces have emphasized the importance of Electronic Packaging. Electronic packaging in the next ten years is going to be a multi-billion dollar industry that is going to be more than providing a structure that is ergonomically appealing

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to our customer. The future of the industry will now include hard specifications from the start of concept that consider weight, shock, vibration, ventilation, radio frequency noise reduction, suppression of electromagnetic emissions and most importantly protection from Electromagnetic Pulse. The Electronics packaging industry is at a critical juncture and has to make more innovative choices to keep up with the enormous growth and challenges of these new age electronic systems. The process begins with choosing the right material for the enclosure. The material is not steel, stainless steel or aluminum by default. Striking the right balance between cost, weight and other specifications, composites in the future will have a significant share in the market. Automation in manufacturing is necessary to face the rising cost of healthcare, standards of living and competition from overseas. Since no two electronics are the same, automation should be flexible to the needs of different electronic systems. Gone are the days where we can say “you can have any color you want as long as it is black”. Now packaging should have colors that blend into the environment plus offer a wide variety of options such as environmentally responsible water based baked enamel, epoxies, powder coat and military CARC paints. The good news for the electronics packaging industry is that the industry will be growing in the next ten years keeping in pace with the growth in electronic control systems i.e. until SkyNET (from the Terminator movie) takes over.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:32 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Kirk Edwards Director of Sales & Marketing EXAIR Corporation

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why? A: 3D printing will certainly have a great effect on manufacturing with its potential to shorten supply chains, reduce or eliminate shipping costs and shorten lead times. Also, the reach of 3D printing will continue to expand within manufacturing as the breadth of materials which can be 3D printed increase.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade? New materials, specifically new materials in additive manufacturing, may lower the barrier to entry within underrepresented industries. Metals manufacturing will certainly take a leap forward as development of alloys and materials specifically for additive manufacturing continue.

A:

Q:

In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health? A: In 10 years the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will be nearing a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health.

Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing? A: Organizing and making sense of the big data/IoT revolution

How do you foresee Big Data changing the way you do business? A: Big data may result in hiring additional personnel to process, or reliance upon third party contractors to provide data sorting services. It can help us improve customer relations, increase efficiencies and identify areas of improvement.

Q:

What kind of work with people be doing after all the automation sets in? What jobs will be available in the future? A: Engineering will clearly remain an important part of automation, as will data scientists, and people who know coding. There will most likely also be a place for people who can help these other roles continue to learn and keep up with the fast moving pace of technology.

Q: What has surprised you most about your business over the past ten years?

A: Our ability to keep the momentum necessary to produce growth, manufacture new products, hire more people and maintain the highest level of service for our customers has been surprising.

Q: What have you learned about managing innovation in the past ten years?

will become increasingly important in order to identify every last opportunity for optimizing processes. Sourcing people to manipulate this information will become a top priority for many manufacturers.

A: That innovation can come from any source within the

Q:

company and managers should be keenly aware to recognize and encourage innovation at all levels.

Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)? A: If 3D printing continues to progress and becomes the lowest cost option for manufacturers, many companies will choose to use it as a process to produce their products.

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October 2016

10/6/16 1:03 PM


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@EXAIR

8/29/16 10/6/16 10:57 2:02 AM PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Jerry Walling Marketing and Business Development Fabco-Air, Inc.

Q:

What kind of work will people be doing after all the automation sets in? What jobs will be available in the future?

A: Automation is a never-ending process. Of course, industrial processes and automation has progressed significantly the past couple of decades. However, increased customer requirements and a fiercely competitive environment will keep the demand for progress high for a very long time. Subsequently, continued advancements in industrial automation will be required. The full gamete of engineering jobs, i.e., design, testing, manufacturing, etc. will continue to be in high demand. Sales people will continue to be the B2B conduit for these cutting-edge solutions and products.

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October 2016

10/6/16 1:02 PM


The Original Pancake® Air Cylinder significantly outperforms its imitator. The

ORIGINAL PANCAKE® . . .

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THICK WALL • Machined square to piston travel • Cross hatched and polished to hold lubrication.

Strokes from 1/16” to 4”

PISTON-TO-ROD JOINT • High strength threaded fastener • Loctited® and torqued. • Secure connection.

The

IMITATION . . .

ROD SEAL • Squeezed in between bushing parts. “Squeeze” effects friction and performance.

BUSHING • Press fit – NOT captured. • Has been known to break loose. • Only 4,500 psi load rated. PISTON-TO-ROD JOINT • Orbitally riveted • Potential failure point under high impact or fast cycle operation.

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Fabco-Air solves problems. Let us help! Fabco-Air 5-16 new.indd 157

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www.FABCO-AIR.com 10/6/16 2:03 PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Charles Cohen President Fotofab LLC

Fotofab Celebrates 50 Years of Serving Industry, and Looks to the Future Fotofab provides a wide range of high precision metal fabricating services to produce components with geometries from simple to very complex. Whether the mission is a quickturn prototype to a high-volume production run, Fotofab has been satisfying engineers for five decades. And while our core competency has not changed over that time, the technology of our production tools continues to evolve. As we look to our next decade, we see opportunities for our customers to benefit from our unrivaled experience. Today, Fotofab is highly regarded by our customers for being responsive to their needs for product quality, quick response times and highly knowledgeable customer service. Located on Chicago‘s Northwest Side, our main plant houses multiple etching machines, and a thoroughly equipped CAE/ CAD department. Our tooling, forming and stamping facility is located in Elk Grove Village, a short drive from our main facility. We are proud to have earned our ISO 9001:2008 certification and are diligently working on our AS9100 certification, which is projected for June 2017 implementation. What changes do we see over the next ten years? Fotofab will continue to invest in the latest technologies for ongoing improvement. Advances in CAD systems will help engineers simplify design tasks and shorten the overall project cycles. Gradual manufacturing refinements will help speed production, while maintaining the company’s well known tight tolerances. We are also seeing greater customer emphasis on environmental issues. Fotofab had anticipated this growing trend and is well positioned to satisfy these customer concerns. We are particularly proud to have been commended by government regulatory agencies for our environmental

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compliance and cooperation. Fotofab believes that to achieve long-term growth, we must be good stewards of the environment. We constantly work toward making our manufacturing process cleaner, safer and even more respectful of our country’s natural resources. Looking forward to our customers’ applications – the trend in the electronics industry is for smaller, lighter and more efficient products with even tighter tolerances. For example, in order to make power supplies smaller, they must operate at higher frequencies, creating a greater need for shielding and heat dissipation. Our processes can satisfy those needs. Be it medical, aerospace, electronics or any other market, customer companies will continue to push out more new designs faster than ever. Fotofab takes pride in being able to stay a step ahead of our customers’ needs with affordable, quick-turnaround custom parts for prototypes. In addition, we are well equipped in moving prototypes to laser production runs. Another area of change is with the types of metals our customers are asking us to fabricate. Exotic metals are required for some medical, aerospace and scientific applications, because of their unique properties. These same properties can be challenging when the metal is etched, stamped or formed. Fotofab has developed proprietary approaches to overcoming these challenges. In summary, Fotofab will continue to maintain close relationships with our customers and advance our capabilities to keep pace with their future needs.

October 2016

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Vision for the future

Toshiyuki Funaki CEO IDEC Corporation

Breakthrough technology: Creating new opportunities with ultrafine bubbles! Manufacturing control devices and systems for the past 70 years, IDEC has been able to capitalize on technologies accumulated over seven decades to create new business opportunities beyond factory automation. In recent years, we took a wide-ranging approach applying existing technologies and developing new technologies to find solutions for environmental and social needs centering on water, renewable energy, food and other elements essential to human survival. One of IDECâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s promising new technologies is the generation of ultrafine bubbles in liquid, which we named GaLF, short for Gas Liquid Foam. With respect to physical size, the term ultrafine bubble is defined by ISO Standards as a bubble with a diameter smaller than the wavelength of light. IDEC applied fluid dynamics and our control expertise to develop the GaLF system. The GaLF system automatically controls the utilization of ultrafine bubbles and is capable of producing air bubbles with a diameter of approximately 100 nanometers at a volume of over 100 million per milliliter of liquid. This is done at a stable rate, with the nanosize bubbles remaining in liquid for an extended time. They are electrically charged and highly pressurized. Our studies have shown these bubbles have unique characteristics and behaviors that have never been seen before.

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The special features of ultrafine bubbles have applications in many industries including food, cosmetics, chemical, medical, semiconductor and agriculture. As an early pioneer of this technology, IDEC began developing fine bubbles more than 20 years ago and has successfully applied the technology to purify contaminated soil and water, to make vegetables grow faster and more flavorful, to remove grease and oil from machine parts, to clean and separate silicon wafers for solar cells, and to wash people and pets with sensitive skin without the use of soap or shampoo. Companies in various industries are now experimenting with new applications using our equipment. Presently, Japan is leading this new industry, and IDEC is leading this fluid-dynamic based technology in size and volume of bubbles. The government-sponsored Fine Bubble Industries Association, which includes IDEC as a charter member, has been promoting the international standardization and commercial/ industrial applications of fine bubbles. This is important and urgently needed because there are so many fraudulent products in the market today, as these bubbles are not visible to the human eye or standard microscope. Once international standardization is adapted, this new innovative technology will lead to greater commercial and industrial applications on a global scale. IDEC is well positioned to be a leader in this exciting field.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:30 PM


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Vision for the future

Robert Winkler Chief Technology Officer, and member of the Office of the President John Winkler Jr. J.W. Winco Chief Executive Officer, and member of the Office of the President Mark Winkler Chief Financial Officer, and member of the Office of the President

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why? A: Continuing on the path to be leaner in our manufacturing processes, the reshoring initiatives and efforts to be even more competitive to be able to sell in this global market place, I believe the IoT / Industry 4.0 will play an important role in the technological changes that have and will further take place in the industry. The quest and requirements for even more detailed information, as well as being so connected to everything that has to do with our daily business, will create great opportunities within the manufacturing industry. Smaller (footprint), faster, more versatile, and highly accurate machines with even more advanced and intelligent manufacturing software are another area where we can excel. Running those machines in smaller manufacturing facilities, optimizing the space they are located in, integrating more robots / automation that can handle the speed and output of those machines while running them 24/7. Having the ability to run machine and tool life diagnostics, schedule maintenance, and track overall machine health 24 /7 via a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) sensor platform will enhance the predictability of the equipment life.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the

Printers are getting less costly due to higher sales of the machines, which in turn of course creates higher production volumes of the various machine types. Reducing costs to produce prototypes through 3D Printing and how quickly a product can now be brought to market gives us the ability to be flexible and versatile in the manufacturing on demand model.

Q: Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, what’s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, what’s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)? A: Yes, I could see some of our metal and plastic components, individually and within various assemblies, being manufactured via 3D printing. In order to accomplish this, 3D printers would have to become more of a production printer with more than the capacity of printing one part at a time. Of course, it would need to be a 100% completed part to tight tolerances with little or no modification other than it may require a plating process. Metal plating as an additive / over-molding process onto plastic is something already being done to help stabilize and strengthen products.

coming decade?

Q: What has surprised you most about your business over the

particular Component Parts business over the next decade, but for materials that may not have been required in some industries up to now, we are seeing a trend to upgrade those materials due to stricter regulations…using 303 stainless steel for example was okay before in certain industries, but now, more and more customers are asking for the higher grade of 304 and 316 stainless steel.

A: Through technology and training, we have the ability to

A: We are not yet certain on how new materials will affect our

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Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing? A: I believe 3D Printing is still a developing next big thing. 3D

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past ten years?

accommodate and process our customer’s requests and orders with pretty much the same amount of staff that we had 10 years ago. The massive amount of data entry into enormous distribution customer spread sheets we now have to do in order for us to have a chance to be considered a partner with those large entities.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:01 PM


Stainless Steel Machine Components

J.W. Winco, Inc. offers stainless steel parts for industry with very high corrosion resistance, hygienic properties, and the ultimate in material quality. Pictured is just a sampling of our products. Explore our full line at www.jwwinco.com or contact us with your application requirements. 2815 S. Calhoun Road New Berlin, WI 53151 Phone: 800-877-8351 Fax: 800-472-0670 Sales@jwwinco.com

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Vision for the future

John Stanczuk Vice President, Sales and Marketing Kuebler

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why?

A: We believe Internet of Things will change some of the fundamental rules in manufacturing. It will bring us to a higher level of flexibility allowing us to manufacture single pieces with similar costs to that of mass production. The interaction between man and machine and collaborative robotics will play a significant role in that revolution. The backbone of all this are the sensor networks connected together on the factory floor as well as over the world wide web. This allows also new functionality to improve efficiency such as predictive maintenance via condition monitoring. Our challenge as sensor manufacturer is to provide products, which can be easily integrated in such sensor networks and which have the right functionality to not only provide the classical process data (ex. for encoders speed and position) but also interactive data (such as condition monitoring).

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade?

A: Currently we do not see any new material being revolutionary for sensor manufacturing.

Q: In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

A: As mentioned in my first answer we see in i4.0 as a real long term trend and I think that in 10 years every machine will be connected – this will become as natural then as today every company has their own website. But diagnostics and maintenance is not the primary target of i.4.0. – it is much more about absolute flexibility and man and machine interaction.

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Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing? A: Besides I.o.T. we see the reduction of cabling and connection as a driving factor especially because it is a big cost factor in every machine and plant as well in terms of material costs and also installation costs. Here especially one cable technologies (power and data in one cable) and wireless transmission solutions.

Q: Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, what’s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, what’s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)?

A: As a matter of fact we already use 3D-printing in order to speed up the development of new products and to some extent to realize prototypes. Unfortunately the 3D-print materials still have huge deficiencies in the robustness of the material especially when it comes to temperature, shock and vibration. If the quality of the material improves we will certainly consider 3D-printing as an option for smaller production series.

Q: How do you foresee Big Data changing the way you do business?

A: For us big-data goes hand in hand with Industry 4.0 and of course it requires that our sensor generate much more information and it requires that we transfer this information to different cloud solutions. Therefore new interfaces such as OPC-UA have already become a topic for us, and we are now starting to implement this into our industrial Ethernet encoders. We see here the focus on diagnostics and maintenance solutions.

October 2016

11/7/16 1:19 PM


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Vision for the future

Doug Burns Director, Sales and Marketing Lenze Americas

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why? A: The history of manufacturing shows that change is evolutionary. Unique dynamics in global markets and supply chain models with shorter production cycles will require greater agility to reduce machine development time and turnkey system integration. Speed, flexibility, productivity, and efficiency remain cornerstones of manufacturing production, packaging and logistics. Better machines, with self-optimization and advanced motion control systems, will increasingly make automation more flexible and efficient by allowing machine builders to commission, program and connect machines faster.

Q: In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health? IoT is here to stay and integral to manufacturing growth. Utilizing information and communication technologies to produce goods with improved flexibility, IoT can expand efficiency, performance, and accessibility of built-in machine intelligence. Connectivity is driving equipment monitoring and asset management strategies to improve performance, uptime and machine operating life. Cloud-based applications make possible advanced functions via smart phones. From big data analytics to energy monitoring, machine builders and manufacturers will be on the frontline of IoT adoption.

Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing? A: Efficient use of resources and reduced energy consumption are priorities across the globe. Industry consumes almost half of energy produced today. Electric motors provide the highest potential for improvements in energy efficiency. Lenze has taken a lead role in energy efficient motor drive solutions. Building machines according to outdated specifications yields 50-60 percent drive efficiencies. Motion-centric engineering with proper drive dimensioning and gearing technology yields 9095% efficiency. 166

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Manufacturing will continue to see incremental improvements in energy efficient motion control and automation technologies, with strong potential for breakthroughs in regenerative and alternative energy.

Q: What have you learned about managing innovation in the past ten years?

A: The adoption rate for automation technologies has been extraordinary, with nearly every factory automated and the global robotics industry projected to expand to over $226 billion by 2021. One recent study (Quest Technomarketing, Germany) reports that half of all mechanical engineers rely on modular, intelligent machines, which are slatd to increase twice as quickly over the next few years as generic machine productionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and achieve 80 percent market share within three years. Managing complexity will be key to robust growth. At Lenze, we know the best innovations simplify work. Modularization and standardization of drives already help make complex technology manageable. Frequency inverters with advanced functionality actively support connectivity for new and legacy machines. parameterized programming expedite machine kinematics from concept to deployment. Parameterization allows easier commissioning by replacing traditional programming with uniform machineconfiguration software tools. Bringing a modular smart drive online no longer requires special training. So, machine builders can focus on unique featuresâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;differentiators that make their products more competitive. The manufacturing industry stands to yield enormous benefits from advances in automation, providing stakeholders adapt accordingly. Machine builders, technology providers, integrators, and other invested partners must pull together when it comes to standardization and best practices in a connected world.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:00 PM


Less means more!

Simply what’s essential: the new i500 inverter series. Slim design, easy usability, and high energy efficiency – the groundbreaking i500 is size-optimized and allows for zero-clearance mounting, saving valuable cabinet space. And thanks to the innovative interface options, it’s easy to run right out of the box. The best thing of all is that the modular structure adapts to different production configurations in no time. Less does mean more! To learn more, visit www.Lenze.com or come see us at: PACK EXPO in Chicago, November 6-9, 2016 at Booth N-5125

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Vision for the future

Eugen Elmiger CEO maxon motor ag

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why? A: There are many new manufacturing technologies on the horizon like advanced Robots, 3D Printing, data driven digital technologies (IIoT) are going to support the manufacturing and global logistic process. Advanced interconnected robots will improve productivity, quality and reduce cost in the manufacturing area and smart autonomous robots will be operational in the logistics for packaging and assembling the end configuration for each customer order. 3D Printing will bring new materials and different technologies together and process complex parts and prototypes much faster. Complex compounded parts will be easier to produce and also independent from the place we enable business for fast 3D printed repair parts all around the globe. Additionally, new technologies can be implemented very fast if our suppliers are involved in the digital roadmap. The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) will link manufacturing sites, factory floors and connect machinery across borders and increase flexibility, productivity and will have a great impact on the production and the distribution of maxon’s easily configurable online DCX and ECX product platform.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade?

A: Nanotechnology based material and coatings will have an impact on new business and applications where we are going to sell our future products. Applications in Aerospace, Medical Industry and Optical Industry will benefit from new materials. Other sensitive market segments such as the Formula 1 and Bio Tech will also gain profit from newer, more robust and stronger materials and important processes for the manufacture of the subassemblies.

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Q: What kind of work with people be doing after all the automation sets in?  What jobs will be available in the future?

A: In my opinion, change will not be rapid. Ten years ago, a book dealer told me he might have to close his shop because of the digital invasion of the digital books and the e-commerce sales platforms. He is still in the business and sells a large number of paper books. But he has an additional sales channel through eCommerce, Digital books and a much larger shop than before. We will have to add skills and train our employees to do business differently in the digital world. New interdisciplinary jobs will be necessary in Sales, R&D, and Engineering. In manufacturing, a greater interaction between robots or automation will be needed, and this will have an impact on the training and knowledge of employees at the production line. We have to get used to working closely with smart robots.

Q: What has surprised you most about your business over the past ten years?

A: It was ten years ago when maxon initiated its online E-Shop. There was some resistance and uncertainty from employees, partners and customers. They didn’t understand how we would be able to sell drive systems on an E-Commerce platform. This will never work! Customers will order the wrong products, you will have returns, I will not support this, etc. Ten years later, we have a global E-Commerce platform with configurable products and it is highly respected and supported by the entire sales force, customers love it and those who opposed it now embrace the decision we made. We’ve enabled new business, provided faster processing and the majority of the small (smart) business sales is going through the click business channel. Never give up and anything is possible!

October 2016

11/8/16 11:15 AM


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Vision for the future

Glenn Perry Vice President and General Manager Mentor Graphics Embedded Systems Division

Q: First, congratulations on celebration Mentor’s 20th anniversary in the embedded software industry. Tell us what the Mentor Embedded team is focused on now?

A: Looking at our 20th year in the embedded market, we currently provide the industry’s broadest commercially available suite of runtime and tool technologies, such as open-source Linux and Android, and our Nucleus real-time operating system RTOS, which includes safety certified versions for Aerospace DO-178A, Automotive ISO-26262 ASIL-D, Industrial IEC 61508, and Medical IEC 62304 industries. Our embedded solutions include hypervisor, multicore and multi-OS technologies, and rich middleware, all are complimented by a complete development tool suite and large silicon partner ecosystem. We focus on Automotive, Industrial IoT, Medical, Aerospace & Defense, industries.

Q: IoT technologies are exploding now, what key technologies do you foresee for the next ten years?

A: I foresee several technologies that will change the industry, such as machine learning – artificial intelligence (AI), and neural networks, with evolution of fog and edge-node computing, independent of the cloud. Advancements with robotics and related middleware will also transform the industry, as we are seeing with drones.

Q: Can you elaborate on these? A: There’s a new category of computing architectures called neuromorphic processors, or brain-inspired computing, which I believe will become mainstream. Current von Neumann-based architectures lack the power and performance for neural network processing, but new processing technologies, such as SpiNNaker and BrainScaleS, will mimic the brain’s biological structure and behavior, capable of simulating one billion neurons in real-time. The impact of these processing technologies will be similar to the evolution of the modern DSP and GPU. However, new languages and embedded tools, such as compilers, profilers and IDEs, will be required for efficient development. Also, fog and edge node 170

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computing capabilities will evolve, dramatically improving voice and image recognition, independent of the cloud.

Q: What about robotics and sensor technology? A: Sensor technology and image processing will continue to advance, but the combination of sensor fusion with neural network processing with be transformative. Image processing combined with other sensor types, such as biometric, radar, sonar, audio, accelerometers, and more, enable extraordinary, real time analysis, when the embedded system is properly architected to take advantage of the rich data streams and fast data processing. Mentor is a member of the Embedded Vision Alliance, focused on incorporating computer vision capabilities into embedded systems, mobile devices, PCs, and the cloud. Robots will be ubiquitous—and autonomous transportation and drones will transform the industry and society with huge economic impact—generating trillions of dollars to the global economy.

Q: Any other technology advancements you foresee, Glenn? A: Renewable energy will become increasingly mainstream. The broad adoption of autonomous electric vehicles will force changes to the power distribution infrastructure. As the cost of Solar, wind, geothermal, tidal wave and other energy generation technologies continue to fall and grid infrastructure evolves, renewable energy crowd sourcing will replace our dependence on fossil fuels.

October 2016

10/6/16 12:58 PM


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Vision for the future

Dr. Fritz Faulhaber Chief Executive Officer MICROMO

Fostering an “Innovation Mindset” for Tomorrow The rapid pace of technological change over the past ten years has affected how we work, live, innovate, design and manufacture. The effect has been to increase the speed at which we do business as well as the expectations from our customers. Speed to market is a critical success factor for all our customers, and we have adapted our business processes accordingly. Extensive customer collaboration using advanced modeling and simulation software during the design phase is now commonplace. The days of the “prototype-test-refine” cycle are over. Companies must innovate, develop and validate in a fraction of the time required ten years ago. The advent of nano-technology, genetic engineering and autonomous vehicles are just the beginning. We must keep a watchful eye on the horizon as new technology developments create previously unimagined applications for our micro motion technologies. Our recent partnerships with customers across markets such as medical devices, aerospace, robotics and semiconductor equipment suggest that this trend will continue and strengthen. The future holds uncertainty but also enormous opportunity. We must continuously strive to listen to our customers, understand trends, innovate and offer more. By using our foundation of innovation and advanced engineering, we will anticipate the needs of future markets and have a product solution ready and waiting. On the manufacturing side of our business, robotic automation, process efficiency and lean manufacturing principles continue to transform the quality and cost expectations for our products. Information already drives much of our decision making towards reducing lead times and flexible production lines. Going forward, the integration of “Big Data” from end market customers to OEMs down through the entire supply chain will transform the next evolution of efficient production. 172

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In this increasingly global and complex economy, human capital will be the most valuable resource. New industries and disruptive technologies will emerge as potential customers and competitors. Leaders will need to attract the right talent, manage innovation and remain adaptive for continued growth. Knowledge management and “knowledge engineering,” the formulation and networking of knowledge-based systems, will play key roles. Organizations need to provide more than just quality products…they need to take ownership of their core competencies and contribute to the customer innovation process. Global manufacturers are increasingly on a level playing field with new competitors. Differentiation on service and expertise will become more vital. For decades, the MICROMO (FAULHABER Group) team has focused on our micro motion expertise and fostering innovation with our employees, partners and customers. At MICROMO and throughout the entire FAULHABER Group, we have a tradition of innovation that is the core of who we are. “New thinking” in drive systems, precision systems and micro systems has always been linked to the name, Faulhaber. The groundbreaking invention of the FAULHABER®coreless winding started it all for a market that produces millions of motors today. MICROMO looks forward to continued leadership in motion innovation and partnering with customers across markets to help deliver new ideas that improve life during the next decade and beyond.

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Vision for the future

David Hein Vice President of Engineering Nexen, Group, Inc.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade?

A: The materials used in motion control industry have been constant for many years. Yes, they have been redeployed to different applications, but the basic “tools in the toolbox” for materials have stayed the same with the most notable exception of carbon fiber arms for certain robotic applications. As with most industries, material options that allow for miniaturizing components from their current size, or dramatically reducing weight while offering the same strength would be a major step forward and allow for new design solutions. This also applies to coatings and heat treat processes. Coatings is one area where current new technologies offer immediate application performance improvements.   Q: In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

A: This is a great question and one many companies are working on defining/answering. At Nexen, we are looking at 2 levels of integration. The first level are

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components that supply information (duty cycle, % of life remaining, number of overloads, etc.) and this information can be accessed via an IT network. Machine diagnostics and preventative maintenance would be the primary use of this information. The second, and much harder to implement, is control of the components from the IT network (versus the OT network). For this to happen, improvements in managing data flow on the IT network need to be implemented to ensure robust machine control.

Q: Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, what’s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, what’s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)?

A: Additive manufacturing we see as offering some key advantages in the future for the products Nexen produces. The best situation would be both additive and subtractive ability in the same machine, which would allow for shorter set up times and reduced tooling costs. These are technologies Nexen is constantly reviewing and we look forward to additional advancements in this area.

October 2016

10/6/16 12:57 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Christian Fell Chief Operating Officer POSITAL FRABA, Inc. (U.S. branch of the FRABA Group)

Q:

In 10 years, do you think that the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

A:

We believe that the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend, far from fading, will become a dominant model for sophisticated manufacturing systems over the next decade. Universal connectivity will certainly help manufacturing systems to become more efficient by enabling continuous real-time monitoring of the many components that make up the system. However, we see the most revolutionary impact of IoT/Industry 4.0 as the ability to embed the manufacturing system into the overall supply chain. By taking advantage of universal connectivity and advanced data management, we have already implemented a production system that can produce a wide range of product variants on a just-in-time, as-ordered basis. The fully-connected machinery of the future will be capable of being quickly and automatically re-configured for product variants or even new products with minimal manual intervention. The result will be what we call “mass customization” – the ability to manufacture products that meet each customer’s specific needs, without losing the cost efficiency of traditional mass production.

Q:

Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future… ?

A:

This means that we can usually build what a customer needs by putting together components with the appropriate performance/ environmental/mechanical characteristics. Meeting customers’ more exotic requirements can require specialized, low-volume components. We are very interested in the potential for 3D printing technologies to produce these special components quickly and efficiently. However, before we can fully embrace this approach, we will have to see improvements in single-part economics, tolerances and the availability of ‘industrial grade’ materials.

Q:

What kind of work will people be doing after all the automation sets in? What jobs will be available in the future?

A:

It’s perhaps helpful here to look at advanced manufacturing economies like Germany. There is still a great demand for skilled workers, but the required skill set has changed dramatically. Instead of the traditional ‘master machinist’ who could build virtually any part out of a piece of steel, we are now looking for specialists who can program robots, set up and trouble-shoot complex control networks and operate automated machine cells. While there is still a need for some semi-skilled workers on the factory floor, it’s inevitable that labor-intensive manufacturing will be moved to lowcost countries. We believe that the education system – especially in the U.S. – needs to emphasize vocational training in order to prepare a new generation of technicians with broad skills in areas such as robotics, networks, data management, quality assurance etc.

Our business model is based on the idea of providing each customer with a sensor product that comes as close as possible to meeting their exact requirements. We have achieved this by developing devices that are highly modular in design, made up of largely interchangeable components and sub-assemblies.

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October 2016

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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Alan Petersen President Primatics

Q: In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend

Q: Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it)

will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, what’s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, what’s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)?

A: I think Industry 4.0 is the logical evolution from current automation practices and product innovations.  Remotely accessing machine information has been available for some time now but having cloud connected equipment can open up access to helpful or vital information we are not even thinking about yet.   I see this to reach beyond just monitoring and diagnostics to include predictive reaction to non-machine information.  For example, we must maintain tight temperature control for operating our high precision equipment.  A conventional temperature control system monitors only the local environment.  A cloud connected version can know of external changes that may soon affect the local environment and make anticipatory changes.   Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing?

A: I would like the next big thing to be further reductions in costs and broader capabilities for large complex 3D printed parts.  We already see that 3D printed parts are very well suited for small to moderately sized parts.  However, in our business of high performance motion systems we sometimes need larger, high precision parts.  Since many of these are required in low volumes, they are expensive with traditional fabrication techniques.  I believe cost effective 3D printing of larger precision parts will allow our product designers to be more innovative in their designs.   

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A: For now, I don’t see 3D printed parts being used for the high tolerance, load bearing portions of our products.  However, I do see them being used increasingly to replace and combine the functions of small brackets, clips, clamps and even covers used in all products.  We often need custom brackets for cable management and 3D printed parts seems to be the ideal technology for these one-off parts.  ​ Q: If you had the chance to do one thing differently over the past ten years, what would it be?

A: If we had a do-over it would be to develop portions of our in-house software platform as a commercial product.  We made an early decision to develop our own execution system to support engineering, production, manufacturing, materials, accounting and even HR.  Since this was internally developed we are able to grow and enhance the system as new customer requirements, new product technologies, and new markets have come on-line.   As a manufacturer of precision motion systems, this platform also has capabilities to control motion and monitor instruments and sensors for automated testing.  We believe our motion control interface would be great offering as a commercial product since it is controller agnostic and can communicate with many different types of other equipment.    

October 2016

10/6/16 12:55 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Glenn Nausley President Promess Inc.

Promess sees innovation coming to assembly— and is leading the way Promess is a manufacturer of assembly and test systems — including mechanics, control electronics, sensors, amplifiers, and software. Promess also supports engineers with application assistance. We use innovative sensing and motion controls to take full responsibility for systems as a way of reducing OEM and end-user risk. One new offering from Promess is a fully electric assembly press designed specifically for integration into a robotic cell with an end effector in the form of a press to give users far more assembly flexibility than ever before. We did three things to make this design successful. First, we made the press light. Our presses are strong and rugged, with a reputation for being heavy duty. But to mount it onto the end of a robot arm, we had to redesign the press to be lighter in weight. Second, we addressed the reactive pressing load by designing a mechanical hard stop into the top of the press, which transfers load into a floor-mounted “bridge” — against which the robot arm braces itself as its press forces assemblies together. So if we’re pressing assemblies with 3,000 lb and the robot’s rated for 500, without a bridge we’d just push that robot out. In contrast, the load cap on the press backs up into it — so the load is mainly between bridge and workpiece. Third, we developed a controller interface that lets the robot controller and our UltraPRO controller communicate more efficiently — so the robot knows what the press is doing and vice versa. This is vastly faster than old control setups that used a press controller in tandem with a robot controller separately communicating with a PLC.

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Of the electric presses that Promess sold last year, only a small percentage of them went on the end of a robot. But just a few years ago it was very rare for us to integrate even one of our presses into a robotic press cell. The concept is seeing exponential growth in use. That’s because the industry is moving away from fixed lines and towards flexible manufacturing. In fact, customers making new products must now supply or buy lines to build these products but while following upper-management edicts to pursue new modes of manufacturing. If robotic cells aren’t the solution, I believe industry will devise other ways to get flexible automation for assembly. It’s analogous to the way machining 20 years ago was done on transfer lines. Now, manufacturers use machining centers that they can reuse and retool at will. In stark contrast, assembly has continued to use old Henry-Ford-style assembly lines ... because until now, the industry didn’t offer more. Now, new designs from Promess are one option for manufacturers to leverage the flexible assembly-center concept. I’ll be surprised if in ten years, assembly lines are still used to make any kind of part ... and predict their end will come far sooner.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:29 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Andreas Mangler Director Strategic Marketing & Communications Member of the Extended Executive Board Rutronik

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for the better in the next 10 years, and why? A: The mobile internet is enabling mobile computing devices, internet connectivity and Cloud technology, as well as the automation of knowledge work and the Internet of Things, with its network of low-cost sensors and actuators for data collection, monitoring, decision making and process optimization. Increasingly capable robots have enhanced senses and dexterity, so their intelligence is used in automated tasks or to augment humans. Additionally, the advanced oil and gas exploration and recovery techniques make extraction of unconventional oil and gas economical. And autonomous and near-autonomous vehicles can operate with reduced or no human intervention. Other technologies deal with 3D printing, next generation genomics and advanced materials that are designed to have superior characteristics, but also with energy storage including batteries, and renewable energy.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade?

A: Not only new materials but also new manufacturing processes and the application of measurement techniques which originated in other areas of research will be disruptive. That is to say they constitute competition for our time-honored business operations which up to now were believed to be sound, potentially replacing them entirely. This also means that within a short time business models will thus disappear completely. The only possibility of saving them would be through indirect political support. Even new business areas are experiencing competition, including energy production through fracking, but also renewable energies such as photovoltaics or wind power. Whether it be energy, industry or automotive â&#x20AC;&#x201C; irrespective of the branch, new approaches and individual designs are required from manufacturers and distributors. A high level of flexibility in raw materials, technologies and processing methods is more sought after than ever before. For example, with high power thick film resistors with the aid of design-specific measures ceramic structural material 182

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is printed on both sides with a resistive element. Thus with the same construction these perform a double task.

Q: Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)? A: Representative of the future development are printed photovoltaics cells and printed sensors based on nanocomposites. Researchers at the Technical University of Chemnitz have produced printed solar modules on paper. 3PV (printed paper photo voltaics) technology is based on conventional print processes and standard papers as used in newspapers and packaging. Special printing inks with electric characteristics form the required structures on the paper, so that through light irradiation power is produced. Because printing processes such as deep, Flexo and offset printing are very economical, these solar modules should generate cheaper energy. In future normal printing plants throughout the world would be able to produce 3PV solar modules. The technical advances in micro and nano technology open up possibilities for new sensors and sensor principles. Using nano particles such as carbon nano tubes (CNTs) or graphenoxide, this can be achieved and there are a number of advantages as they can be varied in their composition. Flexible sensors for various applications can be customized. This is potentially interesting for expansion and print sensors, temperature and humidity sensors. Traditional classical productions methods in the business fields can be completely replaced by them.

October 2016

10/6/16 12:55 PM


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10/6/16 2:22 PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Q:

In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

A: We believe that Industry 4.0 will be a big part of our society in the near future in a collaboration of Man & Machine. SEW call’s it “The Lean Sm@ rt Factory”. The basic precept of Industry 4.0 is leveraging information technology to tightly mesh business and engineering processes in order to allow production to be more flexible, efficient, and time-independent while maintaining a high quality and low cost. Our approach is to combine “new” concepts of Industry 4.0 and establish lean management principles to make possible a new kind of cooperation of man, machine and product – with the focus on humans and their creation of value.

Q: Do you foresee your product (or certain components of it) being manufactured via 3D printing in the future? If so, what’s the primary development that will need to take place in order for this to happen? If not, what’s the main obstacle (i.e. materials, time required for 3D printing, tolerances, etc.)?

A: Currently 3D printing is not at the level were we would consider it our production needs. In the future, as with any new technology, we will look into our options. Our current view on the technology is that slow print speeds along with a small build envelope and the cost of powders leads to the situation where it is not a feasible option for production in our industry at this time. 

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October 2016

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10/6/16 2:22 PM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

John Fox Vice President of Marketing Mainstream Engineering Siemens PLM Software

Q: In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

A: We see the Industry 4.0 trend, sometimes called the fourth industrial revolution, continuing to strengthen over the next ten years. Digital technologies are transforming the ways products are designed, manufactured and maintained, with the potential to radically transform business models and create new opportunities. This impacts all manufacturers including start-ups, SMBs and global enterprises. Many small companies see that digital technologies can level the playing field and that they have an advantage over larger companies when it comes to quickly adopting new technologies. For example, one of our customers, Local Motors, is reinventing the way cars are made. They crowd source designs from their global, online community, and then they build the cars, almost entirely through 3D printing, in local micro factories. Local Motor’s ability to continually embrace new digital technologies is one of the keys to their success. Local Motors uses Solid Edge for product design and development and synchronous technology enables them to seamlessly import and edit CAD models from design collaborators around the world.

Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing?

A: Additive manufacturing is clearly a fast growing technology and we are supporting the trend towards customizable mass production that is replacing the previous focus on the creation of individual prototypes. Siemens Solid Edge integrates directly with apps like Microsoft’s 3D Builder that help manufacturers prepare their 3D CAD models for production on their in-house 3D printers , and cloud-based solutions like 3YOURMIND that allow them to submit their designs for quoting and production in

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a variety of materials by globally distributed service providers. We are also working closely with our colleagues in the Siemens PLM Components division to take advantage of developments in the Parasolid® geometric modeling kernel that help designers create designs incorporating new, organic design techniques.

Q: What kind of work will people be doing after all the automation sets in?  What jobs will be available in the future?

A: Technical and analytical skills will always be in demand.

I think we’ll see an increased need for business acumen along with that, which is important as we see more project-based work and entrepreneurial opportunities. I think the next 10 years will be an exciting time for designers and engineers who can take advantage of new mobile and cloud technologies that are being increasingly applied to resource intensive engineering software applications. Designers will no longer be tied to working on heavy duty CAD workstations in the design office; they can become more mobile as CAD software is optimized to run on mobile devices. This opens up a world of possibilities for better communication and more creative collaboration throughout the enterprise – and with customers and suppliers. A perfect example might be Ryan Spoering, founder of Lab Machinist Solutions, a startup that designs and builds innovative products for research labs. Ryan designs using Solid Edge, often running it on a Microsoft Surface Pro at his clients’ facilities. Ryan is using digital technology to deliver innovation for his customers, that’s a formula for success now, and in the future.

October 2016

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10/6/16 10:15 2:23 PM 8/30/16 AM


DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Ken Massett Vice President, Sales Engineering Smalley Steel Ring Company

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing

Q: What has surprised you most about your business over

for the better in the next 10 years, and why?

the past ten years?

A: The internet of things, IoT, innovation and

A: Ten years ago, many US companies were offshoring

new technological revolution is spreading across manufacturing globally. The industrial sector is seeing greater efficiency gains from the automatic sharing of real time data from the plant floor. Incorporating IoT into manufacturing processes leads to better product quality, reduced downtime, and a decrease in production costs.

manufacturing operations to stay competitive with foreign companies. Smalley has never outsourced our manufacturing as we understand that our quality and ability to deliver a superior product is directly related to being “Made in the USA”. While the globalization of our business has not surprised us, we’re pleased to see many US manufacturers on-shoring operations back to the US.

Q: How will new materials affect your business in the coming decade?

A: Smalley’s product benefits allow for both space and weight savings today. New materials being developed tomorrow will allow us to offer greater weight savings with lighter materials. Smalley is positioned to integrate new materials into our manufacturing process as we are vertically integrated allowing us to quickly adapt raw materials improvements into superior ring and spring products.

Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in manufacturing?

A: There is a lot of discussion today about the

Q: What have you learned about managing innovation in the past ten years?

A: Innovation is essential to our companies future success. We understand this and ask our employees to look inward as well as outward to see what we can do to stay ahead. When you manufacture two primary products, retaining rings and wave springs, you need to find new ways to push your teams to expand their capabilities. One example of this is the recent capability to make our products smaller than we ever believed possible. Smalley can now manufacture down to .165” diameter and we’re working on going even smaller. Continuing to push our capabilities is opening up new markets for our products.

development of artificial intelligence. While I think there is a lot of uncertainty into how this will penetrate manufacturing processes, automation technology continues to change the way we do business. Automation of our machines continues to make them smarter, increasing efficiencies, and allowing us to do things faster.

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October 2016

10/6/16 12:52 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

David Church President Sorbothane Inc.

Q: What has surprised you the most about your business over the past ten years.

A: What has surprised us the most over the last ten years of our business is how entrepreneur’s find new applications to use our Sorbothane® material. Over the last ten years our material has been used for hip and tailbone pads for young ice skaters. Along with our material being used for an isolation ring placed on your finger to eliminate tennis elbow. And with on growing growth of battery operating devices and vehicles the use of our Sorbothane® material as isolation pads to extend the battery life.

Q: What have I learned about managing innovation in the past ten years? A: It is my opinion that as a manager you have to be driving innovation throughout the company not just managing it. In today’s business environment if as a company if you are not developing innovation in your manufacturing process, new products, marketing and customer service your company will not survive. At Sorbothane® we have belief that a company has only 2 directions it can go. A company embrace innovation in manufacturing process, new products, marketing and customer service to move forward and grow. Or a company does not embrace innovation and loses their position in the market and move backwards to finally to a point that they are finally closing their doors.

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October 2016

10/6/16 12:51 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Sol Jacobs VP & General Manager Tadiran Batteries

A bright future for remote wireless devices The past decade has been a dramatic transformation in the use of self-powered remote wireless devices for industrial applications. The growth curve for remote wireless applications has remained strong due to ongoing technological advancements. Now, with the emergence of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), we can expect to see further acceleration as virtually all external environments will become fertile ground for new forms of wireless monitoring and communications. This dynamic is being nurtured by the confluence of big data and low-power communications protocols such as ZigBee, WirelessHART, and LoRa, to name a few. Wireless technology is being seamlessly integrated into fully scalable IT solutions that allow full interoperability across multiple platforms; making the entire globe a “cloud” of wireless connectivity. However, bringing wireless technology to extreme environments will require robust and reliable battery-powered systems, as it is rarely cost effective to bring hard-wired power to remote, inhospitable locations. Extended battery life will be required to deliver long-term reliability, made possible through the use of bobbin-type lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCI2) batteries that have been proven to last up to 40 years in the most challenging environmental conditions. Bobbin-type LiSOCI2 batteries feature the widest temperature range of all commercial batteries (-80°C to 125°C) to deliver reliable, long-term power. For example, these batteries are currently being utilized to power scientific instruments in the Arctic, and enable RFID tracking devices that monitor the location and status of equipment used in hospitals to withstand the extreme heat associated with autoclave sterilization without having to remove the batteries.

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The IIoT-related wireless revolution will also lead to increased demand for devices that are capable of providing advanced two-way communications, with lithium batteries being called upon to deliver the periodic high pulses required to initiate data interrogation and transmission. Standard bobbintype LiSOCI2 batteries can be modified to deliver high pulses with the addition of a patented hybrid layer capacitor (HLC). The standard LiSOCl2 cell delivers the low background current required when the device is in ‘standby mode’ while the HLC works like a rechargeable battery to deliver periodic high pulses. The next 10 years will also see dynamic growth for energy harvesting devices that draw energy from sources such as the sun, kinetic energy, temperature variations, and RF/EM signals. Energy harvesting devices typically require the use of a rechargeable Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery or a supercapacitor to deliver the high pulses, as consumer-grade Li-ion batteries cannot deliver high pulses. Supercapacitors will remain popular for powering memory back-up functionality in consumer electronics. However, industrial grade applications will be better served by a new generation of industrial grade Li-ion batteries that allow remote wireless devices to operate for up to 20 years and 5,000 full recharge cycles, while also offering an extended temperature range, along with the ability to deliver high pulses. As wireless technology continues to evolve, and as the burgeoning IIoT gains momentum, battery-powered remote wireless devices will play a central role in this dynamic growth curve, seamlessly interconnecting an increasingly wireless world.

October 2016

10/6/16 1:28 PM


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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Q: What technologies will most change manufacturing for

Q: What do you think will be the next big thing in

the better in the next 10 years, and why?

manufacturing?

A: Technology in point-to-point device communication will

A: Customizable control and improved access to control will

continue to progress and expand over the next decade. These advances present exciting possibilities because engineers, system designers, operations managers and OEMs will be able to interact with information and understand their systems in new ways. Historically, all information on a system was condensed to show if a device was on or off. But the Industrial Internet of Things, and technologies like IO-Link and new device programming software, have changed this. Engineers can understand the details of how a machine is operating at the device level. They can see data patterns and access reports on how components are performing on an individual basis. This data-driven approach improves the manufacturing process because it’s simpler to troubleshoot issues, schedule predictive maintenance and build more efficient systems.

change the landscape of manufacturing. Rather than being tied to a computer or hardwired device in a plant, engineers will be able to access these systems from wherever they are in real time. This idea is already starting to gain traction with increased use of HTML5 for programming environments, so control can be managed from anywhere through handheld devices with compatible web browsers.

Q: In 10 years, do you think the IoT/Industry 4.0 trend will have faded or will connected machinery have become a way of life for diagnostics, maintenance and overall machine health?

A: The Industrial Internet of Things will evolve and strengthen over the next 10 years as users explore new capabilities and technologies. Connectedness has always been at the heart of automation, but the IIoT takes this idea to the next level by offering a deeper understanding of what’s happening across an operation. The system and diagnostic benefits signal that the IIoT is here to stay. At Turck, this is leading us to push the abilities of our field devices to their full potential by utilizing innovative technology advances such as IO-Link and Field Logic Controllers.

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Q: How do you foresee Big Data changing the way you do business?

A: The Industrial Internet of Things is helping drive interest in big data. At Turck, we’re seeing an increased demand for products based on data needs. A growing number of customers are requesting Industrial Ethernet solutions and smart devices that can quickly and reliably communicate and send large quantities of data. They want access to as much data as possible to help recognize patterns and limit downtime by predicting where issues might arise. Ultimately, big data will help companies become more efficient, and drive manufacturers to create new solutions in connectivity and control based on data flow.

Q: What have you learned about managing innovation in the past ten years?

A: Innovation is about finding the next best thing, not simply improving on what’s already been done. We’ve found over the past 10 years that the key to this success is less about managing innovation, and more about creating a space and culture where innovation can happen on its own. This philosophy has led our engineers to create first-of-their-kind technologies, such as cables that are rated and approved for temperatures down to -60 degrees Celsius, or a software program to add logic to I/O devices without a PLC. Each of these was inspired by recognizing a need in the market and thinking of how to deliver a better, more useful product in a way that wasn’t done before.

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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Dean Norton VP of Marketing WAGO Corporation

Q:  

What is WAGOs position on IIoT?

A:

We see IIoT as more of a progression than a trend.  In the late 1990s, WAGO recognized the need for getting plant data off the factory floor and launched our first ETHERNET based PLC and bus-coupler.  Then, in the early 2000s, we expanded this range and added features we called “IT functions” which facilitate many of the requirements for IIoT applications today.  We see this progression continuing as technology advances and the industrial world catches up with the consumer world.   Q: What solutions does WAGO offer for IIoT applications?   A: WAGO is uniquely positioned to put every physical signal into the cloud and back again into the field.  Our ETHERNET based PLCs and bus-couplers are a robust, proven solution in the industrial market place and feature many internet protocols to support IIoT applications.  Protocol support includes: HTTP, SNTP, SMTP, FTP, SNMP, DHCP, DNS, NTP and more. Our products also support emerging M2M protocols such as OPC UA, MQTT and MT Connect.  Also, we offer remote visualization via mobile APP or a web-browser (HTML 5).    Q: What are some of the challenges of IIoT today?   A: The major challenges we see today are (1) no standard for IIoT, (2) multiple M2M platforms to provide connectivity to (i.e. OPC UA, MT Connect, etc.), (3) Security, (4) IIoT return on investment, and (5) presenting role based information (plant floor, plant manager, maintenance, enterprise user, etc.).  

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Q:  

How is WAGO addressing these challenges?

A:

As far as standards and M2M platforms go, WAGO has always been an automation company that believed in being open – going back to the fieldbus war days in the 1990s when our position was to support all the relevant networks and not isolate our customers into a specific architecture.  Interoperability is what matters and WAGO has a long history of providing connectivity to all relevant platforms-- IIoT will be no different.  Regarding security, we are currently the only PLC supplier with a built-in VPN and Firewall.   This further reduces the risk when considering ROI as our PLCs are IIoT Ready (with security features, with internet protocols, with M2M protocols, etc.).  Customers using our automation products can implement IIoT measures on their own schedule and not have to worry about hardware additions or complete hardware replacement and their associated costs.   Q: What is the future for WAGO and IIoT?   A: It’s not enough to collect and distribute the data, you also need to aggregate the data… trends, analysis, etc.  The company that makes this integration easiest (with configuration tools, connectivity to M2M platforms, etc.) will be the company that others look to for IIoT solutions.  WAGO intends to continue to be ahead of this curve as we were in the late 1990s when we first introduced out ETHERNET based automation products for getting plant data off the factory floor.

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DESIGN WORLD in

Vision for the future

Lou Steinhauser Chief Technology Officer

Brian Bakala Associate Product Manager

What Technology Will be Like in 10 Years When envisioning the future, we anticipate three mega trends: the declining cost of computing and memory (big data), sharing platforms and dynamic user groups. Big Data. As ubiquitous as the IoT (Internet of Things) has become it is often misunderstood. Too often we miss the point when it comes to the IoT. Any IoT device is really just a sensor, and what is the point of having a sensor if you are not intelligently using its data? Think of autonomous vehicles, which are enabled through several discrete sensors including radar, GPS, camera, etc. Each sensor individually is incapable of enabling autopilot. It is only when you marry them together with an intelligent control system that you get something truly awe inspiring. Now take that principle and apply it to today’s industrial applications. Discrete pieces of hardware now become sensors, feeding you real-time data that can be analyzed and used in such a way to deliver the best possible user experience. Instead of having several standalone systems, you now have systems that are in concert. Sharing Platforms. A sharing platform can be described as a service that grants you the ability to utilize someone else’s time and property for personal utility. Instead of needing the equipment or know how to fabricate a piece of hardware, you could elect to use someone else’s equipment and time. Today you can use services to buy time

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on a 3D printer in your area. Imagine a system that links all the local machine shops and 3d printers in your area and charges a premium based upon availability. Not only can you envision this for prototyping purposes, but imagine having a machine down issue in your factory and seamlessly transferring the work to local machine shop providers in your area, all without having to call for a quote or waiting on a scheduler. You could even level the demand depending on raw material availability. Additionally, this now lowers the bar for competition to enter markets where it may not have been financially viable a few years ago. A group of guys in their garage do not even need to buy a 3d printer anymore, they can use the one down the street. Dynamic End Users. Potentially the greatest disruptor in industrial segments in the coming years will not be any single piece of technology. It will be the aforementioned guys in their garage. A group of motivated end users that do not care about user manuals, conventional wisdom or constraints are the disruptors that will pose the greatest threat to established companies. What they lack in concrete resources, they make up for with a wealth of manpower and brainpower via internet forums and user groups, open source software platforms, cheap data and computing power and a shareable industrial base. These are the threats to established companies. To stay ahead of this curve, we need to embrace these elements, rather than hoping we are not affected.

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Prod uc t World Integrated motor lineup Applied Motion Products applied-motion.com The addition of larger frame sizes in the StepSERVO product offering widens the product range, which already includes smaller frame sizes NEMA 11, 17, 23 and 24.TSM34 and TXM34 StepSERVO integrated motors come in 4 lengths. The range offers designers more torque values to choose. The longest motors (-6) offer holding torque values of 1,161 oz-in. (8.2 N-m) and peak torque values over 1,300 oz-in. (9.2 N-m). Other features include: • StepSERVO closed loop stepper technology featuring space vector current control • Peak torques for greater acceleration and throughput • Higher efficiency, lower power consumption than open loop steppers • Hi-resolution 20,000 count encoder for closed-loop control • NEMA 34 frame size • IP65 rated option for wet and dusty environments • Multiple control options including step & direction, velocity, streaming commands, and stored program

Flexible control power cable Helukabel helukabel.com

The TRAY X is a NFPA 79-2012 conformant flexible control power cable with cross-linked (thermoset) polyethylene (XLPE) insulation. These tray cables suit all machinery in tool and plant construction, and can be installed in dry, humid and damp

200

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Temperature Range: -40°C to +105°C

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Min. Bending Radius: 10x the cable O.D.

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Adjustable busbars WAGO wago.us Used with a shield clamp that has a latching spring, 790 Series adjustable busbars provide shield contact. The adjustable carriers are available with heights from 70 to 80 mm. Busbars can be cut to any desired length. Features include: •

Busbars are pre-connected to the DIN rail adapter

Adjustable T-connectors allow the busbar to be positioned horizontally and vertically

Flexible mounting options with carrier on one or both sides and varying heights and orientations.

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Close range ultrasonic distance and level sensor

Europa terminal strip connectors

Omega omega.com

Wieland Electric wielandinc.com

LVTX-10 series sensors are ultrasonic transmitter modules for

The new version of Europa terminal strip connectors is constructed

continuous measurement of fluids, pastes, or uneven solid bulk

of an improved polyamide material that extends flammability

materials in constrained working zones.

protection required to meet the DIN 60335-1 standard for consumer appliances, which includes enhanced glow wire flammability test requirements. The Europa terminal strips are screw-clamp connectors available with 1 – 12 connections in five different sizes to accommodate a range of current ratings and wire gauges: Type 4 (up to 20A/600V for 22 – 14AWG); Type 6 (up to 20A/600V for 22 – 12AWG); Type 10 (up to 40A/600V for 22 – 10AWG) Type 16 (up to 65A/600V for 22 – 8AWG); and Type 20 (up to 75A/600V for 22 – 4AWG).

Specifications Measurement Resolution: 0.25 mm (0.01") Measurement Accuracy: ±0.1% of target range Echo Detection Sensitivity: User selectable System Beam Angle: 15° conical Response Time: 60 mS Resolution: 11 bits Temperature Compensation: Internal probe Housing Material: PVC Transducer Surface: PPA

Solid oil bearings SKF skfusa.com These bearings are filled with an oil-saturated polymer matrix, which creates a consistent lubricant supply able to withstand temperatures down to -65º F and -53º C, aggressive chemicals, contaminants, and high centrifugal forces. The polymer matrix contains two- to four-times more lubricating oil than standard grease-filled bearings and do not have to be re-lubricated. Applications include food processing equipment (with two NSF H1 registered compounds available), cranes, machinery, and conveyors where manual greasing would raise safety issues, and any application subjected to dirt or humidity, aggressive chemicals, extreme contamination and/or other adverse conditions that could jeopardize conventional lubricant. www.designworldonline.com   

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Prod uc t World Encoders with stainless steel construction Leine & Linde leinelinde.com The RXA 500 series are incremental and absolute encoders used in everything from forestry to windpower. These encoders have models with a stainless steel enclosure, flange and shaft to handle harsh environments.Two types of austenitic steel are available, 304/A2 or 316/ A4, which can be used in a variety of corrosive applications. Absolute versions of the 500 series are available with up to 14-bit single-turn outputs, with parallel TTL, HTL, SSI, and CANopen interfaces. Incremental versions are available with up to 10000 PPR resolution and are capable of operating at temperatures up to 100°C.

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Prod uc t World Couplings for smaller machine footprint designs Zero-Max zero-max.com This CD coupling design has a composite flex element for torsional stiffness, yet allows for misalignment in high stress applications. In addition, these zerobacklash CD couplings provide smooth operation at high speeds. The coupling’s material is configured in a compact design. The resulting space savings enables machine designers to reduce the foot print saving valuable floor space. CD coupling specifications:

Engineered specifically to operate in sub critical speed

12 in. diameter

Maximum Angular Misalignment – 1.5 in.

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Maximum Radial Misalignment - 0.045 in.

Continuous Torque Rating - 76,800 in.-lbs

Maximum axial misalignment - 0.200 in.

Torsional Stiffness – 250,000 in.-lbs/degree

Coupling inertia is 984 lb-in.2

Design Speed – 5000 RPM

Coupling weight is 43.9 lb

Controller simplifies weighing tast functions Omrom industrial.omrom.us/en/products/sysmac-platform The Sysmac Studio integrated development environment now has a set of weighing-system Function Blocks to let engineers design weighing tasks using load cells. The Function Blocks eliminate programming required to communicate with weighing indicators and controllers. It also lets engineers avoid programming for calibration, operation interfaces, and control in ladder logic. •

The first Function Block — Display Value Conversion or WC_WeightIndication — converts a measurement value to a display value to be shown on an HMI.

The second Function Block — Quantitative Discharging Control or WC_FixedWeightCtrl — Performs quantitative discharging control for feed weighing and discharge weighing.

The third Function Block — Fall Compensation WC_FallCompensation — performs fall compensation for quantitative discharging control.

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October 2016

www.designworldonline.com

10/11/16 11:00 AM


CONGRATULATIONS FROM

OF DEVELOPING NEW & INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS IN THE FIELD OF PROCESS & INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

9 7 1 4 Te n t h Av e n u e N o r t h • M i n n e a p o l i s , M N 5 5 4 4 1 • U S A 1-888-3-SENSOR

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SALES

Ad I n dex 3D Systems ......................................................... 45 Accu-Mold LLC .......................................................63 Accurate Screw Machine ....................................73 ACE Controls ..........................................................18 Aggressive Hydraulics .........................................61 All Motion .................................................................4 Allied Electronics ................................. Cover,3,205 AMETEK PMC .........................................................19 AMETEK/DFS (Windjammer,etc.) .......................31 Aurora Bearing Co. ............................................... 47 AutomationDirect ......................Cover, IFC, Gatefold AutomationDirect ...................................................1 Baldor Electric Co. ............................................... 22 Banner Engineering .......................................... 207 Bimba ....................................................................11 Bison Gear & Engineering Corp. .........................IBC Bodine Electric Company ....................................79 Brogan & Patrick Mfg. .........................................75 Canfield Connectors ............................................ 46 Carlyle Johnson ....................................................27 Chieftek Precision USA .............................93,95,97 Clippard Instrument Laboratory, Inc. .................BC DATA IMAGE Corp. ................................................ 32 Del-Tron Precision, Inc. ........................................ 54 DIEQUA Corporation ........................................... 102 Digi-Key Electronics .............................................15 Dorner .................................................................204 Dunkermotoren, part of Ametek ........................51 Eagle Stainless Tube & Design ..................... 20,21 Eaton ......................................................................13 Eaton Hydraulics .......................................67,85,96 Encoder Products Company .............................. 86 EPlan ..................................................................... 44 Equipto Electronics ............................................. 32 EXAIR Corporation ..................................................5 Freudenberg Sealing Technologies ................... 53 Haydon/Kerk ........................................................ 55 HBM, Inc. .............................................................. 86

Helical Products Company ....................................7 Hitachi Cable America ......................................... 29 IDEC ........................................................................41 IGUS ..................................................................... 103 ITT Enidine .......................................................insert ITT Inc. .................................................................. 60 IXYS/Zilog ........................................................... 104 J.W. Winco, Inc. .................................................... 47 Keystone Electronics Corp. ................................ 39 Lenze Americas ....................................................74 LinMot ................................................................... 94 Master Bond ......................................................... 46 Memory Protection Devices ............................. 201 NTE Electronics, Inc. ........................................... 59 Otto Engineering ................................................. 35 PBC Linear ....................................................... 70,71 Peninsular Cylinder ............................................. 80 PHD Inc. ................................................................ 88 Primatics, Inc. ...................................................... 87 Proto Labs ...............................................................9 Ringfeder Corp. .................................................... 69 Rittal .................................................................36,37 ROSS Controls ...................................................... 89 Rotor Clip .............................................................. 43 Rutronik .................................................................16 SAB North America ...............................................81 Schneider Electric ................................................17 Setco ................................................................... 202 SFC KOENIG ...........................................................72 Smalley Steel Ring Company ..............................10 Somos® materials from DSM ............................ 101 Suco Technology Inc. ...........................................24 TRIM-LOK, Inc........................................................ 30 Vectis Weber Knapp ............................................ 25 Whittet-Higgins Co. ...............................................23 Wittenstein ......................................................... 105 Zero-Max, Inc. ..........................................................2

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Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld Inside: Plug-and-Play Application Solutions - 116 • Small robot family for quick handling in tight spaces - 122

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P r e d i c t i n g Te c h n o l o g y i n 2 0 2 6

Robotics

pages 128 -199

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10years ACE Controls ..................................................139

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May 2011

INSIDE: >> SENSORS: reliably Contrast sensors marks detect print Page 20

>>ROBOtICS: motors operate telescope antarctic in -190° f temperatures Page 26

January 2012 www.designworldonline.com

how engineers competitiveness Thomas Bewley on UCSD robotics guruSolid Edge Page 34

ate with Acceler design cycles printer

can be tomorrow’s

leaders.

www.designworldonline.com

THE

January 2015

3D

Minneapolis www.designworldonline.comRAPID 2011 •

DW May

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Leadership in Engineering 2016

January 2013

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t’s fascinating to see old cell phones in movies from the I’m amazed not just at the obnoxious 80s and 90s. sizes of the devices, the lack of elegance but also at in the designs. That’s who crafted the not to berate the phones, designers come to the forefront but it shows how much the art of design has in engineering today. design to move Steve Jobs famously technology forward. employed With his passing, asking, “Who is many of us are going to lead that charge now?”

• May 24-26 PM 5/6/11 2:58

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A Supplement to Design World - October 2016

1 0th A nni ver sar y S ec t i o n

CelebratES

JAN 2014

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Applied Motion Products, Inc. .....................141 Bishop-Wisecarver .......................................143 Bosch Rexroth Corporation .........................145 CPC-Colder Products Company ...................147 Elmo Motion Control Inc. .............................149 Encoder Products .........................................151 Equipto Electronics ..................................... 153 EXAIR Corporation ....................................... 155 FABCO-AIR ......................................................157 Fotofab .......................................................... 159 Harmonic Drive .............................................128 IDEC ................................................................161 J.W. Winco, Inc. .............................................163 Kuebler Inc. ...................................................165 Lenze Americas ............................................167 Maxon Precision Motors Inc. ...................... 169 Mentor Graphics Corp. ..................................171 MICROMO .......................................................173 Nexen Group ..................................................175 POSITAL-FRABA Inc. .......................................177 Primatics .......................................................179

Ro b otic s Tips Sup p lemen t

Promess Inc. .................................................181 Rutronik ........................................................ 183 SEW-EURODRIVE .......................................... 185 Siemens PLM ............................................... 187 Smalley Steel Ring Company ..................... 189 Sorbothane ...................................................191 Tadiran Batteries ......................................... 193 TURCK ........................................................... 195 WAGO ............................................................. 197 Watlow .......................................................... 199

Robotic vehicles take the next step 108

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Aerotech ....................................... 121 DIEQUA Corporation ..................... 114 Harmonic Drive ............................ 113 Helukabel, USA ............................. 111 Maxon Precision Motors Inc. ...... 106 MICROMO ...................................... 112 Schunk, Intec ............................... 119 Universal Robots USA, Inc. ......... 115

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