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The following is a section of a document properly cited as: Snyder, N., McGowan, P., Gilardi, J., and Grajal, A. (eds.) (2000) Parrots. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 2000–2004. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 180 pp. © 2000 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and the World Parrot Trust It has been reformatted for ease of use on the internet . The resolution of the photographs is considerably reduced from the printed version. If you wish to purchase a printed version of the full document, please contact: IUCN Publications Unit 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, UK. Tel: (44) 1223 277894 Fax: (44) 1223 277175 Email: info@books.iucn.org The World Parrot Trust Order on-line at: www.worldparrottrust.org

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The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN or the Species Survival Commission. Published by:

IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.

Copyright: Trust

© 2000 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and the World Parrot

Reproduction of this publication for educational and other non-commercial purposes is authorised without prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holders. Citation:

Snyder, N., McGowan, P., Gilardi, J., and Grajal, A. (eds.) (2000) Parrots. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 2000– 2004. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 180 pp.

ISBN:

2-8317-0504-5

Cover photo:

Kakapo, Strigops habroptilus. Illustration from Parrots of the World courtesy of W.T. Cooper.

Produced by:

The Nature Conservation Bureau Ltd, Newbury, UK.

Printed by:

Information Press, Oxford, UK.


colourful. Existence of a feral A. collaria population in disturbed habitat in Kingston suggests that the species may have been more threatened by trade than by habitat destruction, although both factors appear to have been involved. One wild caught specimen was recorded in international trade in 1991 and none between 1992 and 1995 (CITES Annual Report database). Some persecution for crop and garden damage, especially citrus, has also been reported. Nesting success in recent studies in Cockpit Country has been lower than for agilis, with a high percentage (circa 70%) of pairs exploring and defending nest sites but failing to lay eggs. Actions: A major study of both Jamaican amazons was initiated in 1995 by the Gosse Bird Club with the ultimate goal of developing conservation recommendations. Conservation efforts important to both A. collaria and A. agilis include protection of habitat, control of harvesting for the pet trade, and control of shooting. The Forestry Acts of 1937 and 1973 provide certain forms of protection to some habitat, such as the Cockpit Country Forestry Reserve, and other areas have been established as sanctuaries. Portions of the lands important to native parrots (Blue Mountains, John Crow Mountains, Portland Ridge, Cockpit Country, and major swamps) have been designated potential (and in some cases established as) national parks under the National Physical Plan for Jamaica. In 1986, both A. collaria and A. agilis were listed as “threatened� by the Jamaican government. Also, stringent gun control has been instituted by the Jamaican government. All of these policies have resulted in a general awareness of the legal status of parrots among Jamaicans. However, they are still harvested illegally for local and international trade, and a stricter enforcement policy on poaching of nests is needed. Cockpit Country is not yet an officially established national park, and comprehensive protection of this area is believed to be a central need for conservation of Jamaica’s parrots.

Yellow-billed parrot Amazona collaria

A. collaria being a more colourful species and preferred in trade. While A. agilis is currently found nesting throughout Cockpit, including disturbed plantation areas along the edges, A. collaria now nests almost exclusively in relatively remote interior regions. Local reports suggest a significant overall decline in Cockpit and a higher degree of threat than for A. agilis. Preliminary population counts suggest 5,000 individuals in the Cockpit Country, Mt. Diablo, and the John Crow Mountains (C. Levy in litt. 1999). The species is often difficult to distinguish from A. agilis at a distance and potential misidentifications may have affected the validity of some earlier reports on its abundance and distribution.

St Vincent amazon Amazona guildingii Contributors: Paul Butler, James Gilardi, David Jeggo, and Fitzroy Springer. Conservation status: IUCN: Vulnerable (D1; D2). CITES: Appendix I. National protection status: Information unavailable. Distribution and status: This species is found only in the forested areas of the island of St Vincent in the Lesser Antilles. Biennial surveys conducted since the late 1980s suggest that the population is quite stable, possibly increasing recently to 800 birds (Collar et al. 1994).

Threats: Illegal trade has been a much greater threat to A. collaria than to A. agilis, presumably because the latter is relatively difficult to keep healthy in captivity and is less

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on the island (Nichols 1981). Both types of natural disasters are to be expected in the future and can only be effectively countered by a healthy population of parrots in a healthy quantity of habitat. Actions: As with all the amazons of the Lesser Antilles, this species has received considerable domestic and international attention (Butler 1992). Initiated in the late 1980s, education campaigns and political action have led directly to meaningful protection of the rainforest and of this species. This species has itself become the St Vincent and the Grenadines’ National Bird (Butler 1988). This species remains one of the least studied of all the Caribbean amazons. Beyond the population surveys and the description of several nest sites, little is known of its biology. In addition to continued protection and censusing, a study of the reproductive success, movement patterns, and habitat requirements of this species is fundamental to its continued recovery.

Imperial amazon Amazona imperialis St Vincent amazon Amazona guildingii

Contributors: Paul Butler, Billy Christian, Susan Koenig, and Noel Snyder. Conservation status: IUCN: Vulnerable (D1; D2). CITES: Appendix I. National protection status: Dominica’s Forestry and Wildlife Act of 1976 prohibits the hunting of parrots.

Approximately 30 individuals are currently in captivity in an aviary in the Botanical Gardens in St Vincent. Approximately 60 birds are also found in Barbados, North America, and Europe combined. All known captive birds are registered in a studbook for this species.

Distribution and status: This species is found only in the rainforests of Morne Diablotin and in the southern mountains east of Rousseau on Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. In the early 1990s it numbered less than 100 individuals (Evans 1994), although recent observations suggest higher numbers. In 1994 close to 100 individuals were observed in just one valley on the west side of Morne Diablotin. The total population was roughly estimated to be in the low 100s (N. Snyder in litt. 1997). Biologists at the Dominican Ministry of Agriculture estimate the population for 1998 at 250 to 300 birds.

Threats: Historically the major threats have been hunting for both food and the pet trade, and to a lesser extent, habitat conversion. Chicks were taken from nests which partially explains why there are more of these birds in captivity than there are St Lucia parrots, which were apparently never collected. Intermittent hurricanes may have reduced population numbers in the past, particularly Hurricane Allen in 1980. The eruption of the Soufriere volcano in 1979 directly eliminated undetermined numbers of parrots as well as destroying a considerable amount of the remaining forest

Threats: Shooting for food was historically the most important threat but this threat has been much reduced in recent years. There has been some deforestation but the occupied habitat of the species is still in relatively good shape. Presumably Hurricane David in 1979 reduced the population somewhat, but the main effects of the storm were in the southern part of the island. Little is known of the threats from potential competitors. Red-necked parrots apparently initiate nesting earlier in the season, and in one instance a pair of red-necks used an historic imperial amazon nest site.

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PAP_St Vincent Amazon