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Integrated Risk Assessment Framework for Ship Recycling Sector

Anand M. Hiremath, Sachin K. Pandey, Anand B. Salve and Shyam R. Asolekar Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Mumbai 400 076, INDIA Phone: +91-22-2576 7867 Fax: +91-22-2572 3480

Content of Presentation 1.  Overview and Highpoints 2.  Objective 3.  Methodology 4.  Results and Discussion 5.  Conclusions


Overview and Highpoints  


Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [1/4] “Ship recycling” is the bunch of activities which involves recycling / reuse of ferrous / non-ferrous metals and materials derived from the process of scrapping or recycling or dismantling of obsolete ships Ship recycling recovers more than 90% of the steel from obsolete ships and reduces the load on mining activities for the demand of steel (Asolekar, 2006) Ship recycling activity started in western India along the AlangSosiya coast way back in 1982 in the Gulf of Cambay located in the State of Gujarat Nearly 180 ship recycling yards are functional today spanning the 12 km coastal stretch. Nearly 70% of the vessels all over the world are sent for recycling which provides direct employment to more than 50,000 people in the Alang–Sosiya ship recycling yards 4  

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [2/4] In the year 2011-2012, 415 ships were recycled at AlangSosiya Ship Recycling Yards. Total tonnage that was broken in the year 2011-2012 is 38,73,378 LDT (Gujarat Maritime Board, 2012) Clearly, the commercial viability of their enterprise stems from their philosophy of generating wealth from waste! On the other hand, it releases carcinogenic materials, toxic fumes by ship cutting using Oxy-LPG torch to the surrounding environment which can result in adverse impacts on workers health and surrounding environment (Deshpande et al., 2012) 5  

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [3/4] Ship recycling is labour intensive work and involves a complex process that may lead to work place pollution, accidental injuries and even fatal accidents (Tilwankar et al., 2008) As a result, the ship recycling industry has attracted attention of national and international regulators as well as worker organizations and environmental activists all around the world by the virtue of the web of complex activities it entails In the recent years the sector has been under social and regulatory scanner more so because relatively greater numbers of ships were scrapped and obsolete vessels were sent for dismantling due to the bad national and international market situations 6  

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [4/4] On one hand ship dismantling happens to be an unavoidable and inevitable event in the life cycle of any ship When refitting and repair becomes uneconomical, the ship is sent for recycling or for scrap Auction of “end-of-life” ship is mainly based on the amount of steel in the ships and it is usually measured in terms of Light Displacement Tonnage (LDT) Ship owners usually sell their ships through brokers operating from different parts of world such as London, Dubai, Singapore and Hamburg for recycling (Demaria, 2010) The ships that need to be dismantled today were built twenty five or more years ago when toxic components were not banned and could be used without any legal hassles during building and repairing of the ships (Mahindrakar et al., 2008) 7  



Objective   •  Develop an integrated risk assessment framework which involves risks to workers and surrounding environment (air, water and soil) corresponding to all significant steps typically undertaken during the course of ship dismantling




Methodology [1/5]   •  There are many methods available which can be used to determine the risks (human and environmental) in ship recycling yards such as quantitative, qualitative and hybrid techniques (Maharvilas et al., 2011) •  However, quantitative risks estimation in case of ship recycling yards is difficult since the type of risks and its sources are still need to be articulated •  The study was carried out on the hypothesis that risks at ship recycling yard is not same at all the places within the yard. But, it depends on the working zones in the ship recycling yard 11  

Methodology [2/5]   •  The general cargo ship of 9091 LDT was selected for the study. The ship was manufactured in Japan in the year 1985 •  The careful field study has been carried out from the day ship beached in the yard to the complete ship dismantling during which each and every activity involved in the ship dismantling has been carefully noted •  The possible risks in each work activity of ship recycling are studied using qualitative approach called as “What-if Analysis” method


General Cargo Ship



Methodology [3/5]   •  The seven step procedure was used for performing a what-if-analysis in the ship recycling yard as stated in Maharvilas et al., 2011 •  The system boundary was ship and ship recycling yard under study •  The problem of interest was both human and environmental risks •  The whole ship recycling yard was divided in two three zones for the study. Namely, Inside zone, Inter-tidal Zone, Primary / Secondary •  Subsequently, the data obtained from the what-ifAnalysis carried out (for the period of entire ship recycling) over a period of three months can be represented using hybrid technique called “Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)” 14  

Methodology [4/5]   Low tide line

Inter-tidal zone

High tide line

Inside ship zone Primary zone of ship yard


Secondary zone of ship yard

Land Yard Gate 15  

Methodology [5/5]   •  FTA is an analysis technique that visually models how logical relationships between equipment failures, human errors, and external events can combine to cause specific accidents (Ayyub, 2003) •  Fault trees are constructed from events and gates. There are mainly four events (namely, top, intermediate, basic and undeveloped events respectively) and two gates (namely, AND gate and OR gate). Rectangle is used to represent top and intermediate events where as circle is used to represent Basic event •  The eight steps procedure can used to perform a faulttree analysis which are similar to the What-if Analysis procedure (Harms-Ringdahl, 2001; Reniers et al., 2005) 16  

Results and Discussion


Different Steps of Cutting of General Cargo Ship 1








Scrap and Recyclable Materials 1








Summary & Conclusions


Summary & Conclusions of Oil Tanker Ship Recycling [1/2] •  It has been found that the process of ship breaking followed in Alang is of very complex nature and comprises of various work activities. Any given work activity can run in sequence or parallel with any other work activity depending upon the number of factors such as stage of recycling, type of material handled, manpower requirement etc •  The Integrated risk assessment framework developed in this study can be can be used to aware the workers regarding the sources of risks depending upon the type of work activity and working zone in the ship recycling yard. The person working in the particular zone of ship recycling yard can go through this framework and understand the risks in his respective zone


Summary & Conclusions of Oil Tanker Ship Recycling [2/2] •  The whole framework can be used as a basic tool for policy making in the ship recycling in India for the betterment of health safety and environmental quality •  The results obtained from this study can be used as an input for the risk minimization process The methodology developed in this study can be used for carrying out risk assessment for specific type of ships •  This insight is also the critical input if one were to assess and suggest alterations to the prevailing practices in the dismantling sector and encourage ship dismantling yards to incorporate the alternative procedures that could potentially lead to minimization of impacts on workers engaged in dismantling and recycling sector as well as to the immediately surrounding environment 23

References • 


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Asolekar, S. R. “Status of Management of Solid Hazardous Wastes Generated During Dismantling of Obsolete Ships in India, presented at the “First International Conf. on Dismantling of Obsolete Vessels,” Glasgow, Scotland, UK, September 11 – 12, 2006. Asolekar, S. R., Greening of ship recycling in India: Upgrading facilities in Alang in the proceedings of “7th Annual Ship Recycling Conference” organized by Informa Maritime Events and Lloyd’s List, UK and held in London during 19th & 20th June, 2012. Ayyub, B. M. “Risk analysis in engineering and economics”. Chapman & Hall/ CRC, ISBN 1-58488-395-2, 2003. Demaria, F. “Ship recycling at Alang-Sosiya (India): An ecological distribution conflict,” Ecological Economics, no.70, pp. 250-260, 2010. Deshpande, P., Tilwankar, A., & Asolekar, S. R. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India, Science of The Total Environment, 438, 304-311, 2012 Harms-Ringdahl, L. Principles and Practice in Occupational Safety (2nd ed). CRC Press. ISBN: 9780415236553. Safety analysis, 302. 2001 Mahindrakar, A. B., Das, S. K., Asolekar, S. R. & Kura, B. “Environmental Issues in the Ship recycling Industry in India,” presented at Conf. organized by Air and Waste Management Association (AWMA), Portland, Oregon, USA, 2008. Marhavilas, P. K., & Koulouriotis, D.E., & Gemini, V. “Risk analysis and assessment methodologies in the work sites: On a review, classification and comparative study of the scientific literature of the period 2000 to 2009”. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, pp.1-47, 2011. Reddy, M.S., Basha, S., Kumar, Sravan, Joshi, H.V., & Ramachandraiah, G. “Distribution enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Alang-Sosiya –Sosiya ship scrapping yard, India,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 48, pp. 1055–1059, 2004b. Reddy, M.S., Basha, S., Kumar, Sravan, Joshi, H.V., & Ramachandraiah, G. “Quantification and classification of ship scrapping waste at Alang–Sosiya, India,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 46, pp.1609–1614, 2003. Reddy, M.S., Joshi, H.V., Basha, S., & Sravan Kumar, V.G., “An assessment for energy potential of solid waste generated from a ship-scrapping yard at Alang-Sosiya,” The Journal of Solid Waste Technology & Management 30, pp. 90–99, 2004a. Reniers, G. L. L., Dullaert, W., & Soudan, K. The use risk Analysis tools eavluated towards preventing external domino accident. Journal of loss of prevention in the process industries 18(3), pp.119-126, 2005 Tilwankar, A. K., Mahindrakar A. B., & Asolekar S. R., “Steel Recycling Resulting from Ship Dismantling in India: Implications for Green House Gas Emissions,” in proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Dismantling of Obsolete Vessels, organized by the Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, September, 2008.


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Hiremath integrated risk assessment framework for ship recycling sector