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Comprehensive Account on Dismantling & Recycling of an Oil Tanker Ship in Alang, India

Anand M. Hiremath, Anand B. Salve, Sachin K. Pandey and Shyam R. Asolekar Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Mumbai 400 076, INDIA Phone: +91-22-2576 7867 Fax: +91-22-2572 3480

Content of Presentation 1.  Overview and Highpoints 2.  Objectives 3.  Methodology 4.  Results and Discussion 5.  Conclusions

Overview and Highpoints Â

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [1/3] Ship recycling activity started in western India along the Alang-Sosiya coast way back in 1982 in the Gulf of Cambay located in the State of Gujarat Nearly 180 ship recycling yards are functional today spanning the 12 km coastal stretch. Nearly 70% of the vessels all over the world are sent for recycling which provides direct employment to around 50,000 people in the Alang–Sosiya ship recycling yards In the year of 2011-2012, 415 ships were recycled at AlangSosiya Ship Recycling Yard Total tonnage that is broken in the year 2011-2012 is 38,73,378 LDT (Deshpande et al., 2012)

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [2/3] Among other things, one of the secrets of success of the Indian ship recycling industry happens to be their zeal and efforts for recycling any thing and nearly everything from the ship to be dismantle including ferrous sheet metal and scrap Clearly, the commercial viability of their enterprise stems from their philosophy of generating wealth from waste! Ship recycling is labour intensive work and involves a complex process that may lead to work place pollution, accidental injuries and even fatal accidents (Tilwankar et al., 2008)

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [3/3] The condition in which ships brought to Alang-Sosiya coast in many occasions for dismantling have been so unsafe to beach and dismantle that the possibility of exposing workers to hazardous materials on board is imminent The Health, Safety and Environmental aspects assume even more important position while undertaking recycling of certain type of ships; for example, oil tanker ships – which constitute nearly 14% of the ships, dismantled every year in India

Objectives Â

Objectives •  Articulate the oil tanker dismantling and recycling procedure as-practiced in AlangSosiya yards •  Quantification of the hazardous wastes generated from the oil-tanker recycling and represented as per the IMO’s “Inventory of Hazardous Material on Board” Guidelines


Methodology [1/2] •  One oil tanker ship of around 16,500 LDT was selected based on availability and access arranged by the regulatory agency •  The field study started from the day oil tanker ship beached in the yard and concluded after the ship was completely dismantled •  The field observations were carried out in the working hours every day during which the authors monitored all the activities involved in oil tanker ship breaking and recycling •  All the applicable rules and regulations were practiced in course of recycling of the oil tanker

Methodology [2/2] •  During the field-study period, several brainstorming sessions were conducted with safety manager and production supervisors at the yard •  The oil tanker ship breaking and recycling procedure was articulated by field study •  Each and every reusable / recyclable material obtained during the process of breaking and quantities of hazardous materials generated were measured and reported as suggested in the “Inventory of Hazardous Materials on Board Guidelines” by IMO •  The ship breaking plan for oil tanker ship articulated from the field study was validated by visiting thirty more ship recycling yards

Results and Discussion

Oil Tanker Ship After Beaching in the Yard



Vital Data of Oil Tanker Ships


Oil tanker Ship


Dimension (LxWxH) in Meter

Year of Manufacture


242.80 x 32.21 x 18



Methodology for ships recycling of oil tanker ship


Inspection and Inventory of Hazardous Materials on Board


Inspection followed by Beaching


Navigational Material Removal


Bilge and Ballast Water Removal


Removal of Stored Chemicals , Recyclable and Reusable Materials


Oil Removal from Pipes and Tubes


Oil tanks Cleaning


Ship Recycling Plan


Ship Deck Area Cutting


Ship Engine Area Cutting

Recyclable and reusable materials recovered from breaking of oil tanker ship Type of Materials

The Recyclable and Reusable Materials

Steel Furniture

Ward Robes/ Cupboard, Ordinary Chairs, Tables, Cots, Mirrors & Mirrors Cabinets

Wooden Furniture

Ordinary Chairs, Chairs with cushion, Sofa benches, Sofa chairs, Stools, Tables, Benches, Boxes

Life saving Equipments

Life Buoys, Life Jackets, Life raft, Life Boats, Mooring Boats, Fire Extinguishers, Fire Fighting Uniforms, Gum boats

Electrical Appliances

Cloth Driers, Water pumps, Welding machines, Gas Cutters, Water Boilers, Electric Cabin, Fans, Rubber Pipes, Shaft Bearings, Exhaust Fans, AC Room, Televisions.

Office Equipments

Computers, Fax Machines, Telex Machines, Wall Clock, Binoculars, Electronic Calculators, Record Players, Vacuum Cleaners, Facility Calculators, Projectors.

Garage equipments

Bolts, Nuts, Screws, Ship Logs, Polypropylene ropes, Steel Wire ropes, Brushes Paint Cleaning), Asbestos Packing’s.


Refrigerator, washing Machines, Deep Refrigerators, Water Coolers.

Bathroom and Toilet

Urinals, Bath Tubs, Wash Basins, Commodes, Plastic Buckets.

Communication/ Signaling Devices

Intercom & Telephones, Laud Speakers, Fog Hon, Mega Phones, Barometers, Oil Signal Lamps, Marine Compass. 16

Scrap and Recyclable Materials from Oil Tanker Ship 1





Recycling Principle of Oil Tanker Ship 1.  The complete survey of ship will be made by the team of mukadams (usually 3 to 4) after getting cutting permission from Gujarat Maritime Board, in order to understand the entire system inside ship such as number of tanks, engine area, ship structure etc 2.  Proper ventilation will be provided before starting the actual cutting 3. The part to be cut will be decided depending on a) The safer place for the cutter to sit and start cutting b) Welded part of the ship will be selected so that steel plates of required size can be obtained c) Maximum steel plates can be obtained d) Ship must retain its balance even after falling down of slice

Flow Chart of Oil Tanker Ship Cutting Procedure Front portion of hull

Cleaning of the consecutive tank

Cutting of front portion of the consecutive tank

Cutting of right portion of the tank

Cutting of left portion of the tank

Cutting of the bottom portion and pouring water while cutting

Engine area cutting


Cutting Procedure of Oil Tanker Ship 1






Cutting of Engine Area of Oil Tanker Ship 1




Hazardous Wastes Inventory[1/2] The quantity of Hazardous/ Non-hazardous materials recovered from oil tanker ship is classified as per the IMO’s “Inventory of Hazardous Material on Board” guidelines The Inventory consists of Part I - Materials contained in ship structure or equipment; Part II - Operationally generated wastes and Part III - Stores materials in the ship


Hazardous Wastes Inventory [2/2]

•  •  • 


These guidelines are classified under “Table A, B, C and D” according to its properties: Table A comprises the materials listed in appendix 1 of the Convention Table B comprises the materials listed in appendix 2 of the Convention Table C (Potentially Hazardous Items) comprises items which are potentially hazardous to the environment and human health at ship breaking and recycling facilities (SBR) Table D (Regular Consumable Goods Potentially Containing Hazardous Materials) comprises goods which are not integral to a ship and are unlikely to be dismantled or treated at a SBR Facility


Hazardous Wastes Inventory [3/3] The data was collected using the method prefered in the guildelines of hazardous wastes inventory of exsting ship Step 1: Collection of necessary information Step 2: Assessment of collected information; Step 3: Preparation of visual check plan Step 4: Onboard visual/sampling check; and Step 5: Preparation of Part I of the Inventory and related documentation


Hazardous-Wastes-Inventory-of-an-Oil Tanker-Ship-SHIPREC2013_03March13


Summary & Conclusions

Summary & Conclusions of Oil Tanker Ship Recycling [1/2] •  Ship dismantling and recycling procedure of oil tanker ships in Alang revealed by the field study can be used as a platform for carrying risk assessment as well as improving the HSEQ in the ship recycling yards •  The IMO method of “Inventory of Hazardous Materials on Board” can lead to both qualitative / quantitative approach of identifying hazardous wastes on board systematically •  Oil-tanker ship recycling is of very complicated and comprises of various work activities and associated job tasks •  Oil Tanker ships contain a complex system of piping. The disconnection and complete extraction of oil from those pipes is difficult task 27

Summary & Conclusions of Oil Tanker Ship Recycling [2/2] •  The articulated steps involved in oil tanker ship breaking will help in preparing Ship Recycling Plan (SRP) in accordance with the requirement of the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009 •  Similar method can be used to develop ship recycling plan for different types of ships in ship recycling yards •  India as a developing country has started inculcating processes that promote green ship breaking


References •  Asolekar, S. R. Greening of ship recycling in India: Upgrading facilities in Alang in the proceedings of “7th Annual Ship Recycling Conference” organized by Informa Maritime Events and Lloyd’s List, UK and held in London during 19th & 20th June, 2012. •  Demaria, F. Shipbreaking at Alang–Sosiya India: An ecological distribution conflict. Ecological Economics 2010; 70:250–260,. •  Deshpande, P. C. Tilwankar,A.K., and Asolekar,S.R. A Novel Approach to Estimating Potential Maximum Heavy Metal Exposure to Ship Recycling Yard Workers in Alang, India. Science of The Total Environment 2012; 438: 304-311. •  Gujarat Enivro Protection Infrastructure Ltd (GEPIL) (URL: accessed on Sept, 2012) •  Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB), “Hazardous Waste Management at Alang Sosiya Ship breaking Yard”, Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) (URL: accessed on Sept, 2012). •  International Maritime Organization (IMO) ”Guidelines for the Development of the Inventory •  of Hazardous Materials” ( RESOLUTION%20MEPC.179(59)%20Inventory%20guidelines.pdf) •  Sinex, A.S., and Wright, D. A. Distribution of Trace Metals in the Sediments and Biota of Chesapeake Bay, Marine Pollution Bulletin 1988;19: 425-431. •  Tilwankar, A. K., Kalbar, P. P., and Asolekar, S. R. Articulation of the “Typical Ship Recycling Plan” used by Ship Recycling Yards in Alang, India Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Dismantling of Obsolete Vessels,13-14 September 2010, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. 29

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Hiramath comprehensive account on dismantling & recycling of an oil tanker ship in alang, india