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Systems Engineering and Responsible Life Cycle Management in Ship Recycling Annik Magerholm Fet Norwegian University of Science and Technology Ship Recycling 2013, Malmø, Sweden 9.-10. April, 2013


Paper outline • Systems engineering and systems life cycle management • Design for responsible ship recycling • Overview of – Conventions for responsible ship recycling – Major types of ship recycling methods – The green ship recycling standard

• Concluding thoughts on responsible ship recycling, systems engineering and modular ship design


Systems Engineering (SE) and life cycle management

Fet, 1997


Design for responsible ship recycling and SE

Model for design for recycling of ships (Rosemand et al., 1999) Ship design according to SFI-grouping system


Conventions for responsible ship recycling • The Basel Convention • The European Waste Shipment Regulation • The Hong Kong Convention

Major types of ship recycling methods • Beaching • Dry Dock • Green Recycling


The green ship recycling standard Aspects to put attention to · Legal requirements, international & national waste trade law · Waste oils, fuel and sewage · Downstream environmentally sound management of wastes /materials · Occupational safety and health (OHS)/ environmental management systems (EMS) · Green passport and ship recycling plan · Transboundary voyage to final destination to Annex VII countries (member of OECD, EU, Liechtenstein) · Transboundary voyage to non-Annex VII Destinations:


Design models: Traditionally 2 main design processes are found in literature (Mistree et al, 1990): 1. The descriptive model: – Standardized to Order (StO)

2. The prescriptive model: – Engineering to Order (EtO), a SE-approach, or concurrent engineering,


The descriptive model • This model shows how design is done by a designer, and not necessarily what should be done to meet the requirements from the interested parties. • The standardized ship concept giving the lowest cost and straightforward development and the customer must eventually (after delivery) customize the standard solution to their needs. • Standardized to Order (StO) with the final product with little or no flexibility for the customer.




The prescriptive model • The Systems Engineering approach, often referred to as concurrent engineering. • Concurrent engineering is defined as a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacturing and support and end of life treatment • Its primary goal is to minimize costs over the complete life cycle of a system while maximizing its quality and performance. • Concurrent engineering focuses on customers’ requirements, also called Engineering to Order (EtO)




A third design process is the socalled Configure to Order (CtO) High complexity Offshore construction

Offshore support

Short Sea Shipping

Engineering to Order (EtO) Configure to Order (CtO)

Standardised to Order (StO)

Low complexity Market volume/Size of P&S portfolio

• Based upon reuse of knowledge and prior solutions • Designed to specific customer needs • Utilizing the benefit from the standardized shipbuilding concepts • Flexibility of distributed production • Strategic choice of global production sites • Flexibility in the assembly techniques




The vision of modular design and production Based upon the idea of more • efficient solutions that what we find within concurrent engineering / EtO / CtO • standardized modules that can be produced at a lower cost by ”mass” production. • flexibility in the range of customer requirements that can be satisfied. This means that the difference is the ability to accommodate a more flexible final product that is based on a selected platform and a choice of pre-defined variations.




Business innovation in modular ship design




SE and ship design

High complexity OffshoreEtO construction Offshore support


StO Short Sea Shipping Low complexity Market volume/Size of P&S portfolio

The literature survey has shown that in common for most ship design principles, not much attention is paid to the dismantling process. The next question is therefore: Can modular design based upon SE-principles (Engineering to Order (EtO)/ Configured to Order (CtO)) lead to • improved dismantling processes and • implementation of extended producers responsibility?


Survey on attention to responsible ship recycling principles A survey in 8 companies (Ahuja, 2012) showed: • responsible ship recycling needs closer cooperation between the different actors in the supply chain. • the design and construction phase of a new ship needs to build up closer cooperation between the designers, sub-system suppliers, ship owners and the ship recycling yards so as to effective utilize information from the endof-life phase and also in order to prepare the required IHM • None of the companies in the survey had a systematic approach to extended producer responsibility


SE and ship design, summary This paper has introduecd • challenges to responsible ship recycling, • Ideas how SE as a process for bringing a system into being, can be used for bringing a system out of being in a sustainable and responsible way. • an overview of the most important conventions and the major recycling methods today, • an overview of the green ship recycling criteria. • the idea of modularization that opens up for extended producer responsibility, design for recycling and sustainable life cycle management Since requirements, legislations and procedures for the green operation at recycling facilities are existing, the future challenges lies in • the design principles (StO, CtO, EtO), • the connecting techniques of modules within the concept of modular ship designs.


Life cycle thinking

Raw material extraction Scrapping / recycling

Maintenance / repair




What does LCM encompass? Strategies &

Systems & Processes

Policies Life Cycle Management Data Information & Models

Methods & Techniques


Concluding comments: Based on the life cycle thinking and “cradle to cradle”thinking – “from ore to shore”- thinking is not sufficient. Future challenges to responsible ship recycling can be summarized as – “from ore to more” ………… Thank you !

Fet systems engineering and responsible life cycle management in ship recycling  
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