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International Conference on Ship Recycling, SHIPREC2013, WMU, Malmo, Sweden Towards Green Ship Dismantling: Scientific Assessment of Health, Safety and Environment Agenda

Presnted by: Paritosh C. Deshpande, Anand M. Hiremath, Pradip P. Kalbar and Shyam R. Asolekar

Outline ž  Overview

of Ship Recycling at Alang ž  Scientific studies conducted by IIT Bombay ž  Need for development of green strategies ž  Stepwise assessment model ž  Case Study: Plate-Cutting operation ž  Role of Appropriate Technologies ž  Future Challenges ž  Conclusions

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [1/3] Ship recycling activity started in western India along the Alang-Sosiya coast way back in 1982 in the Gulf of Cambay located in the State of Gujarat Nearly 180 ship recycling yards are functional today spanning the 12 km coastal stretch. Nearly 70% of the vessels all over the world are sent for recycling which provides direct employment to around 50,000 people in the Alang–Sosiya ship recycling yards In the year of 2011-2012, 415 ships were recycled at AlangSosiya Ship Recycling Yard Total tonnage that is broken in the year 2011-2012 is 38,73,378 LDT (Deshpande et al., 2012)


Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [2/3] In the year 2011-2012, 415 ships were recycled at AlangSosiya Ship Recycling Yards. Total tonnage that was broken in the year 2011-2012 is 38,73,378 LDT (Gujarat Maritime Board, 2012) Ship recycling recovers more than 90% of the steel from obsolete ships and reduces the load on mining activities for the demand of steel (Asolekar, 2006) Clearly, the commercial viability of their enterprise stems from their philosophy of generating wealth from waste! On the other hand, it releases carcinogenic materials, toxic fumes by ship cutting using Oxy-LPG torch to the surrounding environment which can result in adverse impacts on workers health and surrounding environment 5 Â (Deshpande et al., 2012)

Overview and Highpoints of Ship Recycling In Alang [3/3] Ship recycling is labour intensive work and involves a complex process that may lead to work place pollution, accidental injuries and even fatal accidents (Tilwankar et al., 2008) As a result, the ship recycling industry has attracted attention of national and international regulators as well as worker organizations and environmental activists all around the world by the virtue of the web of complex activities it entails In the recent years the sector has been under social and regulatory scanner more so because relatively greater numbers of ships were scrapped and obsolete vessels were sent for dismantling due to the bad national and international market situations 6 Â

Need for developing Green Strategies ž  The

existing policies and strategies are based on very limited scientific data and due to such lack of knowledge base; most of the prevailing policies are non-implementable or ineffective.

ž  To

make sure that ship recycling activities do not exceed the limits beyond which irreversible damage from impacts may occur on health, safety and environment.

Scientific studies conducted by IIT Bombay Development of Typical Ship Dismantling Plan ž  Improved Stakeholder Participation ž  Workshops and Training for the stakeholders on improving HSE issues ž  Significant inputs in policy making ž  Measuring and monitoring HSE factors ž  Identifying the most critical activities in terms of negative impacts on HSE ž  Developing Appropriate Technological Solutions ž 

Stepwise Approach to achieve Green Strategies ž  Study

and develop ship dismantling plans for various types of ships ž  Identifying critical processes (e.g. Plate-cutting) ž  Development of conventional /novel methods for scientific data collection ž  Develop new Standards comptitble with IMO regulations ž  Check the HSE risks after the implementations and develop Appropriate Technological Solutions if necessary.

Stepwise Approach to achieve the Status of Green Ship Recycling

Study and develop ship dismantling plans for various types of ships

Identifying critical processes

Use and development of conventional /novel methods for scientific data collection

Develop standards/regulations & compare them with IMO guidelines & international conventions

Within Limits

Apply standards and analyze the impacts & risks on health, safety and environment

Positive Impacts

Status of green ship dismantling

Limits exceeding

Development of appropriate technological solutions to minimize the impacts

Negative Impacts

Case Study: Plate-Cutting Operation Nearly 70% of work-force in a given ship dismantling yard is typically involved in Plate cutting operation. ž  It produces the steel plates of suitable size which are transported to re-rolling mills. ž  Significant risk to HSE. ž  IIT B made efforts to Conceptualization of plate cutting operation along with the developing novel methodologies to evaluate resource consumption and time - motion study for plate cutting operation. ž 



Air emissions from burnt paint Air emissions from burnt fuel Fuel (LPG+O2) Steel plates

Plate Cutting Operation

Sections of steel plates (as required by re-rolling mills)

Labour Burnt paint flakes and powder to sediment / soil Molten steel scrap-pallets to sediment / soil

Figure 1: Schematic of inputs and outputs for typical plate cutting operation in primary or secondary zone

Plate-Cutting Operation

Typical Plate-Cutting Operation

Conceptualization Plate-Cutting

Appropriate Technologies ž  ”Appropriate

technology as a strategy that enables men and women to rise out of poverty and increase their economic situation by meeting their basic needs, through developing their own skills and capabilities while making use of their available resources in an environmentally friendly manner”

Role of Appropriate Technological Solutions Aid for the Development of environmental strategies to reduce risk to humans and environment. ž  Conservation of energy and raw materials in a production process. ž  Reduction of toxicity and quantity of all emissions and wastes leaving a production process. ž  Reduction of impacts along the entire life cycle of these product. ž  To Promote Preventive Environmental Management Practices. ž 

Articulation of Appropriate Technology 1. 

Line scraping of paint for lowering exposure


Collection, solidification, stabilization and disposal or reuse paint flakes and chips for the minimization of emissions of heavy metals to intertidal zone


Complete recycling of steel and objects for minimizing carbon footprint (LCA study)


Risk based diffusion of technology

Plate-cutting (without line Scrapping)

Plate-cutting with Line Scrapping

Material Recovery, Recycle & Reuse

PVC and rubber cables recovered after ship dismantling


Scrap meltable material (nuts and bolts) 23

Pipes recovered after dismantling of ship


Future Challenges ž  Cost

associated with these new technologies. ž  Lack of Scientific data or know-how about ship dismantling sector. ž  Lack of Scientifc inputs in designing regulations and policies. ž  Development of globally implementable technological solutions.

Conclusions Framework of stepwise approach stress on: Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø 

Understanding of Prevailing practices in Ship Dismantling sector Critical activities in terms of negative impacts on HSE were identified Simple scientific tools were used to develop reliable baseline data for the ship recycling yards Implementable changes in existing procedures were suggested to mitigate the impacts on HSE Work is in progress……..

Thank You!!!


Deshpande towards green ship dismantling scientific assessment of health, safety and environmental a  
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