Page 1

Annual Report Issue

Fall 2012


The Magazine of the Woods Hole Research Center

Unlocking Mysteries of the


Change in the High North: Learn what permafrost, water samples, and mapping are telling our scientists about climate change.

in this issue Up in Flames: Our Forests at Risk Losing Cape Cod - Saving Cape Cod Nitrogen - Too Much of a Good Thing Our Science and Scientists




featured 5 7 9 11 13 16


From the President Board of Directors Staff Listing Financial Report Our Donors

2 3 4 17 18

Unlocking Mysteries of the Arctic Losing Cape Cod - Saving Cape Cod Up in Flames: Our Forests at Risk Nitrogen–Too Much of a Good Thing Our Science and Scientists The Polaris Project



Canopy Magazine

A Letter from the President

Annual Report Issue PRESIDENT & SENIOR SCIENTIST Dr. Eric A. Davidson


here has never been a time of greater need for the science that is the signature product of the Woods Hole Research Center. While the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is making halting progress on a unified protocol that is projected to take effect in 2020, the brutal truth is that the UNFCCC has failed to make an appreciable dent in greenhouse gas emissions. Climate and the environment were barely mentioned in the US election season of 2012—before Hurricane Sandy struck. And yet, left unchecked, the current trajectory of climate change will carry us beyond the envelope of historic climatic stability that made agriculture and human civilization possible. At the same time, pressures are growing for competing uses of land among agriculture, forestry, energy production, urbanization, water resource catchments, and natural habitats. The Woods Hole Research Center actively and vigorously addresses these great topics of our era. Not constrained by competing and often confounding missions at universities and government laboratories, and able to nimbly assemble integrative teams of natural and social scientists and communication experts, our Center plays a uniquely pivotal role to define and communicate the need to find solutions to these environmental and economic challenges with clarity, breadth, depth, and urgency. We are committed to the vision that science, supported by world-class research and communication on forests, soils, air, and water, can empower people to insist on and create the necessary policies to find sustainable pathways for human well being in an increasingly resource-limited world.

Pursuing this vision requires both a global perspective and local knowledge of how ecosystems function and how people benefit from and modify those ecosystems. We simultaneously measure through fieldwork, map with the help of satellite imagery, and model with a view to anticipating future trends. As the human impact on the planet grows, we keep track of what is happening to the land, identifying for society the hotspots and consequences of change, from the thawing permafrost in the Arctic to the expanding agricultural regions of the tropics. We merge natural science with social and economic science to discover paths for human prosperity and sustainability of the Earth’s natural resources. The global reach of the Woods Hole Research Center is impressively demonstrated by the range of new projects that we initiated in the past year in the forests of Mexico, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Brazil, Indonesia, Russia, Canada, and the USA. We design our research to include local partners, improving their capacities to conduct research and build policy. Finally, we communicate these insights both to the scientific community, thus advancing scientific discovery, and to non-scientific audiences who are seeking science-based solutions to the most pressing environmental and economic issues of the day. I thank our many dedicated supporters and I invite those new to the WHRC to join us in our pursuit of science that makes a difference. Sincerely, Eric A. Davidson President and Senior Scientist

COMMUNICATIONS Director of Communications: Ian Vorster Phone: 508-444-1509 Email: DEVELOPMENT Acting Director of Development: Kristin McLaughlin Phone: 508-444-1512 Email: DESIGN Ian Vorster Denise Kergo CONTRIBUTORS Beth Bagley Eric Davidson Denise Kergo Allison B. White PHOTOGRAPHY Chris Linder Gigi Gatewood WHRC Staff WOODS HOLE RESEARCH CENTER 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA 02540 Email: Website: NEWSLETTER Subscribe online at COPYRIGHT All material appearing in Canopy Magazine is copyright unless otherwise stated or it may rest with the provider of the supplied material. Canopy Magazine takes all care to ensure information is correct at time of printing, but the publisher accepts no responsibility or liability for the accuracy of any information contained herein.



Board of Directors This list reflects Directors on the Board between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012.

Robert Max Holmes Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Research Center


Lily Rice Hsia Consultant, Mather & Hsia

Honorary Directors

George M. Woodwell

Chair Wilhelm Merck Managing Member, Essex Timber Company Treasurer, Merck Family Fund

Lawrence S. Huntington Chairman Emeritus Fiduciary Trust International

Vice Chair Thomas E. Lovejoy Biodiversity Chair, H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment Treasurer Joseph R. Robinson Managing Director, MidMark Capital John H. Adams Founding Director, Natural Resources Defense Council Stephen T. Curwood Host, Living On Earth, World Media Foundation

Karen C. Lambert Environmentalist, Political Activist Victoria Lowell Community Leader, Conservationist Merloyd Ludington Publisher & Editor, Merloyd Lawrence Books William Moomaw Professor of International Environmental Policy, Tufts University Mary Louise Montgomery Community Leader, Conservationist

Eric A. Davidson President, Woods Hole Research Center

Jeremy Oppenheim Director, Sustainability & Resource Productivity McKinsey & Company

Iris Fanger Dance & Theater Historian and Critic

Amy Regan President, Harbourton Foundation

Scott J. Goetz Deputy Director, Senior Scientist Woods Hole Research Center

Constance R. Roosevelt Conservationist

Joshua R. Goldberg General Counsel and Managing Director Financo, Inc. Stuart Goode Private Investor David Hawkins Director, Climate Center Natural Resources Defense Council

Gordon Russell Partner, Sequoia Capital Tedd Saunders President, Eco-Logical Solutions Chief Sustainability Officer, The Saunders Hotel Group Of Counsel Neal A. Brown Partner Balber Pickard Maldonado & Van Der Tuin, PC

Anita W. Brewer-Siljeholm John Cantlon Joel Horn James MacNeill Gilman Ordway Ross Sandler Helen B. Spaulding J.G. Speth Robert G. Stanton M.S. Swaminathan Ola Ullsten New Board Members William Moomaw is Professor of International Environmental Policy at Tufts University’s Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, director of the Center for International Environment and Resource Policy, the Tufts Climate Initiative, and co-founder of the Global Development and Environment Institute. Jeremy Oppenheim is the Director of Sustainability and Resource Productivity Practice at McKinsey & Company, a global management consulting firm. He advises businesses, governments, and institutions around the world with his broad expertise in renewables, energy efficiency, and environmental finance. J. Atwood (Woody) Ives served as a trustee and later as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of KeySpan New England LLC from 1991 to 2000. He was Vice Chairman, Chief Financial Officer and a member of the Office of the Chairman of General Cinema Corporation. He is Overseer of WGBH Educational Foundation and has been a trustee of the Museum of Fine Arts – Boston. He is a founding director of Beacon Hill Village, a director of United Way of Massachusetts Bay and the Massachusetts Business Roundtable.


Retiring Board Members George M. Woodwell is the Founder of the Woods Hole Research Center and has served as its Director, and Director Emeritus. Dr. Woodwell holds a doctorate in botany from Duke University, is the recipient of the 1996 Heinz Environmental Award and the Volvo Environment Prize of 2001, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mary Louise Montgomery served in various capacities on the WHRC Board from its earliest days. Her special interest lay in informing the local population of the WHRC research and its relevancy. She earned a graduate degree in non-profit management from Radcliffe College, and spent several decades in leadership roles with conservation foundations, including the Monadnock Conservancy, southwestern New Hampshire’s premier land trust. Gordon W. Russell served on the WHRC Board for 13 years. He held senior management positions in the biomedical and healthcare industries and served as board chairman of the Palo Alto Medical Foundation, among many other trusteeships. He is a graduate of Dartmouth College, where he also holds an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters. Neal Brown is an attorney with the New York firm of Balber Pickard Maldonado & Van Der Tuin and was Counsel to the WHRC Board of Directors for 27 years. He is a graduate of Hamilton College and University of Michigan Law School, and is a recognized expert on land preservation.


This list reflects those on staff between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012. Please visit for a current roster. President Eric A. Davidson, Ph.D. Deputy Director Scott J. Goetz, Ph.D. Science Staff Alessandro Baccini, Ph.D. Pieter Beck, Ph.D. Logan T. Berner, M.S. Jesse Bishop, M.S. I. Foster Brown, Ph.D. Ekaterina Bulygina, M.S. Glenn K. Bush, Ph.D. Oliver Cartus, Ph.D. Andrea D. de Almeida Castanho, Ph.D. Leandro Castello, Ph.D. Michael T. Coe, Ph.D. Tina A. Cormier, M.S. Jill Derwin, M.E.M. Gregory J. Fiske, M.S. Carol Franco, Ph.D. Gillian L. Galford, Ph.D. Nora Greenglass, M.E.M. Kevin Guay, B.S. Joseph L. Hackler, M.A. Robert Max Holmes, Ph.D. Richard A. Houghton, Ph.D. Holly Hughes, B.S. Patrick Jantz, B.S. Wendy Kingerlee, B.S. Josef M. Kellndorfer, Ph.D.

Nadine T. Laporte, Ph.D. Paul A. Lefebvre, M.A. Michael M. Loranty, Ph.D. Marcia N. Macedo, Ph.D. Paul James Mann, Ph.D. David G. McGrath, Ph.D. Kilaparti Ramakrishna, Ph.D. Kathleen Savage, M.Sc. Robert G.M. Spencer, Ph.D. Chloe Starr, B.S. Thomas A. Stone, M.A. Emma Suddick, Ph.D. Mindy Sun, M.S. Wayne S. Walker, Ph.D. George M. Woodwell, Ph.D. Scott Zolkos, B.A. Administrative Staff Elizabeth H. Bagley, B.A. Tracy A. Barquinero, M.S. Florence Carlowicz, B.A. Lisa Cavanaugh, B.A. Annalisa Eisen Michael Ernst, M.F.A. Stanley Hammond L. Lisa Hong, M.B.A, C.P.A. Constance J. Johnson Denise Kergo Duane H. Martin Joyce McAuliffe, B.S. Kristin Powell McLaughlin, M.S. Lisa Strock O’Connell, B.S. Fred Palmer Melanie B. Powers, M.S.M. Camille M. Romano, M.S., C.P.A. Ian Vorster, M.S. Allison B. White




Unlocking Mysteries of the Arctic DR. MAX HOLMES DR. SCOTT GOETZ


eographically remote and often shrouded in snow, ice, and darkness, the Arctic remains a place of mystery and adventure. While reflected throughout literature and history, the lure of the Arctic also applies to modern science. Many of the most significant unanswered questions about how the world works are centered on the Arctic, including its complex interactions of physical, biological, and human components. This remote area now finds itself at the epicenter of global climate change, including surprisingly rapid responses to warming. These changes will have a huge influence on the Earth’s climate system – as well as on humans – in the coming decades. Scientific studies have demonstrated that the Arctic is warming at a rate that is two to three times faster than the global average. This temperature increase Permafrost Core Credit: Lindsay Parkinson

False color Landsat image, Kolyma River, Siberia Credit: Greg Fiske

directly impacts the vast amounts of arctic permafrost – permanently frozen soil that has been undisturbed for thousands of years – now thawing at accelerated rates. In a spinning feedback loop, thawing permafrost could release potentially billions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, further raising global temperatures and further increasing the speed at which the remaining permafrost will melt. Scientists estimate that global permafrost stocks contain four times more carbon than the entire global forest biomass, and twice the amount currently contained in our atmosphere. The rapid release of this heat trapping gas will continue to feed the global warming loop unless rapid arctic warming is contained.

Perhaps more than any other area of the Earth, the Arctic functions as a system, with land, water, atmosphere, and ocean tightly coupled. That is, change in any part of the system will impact not only all other parts of the Arctic but also the entire global climate system. As a result, focused disciplinary studies – which historically have been the norm – are not adequate to understand the Arctic as a whole, nor its implications for global change. Rather, collaborations by a diverse blend of scientists are required to gain a holistic understanding of how the Arctic is being



Perhaps more than any other area of the Earth, the Arctic functions as a system, with land, water, atmosphere, and ocean tightly coupled.

Yukon River, Alaska Credit: USGS

impacted by global climate change, and in turn how these changes will influence the global climate system. The Woods Hole Research Center is positioned to take a leadership role in the quest to unravel the scientific mysteries of the Arctic, and anticipate its corresponding effects on the Earth’s climate. One-third of the WHRC research staff is engaged in Arctic System science in Alaska, Canada, and Siberia. Terrestrial ecologists drill cores into trees to investigate past climate and how changes are impacting the vulnerability and the viability of the

boreal forest. Soil scientists drill cores into permafrost to discover how recent changes relate to longer-term historical changes and to assess what is likely to occur in the next few decades. Aquatic biogeochemists sample rivers, lakes, estuaries and the coastal ocean to take advantage of the integrative nature of these water bodies as signatures of change. Remote sensing experts use satellites to extend field measurements to the landscape and to map and monitor change over expansive arctic areas. Earth system modelers use satellite and field measurements to develop

models that incorporate predictions of what is likely to happen in the years ahead. Our multidisciplinary teams of leading scientists collaborate with each other as well as with prominent scientists around the world. Together they integrate knowledge to gain a greater understanding of the complexities of the Arctic System and to communicate the urgency of understanding how rapid changes underway in the Arctic will affect the Earth’s climate.



Losing Cape Cod Saving Cape Cod TOM STONE


e live in a time when human actions are the dominant force on the planet. Of particular concern is the increased use of fossil fuels and the resulting climatic destabilization due to warming, sea level rise, droughts, and a greater frequency of storms. Although much of WHRC’s research is focused on the wide-ranging, global impacts of these threats, we also study their impact on Cape Cod. With a population of 225,000 spread across 400 square miles, Cape Cod has a unique geographic identity that lends itself to a study of Cape-wide energy budgets, trends in land use, and risks of climate change. Using the most recent data available (2005), WHRC has developed the new Losing Cape Cod - Saving Cape Cod map, portraying some dramatic trends that have occurred since the 1950s. During this period, the combined acreage of forest, cropland, pastures, cranberry bogs, and


open land was reduced by nearly 50%. In the same 54-year period, residential and commercial acreage increased by 228%. Although development has slowed somewhat in recent years, the Cape will have to deal with traffic and wastewater consequences of this building boom for decades. And, because of this rapid growth, one particular effect of climate change - sea level rise - will become even more of a challenge.

rise – caused by melting of the world’s glaciers and ice caps and by expansion of ocean water as it warms. The shores of Cape Cod are part of an area recently designated as a “hotspot” of sea level rise, where scientists have found that over the past 20 years, sea levels have risen three to four times faster than the global average.

Climate change is more than global warming. Warming increases rates of evaporation, adding more warm moisture to the air - the fuel for stronger storms. Warming is also accompanied by sea level



Global predictions show that by 2100 we can expect an average sea level rise from one to six feet, which could be even higher for “hotspot” areas. Stronger storms fueled by warming now paint a threatening picture, as the effects of sea-level rise are compounded by damage from waves and storm surges. The modeling of a massive hurricane that occurred in 1635 showed a surge of 16 to 22 feet in Buzzards Bay and 8 to 12 feet in parts of Vineyard Sound, similar to what took place in the Great New England Hurricane of 1938. Certain effects of sea level rise can be mitigated by proper zoning to prevent development in flood-prone areas. Our new Losing Cape Cod - Saving Cape Cod

This map shows areas of Cape Cod that would be inundated by sea level rise of up to 2 meters (6.5 feet).

map points out many of the areas likely to be most affected. NOAA estimates that 7% of the Cape’s critical facilities, such as schools, medical facilities, fire/police stations, communications towers, and 8% of its roads - over 300 miles - are in the current floodplain. Methods to “save” existing development include elevating structures above predicted flood levels, landscaping that reinforces coastal banks, and constructing or stabilizing dunes. Despite these efforts, a three-foot sea level rise could potentially destroy many of Cape Cod’s salt marshes and severely alter the estuarine ecosystem. The ultimate solution to saving Cape Cod is to arrest or slow climate change


by weaning society from its current dependence on fossil fuels and by ending deforestation around the world. Cape Cod has the potential to contribute to this effort by becoming largely self-sufficient in renewable energy production. The Woods Hole Research Center contributes by burning no fossil fuels on campus and by producing much of our own electricity with a wind turbine and solar panels. Together we can act locally and globally to reduce fossil fuel use, take advantage of renewable energy resources, consider climate change impacts in planning, and preserve the natural protection afforded by sand dunes, barriers beaches, coastal vegetation, and forests.


CANOPY MAGAZINE FALL 2012 Wildfire in Colorado that burned over 46,000 acres

Low water level in Lake Mead, Arizona - Credit: USGS

A major concern for the coming decades is that humans are creating conditions that will greatly increase the frequency of strong fires and widespread tree mortality.

Corn field during heavy drought

Up in Flames: Our Forests at Risk

Dry streambed - Credit: USGS



n the relatively wet Amazon basin, forest fires are almost always caused by humans. They are generally the result of burning forests to clear land for new pastures or of burning old pastures to rejuvenate grasses. These intentionally set fires often escape into nearby forests, triggering larger scale fires. This has become a significant problem in the southern and eastern Amazon region, where fires commonly damage tens of thousands of acres of forest per year. In contrast, fires in North America are often caused naturally, usually when lightning strikes dry forests. Humans also contribute by starting accidental fires and by managing forests in ways that can produce less frequent but much larger fires.

Once started, the process of forest degradation by fire can be self-perpetuating. After a fire, more dead wood and leaves accumulate on the ground as trees die, and more sunlight reaches the ground, further drying the dead wood and also promoting growth of invasive grasses. Trees and shrubs that are adapted to a fire-prone environment also begin to flourish. All of these changes further elevate a forest’s flammability, making previously burned forests more likely to burn again. By itself, drought can be an important cause of forest degradation. Episodic strong droughts can kill large trees via



Landsat Photo: Wallow Fire, Arizona

water stress, which has been occurring in the Amazon over the last decade. Drought and higher temperatures can also create conditions for insect infestations that subsequently kill trees, as the bark beetle has been doing for the past decade throughout vast areas of evergreen forests in the western US and Canada. However, it is the synergy between drought and fire that is most destructive. Fire intensity and frequency increase significantly in years of severe drought. Fires occurring in drought years are capable of greater forest destruction because drought conditions create much warmer temperatures at the forest floor, thereby drying the dead wood and leaves that fuel the fires. In the Amazon, drought and heat waves also create much warmer nighttime temperatures, which reduces the amount of dew and allows fires to burn through the night. In drought years, individual fires can damage millions of acres of forest and leave giant scars visible from space. In the coterminous US, 7.7 million acres - the most ever recorded - burned during the severe drought of 2012. A major concern for the coming decades is that humans are creating conditions that will greatly increase the frequency of strong fires and widespread tree mortality. This is true throughout the Americas – from the tropical Amazon, to temperate forests in the western US, to the boreal evergreen woodlands in Alaska and Canada. Continuing human-induced deforestation and

fragmentation create forest “edges,” which are hotter and dryer and therefore more susceptible to fire. Human-induced climate change is almost certainly increasing the frequency of moderate to severe drought and, as a result, increasing the occurrence of intense fires. Furthermore, the destruction of forests releases carbon dioxide, a heat-trapping gas, and contributes to rising average global temperatures and more extreme droughts. Thus a feedback occurs, leading to fires that are increasingly greater in scope and frequency. Forest ecosystem destruction through degradation, fire, and drought is increasing markedly as a result of human decisions and actions. Without strong efforts to curb deforestation and climate change in the near future, a threshold could be reached such that the composition of vast portions of the tropical, temperate, and boreal forests of the Americas will be transformed. Our science is advancing the understanding of drought-fire synergies so that effective solutions to the challenge of conserving forests can be identified.

In the coterminous US, 7.7 million acres - the most ever recorded - burned during the severe drought of 2012.



Nitrogen: Too Much of a Good Thing

Solutions for a n



hen it comes to growing plants, whether in a garden, lawn, forest, or farm, nitrogen is a good thing and an essential nutrient. However, one can have too much of a good thing, including too much nitrogen (N). On average, only about half of the N applied to farms is used by the crops, while the other half inadvertently contaminates the air, rivers, and groundwater. In the last 50 years, use of fertilizers in agriculture and burning of fossil fuels in industry and transportation have greatly increased the release of N to the environment, with serious implications for human health, biodiversity, and air and water quality.

Climate change will contribute additional challenges to the excess N problem for both people and ecosystems: • Higher air temperatures will complicate air quality policies, because larger reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions from automobiles and industry will be needed to achieve the same reductions of ozone pollution under the higher temperatures, which has harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Climate change is projected to lengthen the ozone pollution season, accentuating multiple air quality stresses during the spring and fall respiratory viral and asthma seasons.

• Both climate change and N pollution provoke losses of biodiversity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, because nutrient enrichment favors fast-growing, non-native species.

enforcement, which has dramatically reduced industrial and transportation of emissions from smokestack and combustion sources. Agriculture holds the greatest promise for further reductions in nitrogen emissions. Applying current practices and technologies could reduce N pollution from farm and livestock operations by 30 to 50 percent, including better management of fertilizer timing and application rates, planting winter cover crops, and through the promotion of wetlands and streamside vegetation to remove excess N. However, additional efforts are needed to provide education and economic incentives for more widespread adoption of these practices.

Reducing nitrogen pollution would help slow impending climate impacts and would reduce other risks to human health and ecosystem health. To date, the greatest success has been through Clean Air Act

A recent EPA study showed that the human health costs of air pollution are about $23 per kilogram of N. The cost of fisheries decline in the Gulf of Mexico is estimated to be $56 per kilogram of

• Changes in river flow, due to both drought and extreme storms, will impact the amount of N pollution entering rivers and estuaries, making blooms of harmful or nuisance algae more likely. • Rising temperatures will increase noxious ammonia emissions from manure in livestock production systems.



nitrogen-soaked world. Meat Free Mondays The link between personal dietary choices and the health of the planet started with the ground-breaking 1970s book, Diet for a Small Planet, and now Sir Paul McCartney’s Meat Free Mondays organization has given it new life. We needn’t all become vegetarians, the organization argues, but reducing our meat consumption even just once per week would reduce pollution from livestock operations, which affects water quality, air quality, and climate change. McCartney’s web site features papers published by WHRC, demonstrating that science not only influences governmental policy, but also grass roots movements.

N pollution. In contrast, current efforts to prevent and reduce N pollution in the Chesapeake Bay ranges from $8 - $15 per kilogram, demonstrating that prevention costs are often far less than the costs of pollution. We can all make a contribution to improving the health of the planet and our own personal health by managing meat portions and how often we eat meat. Diets with too much red meat not only may pose increased risks of colon cancer, but large demand for meat also increases N pollution from livestock operations. Avoiding “too much of a good thing” applies to all aspects of the N cycle, from fertilizers on the farm to consumption at the dining table.

Learn more about solutions to the excess nitrogen problem while maintaining productive agriculture from recent WHRC publications: An overview presented at the 2012 Rio+20 meeting: An integrative report on excess N in the USA: A new report on interactions of climate change and excess nitrogen in the environment:

Reducing nitrogen pollution would help slow impending climate impacts and would reduce other risks to human health and ecosystem health.

According to WHRC President Eric Davidson, “Governments could sign on to an international treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but they haven’t. That means that we citizens must lead the way by showing how our carbon and nitrogen footprints can be reduced by being cognizant of our personal choices. Managing your meat portions, the kind of meat that you eat, and how often you eat meat, are the most important choices that you can make to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Eating less meat than the average person from a developed country is good both for the planet’s health and for your personal health.” Dr. Davidson’s complete statement of support can be found on the MFM website: http://www.


People & Projects People & Projects



Science & Scientists

in Brief


A program of research and technical training is being undertaken in collaboration with the governments of Indonesia and the State of Acre, Brazil, that focuses on advancing their respective efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). These two governments in particular are recognized leaders in on-the-ground implementation of REDD. With support from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, WHRC scientists are working with these governments to develop operational systems for mapping and monitoring their forest resources while helping to advance strategies for low emissions development.

Dr. Richard “Skee” Houghton elected a Fellow of AGU The American Geophysical Union, a 50,000-member professional association of earth and space scientists, has recently named our very own Richard Houghton as a Fellow. The following is AGU’s description of how selections are made: “To be elected a Fellow of AGU is a special tribute for those who have made exceptional scientific contributions. Nominated Fellows must have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences. Primary criteria for evaluation in scientific eminence are major breakthrough/discovery and paradigm shift. This designation is conferred upon not more than 0.1% of all AGU members in any given year. New Fellows are chosen by a Committee of Fellows.” An award ceremony will be held at the Fall 2012 AGU annual meeting in San Francisco, where Dr. Houghton will receive the honor.


The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment, which WHRC Deputy Director and Senior Scientist Scott Goetz has been involved in crafting, will take place over the next decade, with a focus on the high latitude ecosystems (boreal forest and tundra) of North America. Led by NASA’s Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems program, ABoVE will involve more than 100 scientists and at least as many research associates and students from a wide range of institutions. ABoVE research will focus on integrating

field, aircraft and satellite measurements of change and its implications for the future climate and ecosystems of the region, as well as its global significance.


MREDD+ refers to a REDD+ project unfolding in Mexico comprised of a fiveyear, USAID-supported initiative aimed at setting solid climate change mitigation policies and strengthening those already in place. The timing is critical. Mexico has just signed a climate bill into legislation— an action that could serve as a model for the US and other countries to learn from. If MREDD+ is to be successful, it will need to evolve into a manageable and verifiable process that relies on a system of accurate measurement, reporting, and verification, or MRV. Essentially, MRV is the process of orchestrating and documenting this large scale, public-private, multinational conservation program. WHRC is responsible for producing map data sets and other products that will support the Mexican government’s efforts to measure, report, and verify carbon stocks, develop safeguards for biodiversity conservation, and assess social impacts.

People & Projects



Why Dissolved Organics Matter DR. ROBERT SPENCER

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest pools of reduced carbon on Earth, holding as much carbon as is found in all living biomass. The amount of DOM in aquatic ecosystems is also equivalent in magnitude to the amount of carbon held as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; thus small shifts in aquatic DOM cycling can exert a strong influence upon global climate. DOM is made up of a wealth of different molecules, each derived from living organisms and subsequently altered in the environment by biological, physical, and chemical processes. Decoding the complex information DOM holds is casting new light upon the biogeochemical cycles on Earth. WHRC scientists are leading this endeavor, utilizing novel measurements to examine not only how much DOM is present, but also the role it plays in the environment and how man-made structures such as major dams impact this key component of the global carbon cycle.


The goal of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) project is to enhance in country technical and policy capacity at the national and local levels to reduce future carbon emissions from deforestation. Approximately 80% of the remaining dense, humid forest of Africa lies within the DRC. Funded by the Congo Basin Forest Fund, the WHRC project is one of six pilot studies to help design a national REDD strategy for the DRC. WHRC will implement development programs and monitor environmental, social, and economic impacts, testing pathways to achieve forest conservation, while

promoting economic development in the province of Equateur. The planned partnership with government officials, local communities, universities, and local NGOs provides a unique platform to advance knowledge on forest conservation by sharing results from ongoing scientific research through technical workshops and forest conservation policy forums.

addition, fishers and government and non-government organizations recently created a working group to discuss a proposal WHRC developed for legislation to promote sustainable management of the species. If implemented, this legislation would not only help pirarucu populations recover, but would also transform the pirarucu into the flagship species for sustainable, communitybased management of Amazon fisheries.

Amazon Fisheries DR. DAVID MCGRATH

Over the last year, WHRC has made significant progress in our fisheries work on the pirarucu (Arapaima spp.), one of the largest and historically the most important commercial fish species in the Amazon. In a recent survey of pirarucu abundance in the Lower Amazon region, it was found that populations have been severely depleted, about 4% of their natural abundance. Healthy populations are found in only a few communities. To address this problem, WHRC trained some 250 fishers from 28 communities in methods for sustainably managing pirarucu populations. In

Credit: Leandro Castello



People & Projects Credit: John Wood


Dr. Sue Natali Credit:Marc Conlin

Dr. Susan Natali joined WHRC as an Assistant Scientist in October 2012. Her interests lie in the fields of biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, soil science and global carbon cycling, all of which are integral to the work of WHRC. Dr. Natali’s research examines the response of terrestrial ecosystems to a changing environment, with an emphasis on feedbacks to carbon cycling from northern high latitude systems. While a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Florida, Dr. Natali began working in permafrost ecosystems in 2008 when she and others established a large-scale warming experiment in interior Alaska. That project tests hypotheses about feedbacks to the global carbon cycle as a result of warming air and soil temperatures and thawing permafrost. More recently, she established a tundra drying experiment to examine interactive effects of permafrost thaw and changes in soil moisture on ecosystem carbon exchange. Dr. Natali’s research took her to Siberia during the summer of 2012 as part of the Polaris Project, the monthlong expedition that is a component of WHRC’s research in the Arctic. There she worked on assessing the effects of changing fire regimes on larch stand density and on the amount and age of carbon respired from soils and thawing permafrost.

Dr. Natali has published widely in such leading scientific journals as Global Change Biology, Journal of Ecology, Nature, Nature Climate Change, and Oecologia. She holds a National Science Foundation Polar Programs Postdoctoral Research Fellowship and is a member of the American Geophysical Union, the Association for Polar Early Career

Scientists, the Association for Women in Science, and the Ecological Society of America, among others. She holds a B.S. from Villanova University and her Ph.D. is from Stony Brook University. From her new position at WHRC, Dr. Natali will continue her work on ecosystem carbon dynamics in northern high latitudes.

Credit: John Wood

People & Projects The Polaris


Since 2008, the Polaris Project has trained future leaders in arctic research and informed the public about the relationship between the Arctic and global climate change. During the annual summer field expedition to the Siberian Arctic, undergraduate and graduate students, faculty and scientists conduct cutting-edge investigations that advance scientific understanding of the high north. The following are testimonials from several of this summer’s students.

The Polaris Project has without a doubt been the defining moment in my education thus far. Being in the field and conducting research with world-class scientists as your advisors is an incredible experience. But being allowed to explore your own scientific curiosities and find the answers to your own questions is the true success of the project. The result of this exploration does not simply end with numbers and graphs, but with more questions, a burning desire to continue researching, and a heightened understanding of what being an Arctic scientist is all about. ~ Sam Berman, Clark University Polaris Project living quarters Credit: Maddie LaRue

I cannot describe my experience with the Polaris Project as anything but amazing. This summer has been an absolutely fantastic experience that has allowed me to grow so much as a scientist, and even more as a person. Travelling through Russia with a group of thirty-three people is a feat alone, but to do the science we did on top of it is mindblowing. Getting the opportunity to work with professionals in a field you are so incredibly interested in, in a place like Cherskiy, is a


“This is the most important


Credit: Ekaterina Bulygina

thing I can imagine doing.” Dr. Max Holmes, Director The Polaris Project

rare and invaluable experience that I feel so grateful to have been able to participate in. ~ Maddie LaRue, College of the Holy Cross My journey to the Polaris Project went through Washington, Massachusetts, and Bermuda – conducting various research projects while trying to earn a degree. I got on a plane to Russia a little burnt out looking back at the hours of homework, labwork, and general tedium, but on my plane ride home, I couldn’t help but think about what I could do next, where I could do it, and how I could manage. I feel pretty reenergized and I feel very fortunate to have been given the opportunity to spend my summer this way. ~ Miles Borgen, Western Washington University While in Cherskiy I knew I was experiencing things that I would never forget, but even months after returning I still couldn’t stop thinking about them - to me, this signifies something truly incomparable, extraordinary, and worthwhile. The Polaris Project is intense and enriching in many dimensions: academically, through the enthusiasm of the PIs and the students to teach and learn from each other; scientifically, through the desire to learn about and communicate the climatic changes going on the Arctic. ~ Dylan Broderick, Clark University

The Polaris Project has been one of the most profound experiences of my life. The number of ideas I had about possibilities for my future has since exploded. I was pretty sure I wanted to get a Masters degree prior to the Polaris Project, but now I am 100% sure and considering whether a PhD might be fun too. I knew within days of beginning our work in Cherskiy that I wanted to return next summer. It is amazing how getting a few people with similar mindsets together can accomplish huge tasks. ~ Lindsey Parkinson, Western Washington University

Larch Tree Sample,Credit: Miles Borgen

Our Mission: To advance scientific discovery and seek science-based solutions for the world’s environmental and economic challenges through research and education on forests, soils, air, and water.

Our Vision: A world in which the insights of science guide management of the Earth’s natural resources, so that we and future generations may sustain prosperous and fulfilling lives without degrading the ecosystems that support humanity and a diverse abundance of life.

What We Do: The Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) is a private, non-profit research organization focusing on environmental sciences. Our scientists combine analysis of satellite images of the Earth with field studies to measure, model, and map changes in the world’s ecosystems, from the thawing permafrost in the Arctic to the expanding agriculture regions of the tropics. We work locally and regionally, with in-depth expertise and collaborations in North and South America and Africa; and we also work globally, focusing on how humans are changing global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and water. We merge natural science with economics to discover sustainable paths for human prosperity and stewardship of the Earth’s natural resources.

Please support our efforts by making a gift to the Woods Hole Research Center. Your donation is a crucial partnership in helping our researchers meet our mission of science, education, and policy for a healthy planet. Click here to donate. Our safe and secure online giving form allows you to make a credit card gift of any amount. You can can also print out this donation form and mail in a check or your credit card information: Donor Name:____________________________________________________________ Make donation on behalf of an organization: Organization Name: ______________________________________________________ Tribute Gifts: Gift in memory of: ________________________________________________________ Gift in honor of: __________________________________________________________ Donor Contact Information: Address Line 1: __________________________________________________________ Address Line 2: __________________________________________________________ City/Town: ______________________________________________________________ Postal/Zip Code: _________________________________________________________ Country: ________________________________________________________________ Home Phone: ___________________________Work Phone:______________________ Email:__________________________________________________________________ OR Please charge my donation to my (circle one) : Mastercard Visa American Express Credit Card #_____________________________________________________________ Expiration Date:_________________________ Cardholders’s Signature:____________________________________________________ Mail form to: Woods Hole Research Center, Development Office 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540



Financial Report As a mature not-for-profit organization, the Woods Hole Research Center recognizes the importance of a strong organizational platform including a strong audit. For fiscal year 2012, the independent audit firm Calibre CPA Group issued an unqualified audit opinion and no management comments. WHRC donors continued to provide significant support, contributing more than $1 million in unrestricted funds to support unfunded science, innovation, and the overall organization. During fiscal year 2012, WHRC used a portion of unrestricted funds to develop new collateral materials to highlight the work of the scientists and to create communications products that

inform and engage supporters. Public lectures, project materials, and website updates are examples of these efforts. Temporarily restricted funds were spent down as projects ended and withdrawals were taken from unrestricted investments to support both unfunded science and unexpected needs. Significant capital improvements were made to the heating and cooling systems of the George M. Woodwell Building, and laboratory facilities were updated. New equipment was purchased to enhance the chemistry capabilities of our environmental laboratory, including a solar simulator and a freestanding freezer

that is hosting water samples from both WHRC projects and those of collaborators. WHRC relies on the generosity of donors for unrestricted support to ensure that its scientists are able to explore new research possibilities, meet with collaborators, and consider solutions to the Earth’s environmental and economic challenges. Unrestricted funding allows WHRC scientists to continue to innovate and to explore new research and communication opportunities. Full financial statements are available at

Statements of Activities Unrestricted

Temporarily Restricted

Support and Revenue Government Foundations and Other Investment Income Donated Equipment Change in Value of Split-interest Agreements Other Income Net Assets Released from Restrictions Total Support and Revenue Expenses Research Programs General and Administrative Development and Fund Raising Total Expenses Change in Net Assets

$7,866,948 $2,168,127 $816,151 $10,851,226 ($228,567)


$7,649,519 $7,420,952

$5,621,123 $2,292,447

Net Assets Beginning of Year End of Year

$1,036,033 $84,590 $81,787 ($9,917)

$4,991,351 $958,928 $123,689 -

$27,522 $9,402,644





Permanently Restricted $6,100




$4,991,351 $2,001,061 $208,279 $81,787 ($9,917)

$3,486,145 $3,001,314 $758,763 $267,811 $1,994


$27,522 -

$21,516 -



$7,866,948 $2,168,127 $816,151 $10,851,226 $6,100 ($3,551,143)

$9,340,908 $2,692,525 $462,877 $12,496,310 ($4,958,767)



$3,667,729 $3,673,829

$16,938,371 $13,387,228

$21,897,138 $16,938,371


Donors This reflects giving between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012. $100,000 - $399,999 Charles R. O’Malley Charitable Lead Trust Harbourton Foundation $50,000-$99,999 Anonymous Margaret Cornman (deceased) Eric Davidson and Jean Talbert Ducks Unlimited Francis and Victoria Lowell Wilhelm and Nonie Merck Gilman and Margaret Ordway Amy and James Regan Joseph and MaritÊ Robinson The Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment

$5,000 - $9,999 Greg Alexander American Endowment Foundation Denise Draper Iris and Robert Fanger Susan and Jay Foley Benjamin and Ruth Hammett Serena Hatch John and Lily Rice Hsia Douglas and Barbara Williamson World Wildlife Fund James Worth $1,000 - $4,999

$25,000-$49,999 Betsy and Jesse Fink Foundation Lawrence and Caroline Huntington Monique Liuzzi John Myers and Merloyd Ludington Albert and Katharine Merck $10,000-$24,999 Adelard A. and Valeda Lea Roy Foundation Cogan Family Foundation Paul Faraca Spencer Glendon and Lisa Tung Stuart Goode and Nancy Cooley Esmond Harmsworth and James Richardson Timothy and Joan Ingraham J. Atwood and Elizabeth Ives Sam and Karen Lambert Linden Trust for Conservation Merck Partnership for Giving Gordon Russell and Bettina McAdoo Fred and Alice Stanback George and Katharine Woodwell

Robert and Alison Ament Ann Mudge Backer Michael and Margherita Baldwin David and Ellie Beatty Stephen Bernier and Constance Messner Donald Bourne Ellen Cabot and Matthew Watson James and Ruth Clark Sally Cross Annie Dillard Vivian Donnelley Elizabeth & Frank Odell Family Fund of the Community Foundation of Collier County Robert Epstein and Amy Roth Michael Fanger and Linda Sattel Bob and Randi Fisher Peter Francis Geoffrey Freeman and Marjorie Findlay Dan and Bunny Gabel GE Foundation Scott Goetz and Nadine Laporte Avram and Carol Goldberg Joshua Goldberg - Trustee, Goldberg Family Foundation / Rabb Foundations Sibyl Golden Thomas and Virginia Gregg Gordon and Carolyn Hall George and Marina Hatch Bayard and Julie Henry Art and Eloise Hodges Richard and Susan Houghton


Hamilton and Edith Kean Nancy Lassalle Marta Jo Lawrence David and Dana Lee Jean Lootz William and Mary Lunt Marilyn MacLeod Margaret Evans Tuten Foundation Marvin and Annette Lee Foundation Microsoft Matching Gifts Program Mary Louise and Charles Montgomery Bill and Margot Moomaw William and Mary Sue Morrill Abigail Norman Martin and Joan Person Eugene and Diana Pinover Melanie Powers, Rick and Paul Presbrey Ted and Connie Roosevelt Tedd and Ella Saunders Anne Sawyer Superior Nut Company, Inc. Gerard and Mary Swope Catherine Symchych Martin and Laura Wattenberg Wichita Falls Area Community Foundation - John Hirschi Donor Advised The Winslow Foundation Woodcock P Foundation Mary and Redwood Wright $500 - $999 John and Patricia Adams Dorothy Baldini Molly Bang and Jim Green Tim Barclay and Beth Taylor Ed and Amy Brakeman Anita Brewer-Siljeholm Cape Cod Foundation Priscilla Case Ferdinand Colloredo-Mansfeld Molly Cornell Michael and Marcia Corrigan Murray and Judith Danforth Michael and Dudley Del Balso Griswold Draz Donald and Sheila Evans Kenneth Foreman and Anne Giblin Arthur and Linda Gelb




Margaret and Robert Huskins Robert Inches Institute For Training and Development Carl and Joanne Leaman Thomas Lovejoy Nawrie Meigs-Brown and David Brown Harriet Meiss Josephine Merck Ken and Laura Morse Carol O’Neil John Ordway, Jr. Jack and Ann Rabinowitz Fannette Sawyer Nancy Soulette Louisa Spencer Richard Verney Roger Williams $1-$499 Anonymous (8) Constance Abbott John and Christine Abrams Academy For Life Long Learning Jonathan Aibel and Julie Rohwein Carla Alani Herbert and Catherine Allard Robert and Helen Alsop Peggy Andretz Audrey Ashton Isabella Ashton Brian and Maria Aspinwall Duncan and Dorothy Aspinwall Roberta August David and Nancy Babin Richard and Denise Backus Alice Baines Joan Balfour Anne Barnes David and Laurie Barrett Gary Beach and Mona Beach-Bernardi Gordon Beckhart Becton, Dickinson and Company Jean Bedient Tom and Mary Jo Benjamin Ralph and Joyce Berger George and Roberta Berry Alden and Barbara Besse Lee James Best, Jr. Olive Beverly Richard and Mary Bierly John and Marion Bierwirth Mary Biggar George Billings Stephen and Barbara Billings

Donald and Alpine Bird James and Barbara Birney Milton and Sandra Blackington BNY Mellon Community Partnership Joan Bolling Lonegan and Mary Bonczek Elizabeth Borden Dwight Boston Francis and Margaret Bowles Peter Bowman John Braitmayer Emily Bramhall Mr. and Mrs. Bernard J. Brennan, IV Charles and Helen Bresnahan Sierra Bright Eleanor Bronson-Hodge John and Elaine Brouillard Vernon and Barbara Brown David Browning Lawrence and Margaret Bruce Ekaterina Bulygina Barbara Allen Bunker Barry and Sylvia Bunshoft Stanley and Helen Burd Alan and Joyce Bush Jean Butterworth Michael and Charlene Cain Marjorie Cairns Diana Campbell Mark and Kathleen Cariddi Samm Carlton Ben Carnevale and Joanne Blum-Carnevale Elliott and Susan Carr Robert and Myra Carrier John and Helaine Carroll Charles and Margaret Chace Arsen and Marie Charles George and Dorothea Chidester Frank and Julia Child Jane Chrisfield Naomi Church Arthur Clark Darlene Clark James and Ann Cleary Bonnie Clendenning Thomas and Ann Coe Bruce Cohen Ellen Coldren Paul Colinvaux and Llewellya Hillis Peter and Edna Collom Nathaniel Coolidge John and Barbara Cotnam Kathleen Cover Joseph Crimmins Jeanne Crocker

Steve Curwood and Jennifer Stevens-Curwood Don and Patricia Cushing Clarke and Maria Daniels Ken and Linda Davidson Joseph Day Regina Day William and Patricia Day David and Mary Dearborn John and Carol DeBraal Dell Inc. Lawrence and Regina DelVecchio Jack Dennis Ethan and Frances Dennison Philip and Tina deNormandie Elizabeth Desaulniers Paul Destler Virginia Devine Donald and Anita Dickinson Jonathan DiPaolo Patricia Donahue Toni Dove Michael Dryfoos and Ilga Jansons Martin Dugan Frank Dunau and Amy Davis William and Janet Edmond Frank and Nancy Egloff Paul and Anne Ehrlich David and Frances Einhorn Alfred and Mary Eipper Marilyn Elie Denny Emory Bradford and Dorothea Endicott Ed and Susan Epes Michael and Lynne Farlow Alison Farrar John and Shirley Farrington Kimball and Nancy Faulkner David and Doris Fausch Harley Featherston Warren Felt and Dolores Around Gail Fenske and Donald Cecich Richard Fewkes Henry Finch and Patricia Robinson David and Barbara Fink Daphne Fisher Gordon Fitzgerald Elizabeth Foss Robert and Georgina Frampton Alan and Anita Frank Ann Freedberg Ruth Fye A. Mark Gabriele Willard and Constance Galliart Ashley Galvin



Robert Gannett Stephen Gardner and Mary Voce Michael and Mary Garfield Peter and Jean Garrison Patricia Garrity Donald and Ruth Glotzer Elaine Goldman Mia Goldman and Michael Rotblatt Richard and Kerry Goodson Benjamin and Ellen Gordon Marc and Carol Gordon Christine Goreczny and Mark Sewhuk Michael and Karen Gorton Bonnie Gossels Susanne Graham The Grant Family Alan and Elizabeth Green Alan and Fran Greenglass Frederic and Jocelyn Greenman John and Jane Griffith Robert and Virginia Guaraldi Lorraine Gyauch Larry and Melinda Hall Jane Hallowell Charles and Ethel Hamann Albert and April Hamel Daniel and Caroline Hamlin Elizabeth Hanley Robert and Karin Hardy Stanley and Elaine Harlow Hoyt Harmon John and Maureen Harrington Lynn Harrison Lee and Rose Hartman Anne Harvey Robert Hassey David and Betsy Hawkins Elizabeth Heald Bonnie Heidel David and Alexis Heitman Kurt and Ruthann Hellfach George Helmholz James and Lorna Henderer Bart and Jane Henderson Ralph Herbst David and Joan Herschfeld Charlene Herzer Philip and Ann Heymann Franklin and Marge Hobbs Alexander and Marion Hoffman Nate Holmes Max and Gabby Holmes John and Molly Hooper Richard and Marjy Horton Garry and Nancy Hough

Alan Houghton and Sky Pape Richard and Phebe Houghton John and Marilyn Howard Robert and Marion Howard Anthony Howell and Patricia Benner William Hull Fred Humphreys and Andrea Kusko Nada Hyman Lynn Jackson Stanley and Dee Jacobs Gary and Sue Jacobson Ambrose and Anna Jearld Mary Elizabeth Jewett Connie Johnson Raymond and Lola Johnson Richard Johnson Susan Johnson Barbara Jones Dick Jones and Vicki Bok Dewitt and Megan Jones Landon Jones Leah Karpen Jon and Barbara Kaufman Fred and Whitney Keen Dennis and Joanne Keith Mr. and Mrs. Brooks Kelley Robert Kennedy Karen Kimber Robert and Virginia King Stephen King Joan Pearlman and Peter Kivy Lewis and Lucie Kleinhans Tania Klutts Charlotte Knox Kol Ami of Northern Virginia Calvin and Ilene Kunin Alex Kusko Albert and Sonia Kutzin John and Diana Lamb Lawrence and Hannah Langsam Rowena Lauterbach Charles and Patricia Lawrence Helene Layton Yun and Yung Lee Edwin and Judith Leonard Richard Leonard Melvin and Katherine Levine Paula Lewis Frances Lightsom Jason and Linda Lillegraven Vito Lipari Douglas and Kim Livolsi William and Noelle Locke Whitney and Phillip Long Edward Lopata


Orie and Elinor Loucks John and Nancy Lovejoy Louise Luckenbill Allen Luke Maija Lutz and Peter Tassia Fred and Judith Mackenzie Margaret Mackey Laurence and Katherine Madin Douglas Maitland Wayne and June Malary David and Sheila Manischewitz Charles and Susanne Mann Kai and Marion Marcucelli Merle Ann Marion Randall Bennett and Lorraine Marsen Leon and Marilee Martel Elizabeth Garner Martin Fund of the Cape Cod Foundation Fred and Linden Martineau Natalie Mather Walter Matherly and Cope Cumpston Robert Matthew John and Nancy McAloon Frederick and Barbara McAlpine Joyce McAuliffe Edmund McCann Wallace and Nancy McCurdy Mary McDonough Victor and Ruth McElheny Nadia McIntosh Kristin and Kevin McLaughlin Patrick and Martha McLaughlin Cornelia McMurtrie David and Barbara McPhelim Melissa McTague Ruth Mead Patricia Meaney and Richard Eckaus Jonathan and Jane Meigs Jerry and Lalise Melillo Frederick Menkello Pete and Sara Merrill Caroline Meuly Dwight Miller Elwynn Miller Susan Miller and Lee Kramer Rosemary Minior-Walker Donald and Sandra Moncevicz Allan and Maria Moniz Henriette Montgomery David and Marilyn Moore C. Eldridge Morgan Charles and Sarah Morgan Kirstin Moritz and Rod Hinkle Yvette Morrill John and Fredrica Morris




Chip and Susan Morse Frederic Morton Thomas and Elizabeth Moseley Day and Kathie Mount Chris Neill and Linda Deegan Network for Good Jill Neubauer Ann Newbury John Noel Edmund and Ann Nolan John and Vivian Novado Roberta Odell William and Donna Marie Oglesby Pauline O’Leary John Olson Renee and Kimberley O’Sullivan Gary and Naomi Palmer Nicholas and Mary Paola Bernard and Claudine Parisot Jeffrey and Susan Parker John and Monica Parks Walter and Ruth Paul John and Natalie Payne Herta Payson Robert and Pamela Pelletreau Gail Perrin Susan Peterson Henry and June Pfeiffer Donald and Susan Pickering Paul and Sandra Pimentel Warren and Kathleen Pinches Jerry and Sheila Place Christopher and Pamela Polloni William Porter Rex Pratt and Diane McMahon-Pratt Stephanie Prior and Robert Grosch Donald Procter George Putnam Elisabeth Raleigh Maridale Ray David and Laurie Reed Randolph Richardson Barbara Riddoch Pat Riley Joseph and Ethel Rimmer Mary Ring John and Marie Rixon Alison Robb Jim and Derreth Roberts Eric Roccario Howard Roche Peter and Jane Roda James and Dianne Roderick Joan Rodriguez Edward and Wendy Rose

Marc Rosenbaum and Jill De La Hunt David and Edith Ross Perry Ross Nicholas Rossettos Catherine Rossi Michael Ruddy Richard Sailor and Mary Johnston Susan Savage Paul and Kristen Schmidt Martin and Gladys Schwartz Frederick A.O. Schwarz and Frederica Perera Peter Schweinsberg Sea Education Association Dorothy Sebesta Richard and Lucille Seeley Deborah Gates and Stephen Senft Michael and Amy Shaw David Sheehan Peter and Anne Sheldon Daniel and Joanne Shively David Folger and Janet Simons-Folger Peter Sinclaire Vivian Sinder-Brown A. Homer Skinner Beverly Sloan Paul and Mary Louise Smith Robert and Sharon Smith Wesley and Nancy Smith Robert and Elizabeth Snow Richard and Elizabeth Sonneborn South Mountain Company Foundation Gus and Cameron Speth Ann Sprayregen John St. Laurent Wallace and Pamela Stark Kenneth Stasney M. T. Stein Gerald and Margaret Steinberg Peter Stern and Joan Johnston-Stern Tom and Judy Stetson Allan Stocker George and Dorothy Stone Margaret Sturtevant Eric and Holly Sundquist The Tamzen White Family Fund Sarah Tappan Jared and Heather Tausig Michael Testa Edward and Penny Thomas Katharine Thompson Timothy and Janet Trask Marian Trotter Leo Tugan-Baranovsky Elinore Tushner Joan Tweedy

John and Frederica Valois Jack and Uta Valpey Vera Van Atta Mathias and Cornelia Van Thiel Richard and Catherine Viagrande Martha Vinick Karen Vogt Emily Wade Diana Weatherby Kate Webster William and Judith Weil Lewis Weinfeld Jane Weingarten Betty Weinstock Irwin Weisbrot Christine Weisiger Wellfleet Motel and Lodge Larry Wentworth Andreas and Denise Wesserle Bob and Nettie West Ruth Whipple Stuart and Tilda White Susan White and Ellen Corcoran Joan Wickersham Joanie Wiinblad Seth Wilkinson and Alison Flynn Thomas Wilkinson Darrell Williams and Rebecca Willow Marsden Williams Robert Williams Jeff Williams Norman and Elizabeth Winskill Frederic and Susan Winthrop Louise Wolf Edward and Toby Woll Eric and Sandra Wolman John Woodwell George Woolfe and Mary Patton David and Julianne Worrell Margaret Wright Donna Wygle Louise Zawadzki Michael Zimmermann Arthur and Charlotte Zitrin Laura Zschock GIFTS IN HONOR OF I. Foster Brown from Richard Sailor and Mary Johnston Katie Burke from Robert Matthew



Eric Davidson from Pete and Vicky Lowell, Kirstin Moritz and Rod Hinkle Barbara Degler from Gordon Beckhart Iris Fanger from Barry and Sylvia Bunshoft, Michael Fanger and Linda Sattel, Michael and Karen Gorton, Alan and Elizabeth Green, Jane Weingarten Nora Greenglass from Alan and Fran Greenglass Lorraine Gyauch’s grandchildren - Dylan, Chloe, Cooper, Dara, Bailey, Noah, and Lallie from “Baba” John and Cheryl Holdren from Kai and Marion Marcucelli, Christopher and Pamela Polloni Richard “Skee” Houghton from Priscilla Case, John and Shirley Farrington Connie Johnson from Joyce McAuliffe, Kristin and Kevin McLaughlin Casey Lambert from Landon Jones


Alexander Sonneborn from Mr. and Mrs. Richard Sonneborn

Barbara Little from Ann Newbury

Helen Spaulding from Franklin and Marge Hobbs

Anthony Liuzzi from Monique Liuzzi

Tom and Ann Stone from George and Dorothy Stone

Wangari Maathi from Scott Goetz and Nadine Laporte

George and Katharine Woodwell from Connie Johnson, Bill and Margot Moomaw, Abigail Norman

Caroline C. Olson from John M. Olson


Helen A. Peters from Jean P. Butterworth

Edward Adelberg from Jonathan Aibel and Julie Rohwein

Reverend Owen Roth, OSB from Frederick and Barbara McAlpine

Marcia Airis from Ed and Susan Epes

Gerry Samples from Matthew Watson

Suzanne K. Bowman from Peter B. Bowman

Robert Schwab from Virginia Devine

Andrew F. Bunker from Barbara Allen Bunker

Alfred W. Senft from Deborah Gates and Stephen Senft

Richard Butterworth from Jean P. Butterworth

Sandra St. Laurent from John St. Laurenti

Hugh and Elizabeth Corrigan from Michael and Marcia Corrigan

IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS are acknowledged from: ESRI, Astoria, ENVI+IDL, Microsoft, and Google Apps

Walt Disney from Matthew Watson

Kira Lawrence from Charles and Gayle Lawrence, Maridale Ray

Paul Epstein from Anonymous

Sue Lipman from Matthew Watson

Jerry Garcia from Brian and Maria Aspinwall

Pete and Vicky Lowell from David and Ellie Beatty

Benjamin Graham from Susanne M. Graham

Callum McLaughlin from Kristin and Kevin McLaughlin

J. B. Hersey from Stanley and Dee Jacobs

Mary Lou Montgomery from Pete and Vicky Lowell

Jimmy Horne from Kristin and Kevin McLaughlin

Chris Paola from Nicholas and Mary Paola

Mary Cruise Kennedy, RN from Robert Kennedy

GEORGE PERKINS MARSH SOCIETY Born in 1801, George Perkins Marsh was the first to draw attention to the notion that the natural menace to nature was humans themselves. He published his ideas in a book called Man and Nature in 1864, to wide acclaim. Still in print, it continues to influence our vision of the natural world. The Society, named in his honor, recognizes friends who have elected to partner in the Center’s future by supporting the Center through a life income gift, retirement plan, life insurance policy, or bequest. Society members: Deborah Cernauskas, Robert Downs, Denny Emory, John Eustis, Iris and Robert Fanger, David and Edith Ross, David Hoover and Carol Swenson, George and Katharine Woodwell, Redwood and Mary Wright

Woods Hole Research Center 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA 02540 508.444.1521

Our Mission

To advance scientific discovery and seek science-based solutions for the world’s environmental and economic challenges through research and education on forests, soils, air, and water.

Canopy - Fall 2012  

The magazine of the Woods Hole Research Center

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