Annual Report Issue
The Magazine of the Woods Hole Research Center
Green Economy To promote sustainable forestry and farming practices in the Congo, WHRC scientists begin at the grass roots level by first listening to villagersâ€™ needs.
The National Park Service Addresses Climate Change New Use for Degraded Lands Science Education Initiatives at Work
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I support WHRC, and you should, too. Woods Hole Research Center scientists have their hands in the soil and in the water and in the forests all over planet Earth - from research on the rate of permafrost thaw in the Arctic to water chemistry in the Amazon watershed to the extent of tropical deforestation in the Congo. They tell us how humans have changed our global climate and what we can do to alter our current course. I support WHRC, and you should, too. Join me in supporting their work toward a cleaner and healthier planet. Mark Ruffalo, actor and environmental activist
featured 6 10 12 14
Growing a Green Economy in the Democratic Republic of Congo Wealth Management: The National Park Service Addresses Climate Change Recycle This: New Use for Degraded Lands Science Education Initiatives at Work
about us 3
From the Acting President 3 Board of Directors 4 Staff List 5 Financial Report 18 Our Donors 19
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A Letter from the Acting President Dear Friends, Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest recorded storms to make landfall, tore into the Philippines on November 8. It impacted more than 13 million people, injured over 12,000, and, as of this writing, left more than 4,000 dead. The climate change deniers came out in force arguing, “This is not climate change!” In the recent past, scientists would respond: “We can’t definitely say this particular storm was caused by climate change, but it’s the kind of storm predicted to become more frequent as a result of climate change.” The deniers were clear while the scientists equivocated. However, scientists are now reporting on the basis of statistical evidence that the frequencies and intensities of storms (and other extremes of heat and drought) have exceeded “the usual.” We are experiencing climate change. The Earth is warming at a rate greater than predicted by climate models, and we can anticipate more dramatic and more frequent events like Typhoon Haiyan. WHRC scientists use the findings of their research to identify ways to mitigate the biggest drivers of climate change. Armed with this information, we work to implement policies that lead to better management of forests and agricultural lands, which aids in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Recent examples include: • A published study of deforestation in Brazil that demonstrates the connection between greater land clearing and lower crop yields, proving that farmers cannot increase production by expanding croplands into forests. • The creation of a satellite-based map of Indonesia to help the government identify additional areas for sustainable food production without clearing more forests. • Teaching local communities in the Democratic Republic of Congo to better manage their forests both to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and to alleviate poverty. • The release of a map that provides an unprecedented view of global forest change over the past 12 years, which will enable carbon emissions to be determined with greater accuracy. In this issue of Canopy, we gratefully recognize our donors, who share the urgency of our mission. Throughout the magazine you will find statements from donors, staff, and scientists that convey, on a very personal level, how your support of WHRC has impacted their lives. Thanks to your commitment, we are able to take our research to the public and to policymakers and communicate that we are, indeed, experiencing climate change. We welcome new supporters to join us as we move beyond equivocation to solutions that will help mitigate the most harmful aspects of climate change. With sincere thanks,
Richard A. Houghton Acting President
Annual Report Issue
ACTING PRESIDENT AND SENIOR SCIENTIST Dr. Richard A. Houghton COMMUNICATIONS Director of External Affairs: Eunice Youmans Phone: 508-444-1509 Email: email@example.com DEVELOPMENT Chief Development Officer: Robert J. Mollenhauer Phone: 508-444-1551 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org EDITING & DESIGN Elizabeth Bagley Allison White PHOTOGRAPHY WHRC Staff WOODS HOLE RESEARCH CENTER 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA 02540 Email: email@example.com Website: www.whrc.org NEWSLETTER Subscribe online at www.whrc.org COPYRIGHT All material appearing in Canopy Magazine is copyright unless otherwise stated or it may rest with the provider of the supplied material. Canopy Magazine takes care to ensure information is correct at time of printing, but the publisher accepts no responsibility or liability for the accuracy of any information contained herein.
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Board of Directors This list reflects Directors on the Board between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. Chair Wilhelm Merck Managing Member Essex Timber Company Treasurer, Merck Family Fund Vice Chair Thomas E. Lovejoy Biodiversity Chair H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment Treasurer Joseph R. Robinson Managing Director MidMark Capital Members John H. Adams Founding Director Natural Resources Defense Council Stephen T. Curwood Host, Living On Earth World Media Foundation Iris Fanger Dance & Theater Historian and Critic Scott J. Goetz Deputy Director, Senior Scientist Woods Hole Research Center Joshua R. Goldberg General Counsel and Managing Director Financo, Inc. Stuart Goode Private Investor
David Hawkins Director, Climate Center Natural Resources Defense Council
Amy Regan President Harbourton Foundation
Robert Max Holmes Senior Scientist Woods Hole Research Center
Constance R. Roosevelt Conservationist
Lily Rice Hsia Consultant Mather & Hsia Lawrence S. Huntington Chairman Emeritus Fiduciary Trust International Karen C. Lambert Environmentalist, Political Activist Victoria Lowell Community Leader, Conservationist Merloyd Ludington Publisher and Editor Merloyd Lawrence Books William Moomaw Program Director and Professor of International Environmental Policy Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy Tufts University Jeremy Oppenheim Director, Sustainability and Resource Productivity McKinsey & Company
Tedd Saunders President, Eco-Logical Solutions Chief Sustainability Officer The Saunders Hotel Group Clerk R. J. Lyman President General Compression, Inc. Honorary Directors Anita W. Brewer-Siljeholm Neal A. Brown John Cantlon Joel Horn James MacNeill Mary Louise Montgomery Gilman Ordway Gordon Russell Ross Sandler Helen B. Spaulding J.G. Speth Robert G. Stanton M.S. Swaminathan Ola Ullsten Founder George M. Woodwell
To advance discovery and seek science-based solutions for the worldâ€™s environmental and economic challenges through research and education on forests, soil, air and water.
A world in which the insights of science guide management of the Earthâ€™s natural resources, so that we and future generations may sustain prosperous and fulfilling lives without degrading the ecosystems that support humanity and a diverse abundance of life.
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Staff Acting President
Robert Max Holmes, Ph.D.
Richard A. Houghton, Ph.D.
Holly Hughes, B.S.
Elizabeth H. Bagley
Patrick Jantz, Ph.D.
Tracy A. Barquinero
Josef M. Kellndorfer, Ph.D.
Melaine Kermarc, B.Sc.
Wendy Kingerlee, B.S.
Alessandro Baccini, Ph.D.
Nadine T. Laporte, Ph.D.
Jesse Bishop, M.S.
Paul A. Lefebvre, M.A.
Duane H. Martin
I. Foster Brown, Ph.D.
Marcia N. Macedo, Ph.D.
Ekaterina Bulygina, M.S.
Susan M. Natali, Ph.D.
Kristin P. McLaughlin
Glenn K. Bush, Ph.D.
Prajjwal Panday, Ph.D.
Robert J. Mollenhauer
Oliver Cartus, Ph.D.
Johanne Pelletier, Ph.D.
Lisa Strock O’Connell
Michael T. Coe, Ph.D.
Amanda E. W. Poston, B.A.
Craig T. Connolly, B.A.
Kathleen Savage, M.Sc.
Melanie B. Powers
Tina A. Cormier, M.S.
Robert G.M. Spencer, Ph.D.
Camille M. Romano
Jill Derwin, M.E.M.
Thomas A. Stone, M.A.
Allison B. White
Gregory J. Fiske, M.S.
Emma Suddick, Ph.D.
Carol Franco, Ph.D.
Wayne S. Walker, Ph.D.
Kevin Guay, B.S.
Scott Zolkos, B.A.
Deputy Director Scott J. Goetz, Ph.D.
Over the years, WHRC has informed the way I think about everything. Fourteen years ago, I was hired – and inspired – by the Center’s founder, George M. Woodwell. We went right to work on his book, “Forests in a Full World,” and I plunged willy-nilly into the WHRC way of life, trying to make sense of carbon sinks and CO2 levels, deforestation and land use change around the globe, remote sensing and GIS. Before long, the Center, its people, and its purpose got under my skin. Over the years, WHRC has informed the way I think about everything.
Allison B. White, Manager of Administration, Sponsored Research Officer
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Growing a Green Economy “Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” - Alice. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to.” - The Cheshire Cat.
- Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland This classic exchange portrays a unique challenge encountered by WHRC scientists in a new partnership with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It invites the question: Why is a scientific research organization practicing community development in Africa? The answer: Sometimes you have to get involved in things you least expect in order to get to where you want to go – much like Alice disappearing down the rabbit hole. The Congo rainforest, second in area only to the Amazon, is a tremendous reservoir of biodiversity. However, this still mostly pristine land now faces intense pressure from development. With nearly onethird of the Congo marked for logging, and other large areas deemed suitable for oil palm plantations, the region is on the cusp of drastic change that threatens its forests. In social and economic terms, the DRC potential for rapid economic growth, and the resulting impacts of deforestation, are similar in many ways to Brazil in the 1960s. In an effort to avoid a repeat of forest destruction on a similar scale, WHRC is exerting new efforts on people, agriculture, and forest conservation in the DRC. A majority of the population lives in poverty in this central African country of 68 million people, including an estimated four million families of subsistence farmers. For generations, local farmers have cut down small areas of forest to grow crops, abandoned the fields when they became infertile, and moved on to clear new forest plots. As the population has grown, this traditional approach to agriculture has become overly destructive. Population growth is also generating a domestic demand for food and fuel that exceeds what local farmers and harvesting of forest resources can supply. WHRC is working to provide alternative methods for improved
management of agriculture and forests so villagers can generate the crops and income they need while leaving nearby rainforests standing, thus promoting a path to “green” economic growth. Earlier this year, WHRC opened its first field office, located on the edge of the Congo forest in the town of Mbandaka in Equateur Province, with the goal of working directly with local villagers to develop a novel means for reducing poverty while minimizing deforestation. It’s not an easy locale from which to run a field office, but it is where the people and the forest converge, and where the future of development and conservation in the Congo will be determined. Over the next two years, WHRC scientists Dr. Nadine Laporte and Dr. Glenn Bush will oversee the Equateur Project, working together with local residents, churches, universities, and community officials to assist the DRC government in
implementing a pilot forest management project for individual communities. The project works with households to develop community-based actions to halt deforestation under the national
With a seemingly endless supply of forest, villagers have traditionally used inefficient methods to grow crops.
Territory of the DRC and location of Equateur Province.
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“Suggesting to poor, rural households that they stop using local forest resources would impose significant constraints on their livelihoods, and we would not get much voluntary traction without additional support and education.” Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) policy. This approach differs from other REDD+ pilots in DRC, which either focus on private landowners with large land holdings or on the central objective of conservation around protected areas. Because a large amount of carbon emissions currently generated from forest loss are a result of small holder farming activities, a community based approach to REDD+ implementation is envisioned to be the cornerstone of a successful national strategy. The implementation of REDD+ policies in the DRC poses an important yet daunting challenge for Drs. Bush and Laporte: rural villagers must freely agree to participate in the forest management program, yet they have little knowledge of or experience with forest conservation
concepts or technology. “Suggesting to poor, rural households that they stop using local forest resources would impose significant constraints on their livelihoods, and we would not get much voluntary traction without additional support and education,” observes Dr. Bush. “REDD+ ultimately provides financial incentives to make those changes, but we must first have the community’s consent.” WHRC is developing a participatory approach known as FPIC (Free Prior and Informed Consent), a step-by-step process that teaches communities about the sociocultural and environmental impacts of a REDD+ project and helps villagers understand their rights, roles and responsibilities in the design and implementation of the project, as well as expected benefits. The process begins with building local
awareness about climate change and the role of tropical forests, then examining the local drivers of deforestation and key development challenges. By methodically surveying from village to village, and listening to households describe their needs for forest and agricultural products, Dr. Bush is creating a solid foundation of household economic data needed to develop sustainable farming and forestry practices that will ultimately benefit both the land and the people of the Congo. In the past, most forest conservation projects have focused on national parks, and most development projects have focused on agriculture or health services. Unfortunately, few of these efforts have succeeded in Africa, because such programs have tended to treat forests, agriculture, and people separately.
WHRC works to educate communities about the benefits of leaving forests intact, as the future of development and conservation in the Congo will be determined at this local level.
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8 WHRC’s Equateur Project is unique in that it combines all of these approaches in an integrated design. The pilot program in Mbandaka is working to promote a new grassroots culture of sustainability as a way to help conserve a vast block of pristine African forest and implement the foundations of a sustainable economy. The education and training of village farmers on improved management of croplands and sustainable extraction of forest products are imperative for balancing simultaneous conservation and development, both locally and regionally. The Equateur Project will provide scientifically-documented insights into how rural development and environmental management can work together toward a green economy, including the development
of a national forest carbon strategy. Conserving the Congo forest will also provide global benefits by maintaining habitat that stores carbon, moderates global climate change, and preserves much of the Earth’s diversity of plants and animals. “It’s a unique opportunity to apply our science to an integrated environmental, management, and development program like REDD+ at a community level. The synergies between WHRC’s research and community development will help to plan projects that are effective, efficient and equitable,” remarked Dr. Laporte. “The project will also provide vital scientific research to support the DRC as it develops national land use policies and programs focused on a green economy.” Sometimes you have to get involved in things you least expect in order to get to where you want to go.
How or why did I get involved in this?
Everything seems insurmountable. But then I remember something I read when I was quite young: Do you know the pile-built village where the sago dealers trade? Do you know the reek of fish and wet bamboo? Do you know the steaming stillness of the orchid–scented glade? When the blazoned, bird-winged butterflies flap through? It is there that I am going… to my palms and flying foxes… For the Red Gods call me out and I must go! - Rudyard Kipling, Feet of the Young Men Suddenly, after wondering why I left my family thousands of miles behind in the freezing spring of the northern latitudes, it all becomes apparent… so that my daughters, amongst others, might sense the same things I have enjoyed. Field Notes entry on March 18, 2013, by Glenn Bush, Assistant Scientist, while in Mbandaka, DRC.
From Science to Action In the long term, a global solution to carbon emissions will come through grassroots movements. To date, the scientific information about carbon emissions has not been enough for the leaders of most countries to implement appropriate energy and climate policies. In order to make a difference, scientists must engage at all levels of society and create a flow of information that will empower local communities and grassroots organizations around the world to engage and push governments to curb climate change. With the Internet, our planet has become much smaller, and we have the potential to share information, organized in new ways, and influence decision makers. In the end, it’s about developing a shared vision for the future of the Earth and deciding what we most desire as our legacy to future generations. It’s about learning to work together across cultural, religious, economic, and political divides. Nadine Laporte, Associate Scientist
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I love my job.
As an environmental scientist, I am interested in understanding the global carbon cycle and how humans and our activities are changing it. I love my job. Every day, I get to work on important questions that have ramifications for everyone on Earth. To answer these questions, I travel to field sites across the globe, from the Congo to Alaska, the Amazon, and Siberia. I am frequently in remote fieldwork locations and spend countless months away from my family, but I get to witness firsthand what most people only see reported in the media: how humans are altering the global carbon cycle. Understanding how changes in the carbon cycle impact climate â€“ and what this means for humanity â€“ is really the key question of our time. Robert Spencer, Associate Scientist
My experiences have inspired me... I find studying the interactions between Earth systems and climate change a stimulating and rewarding field of research because it enables me to explore the planet and address questions of global importance. In my two years at WHRC, I have been able to engage in a diversity of research. Currently, my projects range from helping to synthesize model projections of forest redistribution under climate change to characterizing the chemistry of the Arcticâ€™s largest rivers. I worked in the Siberian Arctic as a member of the Polaris Project, where my 4,000-mile journey from Moscow to Cherskiy placed in stark perspective the vastness of fragile permafrost-dominated landscapes. I am similarly driven to understand the impacts of climate change on unique landscapes through my involvement in research exploring the vulnerability of U.S. national park ecosystems to climate and land use change. I find the conservation aspect of this project particularly interesting, as the expected redistribution of eastern US tree species could have considerable impacts on human health, biodiversity, and the economy. My experiences have inspired me to pursue graduate studies, with the goal of becoming a scientist and an educator. At WHRC, I have gained skills, tools, and confidence to continue the pursuit of my scientific ambitions while being part of a team that is passionate about studying the global environment to create a better world.
Scott Zolkos graduated from Middlebury College (Vermont) in 2011 with a degree in Environmental Science. He came to WHRC as a Research Assistant in the fall of 2011 and within a year was first author on a refereed scientific paper.
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The National Park Service Addresses Climate Change The National Park Service was established more than 150 years ago and comprises nearly 400 parks across the United States. Its two-pronged mission is to make these national treasures accessible to all and to preserve them for future generations. Today, Park Service managers are faced with a question that was unforeseen when the first parks were established in the latter part of the 1800s: How should these valuable natural resources be managed when climate conditions are unlike any experienced in the history of the parks? Put in the context of their mission, in what condition will these forests be preserved for future generations? This challenge cuts across traditional, jurisdictional park boundaries and short term planning horizons, and requires a more forward- and outward-looking shift in management priorities. In eastern US parks, the extraordinary diversity of forests is a result of unique combinations of temperature and rainfall distributed over breathtaking mountainous terrain from Alabama to Maine. However, early effects of climate change are already visible. Spruce-Fir forests, relics from a time when the climate was cooler and wetter, are now restricted to high peaks in the Appalachians. These majestic forests are expected to face more difficult growing conditions as the climate continues to warm and precipitation
patterns change. What will happen to these forests and to the wildlife that depends on them? Will the climate zones in which they flourish move northward, or disappear altogether? These very real concerns mark a shift by the Park Service from managing for the status quo to managing for the future, and from managing within park boundaries to managing across park boundaries. To help preserve and manage these valuable assets, the Woods Hole Research Center is providing the National Park Service with manpower and technical capacity in conjunction with its Landscape Climate Change-Vulnerability Project (LCC-VP). The project is divided into western and eastern US components. Senior Scientist Scott Goetz is leading the eastern effort, assisted by Postdoctoral Fellow Patrick Jantz, Research Associate Tina Cormier and Research Assistant Scott Zolkos. The LCC-VP encompasses four eastern national parks: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Shenandoah National Park, Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, and the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, all of which harbor many unique species and comprise one of the most biologically diverse areas in the country. The goal of this three-year project is to integrate climate, land
National parks and other forests could be depleted of the rich biodiversity they contain.
Prolonged drought has made Fraser Fir trees in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park vulnerable to beetle attack, a situation likely to be exacerbated by climate change.
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11 use, and ecosystem models to identify the current and expected future effects of climate and land use change on forests. WHRC researchers are modeling various growing conditions for a number of key forest types found in these national parks: PineOak, Spruce-Fir, Cove Hardwood, Northern Hardwood, OakHickory, and Eastern Hemlock. The wealth of scientific data produced will include predicted monthly climate data through the year 2100 and satellite-generated maps of current and future habitat suitability, forest vulnerability, and connectivity of parks via forest habitats.
project can help identify species in greatest jeopardy and aid in adaptation planning. This will maximize the chances that future generations will also experience diverse, resilient, productive and healthy forests.
The models forecast growing conditions for each forest type under different scenarios. One viable scenario the Park Service could be challenged with is that of warmer temperature and less rainfall. Over the next 100 years, this could cause evergreen forests to decline and deciduous tree populations to grow in their place. Although there will still be trees in the forest, they will be neither the food source nor habitat for the native wildlife population. WHRC models will help determine whether and when current climate conditions in a given park may appear in other parks in the future. This would help in managing the transition from park to park of species in need of suitable climate and habitat. Park managers would gain a better understanding of which species could be expected to survive in their current location with a warmer climate, such as southern red oak, and which species would be more vulnerable, such as sugar maple, requiring more active management, for example through seed transplants to other park areas in a more favorable climate. Through its partnership with the Woods Hole Research Center, the National Park Service is striving to protect its vast wealth of natural areas from the potential impacts of climate change. If, as current research suggests, many species have a difficult time surviving under altered climate conditions, our national parks and other forests could be depleted of the rich biodiversity they contain. Although the face of forests in the future could change, data sets and decision-making tools generated by the
Sugar Maple forests could be depleted in the future due to their greater vulnerability to climate fluctuations.
Growing up in Knoxville, TN, on a clear day, from the top of a hill
above my house, I could see the peaks and ridges of the Appalachian Mountains marching toward the horizon. I could also see the links between my suburban neighborhood - filled with Tulip Poplars, Dogwoods, Magnolias, and Oaks - and forests of the same trees in the Smokies, where we would go for picnics and hikes on weekends. I knew little of climate change then, but as I look back, I realize that the beauty, productivity, and diversity of my back yard were affected by the same global processes as those affecting the Smokies. We canâ€™t know for sure what the future will bring, but the real power of state-of-the-art climate and land use models, impressive as they are in their technical sophistication, lies in the discussions they provoke and the decisions they influence, which will determine whether we take an active, cross boundary approach in managing for climate change or whether we let the seeds fall where they may. Patrick Jantz, Postdoctoral Fellow
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New Use for Degraded Lands Balancing the fundamental trade-offs between meeting human needs and maintaining healthy ecosystems is increasingly difficult as the world’s population and corresponding food requirements continue to expand at a rapid pace. Indonesia is a documented example of the tensions created by such a balancing act. Ranked sixth largest among developing countries, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is home to more than 238 million people, making it the world’s fourth most populous country. At the same time, Indonesia contains huge wilderness areas that support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity, after Brazil. To the chagrin of conservationists, deforestation has been rampant in Indonesia for years. In 1900, forests encompassed 84% of total land area. Yet in less than a century, forested lands declined by 42% or 278,000 square miles, an area larger than the state of Texas. Although some forest is cut down annually for local use by indigenous communities, much of Indonesia’s deforestation is caused by forest clearing for oil palm plantations. Oil palms are native to Western Africa, but
these trees can flourish wherever there is abundant heat and rainfall. Palm oil and palm kernel oil are harvested for use in numerous products worldwide including baked goods, confectionery, cosmetics, body products, cleaning agents, and biofuel. Together, Indonesia and Malaysia account for 85% of global palm oil production. Oil palm agro-industries could choose to build their expansive plantations on non-forested land, but logging of forests to make way for the oil palm fields has, historically, provided a secondary profit center to palm oil commercial ventures. In an effort to steer the agro-industry toward more sustainable agricultural practices, Assistant Scientist Alessandro Baccini and Research Associate Greg Fiske are developing a novel approach to pinpoint future sites for commercial agricultural development. As Dr. Baccini explains, “For years, ecologists and conservationists told industries where not to expand, with the intent of keeping industrial development out of ecologically valuable lands. For the first time, with this study, we say where it’s okay to go.” It begins with a map, but it’s hardly an ordinary map.
Across the tropics, there is sufficient degraded land to meet agricultural expansion for the next 50 years.
Deforestation of mature tropical forests in Indonesia increased rapidly with the introduction of oil palm plantations, depleting carbon stocks and exacerbating greenhouse gas emissions.
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Indonesia: Aboveground Live Woody Biomass
Red areas on the map above show degraded lands that are suitable for new agricultural expansion. Over 4 million hectares, or 15,000 square miles, of degraded land has been identified as being reusable. Early in 2012, WHRC completed a three year effort to generate a map of aboveground biomass for tropical countries. In basic terms, the map serves as a baseline to gauge the amount of carbon stored in the vegetation across the tropics, the most heavily forested region of the world. It is the product of on-theground measurements of trees in South America, Africa, and Asia combined with data recorded from two satellites orbiting the Earth. It is the most advanced, state-of-the-art map of tropical forest biomass currently available. These datasets now make it possible to evaluate and monitor future changes in carbon stocks and associated emissions on a global scale. The governments of Acre and Mato Grosso States in Brazil, Cross River State in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Indonesia have all employed WHRC’s pantropical biomass map to better understand and manage their forest capital. Now, Dr. Baccini and colleagues at the World Wildlife Fund plan to take this valuable data to a new level and a new focus, as they work to reconcile biodiversity and agricultural priorities by identifying degraded forest areas suitable for large-scale agricultural expansion in the tropics. In addition to being rich in plant and animal life, mature tropical forests also have high carbon stocks and are estimated to store 228 billion tons of carbon. Retaining these carbon stocks is widely seen as critical to holding greenhouse gas emissions in check to mitigate global climate change. “Because such degraded land has already
lost the majority of its carbon stock and biodiversity, which can take decades or even centuries to recover and mature, these areas are of limited conservation value relative to intact forests,” notes Dr. Baccini. “However, with techniques now available to improve soil fertility, drainage, and sustainability, once these degraded forests are identified, they can be made suitable for agriculture.” WHRC studies indicate that across the tropics there is sufficient degraded land to meet agricultural expansion for the next 50 years. Future development of oil palm plantations through this approach requires accurate spatial planning data in order to create a comprehensive map and database of degraded lands. By explicitly identifying degraded forests, the Aboveground Live Woody Biomass map works in tandem with previously identified conservation set-asides to address the dual challenge of preserving tropical forests and the globally important carbon storage they provide while augmenting food production. In Indonesia alone, over 4 million hectares (approximately the size of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined) of degraded land have already been identified as potentially reusable. With appropriate safeguards, it is hoped that this simple, transparent output will help the agro-industry address the urgent need to increase production of food, fiber and biofuels, while balancing the need for sustainable agriculture practices, forest preservation, and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
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Science Education Initiatives at PEP Talk
The global challenges facing our lands and oceans cut across all social, cultural, economic, political and geographical boundaries. However, a lack of representation across these areas exists within the scientific communities that strive to address these challenges. In 2004, the six scientific institutions in Woods Hole Woods Hole Research Center, Sea Education Association, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Marine Biological Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - pledged to work together to create “pathways of opportunity” to attract a broader spectrum of scientific talent to the ocean and environmental sciences. Through this pledge, the Partnership in Education Program (PEP) was born. PEP brings undergraduate students from historically underrepresented groups to Woods Hole for a summer program titled “Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change.” WHRC scientists Dr. Wayne Walker, Dr. Alessandro Baccini, and Kathleen Savage volunteer their time each year to teach an introductory PEP course on forest carbon measurement, both above and below ground. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, is increasing in the atmosphere and is a primary contributor to global warming. WHRC’s course introduces PEP students to satellite remote sensing and how it is used to estimate aboveground forest carbon. Through a soil pit built in the forest, students also discover how carbon is stored in differing soil layers below
ground and how it is released from soils via respiration processes. By teaching this group of learners how carbon moves through the forest, and how that cycle may be impacted in the future, WHRC works to heighten students’ interest in the challenges emerging from a changing climate.
I have been an instructor for PEP students since the program’s inception in 2009. I feel that I have learned as much from my students as they have from me. It’s invigorating to be among young scientists starting out along their chosen career paths, finding their voices, and learning to question everything. Kathleen Savage, Research Associate
A Scholar’s Impact in Kenya
When local people acquire appropriate technical skills, they can make a difference in their community and around the world. Peter Ndunda participated in WHRC’s Pantropical Scholars Program to learn from a team of top scientists about new approaches in monitoring and measuring forest carbon stock and biomass.
While at WHRC, I shared with the scientists and my fellow scholars my desire to go back to the Green Belt Movement in Kenya to use the skills I acquired during this program to make a difference. Upon my return to Nairobi, I organized the first regional “training of trainers” workshop on forest monitoring and carbon biomass measurement, thus helping to build the scientific knowledge of local communities. This workshop also brought together a team of scientists from WHRC to train government officials and local and international NGOs on various forest monitoring techniques.
Peter Ndunda is a Technical Program Manager in Nairobi for the Clinton Climate Initiative, the Clinton Foundation.
Inspired by the techniques learned at the WHRC Pantropical Scholars Program, and the multiplier effect of the program in supporting the conservation of forest resources in Kenya, I recently joined the Clinton Climate Initiative to support the development of the first national system for estimation of land-based emissions for Kenya.
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15 Education and international collaboration are central to the mission of the Woods Hole Research Center. Through outreach and capacity building, we engage with students, educators, indigenous groups, government agencies, and other non-profit institutions around the world as an essential part of our work.
Making a Difference
Throughout my life, I have been driven to make a difference in the world. I thought of becoming a veterinarian, but my aspirations shifted after being exposed to environmental science and climate change. I was a participant in the Polaris Project, a summer research program for undergraduate students run by the Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), which gave me the opportunity to work with scientists from Russia, the UK, the Netherlands, and the US. Working with an international group of scientists was in itself rewarding, and to do so in the region of the world most affected by the changes in climate we were investigating was a life-changing experience. I returned to college awestruck by my experience and determined to continue studying arctic system science. This past summer, I worked as an intern at WHRC with Dr. Robert Spencer to study both temperate and arctic biogeochemistry. We collected soil samples from the temperate Harvard Forest in Petersham, Mass., and worked with samples collected by Dr. Spencer at his field site in Alaska in order to investigate how soil characteristics influence the movement of carbon throughout an ecosystem. My work with Dr. Spencer has been incredibly rewarding for me as a young scientist, as it allowed me to learn a great deal about both the science behind our work and scientific research process. My internship has distinguished me from my
When I first saw the thawing permafrost cliffs eroding into the Kolyma River in Siberia, I was both captivated by the dynamics of this changing arctic ecosystem and humbled by the scope of the climate impacts that are already underway. When I work with undergraduate students through the Polaris Project in Siberia and at my climate change experiment in Alaska, I recognize this same sense of awe and purpose in them. This is what motivates their research – and mine. Susan Natali, Assistant Scientist
peers as I gained invaluable research experience and interacted with professionals on a daily basis in my field of interest. WHRC has given me the experience I need to prepare for graduate school studies in environmental science.
Maddie LaRue is a senior at the College of the Holy Cross, where she is majoring in biology with a minor in chemistry and a concentration in environmental studies.
Arctic System Scientists
We are just beginning to understand the magnitude of the impact of arctic ecosystem changes on the Earth’s climate. Increasing fire frequency, thawing permafrost, and melting sea ice are altering the face of the Arctic at a pace that is faster than scientists had projected. Ultimately, ecosystem changes in the Arctic, such as greenhouse gas emissions from thawing permafrost, play a central role in the Earth’s climate. Advancing sound scientific knowledge about the complexity of arctic ecosystems, the role of human activities in shaping these systems, and the impact of a changing arctic on global climate requires considerable research efforts by a community of scientists working toward a common goal. Through undergraduate education initiatives such as WHRC’s Polaris Project, we are expanding this dedicated scientific community by training the next generation of arctic scientists, who will build on our current knowledge and generate new understanding of the arctic system. Mentoring students is an integral part of the scientific process, and combining research and education is the only path toward achieving these goals. Polaris Project alumni are now advancing to graduate school, obtaining national recognition through science fellowships, and becoming emerging leaders in the field of arctic system science. With a focus on student research and hands-on education, WHRC is a leader in training this next generation of arctic system scientists.
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WHRC Collaborates with Mark Ruffalo In July, Deputy Director Scott Goetz and Director of External Affairs Eunice Youmans teamed up with actor Mark Ruffalo to produce the voice over for a new video about WHRC. In addition to his renown as an actor, Ruffalo has become a spokesperson for environmental concerns surrounding hydraulic fracturing. After moving with his family to a farm in upstate New York, Ruffalo discovered that the property sits on the Marcellus Shale, one of the richest natural gas sites in the world. Extracting the gas involves the controversial drilling process known as fracking, in which millions of gallons of water and chemicals are injected into the shale under high pressure. Opponents of the process argue that fracking contaminates water wells and local water sources, among other impacts. Ruffalo has been working to prevent gas drilling permits from being issued in New York, and has co-founded Water Defense, whose mission is to fight “the broader trend toward extreme and destructive fossil fuel practices.” After a day of working with the actor in New York City, Dr. Goetz observed, “Mark is just the nicest, down to earth, likable guy you can imagine. He is passionate about the environment, and that really comes through in speaking with him. We left feeling like we were friends on a common mission.”
Deputy Director Scott Goetz and Director of External Affairs Eunice Youmans teamed up with actor Mark Ruffalo to produce the voice over for a new video about WHRC. The video can be viewed at www.whrc.org.
Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren at WHRC
Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren visited WHRC on August 2, 2013, for a tour of the Center and to meet with a group of scientists to learn more about climate change. She is pictured with, from left, Tom Stone, Skee Houghton, Josef Kellndorfer and Michael Coe.
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Cape Cod & Islands Climate Change and Energy Conference The first Cape Cod and Islands Climate Change and Energy Conference was held on September 24 in Hyannis, Mass. Nearly 200 participants attended the conference, which focused on the upcoming challenges that climate change is bringing to this uniquely vulnerable area. The goal of the conference was to find common ground among stakeholders concerning regional risks and to discuss the need to reduce fossil fuel emissions. With the lessons of Hurricane Sandy still vividly in mind, the conference examined threats the region faces from rising sea levels, storm surges, flooding and coastal erosion. There were presentations from coastal geologists and engineers, regional planners from Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket, insurance experts, coastal zone managers, and clean energy experts. The economic costs of climate change, possible adaptation options, and mitigation through the use of renewable energy were also examined. Scientist Emeritus Tom Stone developed the agenda, secured the presenters, and procured funding from several New England foundations and the Association to Preserve Cape Cod. Deputy Director Scott Goetz gave the opening remarks at the conference and Senior Scientist Michael Coe moderated the final session. Based on the encouraging comments received following the conference, Mr. Stone is working with local planning partners to develop follow-up meetings and examining the viability of the conference becoming an annual event.
Representatives of the Cape and Islands addressed regional plans and challenges related to the impacts of climate change at the September 24 conference. Pictured seated, left to right: Andrew Vorce, Director of Planning, Nantucket; Mark London, Martha’s Vineyard Commission; Ryan Bennett, Cape Cod Commission. Standing: Ed DeWitt, Director of the Association to Preserve Cape Cod, and Tom Stone, Scientist Emeritus at the Woods Hole Research Center and conference organizer.
Spotlight on Cronig’s Market Vineyard Haven, Mass. Canopy asked Cronig’s Market owner Steve Bernier why he thinks making the magazine available in his store is good business. Here’s what Steve had to say:
Steve Bernier has owned Cronig’s Market since 1986 and is a longtime supporter of WHRC.
To me, this gesture helps embody the change we all have to get on with, that is, getting away from thinking the federal government is going to take care of us. We need to ‘take care of us’ by taking care of this planet. And it’s about time we get to work. I like to see people pick up Canopy. It’s loaded with information and helps us get educated. It’s important to understand what’s going on around us and to ask, ‘How can I do something, because I care about the environment and I want to help?’ I think we all feel that way. So, we will continue to work with WHRC and pass out Canopy to communicate and to educate in the hope that we can create critical mass to create change. Change is not going to come from having the President sign something. Change is going to come through people acting as good citizens and good stewards of this planet. That is why we need WHRC and Canopy Magazine.
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Financial Report In Fiscal Year 2013 the Woods Hole Research Center received another unmodified (unqualified) audit opinion from the external audit firm Calibre CPA Group, with no management comments or deficiencies. It is the opinion of the Board of Directors and Management that a strong business platform, including clean audits and internal controls, provides the foundation for exceptional science.
featuring eminent WHRC scientists and attended by hundreds of engaged citizens.
WHRC donors demonstrated their confidence in the institution by providing more than $1.3 million in unrestricted funds to support entrepreneurial science, innovation and exploration. WHRC scientists, in turn, used unrestricted funds to, among other things, broaden projects in the Arctic and open an office and begin operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Unrestricted funds also supported the Center’s two community lecture series, “Sustainability” and “Environmental Tipping Points,” each
As science evolves and new scientists are attracted to WHRC as a prominent and independent think tank, the needs of our scientists also evolve, and plans must be made for maintaining and upgrading laboratory facilities and equipment. WHRC is grateful for committed and informed donors who see the possibilities and help to support the solutions.
Temporarily restricted funds were spent down this fiscal year as certain foundation funded projects ended. Government funding once again played an important role while alternative sources were also researched and identified.
Full financial statements are available at: www.whrc.org/support/finance/html.
Statements of Activities Unrestricted Support and Revenue Government Foundations and Individual Donations Investment Income Donated Equipment In-Kind Donations Change in Value of Split-interest Agreements Other Income Net Assets Released from Restrictions Total Support and Revenue
$213,352 $6,431 $35,340 ($7,593)
Expenses Research Programs General and Administrative Development Total Expenses Change in Net Assets
$6,902,959 $2,226,167 $594,527 $9,723,653 ($255,819)
Net Assets Beginning of Year End of Year
$771,784 $6,431 $35,340 ($7,593)
$208,279 $81,787 ($9,917)
$6,902,959 $2,226,167 $594,527 $9,723,653 ($68,776)
$7,866,948 $2,168,127 $816,151 $10,851,226 ($3,551,143)
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We are deeply grateful to the individuals, foundations, and businesses listed on the following pages who supported us through gifts and pledges made during the Center’s fiscal year July 1, 2012 – June 30, 2013.
Charles R. O’Malley Charitable Lead Trust Harbourton Foundation Gilman and Margaret Ordway
Eric Davidson and Jean Talbert Lawrence and Caroline Huntington Albert and Katharine Merck Wilhelm Merck and Nonie Brady Amy and James Regan Joseph and Marité Robinson Gordon Russell and Bettina McAdoo
Anonymous (2) Worthington Campbell* Iris and Robert Fanger Paul A. Faraca The Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment Francis and Victoria Lowell Anna Wiancko-Chasman and Paul Chasman
Cogan Family Foundation Endurance Foundation Foundation for the Carolinas Avram and Carol Goldberg Joshua Goldberg, Trustee, Goldberg Family Foundation/Rabb Foundations Stuart Goode and Nancy Cooley Benjamin and Ruth Hammett Esmond Harmsworth Horizon Foundation J. Atwood and Elizabeth Ives Linden Trust for Conservation Monique Liuzzi John Myers and Merloyd Ludington Fred and Alice Stanback Trust for Mutual Understanding
$5,000 - $9,999
Acacia Conservation Fund Greg Alexander Matthew and Brooke Barzun Warner Music Nashville Michael Fanger and Linda Sattel Dan and Bunny Gabel Spencer Glendon and Lisa Tung Serena Hatch John and Lily Rice Hsia Timothy and Joan Ingraham Sam and Karen Lambert Lawrence Foundation Jeremy Oppenheim Ted and Connie Roosevelt Mary Waterman and William Lunt
Whalesback Foundation James Worth
$1,000 - $4,999
Anonymous Robert and Alison Ament Michael and Margherita Baldwin Rhoda Baruch Wendy Benchley and John Jeppeson The Benjamin Family Stephen Bernier The Boston Foundation Anita Brewer-Siljeholm James and Ruth Clark Sally Cross Ken and Linda Davidson Michael and Dudley Del Balso Eastern Funding Robert Epstein and Amy Roth Bob and Randi Fisher Timothy J. Floyd* Geoffrey Freeman and Marjorie Findlay Aristides and Elizabeth Georgantas Scott Goetz and Nadine Laporte Sibyl Golden Thomas and Virginia Gregg John and Polly Guth Gordon and Carolyn Hall George and Marina Hatch Bayard and Julie Henry Art and Eloise Hodges David Hoover and Carol Swenson Richard and Susan Houghton Hamilton and Edith Kean Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot and Irving Hamer Seth and Sarah Lederman David and Dana Lee Thomas Lovejoy R.J. and Leslie Lyman Marilyn MacLeod Marvin and Annette Lee Foundation Cynthia K. McGrath Mary Louise and Charles Montgomery William and Margot Moomaw William and Mary Sue Morrill Abigail Norman Elizabeth & Frank Odell Family Fund of the Community Foundation of Collier County David O’Donahoe and Diane Pienta Martin and Joan Person Eugene and Diana Pinover Pisces Foundation Melanie Powers and Rick and Paul Presbrey Jack and Anne Rabinowitz Winthrop and Mary Rutherfurd Tedd and Ella Saunders Stephen* and Bonnie Simon
Superior Nut Company, Inc. Gerard and Mary Swope The Atlantic Philanthropies “the Fund” The Bunbury Company Edward and Penny Thomas Martin and Laura Wattenberg Woodcock P. Foundation George and Katharine Woodwell World Service Meditation Group Environmental Fund Mary and Redwood Wright
$500 - $999
Anonymous (4) John and Patricia Adams Philip Balboni and Elizabeth Houghteling Tim Barclay and Beth Taylor Brandeis University Thomas and Ann Coe Ferdinand Colloredo-Mansfeld Molly N. Cornell Nancy Corral Michael and Marcia Corrigan Murray and Judith Danforth Lawrence and Regina DelVecchio Griswold and Heather Draz Bradford and Dorothea Endicott Donald J. and Sheila S. Evans Arthur and Linda Gelb Richard and Constance Giesser Jane Hallowell Robert and Marion Howard Margaret and Robert Huskins David Isenberg and Paula Blumenthal Sandra Kinet Robert Kirsch and Anne Renner Carl and Joanne Leaman David and Sheila Manischewitz Nawrie Meigs-Brown and David Brown Harriet Meiss Josephine Merck and James Stevenson Henriette Montgomery Charles and Sarah Morgan Ruth I. Morton Peter and Virginia Nicholas Carol O’Neil Jeffrey and Susan Parker Robert and Pamela Pelletreau David and Laurie Reed Axel and Sara Lee Schupf Nancy B. Soulette Margaret Evans Tuten Foundation Upstream Foundation Richard Verney E. Andrew Wilde Roger Williams David and Julie Worrell
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Anonymous (23) John and Christine Abrams Jonathan Aibel and Julie Rohwein Ingrid Akerblom Carla Alani Herbert and Catherine Allard Robert and Helen Alsop Dina Angress Ellie and Rich Armstrong Dolores Arond D. E. Ash Brian and Maria Aspinwall Duncan and Dorothy Aspinwall Kathleen Avery David and Nancy Babin Elizabeth and George Bagley Karel Baloun Rolf and Edda Bandle Leo Tugan-Baranovsky Anne Barnes David and Laurie Barrett Marilee Bass William Beinecke Noah Benjamin Ralph and Joyce Berger Howard and Deborah Bernstein Patrick Bernuth and Michelle McKenna Alden and Barbara Besse Lee James Best, Jr. Olive Beverly Don and Sharon Bidwell Mary Biggar George Billings Donald and Apline Bird James and Barbara Birney Linda Black Milton and Sandra Blackington Jim Blechman Walter Bobo Francis and Margaret Bowles Peter Bowman Amy Brady John Braitmayer Emily Bramhall Charles and Helen Bresnahan Sierra Bright Edward and Barbara Bromley Helen Brooks Celia Brown and Richard Zajchowski Thomas and Kathryn Brown Donata Buda Ekaterina Bulygina Stanley and Helen Burd Alan and Joyce Bush William Butler Daniel Butterfield Michael and Charlene Cain Marjorie Cairns Carla-Lisa Caliga Diana Campbell John and Irene Cantlon
Cape Cod Foundation Ben Carnevale and Joanne Blum-Carnevale Margaret and Samuel Carr Robert and Myra Carrier Priscilla Case Charles and Margaret Chace Jean Chapman Arsen and Marie Charles George and Dorothea Chidester Frank and Julia Child Starling and Michelle Childs Jane Chrisfield Naomi Church Joseph and Geraldine Claeys Tom and Rachel Claflin Arthur Clark Ros Clark James and Ann Cleary Bonnie Clendenning Paul Colinvaux and Llewellya Hillis Dean and Cynthia Conway Bruce Cornish Kathleen Cover Joseph Crimmins Jeanne Crocker Robert and Claire Cuddy Steve Curwood and Jennifer Stevens-Curwood Joseph Day William and Patricia Day David and Mary Dearborn John and Carol DeBraal Paul Destler Virginia Devine Donald and Anita Dickinson Nicholas and Bitten Dill Timothy and Shelley Dolan Joseph and Grace Donahue Patricia Donahue Patricia Donovan Richard and Jean Doub Toni Dove David Dow Elizabeth Downs Michael Dryfoos and Ilga Jansons Martin Dugan Frank Dunau and Amy Davis William Dvorak Kevin and Carol Early Frank and Nancy Egloff David and Frances Einhorn Ed and Susan Epes John Eustis Mary Ellen Falk Michael and Lynne Farlow Alison Farrar Stephen and Rosemary Fassett Kimball and Nancy Faulkner David and Doris Fausch Warren Felt and Dolores Arond Richard Fewkes Carolyn Fine and Jeremiah Friedman
David and Barbara Fink Sharon Finzer Daphne Voss Fisher Susan Fisher Gordon Fitzgerald David Folger and Janet Simons-Folger David Ford Charles and Maryanna Foskett Elizabeth Foss Elvin Fowell Alan and Anita Frank Nancy Fraze Ann Freedberg Nino and Dorothy Fulgoni Ruth Fye A. Mark Gabriele Patricia Gamache Stephen Gardner and Mary Voce Michael and MC Garfield Carl and Nancy Gewirz Donald and Ruth Glotzer Elaine Goldman Jonathan and Nicole Goldman Dick Goodson Gerald and Betty Gordon Marc and Carol Gordon Michael and Karen Gorton Bonnie Gossels Benjamin and Sue Graham Herbert and Colette Gramm Shelley Granger Fay C. Graning The Grant Family Alan and Elizabeth Green lan and Fran Greenglass John and Jane Griffith Robert and Virginia Guaraldi Lorraine Gyauch Flinn and Marisa Hackett Melinda Hall Charles and Ethel Hamann Albert and April Hamel Elizabeth Hanley Evelyn Hanson Stephen and Jane Hardy Stanley and Elaine Harlow Mr. and Mrs. Dudley Harrison Lee and Rose Hartman Anne Harvey Robert F. Hassey David and Betsy Hawkins Joan Hazard and John Dabrowski Elizabeth Heald Jill Heathman Bonnie Heidel David and Alexis Heitman Kurt and Ruthann Hellfach
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21 George Helmholz James and Lorna Henderer Bart and Jane Henderson Barbara Herbst Ralph Herbst David and Joan Herschfeld Charlene Herzer Thomas and Mary Herzog Alfred and Winifred Hesemeyer Philip and Ann Heymann Elizabeth Hills Conrad and Nelda Hinckley Thomas Hirasuna Alan and Judith Hoffman Lynne Hogeland Max and Gabby Holmes Alan Houghton and Sky Pape Gene and Harriet Hower Martha Hume David Huntington Patrick Hurley Mark Hurwitz Nada Hyman Lynn Jackson Carolyn Jacobs Stanley and Dee Jacobs Ambrose and Anna Jearld Connie Johnson D. Randolph Johnson Leonard and Patricia Johnson Raymond and Lola Johnson Susan Johnson Anthony and Elisabeth Jones Barbara Jones Dick Jones and Vicki Bok Floyd Judd Richard Kacik Jon and Barbara Kaufman Robert Kay Fred and Whitney Keen Dennis and Joanne Keith Kevin and Stephanie Kennedy Robert A. Kennedy David Kessler and Marianne Wiser Karen Kimber Elizabeth King Stephen King Steven Kipperman Joan Pearlman and Peter Kivy Lewis and Lucie Kleinhans Camilla Knapp James and Debra Krasnow Rick and Kelly Krause Calvin and Ilene Kunin Donna Kuroda Albert and Sonia Kutzin KW Botanicals
Diana and John Lamb Paul and Cynthia Lambert Lawrence and Hannah Langsam Ellis and Harriet Lapin Gary LaRue and Susan Barrett Francis and Marijean Lauderdale Charles and Patricia Lawrence Sally M. Lawton Adrienne Leaf Joseph Lee and Susan Eisner Julia Lee Victoria LeFevre and Gerald Fine Dr. Marian LeFevre Edwin and Judith Leonard Richard Leonard Melvin and Katherine Levine Thomas Levine William and Louise Lidicker Frances Lightsom Jason and Linda Lillegraven Vito Lipari Douglas and Kim Livolsi William and Noelle Locke Whitney and Phillip Long Nancy S. Lovejoy Louise Luckenbill Allen Luke Maija M. Lutz and Peter A. Tassia Fred and Judith Mackenzie William and Winnie Mackey Martha Mackin Donald and Janna Macoy Lee Maglott Douglas B. Maitland Charles and Susanne Mann Philip Mann Kai and Marion Marcucelli Paul J. Marin Merle Ann Marion Jonathan Marr and Rachel Sterne-Marr Leon and Marilee Martel Natalie Mather Linda Matheson Michael and Cecilia Mathews Robert Matthew John B. McAloon Frederick and Barbara McAlpine Edmund E. McCann Michael and Janet McClure Jennifer and Stephen McCollom Wallace and Nancy McCurdy Mary McDonough Alice McDowell Victor and Ruth McElheny Barnabas and Bannon McHenry Nadia McIntosh Stuart McIntosh
Kristin and Kevin McLaughlin Patrick and Martha McLaughlin Cornelia McMurtrie Robert and Anne McNeece David and Barbara McPhelim Ruth C. Mead Leonard and Beverly Meeker Jonathan and Jane Meigs Maria Meleca Maryellen Meleca and Christine Graziano Jerry and Lalise Melillo Frederick Menkello Pete and Sara Merrill Caroline Meuly Cathryn Michelini Robin Milburn Elwynn Miller Michael and Annette Miller Susan Miller and Lee Kramer Rosemary Minior-Walker Rodney and Suzanne Moll Elizabeth Molodovsky Donald and Sandra Moncevicz Allan and Maria Moniz David and Marilyn Moore Mary Ann Moore C. Eldridge Morgan Kirstin Moritz and Rod Hinkle Chip and Susan Morse Frederic Morton Thomas and Elizabeth Moseley Day and Kathie Mount Vincent and Carol Murphy Allen Myers Mark Nault Vance and Marjorie Nelson Jill Neubauer Ann Little Newbury John Noel Richard O’Connell and Susan Playfair Roberta Odell John Ofria William and Donna Marie Oglesby Robert Ohlerking Nancy L. Olsen John and Karen O’Neil Renee and Kimberley O’Sullivan Charles and Vicki Otis Melody Padget Daniel Pagath Isabel Barzun and Gavin Parfit Bernard and Claudine Parisot John Parker and Maja Paumgarten John and Monica Parks Frederic Parsons Walter and Ruth Paul John and Natalie Payne
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22 Elizabeth Paynter Herta Payson Joan Pearlman Harry and Helen Perretta Heather Peters Nancy Peters Susan Peterson Henry and June Pfeiffer Ann Pilch Paul and Sandra Pimentel Dan and Joan Pinck Jerry and Sheila Place Scott Place Roger and Serra May Plourde Christopher and Pamela Polloni Jerry and Barbara Porter William Porter Rex Pratt and Diane McMahon-Pratt Stephanie Prior and Robert Grosch Donald Procter The Prospect Hill Foundation George Putnam John Rich Sarah Richards and Barbara Leland Walter Richards Margaret Richardson Barbara E. Riddoch Mary Ring John and Marie Rixon Alison Robb Mimi Robins Sue Robinson Eric Roccario Howard Roche Jennifer Roche Peter and Jane Roda James and Dianne Roderick Nancy Rodriguez Bob and Gabriela Romanow Terry Root Robert Rose Marc Rosenbaum and Jill De La Hunt David and Edith Ross Perry Ross Nicholas Rossettos Joseph and Anna Mary Russo Richard Sailor and Mary Johnston Ross and Alice Sandler Margaret Sargente Norma and Roger A. Saunders and The Saunders Family Charitable Fund Susan Savage Elizabeth Sayman Edward J. Scarvalone Daniel and Paula Schiller Calvert Schlick James and Lucy Schmeidler Norman Schnayer Judith Schooley Joel Schwartz Martin and Gladys Schwartz
David and Ruth Scott Richard and Joan Scott John Sears Richard and Lucille Seeley Deborah Gates and Stephen Senft Dr. and Mrs. Michael Shaw David Sheehan Peter and Anne Sheldon Peter and Margaret Sherin Daniel and Joanne Shively Thomas and Heidi Sikina Peter Sinclaire Vivian Sinder-Brown Samuel Slade and Susan Coughlin Marcia Slatkin Wesley and Nancy Smith Robert and Elizabeth Snow Louise Soares and Ruth Schiffman Jennifer Stamp and Tom Anderson Wallace and Pamela Stark Kenneth Stasney M. T. Stein Gerald and Margaret Steinberg Margaret Stephens Tom and Judy Stetson Daphne T. Stevens Edward Stimpson Wesley and Patricia Stimpson Michael Stone Paul W. Strecker and Gerard E. Wooding Caren Sturges Margaret Sturtevant Jay and Ruth Sugerman Hans and Eva-Maria Tausig Jared and Heather Tausig Chad and Laurel Tew Edward and Elizabeth Thorndike Timothy and Janet Trask Evelyn Tyner Jack and Uta Valpey Alex and Landis Van Alen Vera Van Atta Mathias and Cornelia Van Thiel Lee and Cynthia Vance Ramsay and Ann Vehslage Martha Vinick Arthur and Joanne Voorhis Lucia Rogers Vorys John and Jane Vose Emily Wade Stephen and Carol Ann Wagner Mitzi Ware Grace Kennan Warnecke Diana Weatherby William and Judith Weil Lewin Wertheimer Andreas and Denise Marie Wesserle Ruth Whipple Joan Wickersham Sugan Wigley and John Burnett Joanie Wiinblad
Thomas Wilkinson Marsden Williams Robert Williams Jeff Williams Benjamin and Ann Williamson Tom and Pat Willis Norman and Elizabeth Winskill Frederic and Susan Winthrop Edward and Toby Woll Eric and Sandra Wolman John Woodwell George Woolfe and Mary Patton-Woolfe Margaret Wright Keith and Deborah Yorke Margery Zaccheo Louise Zawadzki Erik and Linda Zettler Glenn and Geraldine Ziegenfuss Michael Zimmermann *Deceased
In-Kind Contributions Astoria-Pacific, Inc. Cape Cod Commission Curley Direct Mail ESRI Peak Racks, Inc.
Matching Gift Organizations
BNY Mellon Community Partnership FM Global Foundation GE Foundation Johnson and Johnson Merck Partnership for Giving Microsoft Matching Gifts Program The Pew Charitable Trusts YourCause LLC, Trustee for Hewlett-Packard
George Perkins Marsh Society
Born in 1801, George Perkins Marsh was the first to draw attention to the notion that the natural menace to nature was humans themselves. He published his ideas in a book called Man and Nature in 1864, to wide acclaim. Still in print, it continues to influence our vision of the natural world. The Society, named in his honor, recognizes friends who have elected to partner in the Centerâ€™s future by supporting the Center through a life income gift, retirement plan, life insurance policy, or bequest.
Deborah Cernauskas, Robert Downs, Denny Emory, John Eustis, Dolores Arond and Warren Felt, Iris and Robert Fanger, David and Edith Ross, David Hoover and Carol Swenson, E. Andrew Wilde, George and Katharine Woodwell, Redwood and Mary Wright
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Gifts In Honor Of
Maria Meleca and Ian Kirk from Jerry and Sheila Place
Harvey Brooks from Helen Brooks
Foster Brown from Celia Brown and Richard Zajchowski, Mary Johnston, Richard Sailor
David and Colin Millar from Ruth Whipple
Sally Brown from Matthew and Brooke Barzun
Neal Brown from Scott Goetz and Nadine Laporte
Diane Miller from Matt Watson
Katie Burke from Rob Matthew
Mary Lou and Charles Montgomery from Duncan and Dorothy Aspinwall
George and Yara Cadwalader from Benjamin and Ann Williamson
Jerry and Sheila Place from Flinn and Marisa Hackett, Maria Meleca, Maryellen Meleca and Christine Graziano, Heather Peters, Scott Place, Keith and Deborah Yorke
Sarah Conway from Dean and Cynthia Conway Annalisa Eisen from George and Katharine Woodwell Iris and Robert Fanger from Michael Fanger and Linda Sattel, Richard and Constance Giesser, Michael and Karen Gorton, Alan and Elizabeth Green, Leon and Marilee Martel, Michael and Annette Miller
Paul Rosenbaum from Chad Tew Gordon Russell from Scott Goetz and Nadine Laporte Tedd Saunders from Norma and Roger A. Saunders
Annette Funicello from Matt Watson
Ray Sidejas from Matt Watson
Lorraine Gyauch’s grandchildren: Dylan, Chloe, Cooper, Dara, Bailey, Noah, and Lallie from “Baba”
Aurora Skala from Joan Hazard
Benjamin Hodges from Dina Angress John and Cheri Holdren from Kai and Marion Marcucelli, Jeff Williams Sam and Casey Lambert from Aristides and Elizabeth Georgantas, Michael S. Mathews, Ramsay Vehslage Kai Lawrence from Charles and Patricia Lawrence Vicky Lowell from Elizabeth Foss Samuel McMurtrie from Cornelia McMurtrie
Rebecca Buckley Stein from M. T. Stein Thomas Stone from Connie Johnson
Dick Butterworth from Jean Butterworth Scott Case from Priscilla Case Walt Disney from Matt Watson Jimmie Dodd from Matt Watson Joey Dvorak from William Dvorak Barbara Hopkinson from Sandra Kinet Mary Ann Lane from Carolyn Jacobs Barbara C. Little from Ann Little Newbury Anthony Liuzzi from Monique Liuzzi Ellen Louise from Joanie Wiinblad Edward S. S. Morrison from Walter Bobo Sue Ovalle from Donata Buda Alize and Frank Raymond from Nancy Corral
George Woodwell from Dan and Bunny Gabel, Bill and Margot Moomaw, Fred and Alice Stanback
Joan Briggs Ross from Perry Ross
Gifts In Memory Of
Harold and Olga Sears from Nancy L. Olsen
Edward and Marion Adelberg from Jonathan Aibel and Julie Rohwein Suzanne K. Bowman from Peter Bowman Chuck Boyajian from Matt Watson
Miriam Scannel from Virginia Devine
Mary Sears from John Sears Ramsey R. Wright from Margaret Wright
Woods Hole Research Center 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA 02540 Woods www.whrc.org
Hole Research Center 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA 02540 www.whrc.org