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Canopy Woods Hole Research Center

FALL 2016

Wildfire and climate change Yukon tundra Amazon forest Canadian northern forests After the fire, measuring the soil

Also in this issue

Mapping nature’s climate solutions Can science save Congo’s forests? New Amazon forest monitoring program launches 2015/2016 annual report


Canopy Woods Hole Research Center Canopy is published by Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) in Falmouth, Massachusetts. WHRC is an independent research institution where scientists investigate the causes and effects of climate change to identify opportunities for conservation, restoration and economic development around the globe.

1 From the President 2 Wildfire and climate change

WHRC’s fire research from the Arctic to the tropics

4 Yukon tundra

How does wildfire affect the permafrost?

5 Amazon forest

Record drought leads to a big fire season in Brazil

6 Canadian northern forests

The fires are bigger and earlier than ever

7 After the fire, measuring the soil

Charcoal in the soil and a gap in climate modeling

8 Mapping nature’s climate solutions

Where can we gain ground against climate change?

9 Can science save Congo’s forests?

Working with local government to stop deforestation

10 New Amazon forest monitoring program launches

Project will focus on indigenous lands and protected areas

12 ABoVE and beyond

Scott Goetz reflects on his work at WHRC

13 Yukon River Delta imaging

Satellite imaging with a view of the region’s intricate waterways

14 From WHRC to the United Nations

An interview with Kiliparti Ramakrishna

15 WHRC on the road: sharing our research with the world 16 Board of Directors, Staff, and President’s Council 18 Financial statements 20 Donors cover: Controlled burnings at Tanguro Ranch in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, provide researchers with valuable data on the effects of fire on Amazonian forest carbon stocks. photo by Paul Lefebvre above: New growth at the site of a 2015 Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge fire. photo by Chris Linder

President and Executive Director, Dr. Philip B. Duffy Chief Development Officer, Alison Smart

Director of Communications, David McGlinchey

Graphic Designer, Julianne Waite Editors, Allison White and Elizabeth Bagley

Contributors Alessandro Baccini, Ph.D. Paula Beckerle, B.A. Paulo Brando, Ph.D. Glenn Bush, Ph.D. Gregory J. Fiske, M.S. Scott Goetz, Ph.D Robert Max Holmes, Ph.D. Melaine Kermarc, M.Sc. Paul Lefebvre, M.A. Marcia N. Macedo, Ph.D. Brendan M. Rogers, Ph.D. Camille M. Romano, M.S., C.P.A. Jonathan Sanderman, Ph.D. Wayne S. Walker, Ph.D. Images Chris Linder Eva McNamara

Woods Hole Research Center 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA 02540 Email: Website: Newsletter Subscribe online at

Copyright All material appearing in Canopy is copyrighted unless otherwise stated or it may rest with the provider of the supplied material. Canopy takes care to ensure information is correct at time of printing.

From the President

Fire: A manifestation of climate change Woods Hole Research Center was founded 31 years ago on the premise that environmental policy should be informed by state-of-the-art science. This is even more true now than it was then, as time runs short to prevent catastrophic and irreversible outcomes from climate change.

There is no better example of the need for science-based policies than the theme of this issue of Canopy: wildfire. The consequences of wildfire are local (destruction of habitat and infrastructure, loss of life), regional (degraded air quality, accelerated melting of snow and ice) and global (greenhouse gas emissions). And they are happening now. The best policies need to consider impacts on all of these scales. Because of climate change, wildfire activity is increasing in the arctic and boreal (northern sub-arctic) regions, as well as in the tropics. WHRC scientists are at the forefront of understanding these changes and their local, regional, and global ramifications. By the way, wildfire has also increased dramatically in the western United States, driven largely by higher temperatures and earlier snowmelt. We recently hired Rich Birdsey, a veteran US Forest Service scientist and program manager, to expand our work on domestic forest issues, including wildfire.

The implications of increased fire activity for climate change are cause for concern. Fire in the Arctic burns not only above-ground vegetation but soil, accelerating release of greenhouse gases from permafrost – a problem that is bad enough without this additional stimulus. In the Amazon and elsewhere in the tropics, fire threatens to undo recent progress in slowing the destruction of forests. In the western US, the area burned by wildfire has increased six-fold since 1986 and is projected to increase even more, threatening to complicate our ability to meet our international commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. What kind of policies can be used to manage wildfire? Fire suppression policies need to be designed to minimize the risk of huge catastrophic fires. (But how, exactly, do we accomplish that?) Domestically, the forest products industry promotes forest thinning as a means of reducing fire risk. This may help in some cases, but the industry also promotes burning the thinnings as fuel, which worsens climate change by releasing greenhouse gases and soot, which further worsen climate change. And reducing fuel loads may do more harm than good in the long-run, by degrading soils and compromising water supplies. We need good scientific analysis, performed by financially disinterested parties like WHRC, to understand what’s really best for the planet.

There’s a lot more happening at WHRC that this magazine doesn’t touch on. For example, I am excited about developing real-world applications of new capabilities which will allow us to make important contributions to measuring and reporting national greenhouse gas emissions – a key provision of the Paris climate agreement. We are also expanding our role in arctic climate policy, an absolutely critical area where we’ve had important impacts recently but where so much more needs to be done – and soon.

Institutionally, as the attached financial data show, our short-term finances are sound. This allows those of us who lead WHRC to focus on building an institution that will thrive over the next 31 years, a period that will be pivotal in the effort to control climate change and its many manifestations, including wildfire. I am pleased that we are developing a number of exciting ideas and directions, which will be reported on as they reach maturity. Thanks as always for you interest and support.

Philip B. Duffy President and Executive Director


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Wildfire and climate change WHRC scientists examine the connection and impacts Since the National Interagency Fire Center began tracking wildfires in the 1980s, the extent of burned area in the United States has been steadily increasing. The highest recorded year – 2015 – saw more than 10 million acres burned. Nine of the top 10 largest fire years took place after 2000. Across North America, wildfires are happening more frequently and becoming more severe. In the southern hemisphere, a severe drought is fueling one of the most severe Amazon fire seasons in recorded history.

Climate change is causing longer, hotter summers and shifting precipitation patterns – creating ideal conditions for wildfires. In a depressingly vicious cycle, wildfires also contribute to climate change – sending massive amounts of carbon from trees and soil into the atmosphere and turning carbon sinks into carbon sources. During the peak of Indonesia’s 2015 fire season, blazes there were generating more carbon emissions each day than from all US economic activity. Understanding the relationship between wildfires and climate change is crucial to understanding the future health of our planet. Woods Hole Research Center scientists are deeply involved in this research – across disciplines and around the world.

Paulo Brando

We take a look at some of their work on the following pages.


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Wildfire and Climate Change

Yukon tundra During the summer of 2015, lightning in the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge sparked two massive fires that burned for weeks across the tundra. Alaskan wildfire crews fought to contain the blazes, which ended up consuming more area than was burned in the previous 64 years combined. This past June, a floatplane touched down in the Yukon Delta carrying a team of scientists from the Woods Hole Research Center. Led by Senior Scientist Max Holmes and Associate Scientist Sue Natali, the group set out to document the state of the permafrost. “The carbon that was in vegetation is now in the atmosphere,” Holmes said. “But we were studying how the fires did impact – and will impact – carbon storage in permafrost.”

The team also included Distinguished Visiting Scientist John Schade and Research Assistant Sarah Ludwig. Working through rain,



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The initial results showed a clear impact. The thaw depth in burned areas averaged about 90 cm while the thaw depth in unburned areas was only about 50 cm.

is currently in the atmosphere. Dr. Natali contributed to a recent analysis that suggested 130-160 billion tons of carbon could be released by thawing permafrost between now and 2100. By comparison, the entire combined carbon emissions of the United States was less than 1.5 billion tons in 2014.

“Stuff that’s been in the freezer for a really long time is now in a refrigerator,” Dr. Holmes said.

The increased thaw depth and the large-scale implications were startling, even to the scientists involved.

swarms of mosquitos, and abnormally high temperatures, the crew was able to extract more permafrost cores than they expected to.

The implications are daunting for climate change. As more permafrost thaws, increased decomposition will release massive amounts of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere.

Scientists estimate that the amount of carbon stored in permafrost – approximately 1,500 billion tons – is almost twice the amount that

At the same time, the frequency and intensity of fires in arctic regions is expected to increase as summers become warmer and precipitation patterns change.

“As a scientist these results are exciting,” Dr. Holmes said. “Then you kind of step back, and as a parent or a citizen, it’s not good.”

left: Paul Mann and Visiting Scientist John Schade collect water samples. center: Sarah Ludwig, Jocelyn Egan, and Associate Scientist Sue Natali sort tundra vegetation by species. right: Jocelyn Egan collects a permafrost soil sample. photos by Chris Linder

Wildfire and Climate Change

Amazon forest This year, an enormous drought hit the Amazon. It was the region’s third significant dry spell in the past ten years. Not coincidentally, the 2015 and 2016 fire season has been one of the worst that the region has seen in decades.

For years, WHRC has been studying the effects of fires on the Amazon at the Tanguro Ranch in the central Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. In the world’s first controlled forest fire experiment that began in 2004, WHRC researchers burned two 50-hectare plots, one annually and the other every three years. “We were studying how the forests respond to repeated fires,” said Senior Scientist Michael Coe. “What is their capacity to recover after a fire and how does that change during drought events?”

Assistant Scientist Paulo Brando. “The legacy of forest fires lasts a long time. Large, surviving trees become very susceptible to windstorms for many years following fires.”

IPAM and WHRC staff monitor the progress of the controlled burns. The teams found that the legacy of Amazon wildfire lasts for years, allowing grasses to infiltrate forest areas and weakening larger trees that survive the initial blaze. photos by Paulo Brando

The controlled burns were necessary because, while scientists can visit a forest after a wildfire has moved through, they don’t have data on the vegetation before the burn. In these controlled burns, the team mapped every tree that was more than 5 cm DBH (diameter at breast height).

The scientists gathered an enormous amount of information. They learned that invasive grasses that move in after a fire trigger more intense fires in subsequent years, and make it harder for forests to recover. They also learned that large trees that survived fires were at high risk from subsequent wind

The team found that most of the mortality in both plots was associated with fires that occurred in 2007, a severe drought year. With satellite observations they were able to link that to the broader landscape and show that about 12 percent of the region’s forests (the Upper Xingu basin, an area about the size of New York state) burned in 2007. That was compared to less than 0.5 percent in nondrought years.

That experiment ended in 2010, and was replaced with the second phase. For the last three years, the team has implemented a new design, manipulating fuel loads and burning during a range of climate conditions.

damage, particularly along field edges. Through it all, the team saw the incredible amplifying effect of the hotter, drier weather that accompanies climate change. With the dryness increased by 20 percent, and the temperature 3 degrees F hotter, tree mortality increased four-fold.

“Climate change provides the perfect recipe for forest destruction,” said

The smaller plots are providing more detailed data that will help the researchers to identify the areas that will be most susceptible to fire in coming years. According to Dr. Brando, Amazon land managers are looking at WHRC’s research to help develop climate change adaptation plans. “We will have a much better handle on where the problem will be,” said Dr. Brando, “and a better understanding of how big the problem is, how difficult it will be to handle future fires, and how we might avoid them.” Canopy

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Wildfire and Climate Change

Canadian northern forests

On the morning of May 3, 2016, the fire aerosol sampling equipment arrived at Fort McMurray, Canada. The two units were each roughly the size of R2D2, the droid from the Star Wars movies. They were supposed to monitor fires across northern Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan – supporting WHRC boreal forest research. On the evening of May 3, the town was evacuated.

The entire city – more than 100,000 people – was forced to flee their homes in the face of a massive fire, fueled by dry conditions, high temperatures, and blustering winds.

The fire was covered by media around the world as residents fled on the only highway out of town, flanked by massive walls of flames. It was one of the largest evacuations in Canada’s history. The fire has captured the attention of scientists

and fire managers because of how severe and early in the fire season it occurred. The fire was so intense it created its own weather system and lightning strikes, which generated new fires and rapid spread. Ultimately, it took more than a month for firefighters to contain the blaze, which destroyed more than 2,400 homes and caused more than $3.5 billion in damage.

a fire has burned by matching the amount of Carbon-14 in the smoke to the depth of soil that contains the same Carbon-14 concentration. The team will also track the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus that is emitted during these fires in an effort to understand regional nutrient balances.

Rogers is leading an effort to study the effects of fire on boreal forests. The monitoring systems were designed, ironically, to measure the smoke from forest fires in an approximate 300-kilometer radius. The monitoring allows researchers to determine how deep into the soil

The depth of burn is a crucial measurement, because it can help scientists understand the amount of carbon emitted during a fire and the loss of carbon storage in the forest.

And then in mid-July, over two and a half months later, Assistant Scientist Brendan Rogers received a call from Fort McMurray. The monitoring equipment, stored in a warehouse, had survived.

above: Assistant Scientist Brendan Rogers led a team in northern Saskatchewan to assess the carbon stocks of normally forested landscapes where fires burned in 2015. The team is studying the amount of carbon being emitted by fire as part of a NASA-funded project within the long-term Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) field campaign. photo by Brendan Rogers 6


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The recovered monitoring equipment will now measure background aerosol levels through the winter and will be in place for the 2017 fire season when, hopefully, fires in the region can be sampled without being so close as to cause a state of emergency.

The depth and frequency of burn also impact the forest’s ability to grow back. Previously, scientists expected at least 40-year gaps between major fires in the same boreal forest area. Instead, Dr. Rogers and his team in nearby Saskatchewan are seeing

After the fire, measuring the soil second-generation fires coming through as soon as nine years after the first blaze. The young re-burn takes place before the forest can reestablish itself. “These fires can burn the remaining soil organic matter and kill the existing seed banks, depleting the system of its carbon stores and limiting opportunities for regrowth.” Dr. Rogers said. “It just doesn’t look like a forest anymore.”

This “young re-burn” is fueled by trees that fell but were not entirely consumed by the first fire, as well as remaining organic matter in the soil. It is believed that historically, fire weather conditions were rarely severe enough to burn these young forests. Dr. Rogers said that climate change is now creating conditions that are conducive to quick followup fires.

“When you think about what causes these major fire events, climate is clearly the main factor. We are seeing longer, warmer summers, with more frequent and severe periods of hot and dry weather,” he said. “It’s happening again and again. In just the last few years we’ve witnessed record fire seasons in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan. There is no reason to believe the trend will slow down in the near future given climate projections.” Dr. Rogers argues scientists must work closely with fire managers and policy makers to adapt to these new fire regimes, reevaluating resources, priorities, and strategies. There may even be an opportunity to use selective fire management to keep carbon in the ground.

When a fire sweeps through a forest, it can burn everything – including the soil itself.

Often, post-fire soil will contain pyrogenic organic carbon – more commonly known as charcoal. Recent studies suggest that 15 percent of the biomass in a wildfire can end up in the soil as charcoal. Analyzing soil content, however, is expensive and time-consuming.

Dr. Jonathan Sanderman has spent much of his career studying the composition of soils, including samples taken after wildfires. He has built an extensive catalogue of data, and using that research he pioneered a method for quickly and inexpensively analyzing soil samples to determine the amount of charcoal remaining after a fire. Essentially, Dr. Sanderman looks for easily measured indicators in a sample and matches those against his library of data to predict the amount of charcoal. He is currently analyzing almost 600 samples from across the country, to determine how much and what kind of charcoal ends up in the soil after a wildfire. “Not all soil carbon is equal,” he said. “Fresh leaf litter will decompose in months. On the other end of the spectrum is charcoal. That stays in the soil for centuries.”

Soil represents the largest store of landbased carbon on Earth, and some estimates suggest that charcoal could represent as much as 35 percent of soils. Because there Soil samples, taken from forests burned by wildfire, has not been a thor- are assembled for analysis at WHRC’s laboratory. ough analysis of the worldwide stock of charcoal in soil, it has not been included in global carbon cycle models. Dr. Sanderman’s work will help fill that gap. “Charcoal is very stable,” he said. “As a result there is a lot of interest in it from the modeling community.” Canopy

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Mapping nature’s climate solutions Woods Hole Research Center together with partners like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) have for many years championed the power of nature to help solve the global climate change challenge.

Making this vision a reality is more urgent than ever, as the science

photo by Chris Linder

increasingly suggests that humanity has missed the opportunity to control climate change solely by reducing future emissions of greenhouse gases. There is simply too much CO2 in the atmosphere already. If there is any chance of limiting the Earth’s warming to 2 degrees Celsius, as agreed to by 195 countries in Paris last year, a concerted effort must be made to remove substantial quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere through



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reforestation and Mother Nature’s time-honored carbon capture mechanism: photosynthesis.

But time is short! That is why WHRC and TNC have teamed up to map out where the greatest potential exists to increase the storage of carbon on land.

With support from the blue moon fund and a grant to The Nature Conservancy from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the WHRC scientific team of Drs. Alessandro Baccini, Richard Houghton, Jonathan Sanderman and Wayne Walker will generate a series of maps designed to illustrate land restoration opportunities across the globe. The scientists will examine the potential to improve carbon storage in aboveground vegetation (such as forests and grasslands,)

and belowground carbon reservoirs (like soils and wetlands). The mapping effort will also take into consideration scenarios of future climate in an effort to account for the affect that climate might have on vegetation distribution and growth and, in turn, on carbon storage potential. “The results of our work will be of enormous value as land managers increasingly look to make decisions that are both pennywise and climate smart,” said Dr. Walker, who is leading the project for WHRC. “We have had this sort of study in mind for some time, and are excited to now be in a position to make this vision a reality.”

The ability to conduct this analysis and do so with a high degree of certainty follows a number of important scientific advancements by WHRC scientists. The findings of this research will be made available to the public through a state-ofthe-art web-mapping platform, and delivered to policy makers via technical briefs and engagement at high-level climate meetings. “This work would not be possible without such an outstanding project partner,” Dr. Walker said. “Our collaboration with TNC is an excellent example of how innovative science can be brought to bear on decision making in support of powerful climate solutions.”

Can science save Congo’s forests? The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a huge country – roughly equal in size to the eastern half of the United States.

management, with newly appointed bureaucrats scrambling to become familiar with the country’s massive natural forest resource.

The country has had consistent national leadership – President Joseph Kabila has run the country since taking control after his father’s assassination in 2001. Provincial governors and local officials – however – have turned over much more frequently. This leadership churn has created significant problems for natural resource

Working from the WHRC headquarters in Massachusetts and the provincial capital city of Mbandaka, Projet Équateur studies the DRC’s forests using remote sensing and on-the-ground fieldwork. The team also studies the local economy and encourages new approaches that can conserve natural resources while still promoting sustainable economic development.

It is also largely undeveloped, with approximately two thirds of the country covered in tropical forest. In fact, the DRC has the second largest tropical forest in the world – behind Brazil but ahead of Indonesia.

“The problem is that there is a very high turnover of politicians,” said Dr. Glenn Bush, who leads WHRC’s Projet Équateur. “Our work is saving the institutional memory that they would have otherwise lost.”

Melaine Kermac inspects rice plants growing in a test site using the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) technique, a low water, labor-intensive growing method aimed at increasing rice yield. This initial rice paddy dug in degraded swamp forest has seen success, and a tree nursery will be a testing ground for innovative “zero-deforestation” smallholder palm oil production. photo by Eva McNamara

“We want to maximize development in a environmentally effective and low-carbon way,” Dr. Bush said. “The whole project has been based on interacting with the government. We work with them to inject science into their planning. We provide training so they can understand the science behind their forest resources and can start making some more strategic decisions about what forests to keep and what forests to convert.” WHRC’s Melaine Kermarc is based full-time in Mbandaka, and meets frequently with regional officials.

“I was just called this morning by advisers to the government,” Mr. Kermarc said, during a conversation in late August. “They were looking for forest data, they came to us and we have that data. It’s going to be the basis for an environmental plan and improved forest management.” Local officials have said that WHRC’s scientific expertise is crucially important. “Climate change is a great challenge for Équateur, and it is already impacting agricultural yields in a negative way,” said Joseph Daniel Ingoli Nsongo, the environment minister for the DRC’s Equateur Province. “The key to improve the life of the local population is adaptation. We need research to evaluate different approaches to alleviate the most dramatic impact of climate change. Projet Équateur and WHRC are supporting the Province with this research capacity, piloting different approaches at the village level, providing important data to the Ministry and providing training to local experts.” Canopy

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New Amazon forest monitoring program launches Over the past decade, enormous investment has gone into conserving and protecting the Amazon rainforest, in recognition of the critical benefits it provides. These efforts have resulted in an encouraging decline in Brazil’s deforestation rate, reducing carbon emissions from this source by 70



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percent. Despite these successes, natural and human-caused threats could reduce the benefit of these efforts through forest degradation (the diminishing of forest health due to fire, selective logging, drought, and more). Thanks to a new major grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore

Foundation, WHRC will embark upon a two-year project to monitor forest change and assess forest vulnerability for the entire Amazon biome, with an emphasis on the region’s indigenous lands and protected areas. The project goal is to create an effective forest management system that is designed

around three important outcomes: 1) providing land managers with a deep understanding of forest change, including both deforestation and degradation and their primary causes; 2) helping forests and the people who depend on them adapt to climate change; and 3) providing actionable information for policy makers responsible for implementing national forest conservation and restoration commitments made as part of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. Amazon indigenous groups and national governments have formally recognized the important role their forests play in mitigating climate change by legally protecting more than 50 percent of this tropical biome. However, as climate change intensifies, even protected lands are at risk of losing large quantities of carbon due to forest degradation. Importantly, WHRC’s monitoring system will provide indigenous leaders and forest managers with the ability to recognize when forest degradation is occurring, making it possible to intervene and potentially minimize the losses. Further, assessments of past and future forest vulnerability will help these groups take preventative measures. Dr. Alessandro Baccini, one of the project’s lead scientists sees it as “a great example of how WHRC is positioned at the interface between science and education/country capacity building. This work will provide managers of indigenous land and protected area with stateof-the-art data showing how much carbon is lost from degradation and deforestation as well as how much is removed from the atmosphere as result of new forest growth.” In-country partners in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru will play a central role in this effort, and WHRC is pleased to work alongside

its sister organization IPAM (the Amazon Environmental Research Institute) as well as Imazon, a civil society organization supporting sustainable development policies in the Amazon. The local expertise that IPAM and Imazon provide is essential in order to identify and connect key partners with the potential to influence forest conservation in the region.

Knowledge sharing among these partners will represent a substantial part of the project. The project team will make the data and tools readily available to regional stakeholders and decision makers and educate Brazilian and Andean policy makers and the public about the health of and threats to Amazon forests. This will be carried out principally through capacity building and technical training activities held in the region. Beyond this, the team will conduct a communications campaign to share information with the general public in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. To reach these constituencies, we will launch communications products such as: - A web-based portal providing access to up-to-date information for the entire Amazon biome for project partners and the public at large; - A State of Brazilian Amazon Protected Areas report released online; - Policy briefs for civic leaders in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; - Scientific journal articles highlighting new insights gleaned from the project. The extensive project combines intensive evaluation of climate and satellite data, application of numerical models, and in-depth training of stakeholders from diverse locations and backgrounds, all within a 2-year window. Its success

left: Current forest cover in the Amazon biome (white boundary). Indigenous lands and protected areas are indicated in shades of green. Datasets from this grant will be produced for the entire Amazon biome (white line) and watershed (highlighted). cartography by Paul Lefebvre above: an aerial view within the Xingu Indigenous Park in the southeast of the Amazon biome. photo by Chris Linder

will depend upon organization of and collaboration between a large team of people with diverse and specialized skills. Eleven of WHRC’s scientific staff will dedicate time to the project, including five lead principal investigators: Drs. Alessandro Baccini, Paulo Brando, Michael Coe, Marcia Macedo and Wayne Walker. “This grant challenges us to synthesize our research results and communicate them in very practical terms to the people and institutions managing forests on the ground,” notes Dr. Macedo. “It’s a complex project that will require a true team effort. I’m excited for this opportunity to work with so many colleagues at WHRC and in the Amazon to connect our science to conservation on the ground.”

This project is funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, NASA and the Government of Norway (NORAD). To add your support to this important project, please contact Alison Smart at 508-444-1545 or visit support. Canopy

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ABoVE and beyond

A farewell tribute to Woods Hole Research Center’s deputy director Arctic tundra and boreal forests of the northern hemisphere store approximately 40 percent of the total carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, containing as much carbon as tropical rainforests. WHRC’s Deputy Director and Senior Scientist Scott Goetz has been studying these northern ecosystems for much of his 30-year career. “My particular interest is in arctic and boreal ecosystems is how much the observed warming has changed vegetation productivity and the fire regime, what grows back after fire, and how these changes in turn influence climate” Dr. Goetz said.

Dr. Goetz’s research also focuses on satellite remote sensing technology development, including a laser instrument to be installed on the international space station in 2019 to measure the height and biomass of global forests. He has also published widely on the potential for tropical forests to help mitigate climate change and, conversely, the potential for widespread permafrost thaw in the Arctic to exacerbate global warming. But it is perhaps his work on arctic vegetation change that is most recognized. He has shown, using a combination of satellite observations and field measurements, that tundra ecosystems have increased in productivity over the past 30 or more years, while over the same period many boreal forest areas show declining productivity trends. To describe these trends in relation to climate change, he introduced the use of “greening” and “browning” terminology, which are now widely used by scientific community. 12


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Dr. Goetz’s work in northern ecosystems, together with his previous experience conducting NASA field campaigns, led to his current role as the Science Lead of NASA’s Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (, an initiative he helped to develop over the past five years. A B o V E kicked off in 2015 and will run for the next decade. “The ABoVE effort has been allconsuming over the past year, but it’s exciting to play a key role in such a large undertaking,” Dr. Goetz said. “I am pleased to say it is off to a very strong start and is growing rapidly. By the end of this year ABoVE will include some 500 scientists in more than 60 science teams.”

In addition to his scientific accomplishments, Dr. Goetz said that he is particularly proud of helping to develop the next generation of scientists, which he considers an important component of his WHRC legacy. He has sponsored, mentored and advanced the careers of seven postdoctoral researchers who are now successful academics and researchers, as well as more than 30 research assistants and associates, graduate students, and interns. His protégées have leadauthored 40 of the more than 150 refereed scientific publications he has produced to date.

“I will always remember the scientists I’ve supported on their burgeoning career paths: Brendan Rogers, Patrick Jantz, Johanne Pelletier, Pieter Beck, Mike Loranty, Logan Berner, Scott Zolkos, Kevin Guay, Dan Steinberg, Andy Bunn, Claire Jantz and others,” Goetz said. “It’s been a pleasure on many levels and I’m happy that we keep in touch. In fact many of us continue to collaborate with one another.”

In addition to research and mentoring, Dr. Goetz has been involved in many professional service activities, including as an editorial board member of three highly regarded scientific journals, a contributor to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, a participant in several National Academy of Science panels and committees, a consultant to the United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (UN-REDD), a member of the Science Leadership Group of the US interagency North America Carbon Program. This fall Dr. Goetz will be joining Northern Arizona University as a tenured professor, helping to launch NAU’s new School of Informatics, Computing and Cyber Systems.

Dr. Goetz will remain connected with WHRC through his research, and as a member of the board of directors. “The Woods Hole Research Center is truly a unique organization that fills a critically important role in global change research and environmental policy solutions,” he said. “I am proud to have been part of it and I hope to remain engaged to foster new collaborations and create new opportunities.”

Yukon River Delta A satellite composite generated by WHRC Senior Geospatial Analyst Greg Fiske, depicting the Alaskan Yukon River Delta, with its intricate and complex system of rivers and tributaries. In 2015 and 2016 WHRC researchers have been studying the impacts of warming temperatures and the effects of large-scale tundra wildfires on this remote and pristine part of the United States. Canopy

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From WHRC to the United Nations When Kiliparti Ramakrishna joined the staff of the Woods Hole Research Center in 1987, he was the fifth employee. Almost thirty years later, he is leading the East and North-East Asia Office for the United Nations Economic and Social Commission. He was personally recruited by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon to take the job, which covers Russia, China, Japan, Mongolia, South Korea, and North Korea. But while he deals with economic development, social justice, and environmental protection issues for 1.7 billion people, he also keeps in touch with WHRC. It all started when Dr. Ramakrishna had dinner with WHRC founder George Woodwell.

“George asked me if we could pull off an international agreement about climate change,” he recalled during a recent visit to WHRC. “I told him, we have international agreements with a lot less scientific consensus.”

After that conversation, he agreed to join the fledgling research center. Dr. Ramakrishna worked closely with Dr. Woodwell and as a special advisor to the UN in drafting the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). He was instrumental in creating the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development in 1994 and severed as its coordinator. He held the Sara Shallenberger Brown Chair in Environmental Policy and was WHRC’s Deputy Director. After a 19-year career at WHRC, he went to work for the UN Environ14


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ment Program in 2006 and in 2011 he took his current role. As he travels the world, he said that colleagues in the climate change community are often shocked to learn that WHRC has fewer than 60 employees.

“WHRC does so many great things, they think of it as a big institution,” Dr. Ramakrishna said. “The climate community out there sees this as a great place.” WHRC: How much does your current work intersect with climate change?

RAMAKRISHNA: Climate change affects everything, everywhere. You can never be apart from it. We do work on dust and sand storms. We do work on pollution. We do work on low-carbon cities. Climate change is connected to all of our work. WHRC: What should WHRC be doing in a post-Paris Agreement world? RAMAKRISHNA: What Paris told us is that it’s not about persuading

people anymore on the importance of the issue. It’s all about how do you solve it and how do you solve it in the most cost-effective way? It is really about finding solutions. It’s about providing capacity and technical solutions. The Center has shown itself it be a leader. WHRC should be looking at the agreement, see where there is no action and find solutions.

WHRC: Should we have hope that we can successfully address climate change?

RAMAKRISHNA: It’s a serious question. If I were not hopeful that we could do something to avert disaster then I would not be in this business. But I am in this business. We need to continue talking about this as a major crisis, but there is hope. We need to see the Paris agreement as a major opportunity. We need to seize that and move forward.

WHRC on the road: sharing our research with the world

In July, Nepalese government officials gathered in Kathmandu to learn from Associate Scientist Wayne Walker and Research Associate Alicia Peduzzi about remote sensing of aboveground biomass.

In March, WHRC and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution led an expedition on the Mekong River as part of the collaborative Global Rivers Observatory Project. Here, scientists and students from the US, Vietnam, India, and Canada venture up a tributary to collect water and sediment samples.

Research Associate Paul Lefebvre talks with students at the annual ESRI conference about WHRC’s work in the Amazon.

Summer interns Liomari Diaz-Martinez, graduate of University of Texas – Arlington, and Ulrich Kakou, senior at UMass Amherst, worked with scientist mentors.

Research Associate Kathleen Savage demonstrates field monitoring equipment, while Development Associate Paula Beckerle and Research Assistant Kylen Solvik talk with passersby at the Woods Hole Science Stroll in August.

White House Science Advisor John Holdren (l) and WHRC President Phil Duffy at a Falmouth Water Stewards Event held at WHRC in September.


Fall 2016


Board of Directors Chair Wilhelm M. Merck Managing Member, Essex Timber Company Trustee and Treasurer, Merck Family Fund

Vice Chair Thomas E. Lovejoy Senior Fellow, United Nations Foundation Professor, George Mason University

Treasurer Joseph R. Robinson, Managing Director, MidMark Capital Members John H. Adams Founding Director, Natural Resources Defense Council Stephen T. Curwood Executive Producer and Host, Living On Earth World Media Foundation

| Retiring board members: Thank you for your service

Iris Fanger was a member of the WHRC Board for 19 years and this year became an Honorary Director. Dr. Fanger wrote that she is “so proud to have been part of the mission and accomplishments of the Center.” WHRC has been equally proud to have her fine intellect and thoughtful character contribute to the work and decision-making of the Board. Dr. Fanger is a theater and dance critic based in Boston and lectures widely on dance and theater history. She has written reviews and feature articles for the Boston Herald, Boston Phoenix, Christian Science Monitor, and The New York Times, as well as for Dance Magazine and Dancing Times. A former director of the Harvard Summer Dance Center, Dr. Fanger has taught at Lesley Graduate School and Tufts University, as well as Harvard and M.I.T. Accepting Dr. Fanger’s retirement, WHRC Board Chairman Wilhelm Merck wrote, “What a privilege! You have sustained the Center throughout the years.” Stuart Goode served on the Board of WHRC from 2010-2016 and will continue his association with the Center as an Honorary Director. A long-time investment professional and private investor, Mr. Goode was with venture banking and investment management firm E.M. Warburg, Pincus & Co. from 1981 to 1996. He was a past chairman of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Advisory Council as well as a member of the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Alumni Council He also served on the board of the Peconic Baykeeper, dedicated to protecting the Peconic and South Shore estuaries of Long Island. He is an avid scuba diver and environmentalist and resides in New York City, Bridgehampton, New York, and Grand Cayman. 16


Fall 2016

Philip B. Duffy President and Executive Director, Woods Hole Research Center Michael Fanger Founder, Managing Member, and President, Eastern Funding, LLC Scott J. Goetz Professor, Northern Arizona University

Joshua R. Goldberg General Counsel, Managing Director Financo, Inc. David Hawkins Director, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council Lily Rice Hsia Consultant Mather & Hsia Consultants

Victoria Lowell Community Leader, Conservationist Merloyd Ludington Publisher and Editor, Merloyd Lawrence Books

R.J. Lyman Member, Mintz Levin Senior Advisor, ML Strategies

William Moomaw Professor Emeritus, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy Tufts University, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy Joseph Mueller Founder, Rockport Mortgage Corporation

Jeremy Oppenheim Founder and Managing Partner SystemiQ

Amy Regan President, Harbourton Foundation

Staff Constance R. Roosevelt Conservationist

President and Executive Director Philip B. Duffy, Ph.D.

Honorary Directors Anita W. Brewer-Siljehølm Neal A. Brown John Cantlon Iris Fanger Stuart Goode Joel Horn Lawrence S. Huntington Karen C. Lambert Mary Louise Montgomery Gilman Ordway Gordon Russell Ross Sandler Helen B. Spaulding J.G. Speth Robert G. Stanton M.S. Swaminathan Ola Ullsten

Science Staff Alessandro Baccini, Ph.D. Ricahrd Birdsey, Ph.D. Paulo Brando, Ph.D. I. Foster Brown, Ph.D. Glenn K. Bush, Ph.D. Andréa D. de Almeida Castanho, Ph.D. Michael T. Coe, Ph.D. Tina A. Cormier, M.S. G. Ken Creighton, Ph.D. Linda Deegan, Ph.D. Mary Farina, M.A. Gregory J. Fiske, M.S. Richard A. Houghton, Ph.D. Melaine Kermarc, B.Sc. Wendy Kingerlee, B.S. Paul A. Lefebvre, M.A. Sarah Ludwig, M.A. Marcia N. Macedo, Ph.D. Alexander Nassikas, B.A. Susan M. Natali, Ph.D. Christopher Neill, Ph.D. Alicia Peduzzi, Ph.D.

Tedd Saunders President, Eco-Logical Solutions Chief Sustainability Officer, The Saunders Hotel Group

Founder George M. Woodwell

| The President’s Council WHRC is proud to announce the founding of The President’s Council, a non-governing group of loyal friends who contribute their time and expertise to provide advice and counsel to the Center’s President and Staff on a variety of strategic, programmatic, and managerial topics. We thank them for their support! Spencer Adler Co-Founder, Bioeconomy Capital Steve Bernier Owner, Cronig’s Market

Deputy Director Robert Max Holmes, Ph.D.

Jim Cabot President, Cabot Strategies

Jennifer Francis, Ph.D. Research Professor, Rutgers University Spencer Glendon Director of Global Macroanalysis, Wellington Management

N. Stuart Harris, M.D. Chief of the Division of Wilderness Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

David Hoover Retired Professor, Cambridge College

Johanne Pelletier, Ph.D. Rafe Pomerance, B.A. Amanda E.W. Poston, B.A. Brendan M. Rogers, Ph.D. Jonathan Sanderman, Ph.D. Kathleen Savage, M.Sc. Christopher R. Schwalm, Ph.D. Kylin Solvik, B.A. Hillary L. Sullivan, M.S. Wayne S. Walker, Ph.D.

Administrative Staff Elizabeth H. Bagley, B.A. Tracy Barquinero, M.S. Paula C. Beckerle, B.A. Kelly Benway, B.B.A. Florence Carlowicz, B.A. Shauna Conley, B.S. Annalisa Eisen Michael Ernst, M.F.A. Duane H. Martin David McGlinchey, J.D. Lisa Strock O’Connell, B.S. Fred Palmer Camille M. Romano, M.S., C.P.A. Alison Smart, B.F.A. Julianne Waite, B.A. Allison B. White Amelia Koch Financial Consultant

Kathy Kretman Director, Georgetown University Center for Public and Nonprofit Leadership Kate Schafer Educator, The Harker School

Peter Stein Managing Director, Lyme Timber Rob Stenson Retired Nurse Practitioner Canopy

Fall 2016


Statement of Activities


Support and Revenue



Individuals and Foundations (51.3%) Other Income (1.0%)

US Government (47.7%)

Research Programs (64.0%)

Fund raising & Communications (11.0%) General & Administrative (25.0%)


Temporarily Restricted

Permanently Restricted

Total 2016

Total 2015

1,100 -

$ 4 ,118,761 4 ,421,508 (229,389) 30,471 17,195 (9,784) 38,554 -

$ 4,759,371 3,719,741 633,046 20,935 16,404 (8,432) 19,672 -

Support and revenue Contributions US Government Foundations and other Investment income (loss) Donated equipment In-kind donations Change in value of split-interest agreements Other income Net assets released from restrictions


Total support and revenue

Research programs General and administrative Fund raising and communications Total expenses

Change in net assets Net assets Beginning of year End of year 18


Fall 2016


2,115,110 (48,623) 30,471 17,195 (9,784) 38,554 6,217,679

$ 4,118,761 2,305,298 (180,766) (6,217,679)

5,348,607 2,087,021 923,115



5,348,607 2,087,021 923,115

5,912,283 2,332,486 762,775











$ 6,785,737



$ 2,658,980




$ 3,688,979




$ 13,133,696




$ 13,105,123

Statement of Financial Position Fiscal Year 2016 Highlights The fiscal year closed with Woods Hole Research Center receiving another unmodified audit opinion with no findings or questioned costs from the external audit firm of Calibre CPA Group. This report is critical to our continued success in receiving both government and private institution funding and speaks to the integrity and professionalism of the Center as a whole. The Center’s Financial Position remains good and the various ratios used to measure these matrices are all strong. Both our unrestricted and total net assets are stable and our liabilities continue to decrease.

FY16 presented new challenges: though Total Support and Revenue decreased by 8 percent from $9.2M to $8.4M (including a $229k loss on investments), unrestricted contributions increased by 7 percent while restricted support from foundations increased by 33 percent. The Center’s support from US government awards continued its modest decrease from 52 percent in FY15 to 49 percent in the current year.

Expenses followed a similar decrease with research programs declining by 10 percent as several projects closed out. As we head into FY17, the Center has added several established scientists, and the recent awarding of new multi-year funding has resulted in the addition of new support staff to carry out this work. The Center is well-positioned for the year ahead both financially and scientifically. Full financial statements are available at:


Assets Current Assets Cash and cash equivalents U.S. Government contributions receivable Other contributions receivable, net Prepaid expenses and other receivables Total current assets



$ 1,788,115 662,223 1,344,730 203,161

$ 1,695,121 532,834 949,984 243,545

4,877,532 1,010,924

5,264,206 976,098




Investments Endowment and quasi-endowment investments Other investments Total investments assets

Other assets Other contributions receivable, net of current portion Beneficial interest in real estate trust assets Bond proceeds held in trust for debt retirement Total assets

Liabilities and Net Assets Current liabilities Accounts payable Accrued expenses Liability under charitable gift annuities Refundable advances Loan payable Total current liabilities

Long-term liabilities Liability under charitable gift annuities, net of current portion Loan payable, net of current portion Total liabilities

Net assets Unrestricted Operating Board designated for quasi-endowment Net investment in property and equipment Total unrestricted

Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted Total net assets

Total liabilities and net assets



Net property and equipment

Total other assets



102,439 212,651 17,141

448,820 212,651 18,277

$ 16,158,677

$ 16,511,873




335,539 276,631 9,798 13,143 394,192



262,069 231,530 9,701 8,826 414,192 926,318

102,898 1,892,780

52,321 2,428,111

2,583,319 532,488 3,669,930

2,905,079 532,488 3,346,311

2,658,980 3,688,979

2,633,366 3,687,879


6,785,737 13,133,696

$ 16,158,677





$ 16,511,873

Fall 2016


Donors We are deeply grateful to the individuals, foundations, and businesses listed on the following pages who supported us through gifts and pledges made during the Center’s fiscal year July 1, 2015 - June 30, 2016. $100,000+

blue moon fund Charles R. O’Malley Charitable Lead Trust Harbourton Foundation Robert Dudley Harrington, Jr.* David Hoover and Carol Swenson Wilhelm Merck and Nonie Brady Kristie Miller Minerva Foundation Amy and James Regan Joseph and Marité Robinson Ruth McCormick Tankersley Charitable Trust $50,000-$99,999 Anonymous (2) Beech Tree Trust Benjamin and Ruth Hammett Francis and Victoria Lowell

$25,000-$49,999 Foundation for the Carolinas Jeremy and Hannelore Grantham Ted and Connie Roosevelt Fred and Alice Stanback The Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment Whalesback Foundation

$10,000-$24,999 Garrett Albright ARIA Foundation Barbara Bowman Stuart and Joanna Brown Cogan Family Foundation John Cogan and Mary Cornille Community Foundation of Louisville Endurance Foundation Michael Fanger and Linda Sattel Spencer Glendon and Lisa Tung Avram and Carol Goldberg Deborah Goldberg Joshua Goldberg Lawrence and Caroline Huntington Timothy and Joan Ingraham Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation Christopher and Lisa Kaneb Monique Liuzzi John Myers and Merloyd Ludington



Fall 2016

Katharine Merck Gilman and Margaret Ordway Gordon Russell and Bettina McAdoo Joanna Sturm Mary Waterman and William Lunt

$5,000 - $9,999 Anonymous (1) Anne Fund of the Arkansas Community Foundation Matthew and Brooke Barzun Stephen Bernier Brooke Brown Barzun Philanthropic Foundation Cape Cod Foundation Iris and Robert Fanger Kim and Nancy Faulkner Dan and Bunny Gabel Golden Family Foundation Sibyl Golden Thomas and Virginia Gregg Serena Hatch Bayard and Julie Henry The Hintlian Family John and Lily Rice Hsia J. Atwood and Elizabeth Ives Ivor Cornman and Margaret E. Cornman Fund Mary Elizabeth Jewett Korsant Charitable Foundation Karen and Sam Lambert Nancy Lassalle Bill and Margot Moomaw William and Sue Morrill New York Community Trust Jeremy Oppenheim Renaissance Charitable Foundation Inc. Pat Riley Porpoise Fund Superior Nut Company, Inc. James Worth $1,000 - $4,999 Atlantic Philanthropies Director / Employee Designated Gift Fund Ayco Charitable Foundation Michael and Margherita Baldwin Rhoda Baruch Robert and Pam Beck Benevity Community Impact Fund Anthony Bernhardt

Bonnie Ward Simon Foundation Brabson Library and Educational Foundation John and Nancy Braitmayer Ed and Amy Brakeman Sierra Bright Edward and Barbara Brody Bunbury Fund of the Princeton Area Community Foundation, Inc. Brett Byers and Leslie Santos Priscilla Case* Community Foundation for Greater New Haven Michael and Marcia Corrigan Vivian Donnelley Philip Duffy and Lauren Kass Duffy Denny Emory Thomas and Diane Esselman Esther Simon Charitable Trust Richard and Catherine Fay Hart and Nancy Fessenden Michael and Elizabeth Foley Geoffrey Freeman and Marjorie Findlay Scott Goetz and Nadine Laporte Alan, Fran and Nora Greenglass Jane Hallowell Samuel Hamill Whitney and Elizabeth Hatch George and Marina Hatch Art and Eloise Hodges Richard and Susan Houghton Robert and Marion Howard Gordon and Elizabeth Hughes Hamilton* and Edith Kean Marta Jo Lawrence Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot and Irving Hamer Carl and Joanne Leaman David and Dana Lee William and Noëlle Locke Thomas Lovejoy R.J. and Leslie Lyman Marvin and Annette Lee Foundation Scott and Hella McVay Harriet Meiss Mary Louise and Charles Montgomery John and Georgia Nassikas Abigail Norman Normandie Foundation Robert and Pamela Pelletreau Joan Person

Eugene and Diana Pinover Linda Polishuk David and Laurie Reed Tedd and Ella Saunders Katherine Schafer Bonnie Simon Strachan Donnelley 2003 Charitable Trust Gerard and Mary Swope Twin Chimney Inc. Nina Webber Helmut and Caroline Weymar Wharton Foundation, Inc. Douglas and Barbara Williamson George and Katharine Woodwell Mary and Redwood Wright Ron Zweig and Christina Rawley

$500 - $999 John and Patricia Adams David and Nancy Babin Philip Balboni and Elizabeth Houghteling Tim Barclay and Beth Taylor Charles and Christina Bascom The Benjamin Family David Brown and Nawrie Meigs-Brown David and Colleen Burt Molly Cornell Copenhaver Cumpston Judith and Murray Danforth Lawrence and Regina DelVecchio Annie Dillard and Robert Richardson Frank Dunau and Amy Davis Elizabeth & Frank Odell Family Fund of the Community Fund of Collier County Elizabeth Bascom Charitable Lead UniTrust Harley G. Featherston Ken Foreman and Anne Giblin Georgia Hume Evans Memorial Timothy and Mary Helen Goldsmith Charles and Ethel Hamann Peter and Karen Hargraves Harken Foundation Stuart Harris and Malinda Polk Max and Gabby Holmes Robert and Margaret Huskins Robert Inches John Jeppeson and Wendy Benchley Susan and Christopher Klem Craig LeClair and Zaurie Zimmerman Weyman Lundquist and Kathryn Taylor Kai and Marion Marcucelli Penny and Ted Thomas Fund of the Princeton Area Community Foundation

Lawrence Pratt and Melinda Hall Jack and Anne Rabinowitz Perry Ross Todd Saunders Alison Smart Nancy Soulette Campbell Steward Taylor-Lundquist Family Fund of the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation Roger Williams David and Julianne Worrell

$1 - $499 Anonymous (4) Donald and Barbara Abt Ingrid Akerblom Carla Alani Catherine Allard Lawrence Altman and Janet Barsy AmazonSmile Foundation Robert and Alison Ament Peggy Andretz Dolores Arond Duncan and Dorothy Aspinwall Irene Avery Denise Backus George and Elizabeth Bagley Paul and Annette Bakstran Joan Balfour Robert F. R. Ballard Karel Baloun Leo Tugan-Baranovsky Anne Barnes David and Laurie Barrett Tom and Tosh Barron Marilee Bass Richard and Bertie Bauer Philip Becker Randall Bennett and Lorraine Marden William and Sheila Bennett Kelly Benway Ralph and Joyce Berger Howard and Deborah Bernstein Alden and Barbara Besse Kathleen Biggins George Billings Donald and Apline Bird Milton and Sandra Blackington James Blechman Dawn Blythe Frank and Mardi Bowles Peter Bowman Amy Brady Emily Bramhall Vicky Brandt Celia Brown and Richard Zajchowski Tom and Kitty Brown

Margaret Bruce Barry and Sylvia Bunshoft Megan Shea Burton Archer and Jessie Bush William and Helga Butler Michael and Charlene Cain Marjorie Cairns Diana Campbell John and Irene Cantlon William and Beverly Caperton Mary Carey Patricia Carey Peter Carnevale and Joanne Blum-Carnevale Paul Caron John and Helaine Carroll Philip and March Cavanaugh Donald Cecich and Gail Fenske Joy Chadwick Jean Chapman Frank and Julia Child Sophie Chu Naomi Church David and Viginia Clarendon Arthur and Mary Clark Darlene Clark Ros Clark James and Ann Cleary Jim Clemans Bonnie Clendenning Peter and Edna Collom Nathaniel Coolidge Charles Cooper and Sarah Bysshe William and Linda Cotter Patricia Cowan Arthur and Marcia Crago Joseph Crimmins Steve Curwood and Jennifer Stevens-Curwood Clarke and Maria Daniels William and Patricia Day David and Mary Dearborn Frances Dennison Philip and Tina deNormandie Virginia Devine Rosemary and Dennis Dewees William and Elizabeth Dewey Francis and Carol DeYoung Donald and Anita Dickinson Nicholas and Bitten Dill Joseph and Grace Donahue Patricia Donahue Patricia Donovan Toni Dove David Dow Martin Dugan Jon Durell Carrie Dyckman William and Janet Edmond Canopy

Fall 2016


Paul and Anne Ehrlich Dorothea Endicott Douglas Evans and Sarah Cogan Mary Ellen Falk David Fanger and Martin Wechsler Jerome and Barbara Fanger Susan Farina Elizabeth Farnham David and Doris Fausch Carolyn Fine and Jeremiah Friedman Philip Fine and Beverly Holley Sharon Finzer Susan Fisher Gordon Fitzgerald David Ford Charles and Maryanna Foskett Sara Fritz Nino and Dorothy Fulgoni Willard and Constance Galliart David and Andrea Garber Stephen Gardner and Mary Voce Michael and MC Garfield Bella Gerstmann Donald and Ruth Glotzer Serge Golden and Mary McCabe-Golden Elaine Goldman Susan Goodman Dick Goodson Marc and Carol Gordon Michael and Karen Gorton Bonnie Gossels Daniel Gould Herbert and Colette Gramm Fay C. Graning John and Jane Griffith Robert and Virginia Guaraldi Lorraine Gyauch Flinn and Marisa Hackett Howard and Rubye Haddock Harold Hall William Hallstein and Susanne Goodman-Hallstein Albert and April Hamel Daniel and Caroline Hamlin Caroline Hancock Dudley and E. Vicky Harrison Lynn Harrison Lee and Rose Hartman David and Betsy Hawkins Joan Hazard and John Dabrowski Elizabeth Heald Jill Heathman Stanley and Marie Hecht Bonnie Heidel Kurt and Ruthann Hellfach George Helmholz Frances Henry David and Joan Herschfeld Judy and Alan Hoffman 22


Fall 2016

Alexander and Marion Hoffman Lincoln and Sarah Hollister Betsey Holtzmann Richard and Marjy Horton Nancy Hough Alan Houghton and Sky Pape Weston and Susanah Howland Brad and Andrea Hubbard-Nelson Martha Hume Stewart and Anna Huntington Frances Huxley Nada Hyman Tod and Beth Hynes David Isenberg and Paula Blumenthal Lynn Jackson Carolyn Jacobs Ambrose and Anna Jearld D. Randolph Johnson Susan Johnson Todd Johnson Barbara Woll Jones Richard Kacik Frank Kauffman Fred and Whitney Keen Kenneth Keller Richard Kendall Karen Kimber Elizabeth King* Larry Klein and Kathy Pirok-Klein Calvin and Ilene Kunin Donna Kuroda Albert and Sonia Kutzin John and Diana Lamb Paul and Cynthia Lambert Patricia Lamoureux Lawrence and Hannah Langsam Gary LaRue and Susan Barrett Randy and MJ Lauderdale Chip and Gayle Lawrence Sally M. Lawton Julia Lee Vicki LeFevre Marian LeFevre Maria Leon Edwin and Judith Leonard John LeShane David and Patricia Leslie Melvin and Katherine Levine Michael Lichter and Valerie Atkins William and Louise Lidicker Martha Livingston Douglas and Kim Livolsi Phillip and Whitney Long Jean Lootz Bruce Luchner Allen Luke Maija Lutz and Peter Tassia Nilah MacDonald Fred and Judith Mackenzie

Jane MacNeil Laurence and Katherine Madin Lee Maglott Douglas B. Maitland Wayne and June Malary David and Sheila Manischewitz Charles and Susanne Mann Philip Mann Leon Martel Linda Matheson Stephanie Maughan Frederick and Barbara McAlpine Edmund McCann Frances McClennen Alice McDowell Patrick McEvoy Matthew McGuire Cornelia McMurtrie Robert and Anne McNeece David and Barbara McPhelim Melissa McTague Ruth C. Mead Jonathan and Jane Meigs Maria Meleca Maryellen Meleca and Christine Graziano Lalise and Jerry Melillo Amy Merrill Peter and Sara Merrill Robin Milburn Susan Miller and Lee Kramer Rodney and Suzanne Moll Allan and Maria Moniz Mary Ann Moore Timothy and Carole Morey Kirstin Moritz and Rod Hinkle Yvette Morrill Ken and Laura Morse Day and Kathie Mount Allen Myers Nicholas Nassikas Chris Neill and Linda Deegan Vance and Marjorie Nelson Nelson Mead Fund Network for Good Jill Neubauer Ann Little Newbury John Noel Carol Oakes Tim and Lisa O’Connell Roberta Odell George and Diane Ohanian Robert Ohlerking John Olson Carol O’Neil John and Karen O’Neil Renee and Kimberley O’Sullivan Melody Padget David and Lois Parker

John Parker and Maja Paumgarten Fredric Parsons Thoru and Judith Pederson Nancy A. Peters Henry Pfeiffer Ann Pilch JoĂŁo Carlos and Elizabeth Pimenta Paul and Sandra Pimentel Jerry and Sheila Place Christopher and Pamela Polloni William Porter Rex Pratt and Diane McMahon-Pratt Donald Procter George and Kathy Putnam Diane Quaid Elisabeth Raleigh Ronald Rauber Thomas and Ruth Rauschendorfer Richard Raushenbush and Barbara Giuffre Maridale Ray Rhode Island Community Foundation James and Mary Rhodes John Rich Margaret Richardson Mary Ring Craig Ritchie Road Scholar / Elderhostel Inc. Richard Robbins Howard Roche Rochester Area Community Foundation Sydney Roberts Rockefeller Edward and Wendy Rose Robert Rose George Rosen and Sylvia Vatuk Marc Rosenbaum and Jill De La Hunt Nicholas Rossettos Edward and Earline Rubel Gilbert Ruff and Susan Bonthron Jenny Russell Bruce Ruttenberg and Heather MacLeod Philip Sacks Selcuk Tomek Sahin Richard Sailor and Mary Johnston R. Keith and Susan Salisbury R. Neil Sampson Elizabeth Sayman Frank Schaer Daniel and Paula Schiller Lucy Schmeidler Paul and Kristen Schmidt Judith Schooley Edward and Mary Schreiber John and Lois Schuyler Katherine Scott Richard and Lucille Seeley Deborah Gates Senft* Michael and Amy Shaw

Peter and Anne Sheldon Shane Shepherd Peter and Margaret Sherin Daniel and Joanne Shively Thomas and Heidi Sikina Peter Sinclaire Vivian Sinder-Brown Bennett Singer Daniel and Maxine Singer Wesley and Nancy Smith South Mountain Company Foundation Jennifer Stamp and Tom Anderson Wallace and Pamela Stark Theodore and Susan Stebbins Gerald and Margaret Steinberg Edward and Ann Stern Tom and Judy Stetson Michael Stone Thomas and Ann Stone Jay and Ruth Sugerman Jared and Heather Tausig Michael Testa Josh and Ann Tolkoff Timothy and Janet Trask Ivan and Virginia Valiela Jack and Uta Valpey Mathias and Cornelia Van Thiel Betty Van Wicklen Vince and Associates Clinical Research Martha Vinick John and Jane Vose Emily Wade Stephen and Carol Ann Wagner Grant and Jean Walker Ann and Brad Wallace Immanuel Wallerstein Caroline Walter Grace Kennan Warnecke April Warwick Matt Watson Diana Weatherby Jacqueline Webster Lewis Weinfeld Jane Weingarten Larry Wentworth Andreas Wesserle Ruth Whipple Barbara White Stuart and Tilda White Susan White and Ellen Corcoran Terry and Olivia White Joan Wickersham Lorraine Wilkening Marsden Williams Robert Williams Jeff Williams and Rebecca Upton Benjamin and Ann Williamson Winskill Family Louise Wolf

Edward and Toby Woll Eric and Sandra Wolman Amanda Woodwell and Gio Alberotanza Dennis and Gloria Woodwell John Woodwell Lois Woodwell Marcy Woodwell Neilson Margaret Wright Charles and Ellen Wyttenbach Keith and Deborah Yorke Louise Zawadzki * deceased

Matching Gift Organizations

Colgate Matching Gift Program GE Foundation Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation Microsoft Matching Gift Program New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. State Street Matching Gift Program

In-Kind Gifts

Spencer Adler Climate and Land Use Alliance ESRI N. Stuart Harris, M.D. Rob Stenson

George Perkins Marsh Society

The Society recognizes friends who have elected to partner in the Center’s future to help sustain human prosperity and a verdant Earth for generations to come through a life income gift, annuity, life insurance policy, or bequest. The Society honors the legacy of George Perkins Marsh, who first drew attention to the idea that the real menace to nature is caused by humans themselves. Born in 1801, Marsh published the book Man and Nature in 1864, still widely considered a pivotal text in the founding of the conservationist and environmental movements. Society members Dolores Arond, Sharon Bidwell, Deborah Cernauskas, Robert Downs, Denny Emory, Iris and Robert Fanger, David Hoover and Carol Swenson, Joan Person, David and Edith Ross, E. Andrew Wilde, George and Katharine Woodwell, Redwood and Mary Wright In Memoriam Donald Bidwell, Warren Felt, Robert Dudley Harrington, Jr., Martin Person Canopy

Fall 2016


Gifts In Honor Of Douglas Adams from Bella Gerstmann

I. Foster Brown from Celia Brown and Richard Zajchowski, Richard Sailor and Mary Johnston George and Yara Cadwalader from Benjamin and Ann Williamson C Change Conversations from Kathleen Biggins

Philip Duffy from Lalise and Jerry Melillo

Iris Fanger from William and Linda Cotter, Michael and Karen Gorton, and Leon Martel Iris and Bob Fanger from Jane Weingarten George Hampson from Daniel Gould

John and Cheri Holdren from Kai and Marion Marcucelli

Richard “Skee” Houghton from Elizabeth Farnham, and John and Georgia Nassikas Lawrence and Caroline Huntington from William and Sheila Bennett, and Susan Fisher Stephanie Klein from Larry Klein and Kathy Pirok Klein Samuel W. Lambert from the Bunbury Fund of the Princeton Area Community Foundation Jessica Gabriel Lauria from Caroline Hancock

Kira Lawrence from Chip and Gayle Lawrence, and Maridale Ray Thomas Lovejoy from John and Georgia Nassikas, Daniel and Maxine Singer Vicky Lowell from David Brown and Nawrie Meigs-Brown 24


Fall 2016

Marcia Macedo from William Hallstein and Susanne Goodman-Hallstein Bob Marler from Priscilla Case

Maryellen Meleca and Christine Graziano from Jerry and Sheila Place David and Colin Millar from Ruth Whipple

Zander Nassikas from Nicholas Nassikas

Jerry and Sheila Place from Flinn and Marisa Hackett, Maria Meleca, and Keith and Deborah Yorke Ted and Connie Roosevelt from Tom and Tosh Barron

Tedd Saunders from Craig LeClair and Zaurie Zimmerman, and Todd Saunders James A. Schmidt from Paul and Kristen Schmidt Wilson, Cathy, Colette and Adele Snyder from Judy and Alan Hoffman The Earth from Jill Neubauer, Terry and Olivia White

Robert A. Cowan from Patricia Cowan Joy and Don Durell from Jon Durell

Terry Pratchett from Bella Gerstmann Laurie Johnson from Caroline Walter Elizabeth Leighton from Jane MacNeil

Eric Little from Renee and Kimberley O’Sullivan Anthony Liuzzi from Monique Liuzzi

Stanley Livingston from Bruce Ruttenberg and Heather MacLeod Walter Matherly from Copenhaver Cumpston

Bernard E. Murray from Grant and Jean Walker Kingsland Oakes from Carol Oakes

Albert L. Scott, Jr. from Katherine Scott

George Woodwell from David and Nancy Babin, Steve Curwood and Jennifer Stevens Curwood, Kirstin Moritz and Rod Hinkle, and John Olson

Craig B. Speiser from Archer and Jessie Bush, William and Beverly Caperton, Kelvin Foster, Melvin Foster, Howard and Rubye Haddock, Todd Johnson, Thomas and Sheila Miles, Marcy Woodwell Neilson, James and Mary Rhodes, Craig Ritchie, Yvonne Wong, Amanda Woodwell and Gio Alberotanza, Dennis and Gloria Woodwell, George and Katharine Woodwell, and Lois Woodwell

Katharine Woodwell from Jerome and Barbara Fanger

Florence Stoddard from Cornelia McMurtrie

George and Katharine Woodwell from Scott and Hella McVay, Abigail Norman, and Thomas and Ann Stone

Gifts in Memory Of Suzanne Bowman Dick Backus from Denise Backus

Suzanne K. Bowman from Peter Bowman

Meda Young Thetford from Ivan and Virginia Valiela

Charles T. and Margaret L. Walker from Grant and Jean Walker Lawrence A. Woodwell from Dennis and Gloria Woodwell

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Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge field camp under a leaden June sky. photo by Chris Linder

Canopy - Fall 2016  

The magazine of Woods Hole Research Center.

Canopy - Fall 2016  

The magazine of Woods Hole Research Center.