Page 1

Fall 2009 What’s Inside Executive Director’s (pg Pack 3) Ask(pg the4)Biologist 4) with the Sawtooth Pack (pg 12) Face to Face with theLetter Owyhee Face to (pg Face The Gray Wolves’Events Eulogy (pg14) 6) Wolf Center News & Current (pg Wolf Behavior Behavior 101 101 (pg (pg16) 16)Visitor’s Adoption pageUpdate (pg19)(pg 17) Adoption page (pg 18) (pg Camp 21) Pack Facts and Fun!(pg (pg23) 23) Education & Research 20)Journal Visitor(pg Center (pg 22) Kids page


Author name, info...

No organization can operate without a dedicated staff, board of directors, and team of volunteers and interns. The Wolf Center is blessed to have some of the finest and most committed in all those categories. With various backgrounds in business, engineering, wildlife management, and more, we blend personalities together with the hope of serving the mission of the Wolf Education & Research Center.

Fall 2009

Table of Contents

board of directors

Douglas Christensen, Idaho Board of Directors Roy Farrar, Idaho Board of Directors



Sally Farrar, Idaho Board of Directors, Secretary Sharon Lander, California Board of Directors, Treasurer


Dennis Olson, Montana Board of Directors


Jayme Burch, Oregon Board of Directors Danielle Hawthorne, Connecticut Board of Directors

WERC Staff

Chris Anderson Executive Director Jeremy Heft Wildlife Biologist Randy Stewart On-Site Education & Tours Wolf Education & Research Center NEW!PO Box 12604

S ee p

8 age 1

Executive Director’s Letter. . . . . . . . . . . 3 Ask the Biologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Road to Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wolf Behavior 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Visitor’s Center Update. . . . . . . . . . .


Adoption Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


News and Current Events . . . . . . . . . .


Camp Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Kids Page - Pack Facts and Fun. . . . . . . . 23

Portland, Oregon 97212

(888) 422-1110 2

SLq Fall 2009

Send us your photos for a future collage from visitors and members!

Author name, info...


Dear Friends of Wolf Recovery,

Getting correspondence over the past year has, no doubt, been a labor of love for you. Sending them has been the same. A vigilant but bittersweet effort to keep an organization alive. As I write today, this battle continues. I’m sure many of you are reading the headlines about wolves being killed in the region and are equally appalled. We are facing certain realities. In the absence of a strong financial investment in our work, we have pared down the organization to uncomfortable outcomes. The Fall saw the inability to bring interns in which puts additional pressures on Jeremy and Randy. We’ll take this challenge into the Winter as we inform applicants we are holding off until Spring to continue our Intern Experience. Additionally, the ordinary challenges continue. A windfall that reached our doorstep earlier this year allowed us to keep our years-long commitment to Rick McIntyre at Yellowstone– an unheralded aspect of the outreach and research that WERC promotes and supports. Eliminating debt and paying the staff back on salaries that had we had foregone also took from that gift and as you can imagine, we go into the Fall with the same financial struggle that you’ve become accustomed to reading about. In the face of these challenges, however, we have achieved some remarkable successes that you should be proud of: • Education outreach area schools included Walla Walla Community College, University of Idaho, and Jennifer Junior High School, to name a few. • Staff & Interns provided education for 830 individuals compared to 432 last year, and Interns provided weekly programs at Winchester Lake State Park, and Hosted the Inaugural Summer Celebration with visitors from as far as Vermont and as near as Washington & as far as Vermont. • The Wolf Education & Research Center maintained a dialogue with thousands of individuals, many of whom quite possibly would never examine their values about healthy ecosystems and the dynamics necessary to secure them for future generations. Your support of WERC allowed these things to happen. And your support will allow us to continue. The country’s finest and brightest economists are projecting a recovery in the fourth quarter of this year. News of recovery is often a contagious sentiment and creates a hopeful outlook. We’re certainly banking on it. By January 1st, 2010, WERC will know what our future holds. Our primary commitment is to survive, to appeal to the public for the funding to keep our doors open and our outreach fresh and inviting. In the inability to find funding, however, our secondary plan is to remain fixed on our ability to allow the Sawtooth Pack to continue out their years without changes that would, no doubt, shorten if not end their lives. What WERC needs to survive is for you to pledge monthly for at least 3 months and consider a longer pledge such as a year or more so we can shore up our budget and plan appropriately. A handful of you already have pledges and a couple of you have already increased your monthly donations because you share our mission. But from Board Members on down, the survival of WERC will depend on the response to this email and our efforts between now and January 1. Please stand by us so that our Summer in 2010 truly includes an appropriate Celebration because we’ve survived to impact the lives of wolves in the wild and those who are passionate to protect them. You can make your pledge at or call Randy Stewart or myself to help you complete your pledge. As always, thank you for your continued support of this important outreach. Kind Regards, Chris Anderson, Executive Director Wolf Education & Research Center

Intern Experience Suspended

WERC’s Intern Experience has helped shape and influence the careers and futures of hundreds of biologists, veterinarians, and wolf enthusiasts over our long history. Interns have been responsible for supporting our resident biologist, teaching countless visitors, and even operating the Wolf Center Store. Due to budgetary constraints, WERC will not be able to afford the needed Interns during the Fall and Winter terms. We’re disappointed in this decision but the economy continues to force us to make hardchoices.

Volunteer Opportunities

The good news is that WERC will be opening enrollment up to short term volunteers who can help us through this difficult time by serving in shorter periods during the Winter term. If you’d like to spend a week or two in Wolf Camp this Winter, please contact our staff with dates of your availability. It will no doubt be the experience of a lifetime! Write to Jeremy. for more information. Fall 2009 SLq


Ask the Biologist

by Jeremy Heft

Ask The

Biologist by Jeremy Heft

Sawtooth Legacy This is a new segment to the ters, have the por Quarterly where you, our sup ting to wolves rela n opportunity to ask any questio not know did but e or other canines you may hav with the ade dec a r who to ask. I have spent ove them, for ing car Sawtooth Pack, living with and edible incr s Thi y. itor even sleeping next to their terr

unique insight into tenure has allowed me to gain cs. I field many wolf behavior and pack dynami , behavior, captive questions regarding wolf biology , and even some management, wolf hybrid issues on a regular basis obscure supernatural topics order to educate from folks who email me. In have started this as many people as possible, I these questions segment where I plan to share further promotes and my answers. I hope this se extraordinary your desire to learn about the ns pertaining to animals. If you have any questio w so I include wolves, etc., please let me kno ase email me with them in future segments. Ple jeremy.heft@ future questions/topics at: st ~Jeremy Heft, Wildlife Biologi

1. What do you feed the Sawtooth and Owyhee Packs? The packs are fed on a feast and famine diet, which means they are fed on a random basis that closely mimics their natural feeding cycle. On average, the packs are fed around twice every ten days, and the weights and type of food are also randomized. There are various types of food fed to the packs, but we mostly concentrate on wild game as much as possible. All wild game is gathered through road kill, and the WERC maintains a positive working relationship with many local law enforcement agencies, the Nez Perce Tribe, and Idaho Fish and Game to find all road kills within our region. Most road kills are in the form of whitetail or occasionally mule deer, but we have also gathered elk and moose through the years. If road kill is not available, we feed domestic stock such as goats, sheep, chickens, cattle, and horse. The smaller animals are often purchased, where the cattle and horses are only accepted after they either die from natural causes or are 2. Can wolves in a zoo scheduled to be euthanized by their owners due be released into the wild ? to a terminal condition. We also rely upon free Unfortunately, nearly eve ry wolf born in captivity butcher scraps donated from our local butcher mu st remain in captivity for remainder of their life. Th the e reason is that wolves im shop, Marshall Meats, for many feeds. print on the animals surrou ing them ver y early in life nd(beginning at 10 days old ). In captivity, this is typ humans therefore the wo ica lly lves become more or less socialized to humans. A wolf to human socializatio proper n is ver y intensive and las ts for the first year of life even if the wolf does not , but move through this proces s they will view humans ently than wild wolves. differTherefore, if released fro m captivity these wolves not fear humans and als would o not be able to hunt ind ependently because they upon humans for food ear relied ly in life. There are except ions to this situation, suc Mexican or Red Wolves tha h as t are intentionally raised in captivity to be released the wild. These wolves are into managed in a ver y strict protocol under the guida experienced wolf biologists nce of , and virtua lly have no con tact with any humans. Ev with this strict managem en ent, not every released wo lf is successful in the wild may need to be recapture and d or the y perish soon after releas e 18 e. e pag Se


SLq Fall 2009

Ask the Biologist acks th and Owyhee P o to w a S e th o D 3. C howl together? oved onto the W ER

ck was m n the Ow yhee Pa s. Piyip and Yes, they do. W he e first few month th r fo t ie qu ry ve d during this time site, they remaine howling routine al rm no r ei th d Piyip began a Motok i continue Then, one night t). gh ni a es uqin joined, (usually severa l tim ed in, then Himtu in jo y kl ic qu i ok orus a minchorus howl, Mot t joined in the ch xa oo iy M d an yx e howls and and finally X ay xa inely both initiat ut ro s ck pa th bo . The most ute later. Now, by the other pack d te ar st as w at wl together join in a howl th g is that they ho lin w ho r ei th of ven wolves fascinating part on most nights se So s. ck pa al riv that echoes as one pack, not n with a strength iso un in ng gi can be heard sin inchester area. throughout the W

5. When are the wol throughout the day? ves most active

Technica lly, wolves are considered crepu scular in activity, wh means on average th ich ey are most active du ring the twilights of day, dawn and dusk the . We see this behavio r among both pack s, but their activity lev els also vary accordin g to the season. In th Fa ll, wolves tend to e be more active at ni ght to avoid the inten heat of the day. Co se ntrary, in the winter wolves tend to be m active during the da ore y, then bed down for th e intense cold nights. These are averages of course, so it is not un usua l to see one or more members of th e pack moving abou t in the mid-afternoo of a hot Fa ll day. Ca n ptive wolves do sleep a lot because they do not need to seek out food or enforce their territor y boundary lik wild wolves must, so e overa ll captive wolve s are probably more sporadic in their activ ity patterns.

Receive this Limited Edition Print,

“Sawtooth Pack Reflections� or the Scott Doing art print with any gift over $100!

4. What is the favorite food of the packs?

show much preferWell, the Ow yhee Pack really does not ectful facility they ence, and since they were raised in a negl le nutritious food. are probably happy just to receive amp bited some preferThe Saw tooth Pack, however, has exhi get excited when fed ences through the years. They really tetail or mule deer. elk, but they also seem to enjoy whi when fed chickens. The pack also becomes quite excited n they certainly do On the other hand, the pack has show do not feed it. not prefer bear meat, so we typically

Limited to the first 100 donations. or fill out the form on Page 18.

Fall 2009 SLq


Gray Wolves’ Eulogy

By WERC Staff

Will Our Generation Write the Gray Wolves’

Eulogy? In the past 500 years, humans have been witnesses to the near and virtual destruction of thousands of species on this planet. In the larger scheme of things and in comparison to scientist’s best estimate of the number of species in creation, perhaps it’s not such an issue. After all, we estimate that there have been between 3 million to as many as 100 million species in existence from the beginning of time.


SLq Fall 2009

Gray Wolves’ Eulogy Who’s going to miss a few?

Taxonomists are biologists with a specialty in identifying and classifying life on the planet. These scientists have named approximately 1.7 million species so far. Each year, 13,000 more species are added to the list of known organisms. While scientists continue to identify exciting new finds, most of the world´s mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and flowering plants are named. It’s important to understand that there are fewer than 200 scientists working on these numbers that account for nearly a third of the identification and naming of species. Once established, the results of taxonomists includes an estimate of species populations and in certain instances, a time-line of mortality for the species can be developed.

Endangered Species Act For over three decades, the Endangered Species Act has served as America’s safety net for wildlife. It has saved hundreds of species from extinction, put hundreds more on the road to recovery and safeguarded the habitats upon which they depend. The purpose

of the Endangered Species Act is simple: to prevent America’s native fish, plants and wildlife from going extinct. To date, the Endangered Species Act has been nearly 100 percent successful in achieving this goal but not without overt opposition. The Endangered Species Act, which President Nixon signed into law in December 1973, was not the first of its kind. Congress had enacted two similar laws, one in 1966 and another in 1969, but neither did much more than create lists of vanishing wildlife. The 1973 law put real teeth into protecting species likely to become extinct soon. In effect, it sought to make the extinction of any species from human activities illegal. The ESA seeks to protect the habitat of listed species, by funding state endangered species work, and by creating a system for assessing the damage that proposed projects might do to listed species, the law spells out reasonable programs for protecting America’s most jeopardized animals and plants. Examples of the ESA’s success abound in measurable outcomes. For example, as many as 100,000 bald eagles soared over the lower 48 states before Columbus reached the Americas. By 19 63 , hu nt i n g , habitat loss and

The list of species that have been rescued from the brink of destruction by enacting the ESA include: Aleutian Canada goose American alligator Bald eagle Black-footed ferret California condor Chinook salmon Desert tortoise Devils Hole pupfish Florida manatee Florida panther Freshwater mussels Gray bat Gray wolf of the Great Lakes Green sea turtle Grizzly bear Karner blue butterfly Key deer Lynx in the Southern Rockies Masked bobwhite quail Mauna Kea silversword Peregrine falcon Pima pineapple cactus Pine Hill cactus Piping plover Red-cockaded woodpecker Robbins’ cinquefoil Seabeach amaranth Shortnose sturgeon Utah prairie dog Whooping crane

Fall 2009 SLq


Gray Wolves’ Eulogy pesticide contamination had cut the species to just 417 nesting pairs in the continental United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), under the guidance of the ESA, initiated captive-breeding programs and habitat protection. The 1972 DDT ban also helped. The bird now numbers nearly 6,500 pairs in the Lower 48 and may be delisted soon. Cougars once ranged in the thousands across the eastern United States, but the Florida panther is the only cougar subspecies that still survives east of the Mississippi. Habitat loss and uncontrolled hunting reduced the Florida Panther to only about 35 animals by the 1980s. Protection of some vital habitat has raised the panther population to more than 80 animals in the last decade, but habitat loss remains a persistent and growing threat.

Why is it important to advocate for Endangered Species? Extinctions are irreversible changes in global biodiversity - therefore, we are very concerned about measuring them accurately. Surveys describing the numbers and patterns of recent extinctions help scientists better understand the processes that cause these events. These surveys are also used by conservation biologists and policy makers to provide measurements of negative impacts on biodiversity.

The problem is that it is difficult to know when the continued absence of a species means that it is extinct. The problem may seem uncomplicated: a species is either still around, or it is not -- what is there to disagree about? Unfortunately, it is not so simple. A species that has not been collected or seen for a long time may be extinct, or N e a r l y 2 . 25 it may simply have ple m a is re e th mi l lion gray escaped detection. ... g n ti a c o v d a t bats inhabited It is difficult, if evidence tha e th is s ie limestone caverns not impossible, for any spec l a c ti c ra in the southern to prove that p nsible and o p s re and midwestern the absence of at should objective th United States. The a species (in ued. rs u p e b growing number recent times) is of human activity equivalent to its and development extinction. The best approach is to near the caves cut bat numbers to compile all available evidence that under 130,000 by 1976 when the a species is absent, and then decide species was listed. Because caves when the weight of that evidence is and forests became protected under sufficient to assume that extinction the Endangered Species Act, the has occurred. bat population has rebounded to an estimated 1.5 million animals.


SLq Fall 2009

Why is it important to advocate for gray wolves as endangered? One of the most obvious reasons that gray wolves should be advocated for is that the science rarely seems to translate into digestible text for the masses. There is no shortage of emotional outcries related to protecting wolves but there is little balance when it comes to presenting the tangible and practical. In general, there is ample evidence that advocating for any species is the responsible and practical objective that should be pursued. Without the impassioned appeals, the subject of species conservation would probably be drowned out by the political clamor. Even with

Gray Wolves’ Article Eulogy Author name, info...

S ee p

age 1 8

the discussion, however, there exists a dialog between federal and state agencies, between those agencies and the courts and between the courts and those nonprofit organization advocacy groups who act as the watchdogs in the process. The question remains, however, who is communicating with the public? The answer is news agencies. And without commentary on the integrity of the news media, the result begs the questions of why, for example, in progressive states like Oregon or Washington, is the conversation so heavily weighted toward destruction of the species? Commentary would suggest that blood sells. Commentary would imply that the news media is not reading the countless publications expounding the simple science that the results of the absence of keystone predators are devastating to the survival of other species--including vegetation, animal, and human.

Top: The presences of healthy wolf populations promotes healthier Elk populations, who have become complacent over the years due to lack of natural top predator predation.

All evidence suggests that a healthy population of predators must exist in the wild to maintain an already

Bottom: In a healthy ecosystem, wolves play an irreplaceable regulatory role in ways man can never achieve.

Fall 2009 SLq


Gray Wolves’ Eulogy

To put depredation in perspective, in 1986 the wolf population was at about 1,300–1,400, there were an estimated 232,000 cattle and 16,000 sheep in Minnesota’s wolf range. During that year 26 cattle, about 0.01% of the cattle available, and 13 sheep, around 0.08% of the sheep available, were verified as being killed by wolves.

Editorial Comment:

These statistical facts are evidence that simple measures have profound results. WERC advocates and partners with organizations that promote non-lethal methods of preventing predation on livestock. Domesticated dogs are the most obvious and impactful employment of these methods, reducing losses profoundly.

Similarly, in 1996 an estimated 68,000 households owned dogs in wolf range and only 10, approximately 0.00015% of the households, experienced wolf depredation. – Wolf Depredation, International Wolf Center, Teaching the World about Wolves

and increasingly fragile balance. There is “increasing evidence that the absence of large carnivores can initiate cascading perturbations through the trophic webs.” (Soulé and Terborgh, 1999:). In the past ten years, field studies supporting this conclusion have appeared in leading journals and been reported by the National Research Council. Below are recorded examples of the tropic cascading effect: n Large herbivores, such as elk or deer, increased in number and foraging behavior changed significantly. n These animals over-browsed preferred plants, especially deciduous trees and shrubs like cottonwood, aspen, willow, and 10 SLq Fall 2009

oaks, and spent more time in riparian areas. n As a consequence, “recruitment” of cottonwood and aspen (i.e., the growth of seedling/sprouts into tall saplings and trees) was drastically reduced, and uncommon plants became rare or were disappeared completely. n Long-term loss of streamside vegetation caused major changes in channel morphology and floodplain function. n L os s of ber r y-produci ng shrubs, and young aspens and cottonwoods, led to changes in the diversity and abundance – and sometimes the outright loss – of other species, including beaver, amphibians, and songbirds.

The disappearance of top predators triggered an explosion of smaller “mesopredators,” such as coyotes, which led to further cascading effects. Even before the recent flurry of field studies documenting trophic cascades, scientists had identified the “crucial and irreplaceable regulatory

Opposite Left: Since the turn of the century, Tiger numbers have been reduced by up to 95 percent. Opposite Right Top: Gray bat populations have rebounded thanks to measures protecting caves and forests under the ESA. Opposite Right Bottom: Hunting, habitat loss, and pesticide contamination almost caused Bald Eagles to disappear from the lower 48.

Gray Wolves’ Eulogy

role” of top predators and their “place in ecosystem management, restoration and conservation.” Their absence, warned Soulé and Terborgh (1999: 58), “appears to lead inexorably to ecosystem simplification accompanied by a rush of extinctions. Therefore, efforts to conserve North American biodiversity. . . will have to place a high priority on reestablishing top predators wherever they have been locally extirpated.”

the “ecology of fear.” (Ripple and Beschta, 2005: 620; Brown et al. 1999).

Science offers few other tools for restoring these ecosystems. Human hunters can’t substitute for wolves or cougars in controlling elk or deer populations and behavior. Periodic culling or hunting seasons simply do not “replicate the persistent predation risk effects associated with wolves”; what scientists have called

For these reasons, Ripple and Beschta recommend that “restoration goals should focus on the recovery of natural processes.” Active measures, including reintroducing lost keystone species, reestablishing historical ungulate migration routes, and ending domestic livestock grazing, can promote “passive restoration of other ecosystem

“For nearly three-quarters of a century, elk grew complacent after their main predator was removed from the scene.” Now, “elk must behave differently in the presence of wolves.” (Heidi Ridgley, Rocky Road Ahead for Wolves?, Defenders magazine, Spring 2008)

Fall 2009 SLq


Other Notable Extinctions in Human History Compliments of FactsAboutAnimals.Net

Steller’s Sea Cow was also know defenseless beast. It went into e 1768. This creature’s natural ha Asiatic coast of the Bering Sea. because it was discovered by a n Stellar, in 1741. He was traveling Bering, a renowned explorer. The large weighing upto three tons. T almost like a seal, it had two for stout, as well as tail that was wh

The Tyrannosaurus Rex went extinct 65 million years ago. It was one of the largest animals. It measured up to 43.3 feet in length and 16.6 feet in height. It weighed approximately 7 tons.

The Tasmanian Tiger went into extinct in the year 1936. This animal is regarded to be the largest carnivorous marsupial in modern day and age. It was a native wildlife animal of Australia and New Guinea.

Aurochs was a large-sized cattlespecies. It is recorded to have gone into extinction in 1627. It is said that this cattle evolved from India, migrating to the MiddleEast, reaching Europe. S ee p

12 SLq Fall 2009

8 age 1

Okay...we know that T-Rex went extinct about 65 million years ago, but many of us like to think that humans ran from this creature. While humans didn’t cause the extinction of Rex, this beast is one of the best examples of an extinct creature.

The Qua zebra-ha went int 1883. T famous animal h on the f would fa the midd hindqua It was th that led was on 1 the last Artis Ma

wn as the extinction in abitat was on the It got its name naturalist, Georg g with Vitus e animal was Though it looked relimbs that were hale-like.

Gray Wolves’ Eulogy Irish Deer is the largest deer to have ever existed. It went into extinction approximately 7,700 years ago. It was a native animal of Eurasia, grazing the land stretching from Ireland to east of Lake Baikal. It was large sized, with extra large antlers measuring upto 3.65 meters (12 feet from tipto-tip). The antlers weighed about 90 pounds.

agga, which was halfalf-horse animal species to extinction in the year This is was one of the most animals of Africa. This had the zebra stripes only front part of the body, which ade and become wider in dle of the body, and the arter was brown (no stripes). he cruel animal activities d this animal to extinction. It 12th August 12, 1883, that of the Quaggas died at the agistra Zoo (Amsterdam).

The Caspian Tiger was the third largest tiger species. The last of this tiger was seen in 1970, after which it has been declared amongst the extinct animal species. This tiger was found on the lands of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Caucasus, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Fall 2009 SLq


Gray Wolves’ Eulogy

outreach. In the past, the battle for protections has included photos of wolf pups with targets drawn on them, portrayals of hunters and sportsmen as opposition, and ranchers defined as enemies of functional wilderness. It is no wonder that opponents of wolf recovery are as determined as they are because organizations standing for advocacy have not taken time to adequately inform them of the benefits of different ideas, based on the science of healthy ecosystems.

processes and components.” (Ripple and Beschta, 2004: 765)

What Can Be Done? Without hesitation, the most successful role that advocacy groups and their supporters can do is to support the ongoing work of their outreach. If you think of the advocacy community as a body, you can clearly see the role of each organization as critical to the health and performance of the whole. There is a clear need for litigation and the vigilant watchdog oversight. Without these organizations keeping the federal and state government in check, policy would run amok and the 200 year struggle of poor management of the greay wolf species that lead it to the brink of extinction. 14 SLq Fall 2009

search The Wolf Education & Re bilize mo Center’s mission is to viding pro the public to action by treach ou g informative and engagin and s cie about the gray wolf spe hy alt he its immense value to . ecosystems p the Get involved today to sto s and cie spe er oth an destruction of of nature. the continued imbalance t More information abou at nd fou be n gray wolves ca rg. r.o www.WolfCente

There is also a distinct place at the table for research for a better understanding of wolves and their critical place in healthy ecosystems. Without this research, the groups who advocate in the courts would be without legs to stand on. The most effective result of their work, however, is educational

It is through the vigilant integration of this science and accountability into our discussions and classrooms, teaching about the danger that exists for all species. Then and then alone will the defender’s position be translated into the language of action and true change. The concept of preaching to the choir is unacceptable. As nonprofit and educational outreach groups teach the public about healthy ecosystems, the dialog will eventually catch up to the science. As groups teach about the role and place of wolves in relation to a healthier biodiversity and that positive impact on the human species, a consciousness can shift to mainstream the science. But the discussion has to be spoken in an understandable language with a clear path to benefits for all. Without this level of understanding being reached, it is our generation or at best, our children’s, who will write the eulogy for the gray wolf.

Gray Wolves’ Eulogy Sources: Oregon State University, College of Forestry, Trophic Cascade Program Soulé, Michael E. and Terborgh, John. Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Notice of Interagency Cooperative Policy Regarding the Role of State Agencies in Endangered Species Act Activities, 59 Federal Register 34274, July 1, 1994. Ripple, William J. and Beschta, Robert L. Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems? BioScience Vo.l 54 No. 8, August 2004: 755-766. Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Hardwood tree decline following large carnivore loss on the Great Plains, USA. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 5, 2007: 241246. The Aurochs by Heinrich Harder (18581935), probably created in 1920. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the European Union, Canada, the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years.


Remembering Andie O. Patty, who had an entire room dedicated to wolves in her home.

Sites to get perspective on extinct species: 2007/09/23/extinct-mammals/

Thank you for your love of wolves. extinct_mammals

--The Kid, Jayme Burch, Oregon

S ee p

8 age 1


Mom, Remember writing that term paper with me about how wonderful wolves are? It’s not as fun as giving. We Love You, Michael, Stacy, Payton and Liam

Fall 2009 SLq


Wolf Behavior 101

by Jeremy Heft

S ee p

Lesson 13: The Jaw Punch


he discussion of this installment’s behavior was inspired by Himtuuqin, who routinely performs a jaw punch whenever feeding. A jaw punch occurs when a wolf pushes on a suspected food item with their nose prior to the initial bite of feeding. Immediately after a jaw punch is performed, the participating wolf jumps back away from the food item. Essentially a misnomer because the nose usually strikes the object rather than the jaw, the push is meant to confirm the food item

16 SLq Fall 2009

is dead prior to consuming. Contrary to some large cats and bears, wolves typically kill their prey prior to beginning to eat the animal. A jaw punch likely evolved to ensure the downed prey animal was truly dead and not faking death or still able to defend itself. All prey animals will fight when their life is in jeopardy and the kick of a large prey animal can severely injure or even kill a wolf. So a jaw punch would solicit a reaction from the injured prey and allow the wolves to either wait for the prey to perish or inflict further damage to speed death. This behavior increases the safety of wolves during the very dangerous occupation of living

age 1 8

through hunting and killing large prey. A jaw punch may also occur when a wolf investigates a novel item. Wolves are very curious and will approach new objects in their environment. After a thorough smelling and distant visual exam of the new item, investigating wolves may eventually approach the item and perform a jaw punch. Then if the item does not move an investigative bite of the item could be next. Once the item is identified as an inanimate object, the investigating wolves will probably urinate on it to claim it as part of their territory.

Visitor’s Center UPDATE End of Another Summer at WERC Once again, it is the time to reflect on the passing of anther summer season at the Visitor Center here at WERC. Since 1997, WERC has been open to the public for visitation during the summer months. Although the number of visitors when compared to 1997 has decreased in 2009, we actually increased our visitation this year by 25 over last year. It seemed that local visitors made up the largest number although we did have visitors from several countries. The biggest change came from off-site education during the summer. We provided education for 830 individuals compared to 432 last year. The chance to see and learn about wolves is a bit easier now with the Owyhee pack and their five pack members. Although not as socialized to humans as the Sawtooth pack is, the Owyhee pack is just as curious to those that visit WERC. Many of our visitors had their first sighting of them from the parking lot as they looked across the meadow into the 2 acre enclosure. For many, it was the beginning of a great visit. Speaking about the Owyhee pack, we now have formal names to identify them vice their pervious designators. On July 25th at the Summer Celebration, members of the Owyhee pack were re-introduced as Himtuuqin’ (Bearded One), MiyooXat (Wise Giant), XayXayx (White Watcher), Kuckuc (Little Gray Girl), and Leq’eyleq’ey (Gentle Water). These names are Nezperce and sound better than Wolf A, B, etc. Late July saw WERC hosting the Summer Celebration. Those that were able to join

us enjoyed an Owl demonstration by Linda Devlis from Snowden and a talk about Nezperce history by Bernie Stewart. Jeremy Heft was also honored for his years of service as the pack biologist for WERC. A bar-b-que and general visiting around a bon-fire rounded out the fantastic day. Mid-August found three volunteers, Bud and Samm Lancaster and Jonas Cserna spending several days’ on-site spreading donated wood chips on several of our trails. Like many of our supporters, Bud and Samm came up to help WERC in any way they could. Thank you again Bud, Samm, and Jonas for all of your hard work. As Fall is upon us, local schools and

colleges are scheduling their annual visits. A couple of them are the University of Idaho Environmental Science 102 classes with approximately 175 students, Walla Walla Community College with about 24, and Jennifer Junior High School plans about 100 7th graders. We know that education is the key to a successful wolf re-introduction and WERC is privileged to have the opportunity to be able to provide balanced and factual information to those who visit us. If you didn’t get a chance to get to Winchester, Idaho and WERC this year, this may be the time to plan a visit for next year. We look forward to seeing you soon.


1/4 Page AD for OBDK

Owl Brand Discovery Kits recognizes the importance of teaching prey predator relationships.

We are proud to support the efforts of WERC and will include brochures in every science lab between now and the end of 2009 including WERC’s Pack Owyhee promotion in our instruction manuals. In addition, Owl Brand family of businesses will market Pack Owyhee to our teachers to promote wolf adoption and education.

Learn how you can make science hand-on and exciting at Serving K-12 educators, camps, and teachers since 1996.

www.obdk .c om


Author name, info...

Wolf Center Adoption Program It costs nearly $60,000 per year to care for 7 wolves, including their health and upkeep, food that is not donated, and the maintenance of the Wolf Camp. The Wolf Center’s ability to carry out this function depends on your continued support. If you haven’t considered it, please adopt. And maybe consider giving an adoption to someone else so they can learn about this valuable program. Please help preserve the legacy of the Sawtooth Pack by helping us out today.

ADOPTION AND GIVING OPPORTUNITIES Owyhee Pack: n Himtuuqin’ (Bearded One). $25 n XayXayx (White Watcher). . $25 n MiyooXat (Wise Giant). . . . $25

n Kuckuc (Little Gray Girl) . . $25 n Leq’ey leq’ey (Gentle Water). $25

Sawtooth Pack:

Wolf Artwork: Gifts over $100

n Motoki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25 n Piyip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25

Owyhee Pack

Wolf A Himtuuqin’

Sex: Male Age: 5-6 years

Owyhee Pack Wolf B Kuckuc

Sex: Female Age: 4-5 years

Owyhee Pack Wolf C XayXayx

n Scott Doing – Pencil sketch n Sawtooth Tribute Poster

Sex: Female Age: 4-5 years

Pack Owyhee: Classroom Membership

Owyhee Pack

n Membership includes: Wolf Center Classroom Poster, ClassPack Photos of the Owyhee Pack, Classport to Wolves, Wolves: IMAX DVD, Quarterly Wolf Behavior Updates. . . . . . . $150/yr

Sex: Female Age: 4-5 years

n n n n

Adopt Both Packs & Become a Wolf Pack Member. . . . . . . . . . . $200/yr Wolf Advocate Membership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $225/yr Friends of the Sawtooth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $300/yr Sawtooth Legacy Member. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1000/yr

n Sawtooth Legacy Quarterly subscription now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25/yr n I am adding a gift of $______________ to help the Wolf Center reach more people for Wolf Recovery. n Please mail the Adoption or Gift Adoption Packet to the following person, business, or school: Member Number_______________________________________________ Name _ ______________________________________________________ School/Business________________________________________________ City_________________________________ State_ ____ Zip____________ Email________________________________ Phone (____)______________ Please mail completed form with check or money order to: WERC, P.O. Box 12604, Portland, OR 97212 or Visit:, click on the “Meet Our Wolves” menu, and choose “Adopt A Wolf” 18 SLq Fall 2009

Wolf D Leq’eyleq’ey

Owyhee Pack Wolf E MiyooXat

Sex: Male Age: 5-6 years

Sawtooth Pack Motoki

Sex: Female Age: 13

Sawtooth Pack Piyip

Sex: Male Age: 13

News and Current Events

Book Review Where the Wild Things Were Life, Death, and Ecological Wreckage in a Land of Vanishing Predators By William Stolzenburg Publisher: Bloomsbury It wasn’t so long ago that wolves and great cats, monstrous fish and flying raptors ruled the peak of nature’s food pyramid. Not so anymore. All but exterminated, these predators of the not-too-distant past have been reduced to minor players of the modern era. MEMORIAL

The Sawtooth Pack and its family join Fe’ Ironeyes in remembering Charlie Ironeyes and his passion for wolves.

‘So what?’ asks wildlife journalist Will Stolzenburg, who follows in the wake of nature’s topmost carnivores, and finds in their absence a world of chaos. As the great predators go missing, an emerging cadre of concerned scientists is uncovering trouble in the biosphere at large. From obscure jungles of Venezuela to stormy North Pacific coasts, hallowed vistas of Yellowstone to the back yards of suburban America, Stolzenburg traverses aberrant empires of pest and plague, a new world order of murderous deer and rogue raccoons, pathological monkeys and exploding urchins. Here is a startling tour through dying forests and barren seascapes, through nightmarish landscapes starving for those missing masters of the hunt. For anyone who has seldom given thought to the meat-eating beasts so recently lacking from the web of life, here is a world of reason to think again.

GoodSearch to date continues to help WERC identify smaller pieces of our financial puzzle. Thanks to a handful of searchers, their search engine has generated the following results. You can magnify our results by installing their toolbar, searching and shopping from Goodsearch. The GoodSearch Toolbar works with your browser to ensure that your favorite cause earns money every time you shop and search - even if you skip coming to GoodShop or GoodSearch first! Search the web, find coupons, track donation earnings, and more!

Your example lives on in the lives of those who knew you.



$ Raised from Searches

$ Raised from Shopping

Total (Estimated)

Total: Year-to-Date Total: Since Inception

4042 8701

$40.42 $99.02

$37.48 $37.76

$77.90 $136.78

Reward yourself. The Wolf Education & Research Center Platinum Plus® Mastercard® Credit Card With Wolrd Points® Rewards. Show your true colors! The Wolrd Points ® rewards programs lets your choose from among great rewards like cash, travel, brand-name merchandise and gift cards for top retailers, and supports key The Wolf Education & Research Center initiatives each time you use it to make a purchase.

Don’t wait. Call toll-free 1.866.438.6262 You can also visit Use Priority Code UAA4DM.

News and Current Events

Wolf Center on Facebook & Twitter

You can follow the daily and weekly happenings of each wolf by following them on Facebook! Learn pithy wolf behaviors and insider information about the Wolf Education & Research Center’s Owyhee and Sawtooth Packs.  Follow them today by logging into Facebook and adding them as your friend.  Follow the wolves on Facebook by searching for: Sawtooth Pack Owyhee Pack Keep up with the latest news releases by following WERC on Twitter.  When you add us as your contact, the latest pressing news will arrive directly to your inbox or phone.

Editorial Comment: WERC is not responsible for your

dog or pets attempting to type on your computer keyboard at the suggestion that the Owyhee and Sawtooth submit Facebook updates. While they are supremely observant and intelligent, they still do not type.  We’ll be sure to Twitter you the instant they do, however.

20 SLq Fall 2009

The Kidwings website was designed to teach young and old about the wonders of birds. The most exciting part of the site is the Virtual Owl Pellet Dissection. Many interactive activities await you as you explore the wonders of interactive activities that teach children about prey and predator relationships related to birds. The Wolf Education & Research Center and our resident horned owl are proud to acknowledge Kidwings’s contribution to conservation. Learn more by visiting and do the virtual dissection!

Wolf Center Promoting Habitat Conservation The Wolf Center promotes species conservation, through partnering with individuals and businesses carrying out education & habitat development. Marc Trueb of Old Farm Sales in Oregon City, Oregon promotes the habitats of barn owls by constructing and installing nesting boxes throughout the region and is an approved conservation partner of the Wolf Center. Since barn owls perform a natural form of pest control and remove 1000’s of pests and rodents from farms each year, environment friendly methods are ideal and affordable. For more information on how to promote barn owls in your area, contact Marc Trueb at or by phone at 503-715-6225. “We support Wolf Recovery!” We feature Pretty Punch & Bumble Bee Embroidery products. Also handmade jewelry, unique beaded items, beaded kits and a line of lampwork beads!

by Alex Riyard

Wolf Camp Journal Entry By Alex Riyard, WERC Summer Intern

I came to wolf camp unknowing of what the next three months would hold for me. I had left the busy and often chaotic atmosphere of the University of Delaware to head west to spend my summer on 300 acres of remote Nez Perce Tribal land. As you can imagine the adjustment to a slower paced lifestyle, and no running water or electricity took some getting used to, yet as I sit on the deck of my tent writing this 2 months later, I can honestly say I have embraced the quietness and pure beauty that surrounds me. To fall asleep to the sounds the packs howling is incredible. Under the guidance of Jeremy, I was introduced to the Owyhee pack and Piyip and Motoki; seven unique wolves, each with their own personalities. Through enclosure walks and after hour visits I began to form bonds. Through my interaction and observation, I have gained a deep respect for these sophisticated and powerful beings. I have really taken to the Owyhee pack. In a way I believe we can relate a lot to each other. Human-wolf interaction is still a new concept for both of us. Prior to this internship I have never worked with wolves, and the Owyhee pack did not have socialized human contact prior to coming to WERC April 2008. This unique situation has allowed me to learn a tremendous amount of information on wolf behavior and management, and I hope my time put in with them will be a benefit to their interaction with future handlers. I will always remember Himtuuqin, the Owyhee pack alpha-male, as my first wolf friend. Himtuuqin was the first wolf to greet me on a solo enclosure walk, and now regularly greets me at the fence. It’s a wild and gratifying feeling when he sniffs my hands, curiously looking me from head to toe with his yellow eyes. Our bond has grown throughout my time here, and I could not imagine where I would be if it wasn’t for him. I learned to be patient, move more slowly, and take notice to the small details. I have been able to apply lessons learned

Wolf Camp Journal Entry

from Himtuuqin in my interaction with the other wolves. My experience with XayXayx, the alpha-female of the Owyhee pack, has been fascinating. XayXayx is quite a character, with a rambunctious and curious personality. In my first weeks here, I would notice her watching me from a distance as I would make my way through the fences. Her interest and curiosity struck me from the very beginning, yet I knew I was in for a challenge due to the fact that XayXayx has not greeted a handler in her short time here. I learned to be very patient with XayXayx, often remaining in the same spot for 2030 minutes in an effort to allow her to feel more comfortable with my presence. I noticed a pattern in her interaction. She would approach and stop within ten feet of me, sniffing and staring in my direction, and then all of sudden quickly trot away. I learned if I stayed in the same spot after she trotted away, she would return a few minutes later and repeat this process. I continued evening visits, remaining patient and over time saw progress with XayXayx. Although she has not sniffed my hands to greet me, XayXayx will now approach me within 2 feet of the fence. When leaving my position, she will go directly to the place I was just at, sniffing the fence for my scent, and will often walk with me for the remainder of the enclosure trailing a few feet back. To watch our relationship progress has been amazing, and something I hold very special to me. It’s difficult to sum up my summer in only a few paragraphs. I have learned and experienced so much, been pushed to my limits, challenged mentally and physically, and have questioned myself repeatedly, yet one this has been a constant for me: The opportunity to work with wolves is what brought me here, and is what has kept me here. Whatever hardships I faced, the wolves made it worth it. Interning at WERC has been an unforgettable experience that will remain with me forever. Thank you Jeremy, Randy, and Sarah for you guidance, support, and friendship. Best of luck to my seven wolf friends, and the WERC. Thank you

Fall 2009 SLq


Wolf Camp Journal Entry

by Olivia Hanson

Wolf Camp Journal Entry

By Olivia Hanson, WERC Summer Intern Every day at camp offers a new experience. Here we get to live with wildlife, seeing everything, not just the creepy crawly or the cute and cuddly, but the whole spectrum of life. At 5:30 a.m. I am awakened by Chickarees tap dancing on the roof of my tent. If I move in response they’re likely to give a mini jackhammer-like alarm call. Walking to the visitor center in the morning brings a wide array of critters. Grasshoppers rise out of the dust at my feet clicking their wings. The invasive Canadian Thistle that grows on the roadside swarms with orange butterflies in the sunlight. Then there are the piles of ground squirrel feces that must be swept from the visitor center entrance every morning. All of this wildlife provides a fitting backdrop for the realities of camp life.

Fall 20092009 22 SLq Summer

Wolves eat meat and you know its going to be a good day when you lift a dead goat and it releases a massive blood clot onto your leg. Noxious weed control is a good land management practice that helps to restore and ecosystem, but controlling weeds on 300 acres of land with four people is next to impossible. Hours of sweating in the sun cussing at thistle and Hound’s Tongue bears unsatisfying results. Educating visitors is a key responsibility of interns, and a job I very much enjoy; unfortunately a four hour shift at the visitor center can end in no visitors and a sunburn. The day ends, it was likely tiring and some times unfulfilling. I fix my dinner over a propane stove and eat quickly; often bed can’t come soon enough. Then, as the temperature drops, the wolves begin to howl. It is a sound almost more relaxing than a massage and it brings me back to reality. I am here for a reason, and the animals that I share a camp with make the events of the day well worth my time. And my time at camp is only too short.

Cut out this challenging 3-dimensional wolf puzzle. Parental Supervision Advised.

S ee p

age 1 8

You may find putting together this puzzle is as challeging as it is to change people’s feelings toward wolves. Persistance and patience may be the key to success. Good luck.





• With great care and your parents supervison, cut carefully around the outside of each piece on the black line with a “hobby knife”. As well, cut slits in the paper along the purple lines. Cut out the small “flap slits” on each flap. • Once, all has been cut out and slit, fold on each black line, including each tab and flap. • Begin assembling by folding each piece at the folds, and tucking in each tab in the corresponding flap slit. You may want to tape the tabs on the inside of each piece. • When each piece is assembled, insert the “muzzle” piece on to the “head” piece. Place the “head” on the “body” piece. Then, insert the “ears” and the “tail”.






a t fl

Your finished wolf puzzle should look like this when complete.

Fall 2009 SLq




WOLF EDUCATION & RESEARCH CENTER P.O. Box 12604 Portland, OR 97212

The Wolf Education & Research Center’s mission is to mobilize the public to action by providing informative and engaging outreach about the gray wolf species and its immense value to healthy ecosystems. Get involved today to stop the destruction of another species and the continued imbalance of nature.

Sawtooth Legacy Quarterly Fall 2009  

Fall 2009 issue