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Sizing UP the Future Sizing DOWN the SLQ FA LL – 2 010 Ask the Biologist (pg 3) A Tentative Future for Wolves (pg 8) Wolf Behavior 101 (pg 22) And much more...

Fall 2010

Table of Contents



1 Executive Director’s Letter 2 Ask the Biologist 6 Contact your Congressman 7 URGENT BULLETIN 8 Feature – A Tentative Future for Wolves 19 Adoptions 22 Wolf Behavior 101 26 Sizing Up the Future / Sizing Down the SLQ 27 Wolf Education 28 Other Ways to Help 29 Wolf Camp Journal 33 Pack Facts and Fun Follow WERC on Twitter & Facebook at

The Sawtooth Legacy is a publication of the Wolf Education & Research Center (WERC). The purpose of the magazine is to provide interesting and engaging information to children and adults about the gray wolf species that promotes a broader understanding of wolves, wolf recovery, their place in healthy ecosystems, and the state and federal policies that impact their survival.

Board of Directors

WERC Staff

Sharon Lander, California

Chris Anderson, Executive Director

Dennis Olson, Montana

Jeremy Heft, Wildlife Biologist

Danielle Hawthorne, Connecticut

Randy Stewart, Education &

Jayme Burch, Oregon

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Site Operations

ED Letter


Dear Friends of Wolf Recovery,

It seems... One agency fights hard to employ sound management practices... while another works... to undermine the progress...

As we head into another year end, it seems that once again, our country is embroiled in fierce political debates about the direction we should be going in areas of national defense, the economy, health care, and more. Among those items in the “more” column is the ongoing and divisive debate about wolves in North America. In the last year, advocates have fought hard to restore protections of the species and enjoyed an ever brief respite from the struggle when Judge Molloy affirmed our sound positions on protections. It was brief, however, as the special interest groups that oppose legitimate restoration of the species regrouped and improved their statewide campaigns to overturn Molloy’s ruling. At best, it seems that the Federal Government epitomizes the division that exists in the public. One agency fights hard to employ sound management practices and utilize the science available while another works at the state level to undermine the progress of the other. At the state level, the whims of politicians and their aspirations seem to take precedent over a sound management plan that truly protects the interest of all the parties involved, including ranchers, farmers, and outdoor enthusiasts. Instead, it seems that the advocacy community is continually recovering from the abundance of influence yielded by one group in particular, the recreational hunters. They are able to garnish huge sums of resources and until recently, that has translated into simply influencing politicians. Lately, however, it has overflowed into becoming a fast growing and very sophisticated opponent. Since I’ve been directing the efforts of the Wolf Education & Research Center, I’ve been cautious about writing derisively about this certain community. After all, I have many friends SL - FALL 2010 1


ED Letter

Wolves are ... the symbol of how we will handle America’s public lands

and family who find themselves in this community and quite frankly, my positions on this subject are not popular among my conservative friends. At this time, however, I sense that I must write about it. And possibly engage you in a new way to stop an injustice being carried out. If hunting were simply about a balanced competition for deer, elk, and other ungulates, it would be easy for me to be understanding of the positions of hunters. It’s not, however. It has become evident that these groups such as the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and others are about using their resources to influence the power grab in this country. With a promise of these resources, politicians simply extend the values of the highest bidders, regardless of the deficit of fact in their debate. Countless articles have been published, re-published, and ample research has been done to sustain our position that wolves are essential to restoring the last hundred years of our mismanagement of public lands in North America, many of which are posted regularly on our Facebook outreach page. Wolves are not alone---there are hundreds of species that fit this criteria, including mammals, plant species, and more. The work of the Wolf Education & Research Center is likewise essential to the education about this balance. Wolves are not only the centerpiece in our education about the environment, but they remain the symbol of how we will handle America’s public lands with respect to our future. WERC, with your help, has made a considerable difference. We can only continue to make an impact if you are willing to look at this work with a fresh new perspective and align yourself with groups like our own that have the history, the ability, and the vision to help the public see this struggle for what it is---if we can save the wolves, we save ourselves. Thank you for your continued and renewed support of WERC. Kind Regards, Chris Anderson, Executive Director Wolf Education & Research Center

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Ask the Biologist


By Jeremy Heft WERC’s Wildlife Biologist


meat? Can I feed my dog raw

d a typical y wonder if they can fee ma rs ne ow g do ve ssi Many progre um health. Since order to maintain optim wolf diet to their dog in atomically, it would tially the same canine an en ess are gs do d an s lve wo ional balance of t could benefit the nutrit die lf wo a nk thi to y be eas mercial dog d often filler-laden) com (an lar pu po the of d dogs, instea tioning a dog from rit to this; however transi foods. There is some me the complication in sed food to raw meat is ces pro of t die al usu ir the ry several days, ; wolves only eat once eve nd mi in ep Ke e. ng cha t the die lves obtain daily basis. Therefore, wo a on fed are gs do all y where nearl n slowly digest over and fat all at once, and the a large amount of protein t feeds to create a ulated by small, consisten reg are gs Do e. tim r ge lon a basis may prove at fed to a dog on a daily me w Ra . sm oli tab me ier stead in diarrhea r fat, which would result d/o an n tei pro of d oa erl to be an ov y experience these is is why your dog ma or possibly vomiting. Th Since the transition meat scraps some times. symptoms after a treat of st to start a raw not easy, it is probably be is d foo g do off at me to raw ns daily or ing only ver y small portio vid pro y, pp pu a as g do meat diet remain on this diet lly. Then the dog should larger portions sporadica stances change for be dif ficult as life circum permanently, which may at diet may work reasons, although a raw me se the r Fo g. do the d an you ybe it would the most practical. So, ma be t no y ma it gs, do for in theory a be best to compromise to yet al, tur healthier, more na d. somewhat processed foo

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Ask the Biologist


see the Sawtooth What time is the best to and Owyhee Packs?

on the season. pack members depends the see to y da of e tim st The be tive wolves see one or all of the cap to y nit rtu po op st be Generally, the day. In the summer, st active throughout the is when they are the mo y, therefore the early during the heat of the da t res lly ica typ s lve wo the In the colder are the opportune times. g nin eve ly ear d an ng morni afternoon, more active during the be to d ten cks pa months, the lves then curl up to at their warmest. The wo when temperatures are erall, wolves are ough the cold nights. Ov thr rm wa p kee d an ep sle twilights of the are most active during the y the ing an me , lar scu crepu es of the day to see d dusk are the best tim day. Therefore, dawn an rs during these times arrange our guided tou wolves year round. We also g abilities. Precipitation to optimize our viewin d an t seeing the packs ou increases your chances of humans’ preference, about. Contrary to most ee Packs tend to the Sawtooth and Owyh and wet weather be most active in cooler sure to schedule for most of the year. Be and bring your your visit for such a day “guard hair� coat.


Why do wolves follow roads and trails when traveling? An essential component of survival in the wild is energy conservation. All animals must obtai n more energy than tha t which is lost in the process of gatherin g the energy. In other wo rds, a wolf must gather enough energy to sustain him through the next hunt in order to survive. Obviousl y, any method of conser ving energy benefits the individual and thus the species. One behavio r wolves use to save energy is to travel on op en surfaces, free of obsta cle s. Roads and trails are perfect for wolves to travel long distances wh ile exerting the least amount of energy. Wolve s are not the only specie s to use roads; many other large forest dwelle rs use them as well. This als o provides hunting opportunities to wolves, making roads even more po pular. Wolves also commonly mark their tra ils frequently to establish both territory and future navigation.

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Ask the Biologist



Do wolves e

at fish?

Historically, it was once bel ieved that w we now kno olves did no w wolves in t eat fish; ho many differe eat fish. Salm wever n t locations do on comprise in fa n ct ea ca rl y tc and Canada all known fish h and have docum taken, and m ented the hu an y salmon spaw st ates n ting of salmo n and becom n. When e exhausted rapids, wolves from jumpin move in. On g the British Co wolves com lumbia coast, monly prey upon salmon seals on occ and even so asion. Severa me l years ago, an caught preyi Idaho pack w ng upon som as e salmon in a st Idaho Fish an ock pond run d Game. Flad by ry was utilized prevented an and successf y further dep ully redations. Sa perhaps oth lmon, and er fish, are ju st th food inform e most rece ation determ nt ined on wolv we continue es. As studying wo lves in the possibly oth future er sources of energy will be found .


color Does wolf fur change due to season or age?

e, similar to humans. dually lighten through ag gra es do lf wo a of fur e Th muzzle and gray hairs increasing on the tice no en oft rs ne ow g canines Many do Just like us humans, most e. ag in se rea inc y the as head of dogs extent of graying ough the years. Also, the slowly become gray thr ll. The gray hairs tend similar to humans, as we ls, ua ivid ind hin wit ies var er area of wolves, muzzle, head, and should the on ted tra cen con to be well. This d throughout the body as rse pe dis lly ica rad spo but often are is becoming lighter in ualization that the wolf graying provides the vis g for a wolf. Early in mple of extensive grayin exa me pri a is ip Piy or. col years old, he is jet black coat, now at 14 id sol a ed ain int ma he his life the summer. even white on his belly in almost completely gray, mer months. When n-faded” during the sum “su es com be o als fur lf Wo by the sun’s rays, of each hair is lightened or col lly ua act the , urs this occ or. When r shade of the original col hte lig a ly on y, gra n tur t but does no the fur returns to its during Fall, the color of the sun lowers in the sky in November when a seems to darken slightly original shade, then even in order to build ected to the hair follicles dir is n tei pro of nt ou am large lf. the winter coat for the wo SL - FALL 2010 5


Contact Your Congressman

Stand up and be heard Advocac y


Having strong feelings about an issue is all fine and dandy, but that will do little good unless you follow up with actions. A positive step in having your voice heard is contacting your Congressman, your Representative or Organizations that advocate for change on the issues you care about. Here are some quick tips on how to get your message out. All federal officials have offices in their home districts as well as an office in Washington, DC. A face-to-face meeting would make the most impact in voicing your opinion, but if that is not feasible, a phone call, a letter, or an email will work. It’s important that the Congressman or staff member know that you are a constituent. All correspondence should contain your physical mailing address. Begin your letters with Dear Representative -LastName- or Dear Senator -LastName-.  Avoid boilerplate text. Communication has more impact if the words are yours, not those of some public affairs person assigned to generate a grassroots campaign. Use the prepared text as a guide only.  Be courteous, be brief (get to the point!), be specific. To the right are three web addresses for you to choose from to send your message or find physical addresses and phone numbers. Be persistent, and speak for those who can’t speak for themselves. SL - FALL 2010


Government websites: contact.shtml (Offers many links to elected officials, agencies, and topics) www.contactingthe (Choose your state from the interactive map and a list of Congressman is displayed) writerep/ (Choose your state, enter your zip code and click the contact my Representative button. You will be redirected to the Representatives website)

ED Letter


Change of Wolf Management in Idaho ​

In case you missed the latest news, Governor Otter on October 18th, 2010 “directed that Idaho Department of Fish and Game managers no longer perform statewide monitoring for wolves, conduct investigations into illegal killings, provide law enforcement when wolves are poached or participate in a program that responds to livestock depredations.” ​ The following day, Otter stated that although “he still believes that big game are Idaho’s livestock and that residents should be able to protect them like any livestock owner”, it is still illegal to shoot a wolf that is not violating the 10(J) rule; i.e. attacking domestic livestock, pets, etc. So, who is going to look out for these wolves in Idaho now that Idaho is not happy with U.S. District Judge Donald Molloy’s ruling on August 5, 2010 which placed wolves in Idaho and Montana back under federal protection? Don’t be the silent majority, contact your local, state, and federal

government representatives and demand equal justice for all animals. Contact information for your government representatives is within another article of this SLQ. See page 6 and voice your opinion today. SL - FALL 2010



A Tentative Future

A Tentative Future

for Wolves

By Chris Anderson

A Brief Overview of Wolf Recovery The Wolf Education & Research Center is a name that produces a variety of reactions ranging from excited nostalgia related to the early moments of wolf re-introduction and recovery, to the national political division that followed between ranchers and hunters and pretty much the rest of the population. Wolf recovery was made fashionable when Jim and Jamie Dutcher brought the Sawtooth Pack into our living rooms through their remarkably intimate videos, Wolves at our Door and Living with Wolves. At the same time, the public saw an increase in awareness as University biology programs and privately funded biologists, particularly in the Western United States, began studying the impact of re-introduction of the species following a virtual destruction of gray wolf populations in the West. Their data was finally reaching a point to draw some conclusions about the presence of wolves in the ecosystem. SL - FALL 2010 8

A Tentative Future

Over the past decade and a half, much of this research has produced some surprising and relevant information about the role of wolves throughout the West and its ecosystems. Observations in Yellowstone National Park include elk habits that have changed, resulting in improved stream bed vegetation following decades of over grazing. Returning with that vegetation are other native species such as beavers and songbirds. Coyote numbers have been reduced which resulted in lower pronghorn depredation. In fact, according to a 2008 Wildlife Conservation Society study, scientists have found a four-fold increase in the pronghorn fawn numbers. And those results can be carried over to a long list of other species of plant life, ungulates, and more as wolves begin to achieve their historic repopulation of their native lands. All of this in the face of constant opposition to their recovery. The reintroduction of wolves to US wilderness is required purely due to the management practices of the last century. For more than a hundred years, practices that have ranged from literal destruction of the species to attempts to determine and sustain questionable population targets have resulted in a cauldron of confusion about the science, a perpetuation of generations-old myths about wolf behavior, and divided outdoor enthusiasts, into camps of pro-recovery and anti-wolf. While there have been many advocates within the Federal and State services, at the end of the day, one arm of the government essentially cancels out the actions of the other. And the pendulum has swung in both directions. In the last twenty years, there have been fantastic strides in restoring some of the science to the issue, including studies in the last decade that have pointed out the results of an absence of wolves and a direct comparison to regions where wolves are allowed to live in more liberally managed ecosystems. One of the more renowned studies was published in 2004 titled “Wolves, elk, willows, and trophic cascades in the upper Gallatin Range of Southwestern Montana,


Research has produced some surprising and relevant information about the role of wolves throughout the West and its ecosystems.

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A Tentative Future

If we know that wolves are critical components of healthy ecosystems, why are they so militantly opposed?

SL - FALL 2010 10

USA” by William J. Ripple and Robert L. Beschta from the College of Forestry at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. That study produced evidence that wolves in fact play a critical role in healthy ecosystems, as discovered by the absence of them in previous decades following near extinction. Their study asserts “Although alternative mechanisms are discussed, changes in willow communities over time following wolf removal and their subsequent reintroduction were consistent with a top-down trophic cascade model involving nonlethal and possibly lethal effects. If similar top-down effects upon vegetation hold true in other regions of North America and other parts of the world where wolves have been extirpated, wolf recovery may represent a management option for helping to restore riparian plant communities and conserve biodiversity.” The question begs to be asked, then, if we know that wolves are critical components of healthy ecosystems, why are they so militantly opposed? The Western Wolves Coalition states on their website that “more than 200,000 gray wolves (Canis lupus) once lived throughout the United States. Aggressive, wildlife-killing campaigns led to wolf eradication and the disappearance

A Tentative Future

of most of the elk, deer, and antelope from much of the country by the mid-1930s. For nearly 50 years, wolves were all but extinct in the lower 48 states. Consequently, when wolves began naturally dispersing from Canada into northwestern Montana in the late 1970s, they were protected under the Endangered Species Act. Natural dispersal soon led to a widespread call for restoration of native wolves, with the hope of returning natural balance to the Northern Rockies ecosystem. More than 100,000 people expressed their support for the release of wolves into central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park in the mid ’90s, both within the region and across the country. In contrast, the publications, websites, billboards, and political voices of the relentless opponents continue to ignore the evidence that species management is not a competition between man and beast, but rather a holistic approach to stewardship of valuable resources. Instead, the perpetuation of myths that have resulted in nearly every culture, dating back thousands of years, to decimate wolves on every continent in fear of their capacity to kill rather than learning how to live in harmony with the animal and its needs. With the division between the factions widening more and more each year, the importance of science based programs becomes a critical issue if progress will continue to be made. While the research and studies produce valuable insight into the “why” of the matter, the topic can be compared to a variety of other issues that receive similar reactions from those who are uninformed about certain topics. For example, energy conservation is often treated as the “big bad wolf” of politics, dividing the “greenies” and rural traditionalists who haven’t bought into the idea of global climate change as a real threat to humanity.


Species management is not a competition between man and beast, but rather a holistic approach to stewardship of valuable resources.

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A Tentative Future

There are two tactics in this matter. One approach is to bombard people with images, programming, and social pressure until the shame of noncompliance beats one into submission. At times, this approach seems to be the popular approach as social engineers focus on the outcome rather than the process. Another approach is old school---focus on the process of cost and benefit. If one understands the real cost and clearly and tangibly sees the benefit, it’s usually more agreeable to start down a path of conservation. It might begin with a recycling bin. Wolf conservation is similar in that many of the rural ranchers, farmers, and producers distinctly feel that the recovery folks are ramming some unrealistic nonsense down their throats with some utopian philosophy of co-existing with cold-blooded killers of livestock. Pair that with another group that feels threatened by wolves as they compete for

A dramatic rise in flagrant cases of wildlife poaching has inspired a batch of new legislation

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One approach is to bombard people with images, programming, and social pressure until the shame of noncompliance beats one into submission.

the same prey, having to work harder each year to locate elk and deer, the hunting community is probably a louder voice in the argument as they redirect passion for killing ungulates in the direction of killing the competition. A recent article in the Idaho Mountain Gazette reported the poaching of a trophy elk by, of all people, an anti-wolf activist. There are many ironies to this story, primarily the assertion by recovery opponents that wolves are reckless killers with no ability or method to their predation. Apparently poaching is a historically growing problem. Around the same time that wolf re-introduction began,

A Tentative Future

and certainly before there was a competition for the kill, it was bad enough that legislators had to write laws to prevent the rising number of incidences. In the April 8th issue of the High Country News, it was reported that “A dramatic rise in flagrant cases of wildlife poaching has inspired a batch of new legislation that could truly put the hurt on criminal hunters in the West...A century after “great white hunters’ slaughtered buffalo, common poaching incidents such as killing an elk out of season, spotlighting animals at night, putting a friend’s tag on an animal so you can shoot another one, are all misdemeanors in five of 10 Western states. Meanwhile, prices in the black market for trophy antlers and other wildlife parts continue to rise. Wildlife enforcement officers say they see an alarming number of dead deer and elk left to rot with their racks removed. Is a change possible? Organizations like the Wolf Education and Research Center believe so.

Today’s Challenges; Tomorrow’s Opportunities With the Sawtooth Pack: Wolves of the Nez Perce, the Wolf Education and Research Center began down a path of working to address the misconceptions about wolves in the wild. Along with that was the reality that there were some ideas in the pro-wolf camp that also needed to be corrected, including the notion that wolves make wonderful pets that won’t ever kill your other canines. And many other ideas. The door opened in the 90’s, however, and the organization saw a distinct calling to walk through it to become a conduit for factual information while introducing people to the animals face to face. Over several years, the natural order of things took its toll on the Sawtooth Pack, with the losses of Amani, Motomo, Ayet, and all the others except Piyip, the Little Brother who presently resides in seclusion, waiting out his days in the comforting care and attention of the WERC staff and interns who visit him many times each day. Piyip is a remnant of the past, an elder whose eyes at times reflect the playfulness of his youth with his sister, Motoki, but more often the gentle reality of his inevitable ascension.


...there are so many people that need to understand what wolves represent and why their presence is so vital to healthy ecosystems.

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His presence at the Center is more than a token of WERC’s past---he is an icon of an era of wolf recovery. Much like Piyip, the Center has endured its share of setbacks and challenges. Each year that passes causes increased cost of maintenance to intern tents, the road that leads into the Center, the boardwalk across the meadow, and the fences that keep the wolves in and other animals out. Not only is time their enemy but the economy has simultaneously lowered available discretionary funds but increased the cost of goods and services. With income down and expenses rising, the future is sometimes uncertain. There are some certainties, however, as the WERC team regularly discusses various ways to keep the Center and its mission alive. Why? Because there are so many people that need to understand what wolves represent and why their presence is so vital to healthy ecosystems.

A Certain Uncertain Future

WERC is firmly committed to figure out how to survive through the lifespan of the Owyhee Pack

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There seems no other way to describe the future that is WERC’s. One month to the next presents challenges and solutions that lead the organization to wonder, “How much longer can this go on?” One of the considerations, moving forward, is that Jeremy Heft’s commitment is only promised for the life of the Sawtooth Pack and the transition to a new wolf biologist and handler. Jeremy is not the first biologist to care for the Pack and with an organization that adopts a worthy longer term plan, he is not going to be the last. And with a growing passion for his roots back East and his first love in Marine Biology, it seems that WERC is blessed to have had Jeremy’s care for a decade and a half. During a strategic session before the 2010 Summer Celebration, a dozen people joined the WERC Staff to discuss what the future looked like. One of the comments that came out of the discussion profoundly changed the thinking of the organization and how we plan. WERC is firmly committed to figure out how to survive through the lifespan of the Owyhee Pack (translation: 6 to 8 years). At the time we adopted the Owyhee Pack, it was figured that the economy would continue to be strong, donors would sustain the enthusiasm at bringing in the

A Tentative Future

animals, visitation would increase, and our education programs would reach a broader audience. It can be said that visitation increased. The economy tanked. The residential foreclosure situation undermined the public’s confidence. Record job losses were growing. And a Presidential election distracted a country from our priorities. Organizations began falling like rain in the aftermath of those factors. In many ways, it is remarkable that WERC remains afloat today. It is largely due to a faithful staff and a generous remnant of donors who have stood by, anxious to explore ways to help. WERC experienced a stellar visitation season, with more regional traffic than ever before. We’ve tapped into some social mediums that are allowing the organization to reach a broader audience. And we are attracting a younger set of innovators who desire to see WERC succeed and maintain our voice. Education is the heart of our existence and our future. Historically, the organization has made a significant impact in the minds of thousands of individuals. WERC’s influence is powerful when our staff teach children about the differences between fairy tales where wolves blow doors down and the realities of their existence. WERC’s influence is powerful when students intern continues on page 18


Education is the heart of our existence and our future. Historically, the organization has made a significant impact in the minds of thousands of individuals.

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ED Letter that brief,


momentary contact


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ED Letter


t, ...form an



bond. SL - FALL 2010 17


A Tentative Future

at the Center and go away with a profound and deep commitment to defend wolves because of the training that has equipped them. WERC’s influence is powerful when adults look into the eyes of the animals at the Center’s wolf enclosure and experience a creature of such nobility and grandeur–unlike any PBS special or DVD they’ve watched. The political and social battle outside of the 300 acre sanctuary in the hills above Lewiston, Idaho will probably continue for eons. There’s no doubt that the continual power struggle is a tug-of-war of immense proportions. Away from the struggle however is a unique place where people of all ages and persuasions can truly stand apart from the struggle and hope to look into the eyes of a wolf. And in that brief, powerful, momentary contact, wolf and human form an unbreakable supernatural bond.

Editorial Note: The Wolf Education and Research Center is presently evaluating and developing our annual and longer term plan that includes the lifespan of the Owyhee Pack. Our primary goal is that the Center would continue to exist in perpetuity. That will only happen with the help of donations of finances, property gifts, stocks or bonds, and material that will help us maintain the Center’s structural and budgetary needs. You can make a donation today and ensure the future of WERC by mailing in a check or visiting our website at Before Spring opening, WERC will need to accomplish the following structural improvements above our $15,000 monthly budget:

• • • • •

Regrading of the driveway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2000 Replace three Intern tents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2200 Rebuild the Meadow Boardwalk. . . . . . . . . . $1000 Repair the Visitor’s Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $5000 Truck Repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1000

Simply notate your check or donation with the item that you will generously donate toward. If you have any questions, please call or write to Chris Anderson. Contact information is available in the front of the SLQ. SL - FALL 2010 18



It costs nearly $60,000 per year to care for 6 wolves, including their health and upkeep, food that is not donated, and the maintenance of the Wolf Camp. The Wolf Center’s ability to carry out this function depends on your continued support. If you haven’t considered it, please adopt. And maybe consider giving an adoption to someone else so they can learn about this valuable program. Please help preserve the legacy of the Sawtooth Pack by helping us out today!



Adopt Piyip and participate in the care for the last

The Owyhee Pack are the ambassadors of the

remaining Sawtooth Pack: Wolves of the Nez Perce.

Wolf Center. Adopting one or all five covers

Your $25 annual donation helps toward the purchase

the cost of maintaining their enclosure, food,

of food, care for his environment, and unforeseen

health care, and the unpredictable costs of

costs of wolf care. When you adopt, we’ll send you

wolf care. When you adopt, WERC will mail

a certificate that shows your friends and family that

you a certificate that shows you’re a member

you care for wolves.

of Pack Owyhee by your adoption.

Sawtooth Pack

Owyhee Pack



Sex: Male Age: 14

Sex: Male Age: 5-6 years SL - FALL 2010 19



Owyhee Pack

Owyhee Pack



Sex: Female Age: 4-5 years

Sex: Female Age: 4-5 years

Owyhee Pack

Owyhee Pack



Sex: Female Age: 4-5 years

Sex: Male Age: 5-6 years

OWYHEE PACK SOUTH MEMBERS The Owyhee Pack South are the siblings of the five at WERC. In partnership with the Big Oak Wolf Sanctuary, we send off some family support by way of your adoptions. WERC is able to connect you with other wolves while underwriting some of the cost of promoting that program. Look for new partnerships with other wolf centers in 2011. A Owyhee Pack South adoption includes a certificate recognizing your generous support of wolf recovery and conservation.

Owyhee Pack South

Owyhee Pack South



Sex: Female

Sex: Female

Owyhee Pack South

Owyhee Pack South



Sex: Male

Sex: Male

Owyhee Pack South

Owyhee Pack South



Sex: Female

Sex: Male

SL - FALL 2010 20


Owyhee Pack South

Owyhee Pack South



Sex: Male

Sex: Female

Sawtooth Pack: n Piyip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25

Owyhee Pack:

n Himtuuqin’ (Bearded One). . . . . . $25 n Kuckuc (Little Gray Girl). . . . . . . $25 n XayXayx (White Watcher). . . . . . . $25 n Leq’ey leq’ey (Gentle Water). . . . . $25 n MiyooXat (Wise Giant). . . . . . . . . $25

Owyhee Pack South: n n n n

Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gabriel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jezebel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$25 $25 $25 $25

n n n n

Lydia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malachi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rebecca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$25 $25 $25 $25

Wolf Artwork: Gifts over $100

n Scott Doing – Pencil sketch n Sawtooth Tribute Poster

Pack Owyhee: Classroom Membership

n Membership includes: Wolf Center Classroom Poster, ClassPack Photos of the Owyhee Pack, Classport to Wolves, Wolves: IMAX DVD, Quarterly Wolf Behavior Updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $150/yr n Friend of the Sawtooth Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $75/yr n Wolf Advocate Membership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $225/yr n Sawtooth Legacy Member. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1000/yr n Sawtooth Legacy Quarterly subscription now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25/yr n I am adding a gift of $______________ to help the Wolf Center reach more people for Wolf Recovery. n Please mail the Adoption or Gift Adoption Packet to the following person, business, or school: Member Number_______________________________________________ Name _ ______________________________________________________ School/Business________________________________________________ City_________________________________ State_ ____ Zip____________ Email________________________________ Phone (____)______________ Please mail completed form with check or money order to: WERC, P.O. Box 12604, Portland, OR 97212 or Visit:, click on the “Face to Face with Wolves” menu, and choose “Adopt A Wolf”



Wolf Behavior 101

Lesson 16: Lone Wolves by Randy Stewart

SL - FALL 2010 22

iyip, who turned 14 years old on April 22, 2010, is the last member of the “Sawtooth Pack, Wolves of the Nez Perce”. He resides by himself within the 20 acre enclosure. Would you say that he is a lone wolf? The term “lone wolf” is often used to describe a single wolf that someone has seen. Generally speaking, that wolf is probably not a lone wolf, but part of an established wolf pack with the other members not seen at that time. An example may be the omega wolf (lowest in social structure) but who is on the fringe of the pack’s territory. In the wild, it is not uncommon for an omega to be within a mile or so of the main pack.


Wolf Behavior 101

According to biologists familiar with wolf behaviors, there are possibly several triggers that may cause a wolf to leave their natal pack. Intense food competition, sexual competition, and excessive aggression seem to be the top three reasons however, not necessarily in this order. Lone wolves are generally a subordinate wolf; most common age is 11-24 months, may leave the pack due either to physical and/or mental hardships while being within the pack structure. The social structure of a wolf pack is very strict and if a wolf doesn’t follow the pack structure or hierarchy, they are often forced out.


Piyip, who turned 14 years old on April 22, 2010, is the last member of the “Sawtooth Pack, Wolves of the Nez Perce”.

SL - FALL 2010 23


Wolf Behavior 101

Acts of aggression within a pack help to determine dominance and hierarchy between individual pack members.

SL - FALL 2010 24

It has been documented in the wild that an older lone wolf has taken over a vacant alpha position in packs where their previous alpha had been disposed of. An example of this is a NATURE film “In the Valley of the Wolves”. A subplot of the film shows a male called Casanova, a wolf from a neighboring pack in Yellowstone, who was accepted as the alpha male of the Druid Pack after the previous alpha male had been killed. He was filling the position as a breeder. Many younger wolves, while beginning to mature sexually, leave the pack in search of a mate. They are males and females that seem to know that they will not become alphas in the near future. Or they may be wolves that alphas and other higher ranking wolves dominate over the most because they may be the ones to instigate a hierarchy overthrow. Intense food competition within the pack may also be a reason a wolf disperses. As pups are born and if there is decreased food supply, pups are the first priority for the adults to feed. And with more pups, there is often less food for the older siblings. If a pack doesn’t have pups during a breeding season, then the sub-adults will share in the food provided by the older wolves.

Wolf Behavior 101


For the lone wolf, there are three things they need to succeed in life. They need a mate, food resources, and an exclusive area or their own territory. Lone wolves may have a high mortality rate because they are often unable to catch sufficient prey and they lack the protective support of a pack. However, lone wolves are critical in the natural expansion of their population. Without lone wolves, would the re-introduction of wolves in Idaho and other areas been successful? In Idaho, the population started in 1995 with 35 wolves transported into Central Idaho and at the end of 2009, the official Pups are the first estimate was 826 minimum. A lone wolf priority for the moving into an unclaimed area, finding a mate and sufficient food is the reason new adults to feed. packs have developed and the overall population has increased. Now, back to the question about Piyip. Is he a lone wolf? Applying the above reasons, NO. He is the last of the Sawtooth Pack and he lives alone. Of course, there is the WERC staff and interns who ensure his life is as comfortable as possible and the supporters of WERC who provide he necessary resources to support his wonderful life. SL - FALL 2010 25

Sizing UP the Future Sizing DOWN the SLQ

The New Format for Survival:

Sawtooth Legacy

FALL – 2010

(pg 3) Ask the Biologist for Wolves (pg 8) A Tentative Future more... (pg 22) And much Wolf Behavior 101

Today’s nonprofits are modifying business plans, trimming budgets, and sizing down operations in order to survive. The last couple years has seen an attrition rate of charities that have dissolved, disappeared, and even folded into other operations to weather difficult days.   It appears that there are equally troublesome days ahead.  

... the choice remains to keep The Wolf Center is not asimilar. In an effort to adapt our outreach in recognition of your stewardship, we’re stuffing the program communication into a smaller format.  Doing so helps WERC by minimizing the cost of production in addition to the expense of delivering the magazine.   In addition, and in light of these same circumstances, we will be dropping the word “Quarterly” from the title.  At the time we chose the name we had a budget that afforded a third word in the title.  Since we could not find a one syllable word, more reflective of our finances, we opted to drop the word altogether. If you enjoy reading the new and improved Sawtooth Legacy, we hope you SL - FALL 2010 26

will renew a subscription. We’ll do our best to deliver each quarter but until we have four sponsors above their ordinary giving, the choice remains to keep the wolves fed and healthy.  That also requires three staff and interns.  

the wolves fed and healthy. As we approach the end of the year, would you make it your goal to help us broaden our impact in the following ways? • Buy a Sawtooth Legacy (SL) annual subscription for a school classroom or library. The future of the effort is in  their hands. • Buy a SL for a friend or family member • Help us underwrite the SL with a Lifetime Member donation of $1000 or more. We’re grateful for the opportunity to serve you with our publications, websites, and our outreach to the public.  Thank you for your faithful support. -SL Editorial Committee

Wolf Education teaching

wolves to survive is a delicate endeavor, not to mention dangerous, the staff and interns at the Wolf Education & Research Center focus on people. Perhaps you’ve read about our guests that visit the Center each year to see wolves and learn about their place in the wilderness. WERC is an ideal place as it is not only remote enough to lose cell phone service, but it’s staffed well enough to fill that void with an endless amount of cultural facts, myths, and legends  about gray wolves in North America.   WERC has reached an intersection that only you can help us navigate through.  With recent political battles being waged, it is abundantly clear that our future lies in wolf education. No, we’re not going to teach wolves. They know what to do. And if you come see us, we’ll let you know exactly what that is.   We want to reach further into schools, clubs, and any setting that allows us to have a conversation with young and



You’re telling me Piyip ate your homework again?

old alike in the effort to build a better future toward an informed public. Today, we are asking our readers to participate in a special way.  In an effort to underwrite the cost of visiting schools in our region on this subject, we’re hoping to raise $15,000 to cover the cost of traveling to K-12 schools and collaborating with teachers to help get young people face to face with wolves.   By sponsoring Pack Owyhee, you help our education efforts by building better tools and developing more engaging material that will capture the imagination of young people, our future. By sponsoring Pack Owyhee, you can help defray the costs of accepting invitations to schools in our area. As you may know, Idaho could use some broader teaching in this area.   Will you join Pack Owyhee today and help us reach further into education about wolves?  SL - FALL 2010 27


Other Ways to Help

GoodSearch to date continues to help WERC identify smaller pieces of our financial puzzle. Thanks to a handful of searchers, their search engine has generated the following results. You can magnify our results by installing their toolbar, searching and shopping from Goodsearch. The GoodSearch Toolbar works with your browser to ensure that your favorite cause earns money every time you shop and search - even if you skip coming to GoodShop or GoodSearch first! Search the web, find coupons, track donation earnings, and more! In 2010, the Wolf Education & Research Center earned $162.20 from your searches and purchases. What will we do in 2011? Month


$ Raised from Searches

$ Raised from Shopping

Total (Estimated)

Total: Year-to-Date Total: Since Inception

1559 10856

$15.59 $120.57

$146.61 $222.30

$162.20 $342.87

Did you know that Bank of America and Wolf Education & Research Center can reward you when you use your BofA credit card? It’s true! Many banks have promotions that allow you to designate a charity that is special to you and each time you use your card, a portion of their earnings are set aside for that qualified charity. Last year alone, Bank of America paid the Wolf Education & Research Center more than $15,000! That’s putting your purchases to work for wolf recovery and education! For more information, you can contact Bank of America at 1-866-438-6262 and use Priority Code UAA4DM or sign up online at www. Reward yourself today! SL - FALL 2010 28

Keith’s Wolf Camp Journal


Wolf Camp Journal Entry By Keith Doerfler, WERC Summer Intern

boots off Tent time. A Ramen filled belly. I pull wet sene flames of tired and soggy feet with the aid of keroing from my that seem to be dancing to the music play Eagle. As the the and Me headphones. Steve Earle is singing not from my song fades I begin to hear a different song, buteme rges from d headphones. A low mournful ghost-like soun that ripples a distance, as if carried by the very same wind roaches, my tent walls. Shortly after, another sound .app I pause my higher in pitch and somewhat playful sounding the song. MP3 player. A wild, wavy, banshee-like wail joins . I have come Two more voices join to tie the notes togetherWol f Camp. It at time to know this song well during my song that …a pack is the Wolf Song, sung by the Owyhee somehow soothes my tired body and mind. a horse. Not This morning I helped Jeremy butcher off my “tosomething I ever thought I’d do (can cross that ed Pete, do-list!” ). The horse was a 24 years old male nam died due donated to us by a local rancher. We suspectbyhecancer. He ed caus g to massive internal hemorrhagin he would looked peaceful enough though, and I was glad essly into usel ped be recycled back to nature instead of dum g. thin a sort a land fill. Wolf food, the cycle of life…that pounds. Front Pete’s head alone weighed a hefty 82 one hundred legs 58 pounds a piece. His rump topped was a jig-saw pounds. By the time we finished the job Pete up truck. Wolf puzzle of horse parts piled in the bed of a pick food. Food for thought. r two hundred We fed the Owyhee’s Pete’s rib cage. Ovekind of looked It leg. pounds of goodness. Piyip got a front ty fair coun the at like one of those giant turkey legs you see will es wolv except much bigger and uncooked. I reckon the will e hors sleep well tonight for sure. And I reckon Pete theable to sing rest in peace. And I reckon the wolves will befood. Food for my sore, tired body to sleep once more. Wolf thought…

ething Not som ght ou I ever th ross an c I’d do (c my that off ). st!” “to-do-li

SL - FALL 2010 29


Jerry’s Wolf Camp Journal

Wolf Camp Journal Entry By Jerry Heath, WERC Summer Intern

sciences “Human rything ve dissect e nd it, and rsta to unde verything e destroy ze it.” to analy

SL - FALL 2010 30

Winchester, Driving cross-country from metro-Detroit to tion and Idaho was an experience filled with anticipa e, and I guess curiosity. It rained throughout most of the drivcons tantly for that was a sign, as it continued to rain almost with a leaky that bine the first three weeks in camp. Com intact forest tent and my first experience camping in an es from time selv with coyotes and black bear revealing them resting start. I to time, and my internship was off to an inte hm of life at was surprised at how quickly I got into the rhyt wolf camp. h about After just a couple of days I didn’t thinkallmuc that other home or televisions and computers and camp. Living in le whi t stuff I was separated from, at leas was an in the forest here with Piyip and the Owyhee Pack e basic mor was experience that was refreshing and new. Life ral rhythm of in camp, and I felt more in tune with the natutrust me and life here. As soon as the wolves started to gs got even recognized me as a staff member here, thinmy time the better and more rewarding. I spent most of ks on wolves first few weeks here rifling through all the boo one or and interpretation I could find. I also usuallyin had mpt atte an s walk e two field guides with me on enclosur this call also that to learn all the native plants and wildlife ines outl ng place home. I spent days working and reworki ything I could for my first guided tours trying to fit evermpt s I learned into a two-hour presentation. In these atte d a few good a lot about my surroundings and develope in a different ideas on how to get the public to see wolvesanding, at the light. However, I think this method of underst caused me to least, was not deep enough, and at the most, the wolves completely miss the lessons to be learned from and the forest I was living in. dge this I’m not sure who was the first to acknowle times that truth, but I’m sure it has been said countless

Jerry’s Wolf Camp Journal


“Human sciences dissec destroy everything to ant everything to understand it, and in only biological, ecolo alyze it.” I was seeing this place the possibility of anythi gical terms and thus, eliminating going against everythingng deeper. I even noticed myself this attempt to package I believed about education in tangible terms. The truth these wolves into only scientific, is an enormously large is, at least the way I see it, there and this forest that speaintangible aspect to these wolves than their value “to” som ks of their value in greater terms etc.). As soon as I reali ething (the environment, humans, approach. I spent much zed this, I drastically changed my and much less time readmore time sitting with the wolves the wolves speak for th ing. I spoke less to visitors and let emselves, all I could do visitors listen. is help the As I sit on Jeremy’s ha I feel very content with mmock (shhh..) with his cat Rhundi, Himtuuqin’, KucKuc, Leq’e my decision to come here. Piyip, taught me numerous thinyleq’ey, XayXayx, and Miyooxat all was taught by all of themgs, but the most important lesson to listen. The forest is fu . This lesson was learning how very intricate language thll of voices and the wolves have a them, we can come to unat, if we can learn how to listen to Thank you everyone at W derstand them on a deeper level. a summer filled with newERC, and especially the wolves, for and possibly more impo experiences, friendships, learning, rtant, unlearning.

SL - FALL 2010 31


Katelynn’s Wolf Camp Journal

Wolf Camp Journal Entry By Katelynn Karch, WERC Summer Intern

e to wolf m a c I e r Befo the hought t t I p m a c os as the m ay night w d time of s. g in t n u da wood t in the u o e b o t

SL - FALL 2010 32

of day. Night at wolf camp is the most peaceful time with a Walking back to your tent after a long hot elday disturbing flashlight in hand and only the crunch of grav to my tent the silence. One of these nights I walked backpick out the looking up at the clear night sky, trying to shining stars. summer constellations out of the millions of Pack start to When I got to my tent I heard the Owyhee n. As I was howl so I stepped out on my porch to listeially covered listening I noticed that the full moon was part Owls began by thin wispy clouds. Then our resident Barred hooting as they do most nights at wolf camp. of the night, Standing there, taking in the sounds g tight circles something flew in front of me and began flyin air, I realized around me. Soundless except for the movingon this night. that a small bat was keeping me company to myself, all After it flew away to catch its meal, I thought to complete I need is a broomstick and bubbling cauldron night air and this scene. There is something about the cool makes you lack of civilization at wolf camp at night that go to sleep cherish the time you have here. When people start their for the day, all of my favorite creatures wake and the night ght thou I p cam adventures. Before I came to wolf woods. the in out be was the most daunting time of day to to the ard forw But since I have been here, it’s the time I look most.

ED Letter


Help Piyip color his brothers and write in the speech bubble, What they are “Howling” about? SL - FALL 2010 33

P.O. Box 12604 Portland, OR 97212





The Wolf Education & Research Center’s mission is to mobilize the public to action by providing informative and engaging outreach about the gray wolf species and its immense value to healthy ecosystems. Get involved today to stop the destruction of another species and the continued imbalance of nature.

Sawtooth Legacy Fall 2010  

Sawtooth Legacy Fall 2010 edition

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