__MAIN_TEXT__

Page 1

Low fire-hazard cables complying with the EUÂ Construction Products Regulation Maximum safety with B2ca cables from LEONI

The Quality Connection


2

Fire provides warmth, light and a sense of security. Fire can also be life-threatening, however, and an uncontrolled blaze can cause terrible devastation.


3

Safety in the event of a fire

One in three fires occurs in buildings, causing numerous deaths due to gas and smoke poisoning. The average period of time from the start of a fire until flashover (the ignition of pyrolysis gases) has decreased sharply over the last few decades. ■■

1950: 15 minutes

■■

1985: 5 minutes

■■

2010: 3 minutes

As a result, the time available for a possible escape from the building has also been drastically reduced. These developments have encouraged manufacturers of construction materials to make continuous technological improvements and enhance their fire performance.


4

Fire safety for cable systems

When a fire breaks out, the priorities are to save lives, contain

2. Smoke and toxic gases must be avoided at all costs, because

the blaze and minimize consequential damages. Electrical and

they make it either difficult or impossible to evacuate buildings

optical cabling must also play its part – not least because

safely or provide effective help from rescue teams. Indeed,

cable densities continue to increase in modern-day buildings.

since most deaths from fires result from smoke and toxic gas

What positive contributions can be made by cabling in the

inhalation, and not from the fire itself, this aspect should actu-

event of a fire? And what are the risks presented by legacy

ally be given top priority.

cables with poor fire performance? Answering these questions involves looking at three separate aspects, as listed

3. After the fire, rebuilding work has to start, but is complicated

below.

by fires that produce large quantities of corrosive combustion gases that form corrosive acids (e.g. hydrochloric acid) when

1. Cables must not significantly contribute to the ­propagation

combined with extinguishing water. Such acids can be dispersed

of a fire. In particular, cabling must not enable the fire to

well beyond the location of the fire throughout the entire build-

spread from one storey to the next. Lastly, cables exposed to

ing, damaging any metallic objects they come into contact with,

fire must not shed particles or drip, thereby helping the fire to

such as structural steel and other metal structures, electrical

spread further.

installations, electronics and IT systems.

Saving lives

Containing the blaze

Minimising consequential damages

These three requirements have been incorporated into the fire classification of the new EU Construction Products Regulation.


5

EU Construction Products Regulation – CE marking and the Declaration of Performance Power, control and communication cables which are perma-

With the publication of the harmonised standard hEN 50575:2014

nently installed in structures is governed by EU Regulation

in the Official Journal of the European Union, all market partici-

305/2011 (known as the "Construction Products Regulation").

pants are now required to implement the Construction Products

The Regulation does not apply to lift cables, cables inside

Regulation. This standard describes "Power, control and com-

machinery and cables for use in industrial plant.

munication cables – Cables for general applications in construction works subject to reaction to fire requirements". Effective

The EU Construction Products Regulation defines the conditions

1 July 2016, cable manufacturers may include CE marking on

for CE marking and also requires manufacturers to issue a Decla-

those of their products that have been tested and certified by a

ration of Performance regarding the following key product

notified body, and issue a corresponding Declaration of Perfor-

­features derived from the protection goals: fire safety (flame

mance.

propagation, heat development, smoke production, acid formation, flaming droplets) and the absence of harmful constituents.

On expiry of the one-year coexistence period, the inclusion of

The Construction Products Regulation also specifies how the

CE marking and the issuing of a Declaration of Performance will

requisite conformity with the requirements is to be ensured on

then become mandatory.

an ongoing basis.

Construction Products Regulation takes effect

Construction Products Regulation

EN 50575 in EU Official Journal

î

Coexistence period

Testing and certification of products

Notification

Declaration of ­Performance & CE marking

1 July 2016

voluntary

mandatory

1 July 2017

The Declaration of Performance certifies compliance with the

Note: Cables offering insulation and total system integrity

fire classes defined below and thus forms the requirement for

(resistance to fire) will be treated in a separate standard to be

using the cables for the applications defined by the EU Member

harmonised in the future. Accordingly, they are neither governed

States.

by the current implementation of the Construction Products Regulation (CPR) nor is an application of the CPR to these kinds of cables expected before 2017.


6

EU Construction Products Regulation – Fire classes and proof of conformity The fire behaviour classes are summarised in the following table, which classifies the requirements from Aca (non-flammable) to B1ca or B2ca (very high), Cca (high), Dca (moderate), Eca (low) and Fca (no requirement). This classification from A to F generally applies for all construction products. The index ‘ca’ stands for cable. Fire behaviour classes for electrical cables according to DIN EN 13501-6 Classification Test method

Parameter

Aca

B1ca

B2ca

Cca

Dca

Eca

Fca

EN ISO 1716

PCS (MJ/kg)

≤ 2.0

EN 60332-1

H (mm)

≤ 425

≤ 425

≤ 425

≤ 425

≤ 425

EN 50399

Flame source (kW)

30

20.5

20.5

20.5

EN 50399

FS (m)

≤ 1.75

≤ 1.5

≤ 2.0

EN 50399

THR (MJ)

≤ 10

≤ 15

≤ 30

≤ 70

EN 50399

max. HRR (kW)

≤ 20

≤ 30

≤ 60

≤ 400

EN 50399

FIGRA (W/s)

≤ 120

≤ 150

≤ 300

≤ 1300

Additional Classification EN 50399/EN 61034

Smoke production

s1, s1a, s1b, s2, s3

s1, s1a, s1b, s2, s3

s1, s1a, s1b, s2, s3

s1, s1a, s1b, s2, s3

no

no

EN 60754-2

Acidity

a1, a2, a3

a1, a2, a3

a1, a2, a3

a1, a2, a3

no

no

EN 50399

Flaming droplets

d0, d1, d2

d0, d1, d2

d0, d1, d2

d0, d1, d2

no

no

H: Flame Spread, vertical flame propagation (mm) FS: Flame Spread, vertical flame propagation (m) PCS: Gross Calorific Value, gross calorific value

THR: Total Heat Release (MJ) HRR: Heat Release Rate, maximum heat release rate (kW) FIGRA: Fire Growth Rate, index of heat release rate (W/s)

TSP: Total Smoke Production (m2) SPR: Smoke Production Rate, maximum smoke production value (m2/s)

Explanation s1 s1a s1b s2 s3

= = = = =

TSP ≤ 50 m2 and max. SPR ≤ 0.25 m2/s s1 and transmission value according to EN 61034-2 ≥ 80 % s1 and transmission value according to EN 61034-2 ≥ 60 % < 80 % TSP ≤ 400 m2 and max. SPR ≤ 1.5 m2/s neither s1 nor s2

d0 = no flaming droplets/particles d1 = no flaming droplets/particles for longer than 10 s d2 = neither d0 nor d1 EN 60754-2: a1 = electrical conductivity < 2.5 μS/mm and pH value > 4.3 a2 = electrical conductivity < 10 μS/mm and pH value > 4.3 a3 = neither a1 nor a2. No data = no performance determined.

Conformity monitoring is also detailed by the Construction Products Regulation and defined by EN 50575. The following is a simplified summary of the obligations for the notified approval body and the manufacturer: Fire behaviour class

Aca

B1ca

Conformity monitoring system

B2ca

Cca

Dca

1+

Eca 3

Fca 4

Obligations of the notified body

Sample testing and routine factory auditing with random sampling

Sample testing

Obligations of the manufacturer

Production monitoring

Production monitoring


7

Overview of fire testing Objectives 1. Saving lives 2. Containing the blaze 3. Minimising consequential damages These are the objectives when using safety cables. Fire testing according to EN 50399 covers objectives 1 and 2, since reductions in fire propagation, smoke and flaming droplets make a

Most of the parameters required for cables by the Construction Products Regulation are determined by testing according to EN 50399. A vigorously burning cable producing a lot of smoke and flaming droplets/particles.

major contribution to fire safety. The cables (the number used depends on the cable diameter) are mounted on a ladder in a vertical tube furnace and a flame is applied to them for 20 minutes using an air gas burner (20.5 kW/30 kW). The flue gases are collected at a defined air flow (nominal value 8000 l/min) and routed into an exhaust air duct, where the speed of the air flow, the oxygen and CO2 content, the light absorption and the temperature are measured. This allows the above values to be determined. Since many parameters differ from those used in tests defined by IEC 60332-3, the results are not transferable. The spacing-out of the installed cables and the

A cable that meets the requirements for B2ca s1 d1 a1.

increased air flow in particular make the fire scenario here more demanding than in IEC 60332-3. The test according to EN 50399 clearly demonstrates the difference between a cable with a high level of fire safety (below) and a lower-quality cable. Note the differences between fire propagation, smoke production and flaming droplets. Fire classes according to the Construction Products Regulation Power, control and communication cables for permanent installation in buildings are analysed and classified with respect to their fire behaviour according to EU Regulation 305/2011. For this purpose, heat release and flame spread are measured using the above test method according to EN and evaluated in order to assign the cables to the relevant fire class. The cables can also receive additional classification according to the Construction Products Regulation if smoke production, flaming droplets and acidity are determined. The test according to EN 50399 permits the determination of flame propagation, heat release, smoke production and flaming droplets/particles.

The 4 m-high fire cabin used for EN 50399, where cables are installed vertically on a ladder.


8

Smoke production in the test according to EN 61034. Left: a cable that produces large quantities of smoke; Right: a cable that fulfils the requirements.

Flame test on a single cable according to EN 60332­‑1, the basic requirement.

Smoke production is subject to especially strict evaluation in the

(ZVEI) has drafted a proposal for the practical application of

test according to EN 61034. Reducing smoke production is a key

these safety levels. This is presented below and on the following

step towards achieving objective 1, especially for the evacuation

pages.

of buildings with high occupant densities and where evacuation conditions are more problematic. The evaluation of corrosivity (acidity), according to EN 50267, is not only important for avoiding consequential damages due to corrosion (objective 3) but also for preventing toxic effects on people trying to escape from the fire to safety (objective 2). The flame test on the individual cable according to EN 60332-1 serves as a basis for lessdemanding requirements. These objectives are implemented via the Construction Products Regulation by applying the safety levels defined by the fire tests on a building-specific basis. The German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association

Acidity is assessed in accordance with EN 50267 by performing a chemical analysis of the combustion gases.

ZVEI Recommendation

A recommendation for building classifications according to the

The German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’

German Model Building Code (MBO) was also drafted on this

Association (ZVEI) recommends the use of fire protection cables

basis. These recommendations are incorporated into the new

in accordance with individual building safety requirements.

versions of the installation requirements for communication and

In buildings with a very high safety requirement, the use of class

power cabling (DIN EN 50174 part 1-3, DIN VDE 0100-520 and

B2ca cables is advisable, while the use of class Cca cabling is advis-

DIN VDE 0100-420).

able in buildings with a high safety requirement.


9

Applications for cables of Euroclass B2ca s1 d1 a1 ZVEI proposal for the fire classes to be applied to cabling under the Construction Products Regulation Fire classes Flame propagation Heat development

Smoke production/ density

Flaming droplets

Acid production/ corrosivity

Safety requirement in buildings

Aca

B1ca

Very high

B2ca

s1

d1

a1

Very high

Very high

Cca

s1

d1

a1

High

Dca

s2

d2

a1

Moderate

Eca

Low

Fca

None

ZVEI proposal for building classifications Building classes according to the German Model Building Code

ZVEI proposal Minimum requirement

Class

Description

Building (except for escape route) Escape route

1

Isolated building and isolated building for agricultural or forestry use

up to 7 m high

no more than 400 m2

Eca

2

Building

up to 7 m high

no more than 400 m2

Eca

3

Other buildings

up to 7 m high

Eca

B2ca s1 d1 a1

4

Other buildings

up to 13 m high

up to n x 400 m2

Eca

B2ca s1 d1 a1

5

Other buildings including underground buildings

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

Special structures S1

High-rise buildings

Higher than 22 m

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S2

Structural installations

Higher than 30 m

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S3

Building

Largest storey over 1600 m2, excluding residential buildings and garages

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S4

Retail buildings

greater than 800 m

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S5

Office/administration

Rooms greater than 400 m2

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S6

Building with rooms

Individual rooms for use by more than 100 persons

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S7

Assembly buildings

more than 200 persons

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S8

Restaurants/hotels

seating for more than 40 guests in buildings, more than 12 beds, amusement halls larger than 150 m2

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S9

Buildings with units for care or dependants

more than 6 persons, intensive care requirement

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S10

Hospitals

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

2

S11

Other accommodation facilities and residential homes

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S12

Day care facilities for children, disabled and elderly persons

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S13

Schools, universities and similar facilities

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S14

Correctional facilities/forensic psychiatric facilities

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S16

Recreational/amusement parks

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S18

Warehouse with top edge of loaded goods higher than 7.5 m

Eca

B2ca s1 d1 a1

S19

Structural installations for storing high-risk flammable materials

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

Additional specific structures Industry

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

Server rooms

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

Road tunnels

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

Railway tunnels

B2ca s1 d1 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1

Underground garages

Cca s1 d2 a1

B2ca s1 d1 a1


10

Staying safe with LEONI

LEONI has been one of the world’s leading providers of safety cables for many years. Whether you need cabling for infrastructure, power, data or communications, LEONI offers the best cable technology for fire protection currently available. In addition to standard cables meeting the requirements of the new fire classes Dca or Eca, the company can also supply cables compliant with fire class B2ca. Euroclass B2ca s1 d1 a1 fire protection cabling offers the highest level of safety and features: ■■

Reduced fire propagation

■■

Reduced heat development

■■

Low smoke density

■■

Low acid production

■■

Reduced droplet formation

The quality of these cable products is assured by: ■■

Proof of conformity 1+

■■

Declaration of Performance

■■

CE marking


11

Examples: MegaLine® G12-150 S/F B2ca MegaLine® F10-115 S/F B2ca GigaLine® I-B(ZN)BH n B2ca FiberConnect® I-B(ZN)BH nn x mm B2ca BETAflam® FE5 C Special rules apply to cables offering total system integrity, such as BETAflam® NHXH E30/E90. These products must currently be handled separately. Classification according to the Construction Products Regulation will not be possible until the corresponding harmonised European Standards are available. Sub-classification and CE marking in accordance with EN 50575 is not permitted.


LEONI Studer AG Business Unit Energy & Infrastructure

Herrenmattstrasse 20 4658 Däniken Switzerland Telephone +41 62 288 82 82 Fax

+41 62 288 83 83

energy-infrastructure@leoni.com www.leoni-energy-infrastructure.com

LEONI Kerpen GmbH

Zweifaller Straße 275-287

Business Unit Datacom

52224 Stolberg Germany Telephone +49 2402 171 Fax

+49 2402 75154

datacom@leoni.com www.leoni-data.com

Business Unit Fiber Optics

Mühldamm 6 96524 Neuhaus-Schierschnitz Germany Telephone +49 36764 81 100 Fax

+49 36764 81 110

fiber-optics@leoni.com www.leoni-fiber-optics.com

06. 2016 / en_1200

LEONI Fiber Optics GmbH

Profile for Wirewave

Leoni Low fire-hazard cables  

Leoni Low fire-hazard cables  

Profile for wirewave
Advertisement