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2006 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN

ADOPTED OCTOBER 12, 2006


City Council Jeanne Zeidler, Mayor Clyde A. Haulman, Vice Mayor Mickey P. Chohany Paul Freiling Robert A. Braxton

Planning Commission Jesse C. Young, Jr. Chairman Douglas G. Pons, 1st Vice Chairman Joseph W. Hertzler, 2nd Vice Chairman Sean F. Driscoll James J. Joseph William O. Kafes Elaine S. McBeth Audrey B. Smith, term expired December 2005 Charles E. Friend, resigned May 2006 Mark M. Rose, resigned August 2006

Planning Department Reed T. Nester, AICP, Planning Director Carolyn A. Murphy, AICP, Deputy Planning Director Rodney S. Rhodes, Zoning Administrator Donna Scott, Secretary

2006 Comprehensive Plan Prepared by the Williamsburg Planning Department January 2004 – October 2006 Recommended for Adoption by the Planning Commission July 19, 2006 Adopted by the City Council October 12, 2006


Table of Contents Chapter

Title

1.

Introduction

2.

Past Comprehensive Plans 1953 Comprehensive Plan 1968 Comprehensive Plan 1981 Comprehensive Plan 1989 Comprehensive Plan 1998 Comprehensive Plan

3.

Page

2-1 2-2 2-4 2-6 2-7

Goals Character of the City Economy Neighborhoods and Housing Transportation Public Safety Education and Human Services Recreation and Culture Environmental Services Implementation

4.

5.

3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4

Population Population Growth Population Characteristics • Age • Gender • Race School Enrollment and Educational Attainment Projections • Population Growth • Households • Residential Housing Requirements • Projection Methodology

4-1 4-4 4-4 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 4-12 4-13 4-14

Economy Regional Economic Setting Employment • Williamsburg Employment • Colonial Williamsburg • College of William & Mary Income • Household Income Sales • Retail Sales • Taxable Sales • Tourism • Lodging

5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-6 5-8 5-8

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Chapter

Title

Page Fiscal Capacity Projections • Employment • Sales • Tourism

6.

7.

8.

5-10 5-11 5-11 5-12 5-12

Community Character Introduction Historic Preservation and Design Review • Architectural Preservation District (AP) • Corridor Protection District (CP) • Architectural Inventory • Architectural Review Guidelines • Archaeological Preservation • Williamsburg’s Role in the Civil War Entrance Corridors • Corridor Specifics Greenbelts Open Space • Regulation • Acquisition • Institutional Preservation

6-1 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-3 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-5 6-6 6-9 6-10 6-10 6-11 6-11

Land Use Categories Existing Land Use The Planning Process Urban Land Suitabilities Future Land Use Land Use Classifications • Residential Categories • Office, Commercial and Mixed Use Categories • Economic Development Category • Institutional Categories • Public/Recreation/Conservation Categories

7-1 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-5 7-6 7-8 7-8 7-9

Neighborhoods and Housing 2000 Census • Housing Type • Households • Household Size Housing Trends Housing Plan Residential Focus Areas • Jamestown Road Focus Area • Richmond Road Focus Area • Center City Focus Area

8-1 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-8 8-11 8-13

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Chapter

Title

Page Major Residential Developments • Quarterpath Road Area • High Street Williamsburg Other Residential Areas • Capitol Landing Road/Page Street Area • Merrimac Trail • Parkway Drive • Highland Park Area • South Henry Street • South England Street • Richmond Road/Longhill Road Area • Mt. Vernon Avenue • Strawberry Plains Road • Wales Area • Jamestown Road Area (west of Lake Matoaka) Affordable Housing

9.

10.

8-13 8-13 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-19 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-21 8-21 8-21 8-22 8-24 8-24

Institutions The College of William and Mary • Physical Improvements • The Student View • Planning Issues The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation • The Historic Area • Support Facilities • Planning Issues

9-1 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-7 9-7 9-7 9-9

Commercial and Economic Development Commercial and Economic Development Trends Commercial and Economic Development Plan Center City Focus Area Richmond Road Focus Area (west of Brooks Street) Other Commercial Areas • Residential Uses in Commercial Areas • Shopping Centers Area • Richmond Road (Monticello to Ironbound) • Richmond Road (west of Ironbound) • Mooretown Road • Capitol Landing Road • Second Street • Penniman Road • York Street • Quarterpath Road/Route 199 • South Henry Street/Route 199 • Brookwood Road/Route 199 • Jamestown Road/Route 199 • John Tyler Lane/Strawberry Plains Road

10-1 10-2 10-3 10-9 10-11 10-11 10-12 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-15 10-15 10-15 10-16 10-16 10-16 10-16

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Chapter

Title

Page • Monticello Avenue/Ironbound Road • Ironbound Road at Eastern State Corner Major Mixed-Use Developments • High Street Williamsburg • Quarterpath at Williamsburg

11.

12.

10-17 10-17 10-18 10-18 10-19

Infrastructure Utilities • Water • Sanitary Sewer • Public Utility Extension Policy • Stormwater Management Transportation • Road Classification • Existing Streets • Improvements since the 1998 Comprehensive Plan • Existing Traffic Counts • Recommended Traffic Improvements • HRPDC 2026 Regional Transportation Plan • Bikeways • Pedestrian Facilities • Transit • Rail Travel • Airports Parks and Recreation • Existing Facilities • Other Facilities • Planned Improvements • Shoreline Access • Programmatic Improvements Community Services Facilities • The Municipal Center • Facilities Outside the Municipal Center • Community Medical Facilities Education • Public Schools • Private Schools • Thomas Nelson Community College Communication

11-1 11-1 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-9 11-9 11-9 11-11 11-11 11-12 11-13 11-16 11-18 11-20 11-21 11-21 11-23 11-23 11-25 11-25 11-27 11-27 11-28 11-28 11-32 11-32 11-35 11-35 11-37 11-37 11-38

Recommendations for Implementation Zoning Ordinance Recommendations • Center City Focus Area • Richmond Road Focus Area • Bed and Breakfast Uses • Commercial Corridors • Shopping Centers Area • Mixed Use Areas

12-1 12-1 12-2 12-2 12-2 12-3 12-3

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Chapter

Title

Page • Medium Density Single Family Detached Areas • Landscape Standards • College Student Housing • Architectural and Archaeological Review • Subdivision Ordinance • Affordable Housing and Neighborhoods • Economic Development Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation Capital Improvement Recommendations

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12-4 12-4 12-4 12-4 12-4 12-5 12-5 12-6 12-6

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan v


Chapter 1 Introduction The City’s sixth Comprehensive Plan continues over 50 years of comprehensive planning for Williamsburg. As has been the case for each plan, the 2006 Comprehensive Plan updates and refines the work done on earlier plans. Perhaps the best introduction for this first Comprehensive Plan of the 21st century is the introduction for the 1953 Plan, which was the first plan for the 20th century: Williamsburg is chiefly notable because it is a city with a most unique and important history. The city plan described in this report is recognition that it is a city which should look forward to a significant future also. City planning has come to be an accepted municipal activity of American cities. Its objective is the development of the most satisfactory and desirable community possible in relation to the city's site and economic potential. This is to be achieved through a gradual correction of past mistakes in city building and a careful control of new growth. The city plan is a diagram or blueprint, carefully designed, indicating the most logical arrangement of the community’s major features - streets, schools, parks, sewers, residential areas, commercial centers and the like. As existing buildings or facilities are replaced or new buildings are added, coordination of each with the city plan will, in the end, result in an economical, efficient and desirable community for its citizens and an attractive city to visit. Any other method of city building inevitably will result in duplication, waste, and costly mistakes in the expenditure of both public and private funds. To build a community in accordance with a city plan results in a city with far more desirable living and working conditions at a material saving of time, effort and money. Planning problems in Williamsburg are far more intricate and difficult than in the usual city of its size. The many thousands of visitors require accommodations and create traffic difficulties. Substantial growth is occurring. Present problems must be solved and future growth accommodated in such a manner that the city may be a completely satisfactory place in which to live and work and so that the notable restoration of the colonial city may be even more enjoyably and profitably viewed by increasing numbers of visitors. The lesson taught by this Restoration is important to the enhancement of national pride in the origins of our nation, thus making the planned development of the entire community of Williamsburg a matter of more than local importance. Perhaps now more than ever Williamsburg needs to preserve its historic center while at the same time encouraging new development of compatible scale and character. As with the 1953, 1968, 1981, 1989 and 1998 Comprehensive Plans, the challenge will not end with the adoption of this Plan, but will continue through revisions of the zoning ordinance and other measures implementing the recommendations of the Plan. Although the 1953 Comprehensive Plan was the first formal plan adopted under the procedures of State law, it was definitely not the City’s first plan. The planning of Williamsburg began some 320 years earlier in 1633 by decree of the Virginia General Assembly, which designed a plan to encourage a new settlement at Middle Plantation as a defense in depth for Jamestown with high ground, better drainage, good water, and more central to the growing colony, out of the range of a ship’s guns, and, perhaps, somewhat less vulnerable to plagues of mosquitoes from the marshes surrounding Jamestown. Chapter 1 – Introduction

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 1-1


The decision to move the Capitol and establish the City of Williamsburg followed the burning of the State House in Jamestown in 1698. The 1699 act authorizing the new city provided for several features of a city plan, including street names and setback regulations. By the time Williamsburg reached its prime as the colonial capital of Virginia, it had achieved the formal organization originally intended. The sketch below is taken from the famous Frenchman’s Map of 1782.

The new capital flourished for eighty-one years. Though its resident population probably never exceeded 2,000, the town would be filled to overflowing during the “Publick Times”, usually in the Spring and Fall, when the Assemblies were held and the courts were in session. But the population was moving westward, and the strategic Virginia Peninsula was vulnerable to attack. In 1780, the capital moved from Williamsburg to Richmond. The removal of the capital began a period of physical decline which continued unchecked until 1926 when Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., decided to fund and oversee the Restoration. The results of this decision are now familiar to millions of Americans. All of the City’s Comprehensive Plans have recognized that the Colonial heart of the City could neither be properly preserved nor made conveniently accessible without careful consideration of a much wider area. In addition, when official planning work began in 1951, it was apparent that the then recent trend of growth would continue around the old City, as it has to this day. The completion of Route 199 around the western side of the City and the resulting development has added to the existing growth pressures, and will continue to make preserving the City’s character a great challenge. With this in mind, the 2006 Comprehensive Plan has concentrated much effort on preserving the character of the Center City – the restored Historic Area, the College of William & Mary and the surrounding older neighborhoods, on providing an appropriate balance of housing for all City residents, and on encouraging appropriate new development – both in the two Economic Development areas (High Street and Quarterpath) and in redevelopment areas along the major commercial corridors. Much emphasis has also been placed on quality urban design and sensitivity to Williamsburg’s natural environment. Urban design standards have been developed, and sensitive environmental areas have been identified throughout the City. Recommendations are made in the Implementation chapter to ensure that a strong relationship continues between this Plan and the implementation measures that will follow. We have taken steps in this Plan to provide for orderly growth with sensitivity to both the natural and built environments. As the Historic Triangle prepares to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, we should never lose sight of this area’s, and Williamsburg’s, place in history and should always take appropriate steps to ensure that Williamsburg does not lose it special character.

Reed T. Nester, AICP Planning Director

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 1 – Introduction 1-2


Chapter 2 Past Comprehensive Plans The City adopted its first Comprehensive Plan in 1953, followed by the plans of 1968, 1981, 1989 and 1998. Planning Commission reviewed the recommendations and analysis contained in these Plans as one of the initial steps in preparing the 2006 Plan. 1953 Comprehensive Plan The 1953 Comprehensive Plan was prepared by Harland Bartholomew and Associates, and followed the adoption of the City’s original Zoning Ordinance in 1947. Williamsburg in 1953 had 1,185 dwelling units, a net population of 3,327 persons (not counting approximately 2,000 students at the College), average family size of 2.8 persons, 24% African American population. The 1980 population was projected to be 5,000 persons.

Continued increases in the number of visitors to Colonial Williamsburg were anticipated, as was the need for the provision of increased accommodations for visitors. Also foreseen was a greater volume of retail trade with consequent increased traffic volumes. The College of William & Mary, Eastern State Hospital, and adjacent military establishments were also counted as important contributors to the local economy. The Plan recommended that these enlarged facilities be arranged so that every possible protection is

Chapter 2 – Past Comprehensive Plans

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 2-1


afforded to the Restored Area. Future industrial development was discouraged, “so that the character of the City will not be disturbed and the major elements of the economy will be protected.” The 1953 Plan recommended that the City should provide for a large expansion in local residential areas in the most convenient and attractive locations. Areas for future residential growth were identified as northwest along Richmond Road partly using lands owned by William and Mary and Colonial Williamsburg, filling in between Jamestown Road and College Landing Road (now South Henry Street), the northeast corner of the City, extending Highland Park to the north, and locating apartment houses near the center of the City with a density of 18 to 22 units per acre. Substandard housing was analyzed in much detail, and the 1953 Plan recommended the creation of a Housing Authority, the use of urban renewal funds in the downtown area, and the adoption of a minimum housing ordinance. All of these recommendations were subsequently implemented by the City. The Plan recommended several future highway improvements that were eventually completed: Rt. 132, described as a “freeway type approach highway from the north,” completion of the Colonial Parkway to Jamestown, extension of Lafayette Street to both Richmond Road and York Street, and the extension of Newport Avenue from South England to South Henry Street. A recommendation to extend Francis Street to Jamestown Road was never implemented. A major recommendation for education was the consolidation of the Williamsburg and James City County public schools. This was approved in 1953, and resulted in the construction of James Blair High School (now a Middle School), the conversion of Matthew Whaley to an elementary school, and the enlarging of Bruton Heights School for a African American elementary and high school. Ambitious plans were outlined for the City’s park system, but some of the major recommendations were never implemented – a 58 acre park south of Indian Springs (now part of the Coves and Port Anne), a 27 acre park south of Highland Park (now Governor’s Inn), and a 32 acre park at the end of Matoaka Court (now part of William & Mary Hall). A 58 acre park on Waller Mill Road adjacent to the Waller Mill Reservoir was recommended for park development, and it was noted that “it is not proposed to open the Williamsburg reservoir for boating or fishing as the difficulties of controlling such activities would be very great.” The present day Waller Mill Park, 2,000 acres surrounding the Reservoir, has boating and fishing as two of its most popular activities. A small boat harbor was proposed on Queens Creek at Queen Mary Port, and this park (without a boat harbor) is still proposed as Capitol Landing Park. 1968 Comprehensive Plan The City’s second Comprehensive Plan was adopted in 1968, and was again prepared for the City by Harland Bartholomew and Associates. The Williamsburg area in 1968 had a population of 13,300 (this included the area within about three miles of City line, but excluding college students and Eastern State Hospital patients), compared to 7,150 in 1950. Multifamily development and tourist homes were found to have clustered in the old parts of the City and in the vicinity of the College, with 7.5% of the dwelling units in the planning area apartments. The 1985 population for the Williamsburg area was estimated to be 35,000 persons. The 1968 Plan noted that the 1953 Plan did not fully anticipate the increase in tourism and the enormous popularity of Williamsburg as a regional attraction, and missed the character and timing of much residential growth, such as James and York Terrace and Queens Lake. Also missed by the 1953 Plan was the development of the Interstate Highway System, the development of Jamestown Festival (now Jamestown Settlement), and the removal of Eastern State Hospital from the center of Williamsburg. The 1968 Plan recommended the expansion of visitor facilities to accommodate the expected growth in tourism (1,500,000 visitors a year projected for 1985), and noted that the growth in future purchasing power will encourage an extensive expansion of retail shopping facilities of high character. Several expansions of commercial areas were described: major shopping centers proposed to the east (James 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 2 – Past Comprehensive Plans 2-2


York Plaza) and to the west (the expansion of Williamsburg Shopping Center and Monticello Shopping Center), additional tourist facilities along Capitol Landing Road, and a new tourist area along Bypass Road near Richmond Road. The Plan observed that manufacturing activity was unlikely to expand except at the expense of the colonial atmosphere so vital to the overall economic health of Williamsburg, and concluded that “Williamsburg simply cannot permit its environs to develop as a great mass of motels, curio shops, restaurants, and general tourist ballyhoo which tends to surround anything which regularly attracts large numbers of people. The distinctive character of Williamsburg must be maintained at all costs. Visitor facilities must be restricted to appropriate areas, and when these are filled up, additional accommodations must be built elsewhere on the Peninsula.” A large increase in population over the next 20 years was predicted, and the 1968 Plan suggested the provision of appropriate locations for all types of residences, including apartments of “high character.” Approximately 275 acres was shown as “medium-density residential” and appropriate for apartments, including the greater West Williamsburg area along Richmond Road (West Williamsburg, West Williamsburg Heights, College Terrace and Matoaka Court) and the Indian Springs/Griffin Avenue area, although it was noted that most of this area will be developed as single family. Residential density was specified at 21 to 22 units/acre in central area, and 14 to 15 units/acre in the outlying areas. The Plan discouraged the random scattering of apartments in future single-family areas, and suggested locations near main academic, employment and recreation centers, and with access to major thoroughfares.

An extensive network of future highway improvements was included in the 1968 Comprehensive Plan, exceeding those listed in any of the City’s future Comprehensive Plans. These improvements included the Williamsburg Circumferential (Rt. 199), which joined I-64 along Airport Road; an Intermediate Circumferential which extended along the west side of Lake Matoaka to Monticello Avenue (the only section that was built is Compton Drive), and then to the Ironbound/Richmond Road area and across to Chapter 2 – Past Comprehensive Plans

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 2-3


Hubbard Lane; the extension of Second Street to Brooks Street; the extension of Monticello Avenue to Ironbound Road; and the extension of Mt. Vernon Avenue to Ironbound Road (now the Treyburn Drive extension project). An extensive list of downtown improvements was proposed, including the construction of numerous parking lots ringing the Historic Area. The most extensive parking improvement was to demolish Matthew Whaley School for major parking lot between Governor’s Palace and North Henry Street, which was to adjoin a special purpose park south of the Matthew Whaley School site, to be offered primarily to tourists as “an ideal place for a picnic lunch, and a much-needed gesture of municipal hospitality.” A new Municipal Center was proposed, including quarters for all City departments, additional public meeting space, storage space for equipment, and adequate off-street parking. Echoing what was initially proposed in the 1953 Plan, the 1968 Plan recommended the establishment of an urban renewal program to deal with the City’s substandard housing. This let to the establishment of the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority. Recommendations for future educational needs did not anticipate the spreading out of growth in James City County, with all proposed school locations in close proximity to the City. New elementary school locations included the Casey property on Richmond Road, the present New Town development in James City County, the present Richmond Hill subdivision, and a location west of Highland Park. New high school locations included New Town and the Kiwanis Park area (now James Blair Middle School, formerly James Blair High School). 1981 Comprehensive Plan The 1981 Comprehensive Plan was the third and last plan prepared for the City by Harland Bartholomew and Associates. Williamsburg in 1980 had a population of 9,870, growing from 9,069 in 1970. The population growth, however, was less than had been predicted. The 2000 population for the Williamsburg area was estimated to be 39,400 persons, with Williamsburg alone expected to grow to 11,200 persons. As was the case with the 1953 Plan, the 1968 Plan did not foresee some of the major developments between 1968 and 1981, including the establishment of the Anheuser-Busch Brewery, Busch Gardens, and the Kingsmill development. The Plan observed that Colonial Williamsburg attendance will not grow as rapidly as it has in the past unless a major effort is mounted to increase visitor capacity, and pointed out that attendance growth was less than the 5% per year that had been forecast. Directly related to the attendance was the number of motel rooms, which grew 40% since 1973 (3,703 in the City, 1,476 in James City County and 284 in York County). The occupancy rate was 63.5%. The Plan stated that the future growth of City revenues will depend on sales to area residents, but noted that an increasing proportion of this trade is shifting out of the City. It was suggested that in order to address this issue, the City should develop a major shopping center to capture the growth predicted for the trade area Major multifamily construction had occurred between the last two Plans, with 75% of new City dwelling units built between 1964 and 1973 being multi-family, and five of these projects were located along Merrimac Trail. “Medium Density Residential” areas were deemed generally appropriate for apartments of up to three stories, with a density of 10 to 17 dwelling units per acre. The Plan noted that it was important to maintain the small scale of all residential areas regardless of development type or density. Major highway improvements recommended by the 1981 Comprehensive Plan included the extension of Second Street from Page Street to Bypass Road, with a connection to Monticello Avenue by a bridge over the railroad tracks. A connection was planned between Parkway Drive and Merrimac Trail, and Boundary Street was planned to be extended to the south to connect with South Henry Street near Mimosa Drive. 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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As was the case with the two previous Comprehensive Plans, much emphasis was placed on future improvements in the downtown area. The Library Auditorium was under construction, and recommendations for major improvements included relocating the City Shop from Capitol Landing Road to its present location, relocating the large truck and bulk mail post office operations outside the central area, and consideration of a parking garage of commercial expansion takes place in Merchants Square. Major progress was made in improving substandard housing. Fulfilling a recommendation made in the 1953 and 1968 plans, the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority was established in 1969. This resulted in the development and implementation of the Armistead Avenue Urban Renewal Plan, which resulted in the construction of the Crispus Attucks subdivision at the corner of Lafayette Street and Armistead Avenue, a site for a new fire station, and redevelopment of the Triangle Block. Concerns were expressed about the impact of college students on the downtown residential areas, with the 1981 Plan recommending that “[t]he City … initiate a special study of the residentially zoned areas adjacent to the College to determine the extent of the impact of students as evidenced by conversion of single-family housing to apartments and the number of student apartments in these areas. A plan should be developed from these studies to minimize the impact of college related activities such as on street parking.” Chapter 2 – Past Comprehensive Plans

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 2-5


Many recommendations were made for public park improvements. Implemented were College Landing Park and the expansion of Kiwanis, Quarterpath and Waller Mill Parks. Recommended but not implemented are parks on Merrimac Trail, Mimosa Drive, New Hope Road and Capitol Landing Road. 1989 Comprehensive Plan The City’s fourth Comprehensive Plan was prepared for the City by the Cox Company. This Plan included analysis and recommendations for the four square miles annexed from James City County in 1984, the first expansion of the City’s boundaries since 1967. Williamsburg had an estimated population of 11,300 in 1985, compared to 9,870 in 1980. The population projections for 2000 ranged from a low of 12,620 to a high of 14,423 – the actual 2000 Census population was 11,998.

College Creek Planning Area

The 1989 Plan developed the concept of “net developable acreage,” which analyzed the physical constraints on the land (slopes, wetlands, soils, vegetative cover and existing development), and these factors were considered in determining development suitability, allowing the land to “speak for itself.” This concept was applied to ten designated Planning Areas, representing 40 percent of the City’s land area – the areas most suitable for development and redevelopment. Detailed analysis of the Planning areas led to “mini-plans” and maps for each. The 1989 Plan placed increased emphasis on the natural environment, and great care was taken to identify sensitive environmental areas. Urban development was channeled into identified “prime developable areas,” while environmental preservation and open space conservation were strongly recommended for the sensitive areas. The identification of these area helped the City in its implementation of the Chesapeake Bay Protection Act, identifying areas that were also designated Resource Protection Areas in the City’s Zoning Ordinance. 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 2 – Past Comprehensive Plans 2-6


The Plan also recognized the importance of the built environment, and preservation of historic and architectural resources was identified as a major planning goal. A complete restructuring of the City’s architectural review process was proposed, the first major change since architectural review began in 1958. This led to the creation of an architectural preservation district to protect and enhance the character of the Colonial Williamsburg historic area and the surrounding older neighborhoods, supplemented by corridor protection districts designed to improve the major entrance corridors into the City. The 1989 Plan recommended the complete revision of the City’s zoning ordinance, the first major change since 1966. This revision was designed to help to fulfill the objectives of the Comprehensive Plan by strengthening the linkages between the Plan and the zoning, site plan and subdivision review processes. The new zoning ordinance was adopted in 1991. Major transportation improvements recommended by the Plan included the extension of Monticello Avenue across the CSX railroad to connect to Bypass Road in York County (rejected by City Council in 1992), the Parkway Drive/Merrimac Trail connection (deleted in the 1998 Plan), the completion of Route 199, and the extension of Monticello Avenue west to Route 199. Plans for the downtown area included incremental improvements to the Municipal Center area, which included relocating the Council Chambers to the Stryker Building and renovating the original Municipal Building located at 400 North Boundary Street. The Plan recognized the planned relocation of the Post Office to Lafayette Street, and noted that a study was underway to determine the future of the Williamsburg-James City County Courthouse and Jail on South Henry Street. Expansion of the Merchants Square commercial area was proposed, and for the first time a mixed-use area was recommended adjacent to Merchants Square between Scotland Street and Lafayette Street. This was the first step in the redevelopment of the City Square area, which took place 10 years after this recommendation. The emphasis of the 1989 Plan shifted from improvements to substandard housing to the creation of new low and moderate income housing. Sites for new housing were identified on Ironbound Road and for the first time on Strawberry Plains Road. The latter site was proposed for redevelopment by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority, which began the project in 2003. The plans for new parkland were primarily for passive parks, with a major recommendation for acquisition of the College Creek Nature Area on South Henry Street. The establishment of a park at Capitol Landing, originally recommended in 1953, was again listed as a future goal. The major improvement to the active parks was the recommendation for a gymnasium at Quarterpath Park. 1998 Comprehensive Plan The City’s fifth Comprehensive Plan was again prepared for the City by the Cox Company, and further refined the “net developable acreage” and planning area concepts. Williamsburg had an estimated population of 12,100 in 1995, compared with the 1990 Census figure of 11,409. The population projection for 2020 was 15,020, which represented a residential build-out of the City based on the land use plan and zoning regulations. The projected population for 2010 was 13,813, and this figure has almost been met by the 2004 Weldon-Cooper Center provisional estimate of 13,600 persons. The 1998 Plan continued the concept of “net developable acreage,” letting the physical constraints on the land determine developmental suitability. This was reflected in nine designated Planning Areas that were refined from the areas included in the 1989 Plan. The College Creek Planning Area was dropped because the area was mostly developed, and revised planning areas were created for Capitol Landing Road and Richmond Road. The vacant areas with the most development continued to be in the Richmond Road Planning Area (the High Street property), and in the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Planning Area (the Riverside property). Both of these sites are under review in 2005 for master planned mixed use

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developments, and are consistent with the 1998 Plan’s recommendations for integrated, mixed-use developments providing additional employment and tax revenues for the City.

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Planning Area

The preservation of historic and architectural resources was again a major planning goal. The Plan added archaeological preservation as an important preservation activity, acknowledging the adoption of an archaeological preservation section to the zoning ordinance in 1995. A new chapter on urban design was added, giving increased emphasis to maintaining the quality of new development in the City, particularly along the entrance corridors in the Architectural Preservation area in the Center City. The guidelines in the Plan support the detailed guidelines that have been developed and refined by the Architectural Review Board and Planning Department staff. More extensive plans were proposed for the Center City area than were included in the 1989 Plan. Merchants Square expansion was still supported, but a new parking facility (possibly a parking garage) was recommended north of Prince George Street (the Prince George Parking Garage opened in 2004). This area was originally recommended for public parking in 1953. The Plan recognized the progress that had been made in the City Square area (Library expansion, Parking Terrace, Community Building), and supported continued new development and redevelopment in the mixed use area connecting City Square with Merchants Square. Major transportation improvements included the improvement of Richmond Road between Brooks Street and New Hope Road, and the construction of Treyburn Drive between Monticello Avenue and Ironbound Road. Several major intersections improvements were proposed (Capitol Landing Road/Merrimac Trail, Jamestown Road/Route 199 and Richmond Road/Patriot Lane), and improvements were also recommended for Quarterpath Road. For the first time, specific proposals were included in the Plan for 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 2 – Past Comprehensive Plans 2-8


bicycle and pedestrian improvements, and the continued upgrading of the Transportation Center into a multi-modal transportation hub was supported. A separate Housing chapter was included in the 1998 Plan. The Plan proposed limiting the expansion of high density multifamily housing, since the City had a disproportionate share of this type of housing, and recommended that single family housing should make up at least 50 percent of the City’s housing stock. Certain residential areas were recognized as “threatened” by several critical issues: the gradual influx of college students, increased through traffic, and substandard or deteriorating housing. A coordinated approach to these issues was recommended. Three areas were specifically recommended for housing rehabilitation and provision of new low and moderate income housing: the Wales subdivision on Ironbound Road, the Strawberry Plains area, and the Roses Trailer Court area on Quarterpath Road. A Community Development Block Grant program has been completed for Wales, is underway for Strawberry Plains, and is under study for the Roses Trailer Court area. Economic development also received a chapter of its own in the 1998 Plan. This chapter emphasized the need for an increased focus on redevelopment, since the City’s supply of vacant land is decreasing each year. The basic premise of this chapter, and of the Plan, is to support and promote the existing tourism base while exploring other economic development opportunities for expanded employment and revenue base throughout the City. The Plan also supported the establishment of an office for economic development as an administrative function of the City government. Continued emphasis was placed on the development and maintenance of passive parks. Included in the list of recommendations was Capitol Landing, the College Creek Nature Area, the College Creek Conservation Area (acquired in 1996), and Papermill Creek Park (acquired in 1998). For active parks, expansion of the Quarterpath Gymnasium and a new Operations Building at Waller Mill Park (as well as expanded hours) were recommended.

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Chapter 3 Goals for the Development of Williamsburg The 2006 Comprehensive Plan is designed to guide the physical and economic development of Williamsburg by offering a distinctive vision for both its natural and built environment. The planning process has incorporated a range of public participation opportunities to allow citizens to express their visions and expectations for the future of the City. A number of neighborhood planning forums, as well as multiple work sessions with both public officials and citizens, were conducted. The comments received, as well as a review of the recommendations of the City’s past Comprehensive Plans, were used by the Planning Commission in establishing these goals and objectives, which have been grouped into nine general categories: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.

Character of the City Economy Neighborhoods and Housing Transportation Public Safety Education and Human Services Recreation and Culture Environmental Services Implementation

Within each of these categories, specific goals and objectives are listed to serve as the basis for planning and evaluating the City’s development and redevelopment. I. Character of the City. Protect and enhance Williamsburg’s unique character - the historic area, college, entrance corridors, urban environment and open spaces. A.

B. C.

D.

E. F.

G.

Protect the character and integrity of the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area, the historic campus of the College of William & Mary, and the City’s historic neighborhoods and commercial areas. Protect significant archaeological resources by ensuring that they are either preserved or recovered through a resource management plan. Work closely with the College of William & Mary to ensure that the improvement and expansion of facilities both on and near campus respects the character of the community and of the College. Improve the City’s major entrance corridors, working cooperatively with James City County and York County on corridor issues since the visual quality of these entrances transcends jurisdictional boundaries. Maintain and update regulations, design standards and capital improvements to preserve and enhance the character of Williamsburg’s urban environment. Encourage the conservation of open space in the City and promote preservation, maintenance and access to natural resource areas through efforts such as public acquisition, delineation of greenbelt corridors, private dedication of easements, and passive recreational use. Ensure that future development meets the standards of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act.

Chapter 3 – Goals

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 3-1


II. Economy. Increase employment opportunities, income, business success, and City revenues by supporting and promoting the City’s tourism base and other development and redevelopment opportunities. A. B. C. D. E. F.

Support and expand existing tourism-oriented destinations and related businesses. Support business expansion and job opportunities related to the College of William & Mary. Encourage other commercial and institutional development in order to expand the City’s economic base. Identify areas suitable for infill development and redevelopment, and develop strategies to encourage such development and redevelopment. Participate in efforts to advance regional tourism and economic development goals both within the Historic Triangle and the greater Hampton Road region. Cooperate with the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, the College of William & Mary, and Riverside Healthcare Systems to coordinate their land use planning and economic development efforts with the City’s Comprehensive Plan.

III. Neighborhoods and Housing. Protect and enhance the quality of the City’s residential neighborhoods, and encourage the provision of affordable housing for City residents. A. B.

C. D. E. F.

G. H. I.

Encourage adequate housing opportunities for individuals and families by creating a balanced distribution of housing types throughout the City. Determine appropriate densities for new and infill residential development, taking into consideration the density and character of existing development, environmental constraints, and the capacity of existing and proposed transportation systems. Encourage the construction of owner-occupied housing of varying types and densities, with a goal of having more than 50% of the City’s housing stock owner-occupied. Limit the construction of new multi-family dwellings to areas that are served by adequate public streets and by pedestrian, bicycle and public transportation facilities. Encourage the provision of housing in mixed-use developments, particularly in the Center City, High Street and Quarterpath Road areas. Support the work of private and quasi-public agencies such as the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority and Williamsburg Housing Partnership, Inc. in creating and improving moderately priced owner-occupied housing. Use the property maintenance code and the rental inspection program to maintain and improve the quality of the City’s neighborhoods. Address demands for student-oriented housing, both on- and off-campus, in cooperation with the College of William & Mary. Coordinate with neighboring jurisdictions to address regional housing concerns and needs.

IV. Transportation. Provide an effective transportation system which is compatible with the future land use plan, serves pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists, and promotes the expanded use of transit and rail. A.

B. C.

Complete the City’s major highway projects – Richmond Road between Brooks Street and New Hope Road, Treyburn Drive, and Ironbound Road between Richmond Road and Longhill Connector. Incorporate traffic-calming measures in appropriate locations to minimize traffic impacts on the City’s neighborhoods. Improve and expand bicycle and pedestrian facilities as an important part of the transportation system, with special emphasis on filling in gaps to create an interconnected system.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 3 – Goals 3-2


D.

E.

Support mass transit providing an acceptable level of service for the Williamsburg area, including James City and York Counties, Colonial Williamsburg, and the College of William & Mary, with the Williamsburg Transportation Center serving as the regional hub. Support the development and implementation of improved high-speed rail and light-rail service, with the Williamsburg Transportation Center serving as the regional hub.

V. Public safety. Ensure that City systems and facilities enable police, fire, emergency management and judicial operations to protect and serve City residents, visitors, businesses and historical assets. A. B. C.

Maintain and upgrade public safety facilities to enable the City to provide quality services for law enforcement, firefighting, communications, and emergency operations. Reserve a suitable site for a new fire station in the High Street area, to allow for the expansion of fire services if and when it is needed. Support the operation and maintenance of the Williamsburg-James City County Courthouse, the Virginia Peninsula Regional Jail, and the Middle Peninsula Juvenile Detention Facility (Merrimac Center).

VI. Education and Human Services. Address the educational, health, social, economic and workforce training needs of City families, youth, seniors and disabled citizens. A. B.

C.

Support the operation of the Williamsburg-James City County school system providing necessary facilities within the City. Support the construction of a new Thomas Nelson Community College Campus in conjunction with the construction of a third high school on the Warhill Tract on Centerville Road. Provide appropriate public support for human services agency facilities and other capital improvements as needed to meet critical health and human service needs.

VII. Recreation and Culture. Add to the quality and quantity of recreational and cultural facilities, and enhance recreational and cultural programming to meet the needs of the City families, youth and seniors. A. B. C. D. E.

Expand and enhance the City’s system of parks, open space and recreational facilities. Preserve scenic vistas, natural areas and historic sites on public and private land. Plan for neighborhood parks as new residential development occurs. Encourage regional cooperation in the development and provision of recreational and cultural facilities and programs. Support updating the feasibility study for constructing a performing arts center to serve the greater Williamsburg area.

VIII. Environmental Services. Ensure an adequate supply of clean, safe drinking water; protect environment through operation of effective storm water, wastewater and solid waste programs. A. B. C. D.

Protect Waller Mill Reservoir from the adverse environmental impacts that could result from future development within the watershed. Continue to actively support the Regional Raw Water Study Group in the construction of the King William Reservoir project through the federal and state permitting process. Continue to upgrade the City’s water distribution system to provide adequate quantity and quality for both daily usage and fire flows. Continue to maintain and expand the City’s sanitary sewerage system, including both distribution lines and pump stations.

Chapter 3 – Goals

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 3-3


E.

F.

G.

Integrate the policies and procedures of the City’s Stormwater Management Plan with other City land use regulations, such as zoning, erosion and sedimentation control, Chesapeake Bay preservation, and site plan review. Continue to implement a regional stormwater management approach, in accordance with the Stormwater Management Plan, emphasizing regional BMPs over small, on-site facilities in order to better protect water quality. Work through the Virginia Peninsulas Public Service Authority (VPPSA) to develop adequate solid waste disposal programs which meet community needs and state mandates in the Peninsula region.

IX. Implementation Implement the recommendations of the Comprehensive Plan by updating the City’s zoning, subdivision and site plan controls, and by incorporating the Plan’s recommendations into the Capital Improvement Program.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 3 – Goals 3-4


Chapter 4 Population This chapter was prepared for the City by the staff of the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission in October, 2005 The character of a city’s population can help predict future development patterns, and when studied over time can act as a valuable planning tool for a community making decisions related to growth. Future land use patterns are based on the trends seen in the existing community, and involve an assessment of the need for housing, schools, public facilities, infrastructure, and other services. The City of Williamsburg is both an important tourist destination and a college town, which influences the character of the City and its residents. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission, and local records, the following chapter examines the most recent population estimates, population growth trends, and household information for the City of Williamsburg. The City is also part of a larger fast-growing region that includes the counties of James City and York. Both of these counties have experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, particularly in residential areas. In order to understand the dynamics affecting growth and development within the City of Williamsburg, this chapter will also examine regional trends in population and housing. POPULATION GROWTH The City of Williamsburg is located on the Peninsula of Virginia, which includes four cities and two counties. Table 4-1 shows that the Peninsula’s population grew at a rate of 12.6% from 1990 to 2000, slightly below the national average of 13% for the same period. The cities of Hampton and Newport News dominate the lower end of the Peninsula, and 72% of the population lives there. Figure 4-1 illustrates the population growth patterns of the Peninsula localities from 1970 to 2000. Although the smaller cities of Williamsburg and Poquoson showed slow rates of growth relative to the other localities, their collective population growth was about 62% over the thirty-year period. The cities of Hampton and Newport News experienced a cumulative growth rate of only 25% during that time. The City of Williamsburg is separated from the larger Peninsula cities and is influenced to a greater degree by the two rapidly growing counties that surround it: James City and York. Together the three localities comprise a region that more than doubled its population during the thirty-year period from 1970 to 2000, due in large part to the robust 169% growth rate in James City County and the nearly 103% growth rate in York County. In the ten-year period from 1990 to 2000, the Williamsburg region experienced a 31% growth rate. Although the United States saw its largest ever population increase during that decade, according to the U. S. Bureau of the Census, the Williamsburg region grew at more than twice the rate of the rest of the country. Both James City and York are predominantly suburban counties, and both have experienced significant population growth over a period of several decades. While the population growth in these counties helped propel population growth in the Williamsburg region from 54,684 in 1970 to 116,387 in 2000, the City of Williamsburg experienced a slower growth rate. The 2000 Census reported a city population of 11,998, which represented an increase of 5.2% over the 1990 Census population of 11,409 as shown in Table 4-2. Although the City continues to grow, recent figures represent a marked decrease from a growth rate of 10.8% from 1980 to 1990 and 13.5% from 1970 to 1980.

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-1


Table 4-1: Population Change on the Peninsula POPULATION 1970 Williamsburg

1980

CHANGE, 1990-2000

1990

2000

Number

Percent

9,069

10,294

11,409

11,998

588

5.2%

120,779

122,617

133,811

146,437

12,626

9.4%

17,853

22,339

34,970

48,102

13,132

37.6%

138,177

144,903

171,439

180,697

9,258

5.4%

5,441

8,726

11,005

11,566

561

5.1%

27,762

35,463

42,434

56,297

13,863

32.7%

333,140

364,449

435,197

489,877

54,680

12.6%

Hampton Roads

1,108,393

1,213,999

1,454,183

1,575,348

121,165

8.3%

Virginia

4,651,448

5,346,797

6,015,100

7,078,515

1,063,415

17.7%

Hampton James City Newport News Poquoson York County Peninsula

Figure 4-1: Population Change on the Peninsula: 1970-2000 200,000 180,000 Williamsburg Hampton James City Newport News Poquoson York County

160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Census 19702000

40,000 20,000 0 1970

1980

1990

2000

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Census 1970-2000.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-2


Population estimates available from the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service at the University of Virginia indicate that the pattern of growth may have changed since 2000. From 2000 to 2004, Figure 4-2 estimates that the growth rate in James City County has remained steady at 3.7% annually (unchanged from 1990 to 2000), while the growth rate declined appreciably in York County to 2.3% annually. In the previous decade, York County grew at average annual rate of 3.4%. However, Williamsburg’s growth rate is estimated to be much higher now than in the previous decade. Growth in the City is estimated at an average annual increase of 3.3% for the four-year period from 2000 to 2004, up significantly from the .05% annual growth rate seen from 1990 to 2000. James City County’s population is estimated at 55,200 in 2004, up a total of almost 15% from 2000; York County’s population is estimated at 61,500, up about 9% from 2000. Williamsburg’s population is estimated at 13,600 in 2004, up an estimated 13% or 1602 persons over the 2000 Census (Table 4-2).

Table 4-2: The Williamsburg Region: Population Growth 1970-2004 1970 James City Co.

1980

1990

2004 (Estimated)

2000

17,853

22,339

34,970

48,102

55,200

9,069

10,294

11,409

11,998

13,600

York Co.

27,762

35,463

42,434

56,297

61,500

Peninsula

333,140

364,449

435,197

489,877

502,300

Williamsburg

Source: Population Estimates for Virginia’s Counties and Cities, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, University of Virginia

Figure 4-2: The Williamsburg Region: Population Growth 1970-2004

70,000 2004 (Estimated)

James City Co. 60,000

Williamsburg York Co.

Population

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

0 1970

1980

1990

2000

Year

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-3


POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS Age In the City of Williamsburg, the population is highly concentrated within two age groups: the college age group (ages 18-24) comprises 46% of the total population, while approximately 12% are 65 or older. Exhibit 4-1 at the end of the chapter shows the distribution of the population by median age. Residents age 50 and older dominate the southwestern part of the City, while residents in the areas around the College of William and Mary fall primarily in the 18-24 age groups. Figure 4-3 compares the age distribution of the City’s population in 1990 and 2000. Significant increases are shown in the 45-64 age groups, indicating that the number of retirement-age residents is likely to show a marked increase in 2010. The aging of the general population will also have an effect on the City. The 65 and over population accounts for a significant percentage of the City population when the data is adjusted for full time permanent residency. There are 1,404 persons who are 65 or older living in the City, making up more than 21% of the City's non-student population of approximately 6,600. The proportion of permanent residents over the age of 65 is significantly higher in Williamsburg than in the surrounding region (13.9%), Hampton Roads (10.9%), or the State (11.9%). Exhibit 4-2 at the end of the chapter indicates that the 65 and over population lived in many of the same areas in the City in both 1990 and 2000, and that few lived in the downtown area. Figure 4-3: Comparison of Population Age Distribution: 1990-2000 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 1990 2000

2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Under 5 to 9 10 to 15 to 20 to 25 to 35 to 45 to 55 to 60 to 65 to 75 to 85 5 14 19 24 34 44 54 59 64 74 84 years years and over Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population and Housing, 100-Percent Data, 1990, 2000.

As the “baby boom” generation ages, the 65 and over age group will continue to grow as a segment of the overall population. Marketing to retirees or soon-to-be retirees has been prevalent in Williamsburg throughout the 1990s, and continues into the 2000s. Condominium construction, which is popular with this age group, accounted for 460 of the 1,098 dwelling units approved for construction since 1993. The High Street project proposed on Richmond Road is expected to add another 248 units to that market. The Quarterpath at Williamsburg development proposed by Riverside Health System will contain 300 units of age-restricted housing (single and multi-family), plus a nursing home and assisted living facility.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-4


Table 4-3 shows population distributions by percentage for the Williamsburg region, Hampton Roads, and Virginia. With the exception of Williamsburg itself, all three areas show a similar concentration of residents in the 35-44 age category ranging from 16.4% to 17% of the total population. The City of Williamsburg has a comparatively low percentage of residents in the 35-44 age group at just over 8% of the population, but a much greater concentration of college-age residents. Figure 4-4 illustrates the disparity between the Williamsburg population profile and the profiles of the surrounding localities and the state, particularly in the 20-24 age group. The presence of the College of William and Mary ensures a steady and substantial supply of primarily transient residents between the ages of 18 and 24. The College’s Strategic Plan: Into the Fourth Century projected increased freshman enrollment in the mid1990s, up from 1,240 to 1,290 in the 1996-1997 academic year. The College remains interested in maintaining small class sizes, but also plans to become a charter school along with the University of Virginia and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. As part of the charter initiative, the College agreed to accept another 125 transfer students and another 150 graduate and professional students. This represents a modest increase in enrollment, and the College’s commitment to maintaining small class sizes indicates that total enrollment will continue to remain relatively stable over the next decade. If the population of the Williamsburg region is adjusted to exclude those enrolled in college, the population distribution in the city is more like that of the neighboring counties. Both counties show concentrations of population in the 5-14 and 35-44 age groups, which indicates that more families live there than in the City. Conversely, Williamsburg has a slightly higher percentage of its population that is age 60 and over

Figure 4-4: Williamsburg and the Region: Population Age Groups 2000 35.0% 30.0% 25.0%

Williamsburg James City Upper York Hampton Roads Virginia

20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0%

U

nd e

r5

ye ar s 5 to 10 9 to 1 15 4 to 1 20 9 to 2 25 4 to 3 35 4 to 4 45 4 to 5 55 4 to 5 60 9 to 6 65 4 to 85 74 7 ye 5 ar to s an 84 d ov er

0.0%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing, Sample File 3.

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-5


Table 4-3: Williamsburg and the Region: Population Age Groups

Under 5 years 5 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

20 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 54

55 to 59

60 to 64

65 to 74

75 to 84

85 years and over

8.1%

Williamsburg

2.7%

2.5%

2.6%

18.6% 29.2%

9.7%

8.0%

3.6%

3.4%

5.9%

4.3%

1.4%

James City

5.6%

6.6%

7.0%

5.9%

4.6%

11.0% 16.4% 14.6%

6.1%

5.4%

9.5%

5.5%

1.8%

Upper York

5.1%

6.5%

8.3%

7.2%

4.6%

10.7% 16.9% 15.5%

6.1%

4.9%

8.9%

4.2%

1.1%

Hampton Roads

7.0%

7.6%

7.6%

7.4%

8.2%

14.8% 17.0% 12.6%

4.3%

3.4%

5.6%

3.6%

1.0%

Virginia

6.5%

7.0%

7.0%

6.8%

6.8%

14.6% 17.0% 14.1%

5.1%

3.9%

6.1%

3.9%

1.2%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1, 100-Percent Data

Figure 4-5: The Williamsburg Region: Non-College Population 25.0%

Williamsburg

20.0%

James City York

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0% 5 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

20 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 54

55 to 59 60 to 64

65 to 74

75 to 84 85 years and over

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing, Sample File 3.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-6


Figure 4-6: The Williamsburg Region: Age of Housing, 2000 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1999 to March 2000

1995 to 1998

1990 to 1994

1980 to 1989

1970 to 1979

1960 to 1969

James City

5%

15%

14%

32%

17%

7%

York

3%

12%

18%

20%

18%

14%

12%

2%

Williamsburg

2%

6%

4%

20%

21%

18%

20%

10%

1940 to 1939 or 1959 earlier 7%

1%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing, Detailed Housing Characteristics

The City of Williamsburg is also characterized by its relatively small population of school-aged children. Residents age 17 and under make up only 9.6% of the population in the City, but account for 23.3% and 24.7% in James City and upper York respectively. Among the factors influencing the location of families with young children is the availability and cost of the housing stock within the Williamsburg region. Figure 4-6 shows that both York and James City Counties have seen a much higher number of housing units built since 1989, although the City has a much higher number of housing units over 30 years old. Data from the 2000 Census indicate that 34% of the housing stock in James City County was built between 1990 and March 2000, and that 33% of the housing stock in York County was built during the same period. Conversely, only 12% of Williamsburg’s housing stock was built between 1990 and March 2000 while 48% was built before 1970. Despite the comparative lack of newer housing stock in the City, Williamsburg has the highest home values in the region. The median home value in the City was $182,000 in 2000, 16% higher than the median of $157,200 in James City County and 22% higher than the median of $149,100 in York County. Gender According to the 2000 Census, the population of Williamsburg is 55% female. This represents a slight increase since 1990 when females accounted for 54% of the City’s population. Females comprise a higher proportion of the population in Williamsburg than they do in the region or the state, where they make up about 51% of the population as a whole (Table 4-4). The increasingly higher number of female residents in the City can be attributed in part to higher proportions of college age and elderly residents.

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-7


Table 4-4: Williamsburg and the Region: Sex of Population Total Population

Male

% of Total

Female

% of Total

Williamsburg

11,998

5,382

44.90%

6,616

55.10%

James City

48,102

23,294

48.40%

24,808

51.60%

York

56,297

27,650

49.10%

28,647

50.90%

Hampton Roads

1,533,192

755,400

49.30%

777,792

50.70%

Virginia

7,078,515

3,471,895

49.00%

3,606,620

51.00%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing, Summary File 1

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the enrollment of women in college increased by 14% from 1990 to 2000, from 7.5 million to 8.6 million. Another 18% increase is expected by 2012, up to 10.1 million or 57% of enrollment. Women accounted for 56% of all college students in 2000, up slightly from 55% in 1990. At the College of William and Mary, the NCES reported an undergraduate female enrollment of 56.2% in Fall 2003. Longer life spans among women help account for the higher number of elderly females in Williamsburg. Race Williamsburg remains predominantly white according to the 2000 Census. Whites accounted for approximately 78% of the total population in 2000, down slightly from 80% in 1990. African-Americans make up the most prominent minority group at 13% of the population while all other minorities account for nine percent of the total. Figure 4-7 illustrates that the localities in the Williamsburg region have similar racial mixes, each with a primarily white population. According to the 2000 Census, James City County has the largest white population in the region at 81% while upper York County has the largest African-American community at 20% of the total population. African-Americans make up the largest Figure 4-7: Racial Mix in the Williamsburg Region, 2000

City of Williamsburg

Upper York County Other 7%

Black or African American 20%

Other 9% Black or African

White 73%

American 13%

James City County Black or African

Other

American

5%

14%

White 78%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing, Summary File 1

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

White 81%

Chapter 4 – Population 4-8


minority population in each locality, and all other racial groups range from 5% of the population in James City County to 9% of the population in Williamsburg. There has been some change in the racial makeup of Williamsburg since the 1990 Census. At that time, African-Americans accounted for 15% of the population and other minorities made up only 5% of the total. Since then, the percentage of both whites and African-Americans as a part of the total population declined by 2% each. Meanwhile, the percentage of all other minorities rose by 4%. Two most important changes happened in the Asian and Hispanic populations. The Asian population rose 67% from 1990 to 2000, up from 329 to 549 persons, and now accounts for 4.8% of the population. The Hispanic population increased by 100% during the period, up from 151 to 302 persons, and now accounts for 2.5% of the total population. SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Williamsburg’s population is highly educated, according to the 2000 Census. Of the population twentyfive and over, 90% have at least a high school diploma as compared to 84% in 1990 (Figure 8). Additionally, 45% of the population twenty-five and over have bachelor’s degrees or above, up from 43% in 1990. In contrast, those holding bachelor’s degrees or higher account for only 24% of the Hampton Roads population and 30% of the Virginia population. Table 4-5 illustrates school enrollment in the Williamsburg region. Because the City has a relatively low number of school-aged children, only 8% of the population enrolled in school is in grades K-12 compared with 20% in James City County and 25% in York County. However, students in college or graduate school make up 85% of the total Williamsburg population enrolled in school, as compared with 19% in James City County and 18% in York County. Figure 4-8: Educational Attainment in Williamsburg, 1990-2000

25.0%

20.0%

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0% Less than 9th grade

9th to 12th grade, no diploma

High school graduate

Some college, no degree

Associate degree

Bachelor's degree

Graduate or professiona

1990

7.0%

9.3%

17.4%

18.3%

5.1%

22.7%

20.2%

2000

3.8%

6.6%

20.8%

19.1%

4.7%

23.7%

21.4%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population and Housing

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-9


Table 4-5: The Williamsburg Region, 2000: School Enrollment Total population 3 years & over enrolled in school

Williamsburg James City York Hampton Roads Virginia

6,365 11,808 17,228 432,090 1,868,101

Nursery school, preschool

Elementary High school school (grades 9Kindergarten (grades 1-8) 12)

130 901 1,288 28,576 125,701

26 653 972 23,789 101,127

582 5,403 7,935 190,318 806,445

224 2,574 3,967 88,318 384,053

College or graduate school

5,403 2,277 3,066 101,089 451,050

Percent enrolled in college or graduate school

84.9% 19.3% 17.8% 23.4% 24.1%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing

PROJECTIONS Population Growth Population projections prepared for the Williamsburg region by the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC) indicate that strong growth will continue through 2030 (Table 4-10). At an average annual rate of 1.1%, the Peninsula’s population is projected to grow by a total of 34% between 2000 and 2030. According to HRPDC forecasts, James City County is projected to be the fastest growing locality on the Peninsula with an average annual growth rate of 3.1% and a total growth of 94% by 2030. Moreover, James City County is projected to surpass York County as the most populous locality in the Williamsburg region by 2030 with an estimated population of 93,500 (Figure 4-13). York County is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 1.4% or about 43% over the same period, and is expected to have a total projected population of 80,500 by 2030. Although their projected growth rates exceed the rest of the Peninsula, both James City and York Counties are expected to experience slower growth than that seen in the thirty years from 1970 to 2000 when they had average annual growth rates of 5.6% and 3.4% respectively. Table 4-10: Population in Hampton Roads 1970-2030 Peninsula James City Co. Williamsburg York Co. Hampton Roads

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010*

2020*

2030*

333,140

364,449

435,197

489,877

495,491

501,105

658,300

17,853 9,069 27,762

22,339 10,294 35,463

34,970 11,409 42,434

48,102 11,998 56,297

63,235 13,032 64,365

78,368 14,066 73,549

93,500 15,100 80,500

1,108,393 1,213,999 1,454,183 1,575,348 1,729,732 1,899,246 2,038,900

*Based on HRPDC projections

Source: HRPDC Hampton Roads 2000 Socioeconomic Forecast

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-10


Figure 4-13: Population in Williamsburg Region, 1970-2030 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000

Williamsburg

50,000

James City County

40,000

York County

30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

Based on regional population projections developed by the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission in 2004, the City’s growth rate was expected to follow the trend seen in the rest of the region, declining from a 32% population growth between 1970 and 2000 to a projected growth of 26% over the period from 2000 to 2030 (the regional growth rates were 42% and 29%, respectively). However, some recent revisions have been made to the population projections for Williamsburg and the Weldon-Cooper Center now estimates the City’s population at 13,400 for 2004. Based on this figure and

Figure 4-14: Population Projection Variations 20,000 19,000 18,000 17,000 16,000

PDC Estimates

15,000

City Estimates

14,000 13,000 12,000 11,000 10,000 2000

2010*

2020*

2030*

because of recent growth in the local housing market and the addition of two major development projects (High Street and Quarterpath at Williamsburg), the City now projects a significantly higher population growth rate, reaching a population of 16,600 by 2010 and 19,000 by 2030. Figure 4-14 illustrates the variation in these population projections for the City. The City’s 2010 figure is 27% higher than the previous HRPDC estimate of 13,032 persons, and the 2030 estimate is 26% higher than the HRPDC Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-11


projection. This means that the City’s 32% population growth between 1970 and 2000 will increase to a projected growth of 58% over the period from 2000 to 2030. The City estimates indicate that Williamsburg will maintain a steady share of the population in the Williamsburg region through 2030, remaining at about ten percent of the projected total population of 189,100. The City of Williamsburg will also see a shift in the composition of its population. With relatively steady enrollment levels expected at the College of William and Mary, the number of college-age residents in Williamsburg is expected to remain stable while the overall population grows. The result will be a decline in the college-age population as a percentage of the total population over the next 30 years. Data from the Virginia Employment Commission indicate the 15-24 age groups accounted for about 50% of the Williamsburg population in 1990. That percentage is projected to decline to about 44.6% by 2030. Conversely, the number of residents 65 and over is expected to increase by about 54% during the same period, up from about 12% of the total population in 1990 to approximately 15% of the total population in 2030. This trend has been recognized as a significant factor in determining future development plans in the City. Households Household trends based on occupied housing data for the Williamsburg region during the period from 1970 to 2000 are provided in Table 4-11, along with projections for 2030. The number of households in the City increased by 51% from 1970 to 2000, with 26% of that increase coming in the 1970s and another 18% in the 1980s. The surrounding counties grew at a much higher rate from 1970 to 2000 – the number of households was up 318% in James City County and 171% in York County. During the 1990s, household growth slowed dramatically in Williamsburg, increasing by just 4.5% in the City while the overall number of households in Hampton Roads increased by fifteen percent in the same decade. Although the remainder of the Williamsburg region also added fewer households during the 1990s than in the previous two decades, both of the surrounding counties continued to outpace growth in the City. The number of households increased by 46% in James City County and by 38% in York County in the 1990s. Based on projections developed by the HRPDC, the number of households in Williamsburg is expected to increase to 4,900 by 2030, up 35% from 2000. This percent increase is slightly greater than the increase anticipated for the Hampton Roads region as a whole (32%), but remains significantly smaller than the 45% increase projected for York County and substantially less than the 98% increase projected for James City County (Figure 4-15). As with the population growth estimate, the number of households projected for the City may be higher than previously projected. Based on the City’s revised population estimate, there may be up to 6,793 households in Williamsburg by 2030. This would represent an 87% increase in the number of households since 2000 and would considerably outpace household growth in York County, although the City would not reach the pace of growth projected for James City County. Despite the additional projected growth, the number of households in the City would still account for only 9% of the total in the Williamsburg region by 2030. Average household size is also expected to decline in the Williamsburg region, particularly as the population ages. Forecasts provided by the HRPDC indicate that the average household size in Williamsburg will fall to 2.06 in 2030, down slightly from 2.07 in 2000. Average household size will fall to 2.44 in James City County and 2.75 in York County by 2030, down from 2.47 and 2.78 respectively. Average household size in Hampton Roads is projected to be 2.57 in 2030.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-12


Table 4-11: Regional Forecast 2030: Households in Hampton Roads Williamsburg James City County York County Hampton Roads

1970 2,396 4,551 7,391 NA

1980 3,024 7,493 10,879 390,531

1990 3,462 12,990 14,452 504,180

2000 3,619 19,003 20,000 579,107

2030 4,900 37,700 29,000 764,200

Source: HRPDC, Hampton Roads 2030 Socioeconomic Forecast

Figure 4-15: Households in the Williamsburg Region 1970-2030 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 Williamsburg 20,000

James City County York County

15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

Source: HRPDC, Hampton Roads 2030 Socioeconomic Forecast

Residential Housing Requirements Population projections for Williamsburg indicate that an additional 3,102 people will live in the City by 2030. With an average household size of 2.06, another 1,506 dwelling units will be required to house the population. City estimates indicate that up to 5,400 additional residents will live in the City by 2030, which would require another 2,621 dwellings units. Because the population is aging, much of the required new housing is likely to be in the form of multi-family townhouses, condominiums, or apartments. These may be located in mixed-use developments with shops and services within walking distance. Plans for the development of High Street Williamsburg already include 580 multi-family housing units as part of an upscale lifestyle center to be located off Richmond Road in the western part of the City. Quarterpath at Williamsburg, being planned and developed by Riverside Health System, will include approximately 955 houses. Of these, 760 will be townhouses and condominiums.

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-13


Projection Methodology Population and household projections for the Williamsburg region are contained in the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission’s 2030 Socioeconomic Forecast. These numbers are produced using the REMI forecast model developed by the University of Massachusetts, which is widely used and updated annually. The model provides baseline forecasts for the Hampton Roads area that are then reviewed and adjusted by HRPDC staff. Projections for population, employment, and the retail trade are produced using this data. Individual community growth rates are assigned based on the growth increments agreed upon in the 2026 projections, and the total projected growth of the region is distributed among the localities. The forecasts are then reviewed by individual localities to reflect trends in specific areas, with additional adjustments made based on the data they provide. Econometric procedures are used to produce forecasts for additional data categories, based on the adjusted baseline data. The result is a reliable regional forecast that reflects specific local trends. Since the preparation of the 2030 Socioeconomic Forecast in 2004, there have been significant changes in proposed residential construction in the City. Subsequently, the Williamsburg Planning Department developed new population forecasts based on both proposed and approved developments as well as the capacity for new development and redevelopment on properties throughout the City. This results in a forecast that is specific to the community and reflects current development plans.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-14


Exhibit 4-1

Chapter 4 – Population

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 4-15


Exhibit 4-2

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 4 – Population 4-16


Chapter 5 Economy This chapter was prepared for the City by the staff of the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission in October, 2005 Economic development is of vital concern to local governments striving to attract and retain businesses, which in turn provide employment opportunities as well as a strong tax base to the localities. Employment patterns can reveal much about the growth or decline of an individual locality and about shifts in population within a region. In order to better understand the economic climate in the City of Williamsburg, this chapter will consider the fiscal health of the Hampton Roads region, the Williamsburg region, and the City itself. The City of Williamsburg relies on tourism as both its primary source of employment and principal source of revenue. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation is the largest provider of jobs in the City and attracts visitors to the shops and restaurants that have developed around the restored area. Partially as a result of this, Williamsburg has been able to generate over $29,000 in per capita retail sales in a single year, which is far more than any other locality in Virginia. Moreover, with the support of the visitors coming to Colonial Williamsburg, the City provides numerous retail and service jobs for people living throughout the Williamsburg region and beyond. Some of the factors contributing to local economic conditions include: •

The City of Williamsburg is a leader in retail sales and tourist travel expenditures for its three-jurisdiction region.

Employment opportunities in the Williamsburg region are nearly evenly split between the City, James City County, and York County. A gradual shift toward employment centers in the counties is evident after 1990.

James City County has identified most of the area surrounding Williamsburg as low-density residential, with some mixed use and commercial areas. York County has identified much of the land area adjacent to Williamsburg as general business and economic opportunity areas, with some medium and high-density residential.

Much new business or commercial development within Williamsburg is likely to take place on redeveloped land.

The College of William and Mary is a major employer and its students account for nearly half the city’s population.

REGIONAL ECONOMIC SETTING Hampton Roads is a region of more than 1.5 million residents and is the 39th largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States according to the 2000 Census. Historically, each 1% of real U.S. economic growth has been associated with 0.6% of real Hampton Roads economic growth. During the latest twelve-month period for which data is available (October 2002 – October 2003), the Hampton Roads economy grew faster than 58% of the MSAs in the United States. Forecasts for 2004 indicated that the national economy would accelerate at a slightly higher rate than Hampton Roads – 4.6% versus 3.9% annually. The forecast for 2005 anticipates a slightly slower annual growth rate: 3.7% nationally and 3.5% in Hampton Roads (HRPDC, 2004 - 2005). EMPLOYMENT From 1980 to 2000, total employment (including military) in the United States increased at an average annual rate of 2.2 percent. During the same period, Virginia added jobs at a slightly higher rate of 2.8 Chapter 5 – Economy

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 5-1


percent annually. Although job growth in Hampton Roads did not equal the state employment growth rate, the region did outpace the national employment growth rate at 2.3 percent annually. Virginia MSAs ranked by their 1980 to 2001 employment growth rates are as follows: Charlottesville, 3.1%; Washington, D.C., 3.1%; Richmond-Petersburg, 2.3%; Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, 2.3%; Roanoke, 1.8%; Lynchburg, 1.5%; Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, 1.5%; and Danville, 0.3%. Williamsburg Employment According to the 2000 U. S. Census, 23,869 people are employed in Williamsburg, nearly as many as both James City County (25,943) and York County (24,746). The Virginia Employment Commission reports that the top employers in James City County are in the manufacturing sector and tourism, while the top employers in York County are in tourism and the retail trade. The VEC reports that education and tourism are the largest sources of employment in the Williamsburg region. Table 5-1 lists the top employers in the City. Of these, two-thirds are directly related to education or tourism. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation is the City’s largest employer, with 3,200 jobs. The College of William and Mary is the City’s largest non-tourism employer, with approximately 2,849 positions located in Williamsburg (Hampton Roads Economic Development Alliance, October 2004). Aramark Educational Services, which provides support services at William and Mary, adds another estimated 500 to 999 jobs to the college’s total employment numbers. According to the 2000 Census, civilian employment in Williamsburg is primarily concentrated in the service sector (61%) and the retail trade (13%). The U.S. Census Bureau’ s 1997 Economic Census reported that the accommodation and food service industries provided much of the tourism-related employment outside of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Together these sectors provided 4,582 jobs in the City, comprised of 2,357 accommodation jobs and 2,224 food service jobs.

Table 5-1: Top Employers in Williamsburg 1. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 2. College of William and Mary 3. Williamsburg Community Hospital

4. Aramark Educational Services 5. Williamsburg-James City County Schools 6. City of Williamsburg

Source: Virginia Employment Commission, Covered Employment & Wages, 2003.

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation employs 3,200 people during the peak summer season, more than any other employer in the City. However, this represents an 8.6% decrease from employment levels in 2000. In the wake of September 11, 2001, the sniper attacks in the Washington, D.C. area, and the 2001 recession, the tourism industry struggled in both the Williamsburg region and the state as a whole. According to Virginia Business magazine, Colonial Williamsburg’s attendance was down 8% in 2002 and its hotel occupancy rates rose only 1% in 2002. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation reported another 9% decline in attendance for 2003, and another 3% in 2004. According to Smith Travel Research, hotel occupancy rates in Williamsburg fell to 49.2% in 2004, down from 51% in previous years. Despite the recent decline in tourism, it remains the largest industry in Williamsburg, and includes hotels and motels, bed and breakfast establishments, restaurants, and retail stores that cater primarily to the tourist market. According to the Virginia Tourism Corporation, the recent slump in the tourism industry may have a smaller impact in Williamsburg than elsewhere in the state. This is attributed to the fact that visitors to Williamsburg typically stay longer and spend more money than visitors to other state attractions. The VTC’s 2003 Virginia Visitor Study found that mean spending per person in Williamsburg is $259, which is 47% higher than the mean figure of $176 for the rest of the state. Moreover, 24% of visitors to the City spend $1000 or more compared with just 10% for the state. The same study also found that 28% of Williamsburg visitors stayed for four to six nights compared with 16.5% for the state as a whole. Nearly 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 5 – Economy 5-2


two-thirds of all Williamsburg visitors stay for two nights or more compared with about half for all state visitors. The College of William and Mary The College of William and Mary provides approximately 2,850 jobs, and is the second largest employer in the City of Williamsburg. As well as providing jobs, the college’s student population represents about 45% of the city’s total population. A 2002 360 Youth/Harris Interactive College Explorer Study found that college students spend $200 billion per year in the United States, making them a significant market segment as well. The study found that the average student has eleven hours of unscheduled time each day and spends $287 per month on discretionary items, particularly on snack foods and entertainment. Table 5-2 illustrates the activities that college students spend the most money on and gives participation rates for each. According to this study, going to the movies was the most popular activity among students. Currently, there is only one seven-screen movie theater to serve this need in the Williamsburg area, and it is not within walking distance of the college. Additional twelve-screen theaters are planned for James City County’s New Town development and the City’s High Street development. Both will be closer to campus, but the High Street location will be the more walkable destination for most students being located approximately 1.5 miles from campus. These locations will be accessible by Williamsburg Area Transport, which is free to students. Table 5-2: Participation/Spending by College Students on Entertainment and Leisure

Vacation Travel

Projected Yearly Spending % Students Participating in (in millions)* Past Year $4,607 61%

Purchase Videos/DVDs (not including equipment)

$2,754

70%

Purchase Music CDs, Tapes, etc.

$2,746

76%

Purchase Video Games (not including equipment)

$2,284

37%

Purchase reading material (not for use in school)

$1,009

83%

Going to Movies

$887

91%

Attending Music Concerts

$791

49%

Going to an Amusement Park

$456

41%

*Projections based on Spring 2002 360 Youth/Harris Interactive College Explorer Study; this represents a partial list of categories.

The Harris Interactive Study found that college students also spend a great deal of money on snacks. Although college students comprise nearly half of Williamsburg’s population, the City offers little to satisfy this basic need. According to the 1997 Economic Census, there were only 15 food and beverage stores within the City. Students responding to a survey conducted by Sharpe Scholars in May 2004 noted that many of their snack food needs are met by just one store – a Wawa located across the street from campus on Richmond Road. Of the 109 food service and drinking places listed in the City, approximately 19% are within one mile of the William and Mary campus. Several of these are quite expensive and cater to tourists rather than students. In contrast, of the over 260 food service and drinking places in Charlottesville, approximately 31% are located within one mile of the University of Virginia. Selected other college communities fared like this: Blacksburg, VA, 58% of establishments near campus; Harrisonburg, VA, 29%; Carlisle, PA, 21%. Table 5-3 compares several college towns and cities of varying sizes and similar character, and illustrates that Williamsburg has a high percentage of college-aged residents relative to the population as a whole. The City is most comparable to Hanover, New Hampshire (Dartmouth College), where the college-age Chapter 5 – Economy

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 5-3


population accounts for 49% of the total population. In addition, Williamsburg has a higher percentage of renters than all the communities studied except for Charlottesville. This increases pressure on surrounding neighborhoods to accommodate those looking for rental housing located close to the campus. On the positive side, Williamsburg’s concentration of college students on campus and in nearby neighborhoods, particularly those students in the early years of college who may not have cars, means that they would more likely patronize businesses near campus before traveling out of the City for their daily needs. According to the Sharpe survey, the most frequent complaints voiced by students involved the lack of entertainment and shopping venues that appeal to their age group. Nearly half of the 1,180 responses to the survey cited the lack of activities for students as the most negative part of the college experience in Williamsburg. This is currently an underserved market, and student-oriented businesses represent a niche that the City of Williamsburg might fill more readily than neighboring jurisdictions. Table 5-3: Comparison of Williamsburg to Other Communities Percent of RenterOccupied Housing

Median Household Income in 1999

Per Capita Income in 1999

Median family income in 1999

Median gross rent

17%

Dickenson College, 2276

51%

$33,969

$21,394

$46,588

$489

17%

College of Charleston, 9824

49%

$35,295

$22,414

$48,705

$614

34%

University of Virginia, 19643

59%

$31,007

$16,973

$45,110

$596

49%

Dartmouth College, 5683

45%

$62,143

$26,426

$90,548

$817

46%

College of William and Mary, 7650

56%

$37,093

$18,483

$52,358

$616

Total Percent of College Population Population Name and 2000 18-24 Enrollment

Carlisle, PA

Charleston, SC

Charlottesville, VA

Hanover, NH

Williamsburg

17,970

96,950

45,049

8,162

11,998

Source: US Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population and Houising, Summary File 3

INCOME The average per capita income in Hampton Roads has traditionally been lower than the national average, despite healthier employment growth over the past twenty years. According to data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the average per capita income in the region in 2002 was about $28,365, which was approximately 92% of the national average and about 86% of the state average. Annual per capita income growth in Hampton Roads was higher than state and national growth rates in 2001 and 2002, which was also the case in eight of the thirty years from 1970 to 2000. Although gains are slow, this recurrent pattern has resulted in a 3.4% gain on the national average since 1970. Household Income In 1999, the U.S. Bureau of Census reported that the median household income in Williamsburg was $37,093, and the per capita income was $18,483. Both figures are below the mean income levels for the Hampton Roads region, the state, and the nation as a whole (Table 5-4). Of the localities on the Peninsula, only Newport News had a lower median income than Williamsburg in 1999. The City’s relatively low income levels can be attributed in part to the large number of students living there, many of whom work part-time or not at all. Retirees living on social security and pension payments may also be contributing to the low median income levels. Williamsburg fares much better when comparing median family income levels. The City’s median family income of $52,358 is higher than the figures for 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 5 – Economy 5-4


Hampton Roads ($49,186) and the United States as a whole ($50,046). Median family income in Williamsburg is about 97% of the state median, which includes the higher paying Northern Virginia area. An estimated 78% of Williamsburg households reported earnings in 1999, with a mean income of $46,872. As noted in Figure 5-6 above, 33.7% of the income-earning households collected social security and 33.5% earned retirement income. The percentage of households receiving Social Security and retirement income is expected to increase over the next thirty years as the number of residents over the age of sixty-five continues to climb. Table 5-4: 1999 Income Comparisons Per Capita Income

Median Household Income

Median Family Income

City of Williamsburg

$18,483

$37,093

$52,358

MSA- Norfolk--Virginia Beach-Newport News

$20,328

$42,448

$49,186

Commonwealth of Virginia

$23,975

$46,677

$54,169

United States

$21,587

$41,994

$50,046

Source: 2000 Demographic Profiles, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, University of Virginia

SALES Retail Sales Hampton Roads regional retail sales have grown at a compound annual rate of 4.3% over the last fifteen years, reaching $15.2 billion in 2003 (HRDPC, 2004). 68% of these sales occurred on the Southside, while the remaining 32% occurred on the Peninsula. Retail sales on the Peninsula alone totaled over $4.8 billion in 2003. Table 5-5 and Figure 5-2 provide a breakdown of those sales by locality by percentage and in dollar figures. Nearly two-thirds of those sales are generated in the cities of Newport News and Hampton, while the other third takes place in the three-jurisdiction Williamsburg region.

Table 5-5: Retail Sales on the Peninsula (millions of dollars) 1980

1990

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

153

300.7

336.3

326.8

335.1

353.6

349.5

Hampton

501.9

937.7

1,107.40

1,072.20

1,062.60

1,072.40

1,105.90

James City County

118.9

328.3

607.3

644.1

638.7

644.3

639

Newport News

430.9

873

1,419.70

1,585.50

1,618.10

1,724.90

1,808.90

6

24.2

31.4

32.2

34.6

37.8

38

York County

78.4

227.6

441.1

456.9

461.4

500.6

618.2

PENINSULA

1,346.40

2,818.00

4,145.00

4,338.40

4,374.30

4,577.60

4,834.70

Williamsburg

Poquoson

Source: Virginia Department of Taxation. HRPDC, 2003 Economic Outlook, June 2003.

Chapter 5 – Economy

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 5-5


Figure 5-2: Peninsula Retail Sales Comparison 2003

York County 14%

Poquoson 1% Hampton 24%

Williamsburg 8%

James City County 14% Newport News 39%

Source: Virginia Department of Taxation; HRPDC, 2003 Economic Outlook, June 2003

Taxable Sales During the past decade, commercial development and retail growth in neighboring counties have outpaced that in Williamsburg. This trend is illustrated by a comparison of regional retail sales from 1971 to 2003 (Figure 5-3). From 1971 to 1982, the City of Williamsburg accounted for the majority of the Williamsburg region's retail sales, ranging from 60% of the total in 1971 to about 39% of the total in 1982. By 2003, the City accounted for only 22% of all retail sales. During the same period, per capita retail sales in Williamsburg increased by 312%, from $7,068 in 1971 to $29,125 in 2003 – the most of any locality in Virginia. Clearly, Williamsburg remains an important player in the regional retail marketplace and is a primary draw for businesses locating in and around the City. The City should be able to maintain that position over the long term with developments like the proposed Quarterpath at Williamsburg and High Street Williamsburg projects, and with continued reinvestment in the Center City area. These projects include City Square, the Prince George Parking Garage, the Prince George/Boundary Street streetscape improvements, and Colonial Williamsburg’s College Corner building. As is true in the employment sector, healthy taxable sales figures in Williamsburg depend heavily on tourism-related businesses that are primarily in the accommodation and food service sectors. Figure 5-4 details taxable sales in Williamsburg in 2003 arranged by group. Accommodation and food service accounted for 57% of all taxable sales, compared with 42% in James City County and only 26% in York County. Sales per restaurant remain notably high in Williamsburg: $937,526 annually compared with $567,929 for Virginia.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 5 – Economy 5-6


Figure 5-3: The Williamsburg Region: Retail Sales 1971-2003 (In 2003 Dollars) 800.0 700.0 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0

Williamsburg

James City County

03 20

01 20

19

99

97 19

95 19

19

93

91 19

89 19

87 19

85 19

83 19

81 19

79 19

19

77

75 19

73 19

19

71

0.0

York County

Figure 5-4: City of Williamsburg Taxable Sales 2003

OTHER MISCELLANEOUS 7% ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE 1%

APPAREL GROUP 6% AUTOMOTIVE GROUP 1% FOOD GROUP 21%

FURNITURE, HOME FURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT GROUP 2%

HOTELS, MOTELS, TOURIST CAMPS, ETC. 36%

Source: VA Dept of Taxation, City of Williamsburg, Taxable Sales by Business Classification, Feb 1, 2003 – Jan 31, 2004

GENERAL MERCHANDISE GROUP 3% MISCELLANEOUS GROUP 22%

Chapter 5 – Economy

MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT, AND SUPPLIES GROUP 1%

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 5-7


Tourism The United States travel and tourism industry was projected to receive more than $568 billion from travelers in 2004, according to statistics compiled by the National Restaurant Association. Additionally, the tourist trade is reported as the first, second, or third-largest employer in twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia. In Virginia, tourism is the third largest employer according to information provided by the Virginia Employment Commission. The Virginia Tourism Corporation reports that Virginia had the tenth largest travel market among the fifty states in 2000, with final total travel expenditures reaching over $13.1 billion. Moreover, tourism generated another $1 billion in state and local tax revenue. The Hampton Roads economy also sees considerable benefit from the tourism industry. In 2000, travelers spent over $2.4 billion in the region, or 18.7% of the total tourism expenditures in the state (VTC, 2003). Travel expenditures in area communities in 2001 were as follows: Virginia Beach, $708.8 million; Norfolk $446.0 million; Williamsburg, $368.0 million; James City County, $249.3 million; Newport News, $164.5 million; Chesapeake, $153.1 million; Hampton, $136.3 million; York County, $105.9 million; Gloucester County, $27.4 million; Isle of Wight County, $19.5 million; Franklin, $8.8 million; Southampton County, $8.7 million; Surry County, $7.3 million; and Poquoson, $2.4 million. However, although the travel industry as a whole grew 47% from 1994 to 2002, the VTC reported that 2001 saw the first decline in Virginia tourism revenue since they began keeping records. According to a report produced by the Economic Forecasting Project at the College of Business and Public Administration at Old Dominion University, State of the Region 2000, the tourist destination markets of Virginia Beach and Williamsburg accounted for 60% of travel spending in Hampton Roads in 1998. Top regional attractions include the Virginia Beach oceanfront, Colonial Williamsburg, and Busch Gardens Williamsburg. The report also noted that, “Traveler spending in Virginia Beach increased from $374.9 million in 1990 to $689.6 million in 1998, or 83.9 percent. By contrast, in Williamsburg, traveler spending increased by only 46.2 percent in the same time period, from $452.2 million to $661.3 million. Hence, in 1990, Williamsburg tourism was larger than that of Virginia Beach by almost twenty-one percent. By 1998, however, things had reversed and traveler spending in Virginia Beach exceeded that in Williamsburg by 4.3 percent.” Despite the concentration of attractions in the Williamsburg region, which also includes Jamestown Island and Yorktown Battlefield, the tourism industry is weakening relative to nearby attractions. Lodging Smith Travel Research’s 2003 Annual Lodging Report found that the demand for accommodation in Virginia was up 3.8% in 2003, while the number of available rooms grew by just 1.2%. According to the report, average room rates remained relatively stable at $80.24 per night, and lodging revenues were up 3.3% overall in 2003. The average occupancy rate in Virginia was 61.1%, up 2.5% from 2002, and was higher than the U.S. average 59.1% (+0.2% YTD). Table 6, which is found in the report, details lodging demand for localities, regions, and the state as a whole. The 2003 Annual Lodging Report states, “These increases are a reflection of the impacts of a rebounding economy and Virginia’s proximity to large key drive markets. While the lodging industry at the state level has seen positive signs of recovery, several of the regions are still experiencing declines in occupancy. Fortunately, downward pressure on room rates has not been as strong as in other non-Virginia markets.” Most areas in the state show signs of recovery since the terrorist attacks and recession of 2001, including the Hampton Roads region. Increases are evident in the region’s room demand, average room rates, room revenue, and occupancy, with the greatest growth seen in the Chesapeake/Portsmouth and Newport News/Hampton markets. However, the overall growth in lodging demand is small in many areas and is not shared by Williamsburg, which showed declines in all categories except occupancy in 2003. In 2004, according to STR, the Williamsburg area saw a 5.4% decline in occupancy, an 8.6% decline in room demand, and a 6.6% decline in room revenue.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 5 – Economy 5-8


Table 5-6: Lodging Analysis for Virginia 2003

US Virginia Washington DC-MD-VA Arlington Alexandria Fairfax/Tysons Corner Suburban VA Area I-95 Fredericksburg Dulles Airport Area Norfolk - VA Beach Chesapeake / Portsmouth Newport News / Hampton Norfolk City Virginia Beach City Williamsburg Virginia Area Lynchburg MSA Blacksburg/Wytheville Staunton/Harrisonburg Roanoke MSA Charlottesville MSA Richmond - Petersburg Petersburg/Chester Richmond Downtown/Airport Richmond North/Glen Allen Richmond West/Midlothian Virginia Area Johnson City - Bristol, TN-VA

Room Demand % Change 1.6% 3.8% 2.9% 3.7% 2.8% 4.0% 1.5% 3.0% 12.1% 2.6% 5.3% 6.0% 1.9% 3.3% -1.8% 1.2% 5.3% 3.9% -2.7% -1.2% 4.0% 10.2% 4.3% 7.5% 16.9% 5.6% 1.1% -3.0%

Room Supply % Change 1.3% 1.2% 1.3% 2.7% 4.1% 0.2% 2.5% 0.0% 2.1% 0.0% -1.1% -0.2% 0.1% 2.1% -1.8% 1.4% 1.6% 2.8% 1.6% 0.9% -0.2% 1.6% 1.6% 1.2% 2.0% 1.0% 1.4% -0.4%

Average Room Rates (1/01-12/31) 2003 2002 % Change $ 83.19 $ 83.19 0.0% $ 80.24 $ 79.21 1.3% $111.10 $110.95 0.1% $121.60 $121.57 0.0% $ 99.36 $ 97.55 1.9% $103.26 $101.94 1.3% $ 77.95 $ 77.94 0.0% $ 60.58 $ 58.20 4.1% $100.35 $102.55 -2.1% $ 79.09 $ 77.25 2.4% $ 66.49 $ 63.09 5.4% $ 63.65 $ 59.78 6.5% $ 72.92 $ 70.65 3.2% $ 91.13 $ 87.95 3.6% $ 86.35 $ 88.15 -2.0% $ 62.75 $ 62.17 0.9% $ 59.08 $ 60.03 -1.6% $ 58.65 $ 58.88 -0.4% $ 60.70 $ 59.28 2.4% $ 61.51 $ 60.34 1.9% $ 80.76 $ 80.65 0.1% $ 65.43 $ 64.77 1.0% $ 57.91 $ 56.34 2.8% $ 79.52 $ 80.13 -0.8% $ 64.14 $ 63.27 1.4% $ 57.62 $ 57.04 1.0% $ 60.93 $ 60.35 1.0% $ 62.24 $ 59.98 3.8%

Room Revenue % Change 1.6% 3.3% 3.0% 3.8% 4.7% 5.3% 1.5% 7.2% 9.7% 5.1% 10.9% 12.9% 5.2% 7.0% -3.8% 2.1% 3.7% 3.5% -0.4% 0.8% 4.1% 11.4% 7.2% 6.7% 18.5% 6.6% 2.0% 0.6%

Occupancy Percent 2003

2002

59.1% 61.1% 66.5% 68.0% 63.2% 68.8% 56.4% 66.7% 71.1% 62.2% 75.1% 68.7% 69.3% 61.8% 50.5% 55.7% 52.1% 52.8% 56.9% 53.0% 67.7% 58.6% 52.6% 60.8% 60.0% 61.4% 55.2% 48.8%

59.0% 59.6% 65.4% 67.4% 64.0% 66.4% 56.9% 64.8% 64.8% 60.7% 70.6% 64.7% 68.1% 61.1% 50.5% 55.8% 50.2% 52.2% 59.4% 54.1% 64.9% 54.0% 51.3% 57.2% 52.3% 58.8% 55.4% 50.2%

% Change 0.2% 2.5% 1.7% 0.9% -1.3% 3.6% -0.9% 2.9% 9.7% 2.5% 6.4% 6.2% 1.8% 1.1% 0.0% -0.2% 3.8% 1.1% -4.2% -2.0% 4.3% 8.5% 2.5% 6.3% 14.7% 4.4% -0.4% -2.8%

Source: Smith Travel Research - 2003

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FISCAL CAPACITY According to the Virginia Commission on Local Government, Williamsburg has substantial fiscal capacity, or the ability to raise revenue from local sources. Williamsburg was estimated to have the capacity to generate $1,731 in municipal revenue per capita in 2002. Among localities in the Hampton Roads region, only James City and Surry Counties had higher capacities to generate revenue than Williamsburg. Since 1999, the City’s per capita revenue capacity has increased by over 22% or $317. While Williamsburg experienced a steady rise in capacity over the period, James City County’s rate has fluctuated (Figure 5-5). As a result, the city’s revenue has risen from 80% of the county’s capacity in 1997 to 92% of the county’s capacity in 2002. High per capita retail sales and high real estate values contribute to this high level of fiscal capacity, which allows the City flexibility in funding capital improvement or other projects that help to attract new business investment.

Figure 5-5: The Williamsburg Region: Revenue Capacity Per Capita $2,000.00 $1,900.00 $1,800.00 $1,700.00 James City County $1,600.00

York County Williamsburg City

$1,500.00 $1,400.00 $1,300.00 $1,200.00 $1,100.00 $1,000.00

1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002 Source: Staff, Commission on Local Government, Department of Housing and Community Development, Commonwealth of Virginia

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PROJECTIONS Employment

Before 1990, the majority of all jobs in the Williamsburg region were located in the City. However, as commercial development has increased in the counties, a shift in overall employment patterns has also occurred. This trend is predicted to continue through 2030, as major employers moving to the region locate on large tracts of land in both counties instead of within the City (Figure 5-6). Big Box retailers like Lowe’s and Wal-Mart have recently located in neighboring York County, where large tracts of land with access to the interstate and other major roads is readily available. New Town, located just outside Williamsburg in James City County, is a mixed-use development that already has several offices uses and includes a planned movie theater. Although New Town is not located within the City, its marketing efforts trade on its Williamsburg location. The City has relinquished its position as the primary employment center in the Williamsburg region, but it is still a leader in retail employment and helps to draw new businesses to the area. Although the City employed slightly fewer retail workers in 2000 than James City County, Figure 5-7 illustrates that the City is projected to regain its position as the leading retail employment center in the its region and retain that position through 2030. Figure 5-6: The Williamsburg Region: Employment 1970-2030 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000

Williamsburg

25,000

James City County York County

20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

Source: HRPDC 2030 Socioeconomic Forecast

Much of Williamsburg’s future job growth will likely come as local investments try to tap the growing population of retirees. Two projects currently being considered intend to specifically address the needs of future residents through mixed-use and lifestyle center style development. A locally based health care provider, Riverside Health System, purchased 358 acres of land along Quarterpath Road in the southeastern corner of the City. Riverside plans to build a 31-acre medical campus as part of the proposed development for the property, which is expected to include a nursing home and age-restricted housing units. When complete, Quarterpath at Williamsburg is expected to create approximately 4,109 new jobs and bring $3.2 - $3.6 million in net tax revenues to the City, according to a fiscal impact analysis prepared by Economics Research Associates in December 2004.

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Another proposed development – High Street Williamsburg – could add $128 million to the local economy, according to an economic impact analysis prepared by Chmura Economics & Analytics in September 2004. The study indicates that the project would create a total of 2,171 jobs in Williamsburg, of which 1,023 would be in retail sales. Sales

Data from the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission indicates that retail sales growth is expected to slow in 2005. Preliminary data shows that retail sales grew at 9.8% in 2004, but that rate is expected to be down to 3.9% in 2005. Figure 5-7: The Williamsburg Region: Retail Employment 19702030 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000

Williamsburg

5,000

James City County York County

4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

Source: HRPDC 2030 Socioeconomic Forecast

Tourism

Indications are that the tourism industry in Virginia is recovering from the downturn of the early 2000s. According to the HRPDC 2005 Economic Forecast, hotel receipts are projected to rise four percent in 2005. According to forecasts released by the Economic Forecasting Project at the College of Business and Public Administration at Old Dominion University, a strong year is expected in the Hampton Roads tourist industry. Their 2005 Annual Economic Forecast bases that finding in part on the introduction of a room night tax in the summer of 2004 that will increase the ability of the Williamsburg region to finance a stronger marketing effort in 2005. A shared $2-per-room surtax in Williamsburg, James City and York counties is expected to generate $3 to $3.5 million per year for new advertising campaigns aimed at reversing the decline in visitation in the Historic Triangle. In addition, activities planned for the Jamestown 2007 celebration are expected to bring more visitors to the Williamsburg area. Rising gasoline prices may also have an effect on tourism in the region, as people vacation closer to home.

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Chapter 6 Community Character INTRODUCTION The most important goal of the Comprehensive Plan is the first: Protect and enhance Williamsburg’s unique character - the historic area, college, entrance corridors, urban environment and open spaces. The most important character defining features of the City are the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area, the historic campus of the College of William & Mary, the City’s historic neighborhoods and commercial areas, the major entrance corridors, and open space. Protecting this character is by necessity a joint effort of the entire community. The City needs to work closely with its major institutions – the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and the College of William & Mary. Cooperation and coordination with James City County and York County is also important, since the character and visual quality of the major entrance corridors into the City transcend jurisdictional boundaries. Important open space needs to be preserved, maintained and made accessible through efforts such as enforcement of the standards of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act, public acquisition, delineation of greenbelt corridors, private dedication of easements, and passive recreational use. This chapter deals with community character in four related, sections: historic preservation and design review, entrance corridors. greenbelts and open space. Each is important separately, but collectively they define our community. HISTORIC PRESERVATION AND DESIGN REVIEW Recognition of the importance of history and historic preservation has strong roots in Williamsburg. When the capital of the Virginia colony was moved to the present site of Williamsburg in 1699, thenGovernor Nicholson prepared a detailed plan for the colonial city based upon Baroque city design principles, and including very specific standards – uniform setbacks for buildings, roof pitch, size of windows and specific prescriptions for street widths and the design of public buildings. Williamsburg began to decline after the capital was moved to Richmond in 1778, but was rescued through the generous support of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. The extensive restoration effort began in 1927 and continues today under the auspices of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. But Williamsburg has continued to grow and change since its beginning. A neighborhood of fashionable Victorian style houses, referred to as Peacock Hill, developed north of the City on the old Wheatland Farm following the coming of the C&O Railroad in 1881. The establishment of other nearby residential areas such as Chandler Court, College Terrace and West Williamsburg Heights followed during the 1920s and 1930s. Residential neighborhoods continued to develop around the center city as the Colonial Williamsburg restoration effort matured in the 1940s and 1950s. As the downtown area evolved into a tourist destination, shopping centers followed the suburban movement away from the center city in the 1950's. Developments of the past 20 years have seen the continued outward expansion of the City’s residential areas; expansion, infill and redevelopment of the commercial corridors; and major investments in the Center City area with the development of the City Square area, the Prince George Parking Garage and the College Corner Building. Williamsburg has been involved in design review since its founding. Governor Nicholson's standards for the colonial capital and the carefully researched standards used by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in its restoration efforts are noteworthy precedents. Since 1958, Williamsburg has had an architectural review board responsible for reviewing new construction in the City. Chapter 6 – Community Character

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Acting on recommendations in the 1989 Comprehensive Plan, a more detailed program was implemented to strengthen both historic preservation and design review efforts in the City. The architectural review section of the Zoning Ordinance was revised in 1991 and established an Architectural Preservation District (AP) and six Corridor Protection Districts (CP). The Architectural Review Board's duties now include: review of all new construction and alterations to existing buildings in the AP and CP districts, review of signs in both districts; and review of demolition and relocation of buildings in the AP district. In the spring of 1994, the City's preservation program was recognized by the Virginia Department of Historic Resources when Williamsburg became the 13th Certified Local Government in Virginia. Architectural Preservation District (AP) While many associate Williamsburg's image and history only with the restored colonial capital, Merchants Square, the Colonial Parkway and the College of William & Mary, it is also blessed with numerous other buildings, neighborhoods and archaeological resources that have evolved over time and contribute to a sense of history as well as to the visual character of the community, and which enhance the setting of the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. These include the neighborhoods of Braxton Court, Chandler Court and Pollard Park (both on the National Register of Historic Places), Peacock Hill, College Terrace, West Williamsburg Heights, the downtown Richmond Road and Jamestown Road areas, the 18th century roads connecting with Capitol Landing and College Landing (both on the Virginia Landmarks Register), and the Cedar Grove and Eastern State cemeteries. These areas should be protected from adverse influences and new uses, structures and signs should be in keeping with the character of the district. These significant areas are located on Exhibit 6-1: Architectural Preservation District – Notable Features. More details on the history and architectural character of each of these areas are contained in an appendix to the Design Review Guidelines adopted by the Architectural Review Board. Exhibit 6-1: Architectural Preservation District Notable Features

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Corridor Protection District (CP) The major entrance corridors which provide significant routes of tourist access to the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area are included in the design review process as Corridor Protection Districts. These routes are identified on the Exhibit 6-2: Architectural Review Districts, and include the following streets: Jamestown Road, Monticello Avenue, Routes 132, Visitor Center Drive, Bypass Road, Route 143, Second Street, York Street, North and South Henry Streets, and Route 199. Because these entrance corridors do not always neatly conform to jurisdictional boundaries, it is recommended that Williamsburg work with James City and York Counties and take part in a joint tourist access corridor program to insure that efforts are comprehensive and coordinated with design review standards.

Exhibit 6-2: Architectural Review Districts

Architectural Inventory As recommended in the 1989 Comprehensive Plan, a survey and assessment of architectural resources in the Architectural Preservation District was completed in 1992. With the assistance of a matching grant from the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, a reconnaissance level architectural survey was conducted for all buildings over 50 years old in the AP district. The report from the survey identified 12 buildings and five districts for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places and the Virginia Landmarks Register. From the assessment of the City's resources in the 1992 survey report, a listing of locally significant architecture and areas was created to assist the Architectural Review Board with their deliberations. Since the inventory is almost 15 years old, it is recommended that the City update the survey. This update will allow the City to better evaluate the continued proposals for new development and redevelopment in the Architectural Preservation District. Architectural Review Guidelines As recommended in the 1989 Comprehensive Plan, the Architectural Review Board first adopted Design Review Guidelines in 1993 to assist it in reaching fair and objective decisions when reviewing proposals in the AP and CP districts. A one-year review of the Guidelines was conducted by the Architectural Review Board, Planning Commission and City Council, resulting in the adoption of revised Guidelines in March 2006. This extensive review process ensured that the Guidelines reflect the City’s goals for development and redevelopment as well as those for architectural preservation and design review. These Guidelines represent the best tool that the City has to encourage the preservation and improvement of its architectural character.

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The guidelines are based in part on the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings, and distinguish between the different character of the AP and CP districts, and also between different parts of the AP District. The most restrictive guidelines are adjacent to the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area, the old campus of William & Mary, and the National Register Historic Districts of Pollard Park and Chandler Court. The Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area is the most important part of the AP district and to ensure that the integrity of this nationally significant resource is maintained for future generations, building projects are required to be based on documented historical and/or archaeological evidence. Development in the AP district is encouraged to be compatible with existing buildings and neighborhoods. In the CP district, development is encouraged which respects the overall character of the City and enhances the City's entrance corridors. Archaeological Preservation While the thrust of preservation activities in Williamsburg has centered on 17th, 18th and 19th-century American history, other important remnants of Williamsburg's past still exist and can contribute toward an understanding and appreciation of the cultural landscape. Some of these prehistoric and historic resources include sites and structures occupied or used since the 17th century, as well as important 20th century sites. In order to determine the level of significance of these resources, the areas should be studied prior to any proposed development or redevelopment, and should be protected from adverse influences whenever possible. The City's known significant archaeological resources were identified in a Resource Protection Planning Process (RP3) study conducted by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation for James City County, York County and the City in 1985 (revised in 1990). The 1989 Comprehensive Plan recommended that these areas be studied for significant resources to provide a reasonable assurance that any future development or redevelopment in the City does not have an adverse impact on unidentified resources. As a means of identifying all documented historic archaeological resources and predicting prehistoric archaeological resource areas in the City, an Archaeological Map Assessment Study was developed for the City by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. As recommended in the 1989 Comprehensive Plan, an Archaeological Review section was added to the Zoning Ordinance in 1995. Five Archaeological Protection Districts were designated (Old Town Williamsburg, Capitol Landing, Exhibit 6-3: Archaeological Protection Area – Notable Features College Landing, Civil War battle sites, and Richneck Plantation. To better protect identified resources, additional districts should be added as identified in Exhibit 6-3: Archaeological Protection Area – Notable Features.

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The mechanism triggering archaeological review is the preparation of site plans and subdivisions within these districts - archaeological surveys and evaluation reports must be undertaken as part of the development review process, with the Planning Commission acting as the archaeological review board. If significant archaeological resources will be adversely affected by the development project, the Planning Commission may require the modification of the site plan or subdivision plan to avoid the resources. Williamsburg's Role in the Civil War At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Williamsburg was little more than a small southern college town with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants. The College of William & Mary and the Eastern Lunatic Asylum were the town's major institutions. In 1862 the Virginia peninsula between the James and York rivers became the corridor for the Union Army of the Potomac to advance on Richmond. Just east of town stretched the Williamsburg defensive line. The line consisted of 14 forts, commonly called "redoubts", which comprised the third Confederate line encountered by Federal troops during their advance toward Richmond. The Battle of Williamsburg was fought in wet and raw conditions on May 5, 1862. Nearly 20,000 troops fought within earshot of the town's inhabitants. Following the battle, the Confederate army continued its withdrawal toward Richmond, and Williamsburg fell under Federal martial law for the remainder of the war. The development of plans for “Quarterpath at Williamsburg” by Riverside Healthcare System has resulted in the proffer of a 21 acre Redoubt Park bordering Quarterpath Road between Redoubts #1 and #2 north of Tutter’s Neck Pond. These redoubts, which supported the defense of Fort Magruder, should be preserved and interpreted as a part of Redoubt Park. The setting of these redoubts beside historic Quarterpath Road should also be preserved as much as possible, and care must be taken in the design of the improvement of Quarterpath Road to a minor arterial street to minimize encroachment into the historic character of Redoubt Park. ENTRANCE CORRIDORS The City’s entrance corridors present the initial character and image of Williamsburg to those traveling into the City. The City should work to improve both the functional and visual character of these nine entrance corridors, as shown on Exhibit 6-4: Williamsburg Entrance Corridors, are: Richmond Road from the City limits to College Corner Monticello Avenue from Ironbound Road to Richmond Road Jamestown Road from Route 199 to College Corner North Henry Street/Route 132 from Bypass Road to Lafayette Street South Henry Street from Route 199 to Francis Street Capitol Landing Road from Queen’s Creek to the Colonial Parkway Second Street from the City limits to Page Street York Street from the City limits to Page Street Page Street from the Colonial Parkway to York Street In 1994, the City commissioned LDR International, Inc. to prepare an Entrance Corridor Beautification Study to develop strategies, concepts and standards to promote the improvement and beautification of these corridors. Based on these standards, the following goals are established for the City’s entrance corridors. • • •

Strengthen the concept of “gateway” and create a strong sense of arrival, offering a clear message that one is entering Williamsburg. Improve the functional and visual character of the corridors, while maintaining a balance between convenient vehicular access and a quality pedestrian environment. Achieve consistency in streetscape through simplicity of design, repetition of common landscape and streetscape elements, and placing of utilities underground.

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• •

• •

Implement street improvements which are of the appropriate scale and capacity to serve longrange traffic demands, while respecting the environment and scale of the surrounding neighborhoods. Support economic development by using publicly supported streetscape and landscape improvements to leverage and stimulate private investment. Promote intergovernmental cooperation to protect and improve the City's major entrance corridors, recognizing that the visual quality of these entrances transcend jurisdictional boundaries. Reinforce the standards contained in the Architectural Review Board’s Design Review Guidelines. Develop design standards for landscaping, sidewalks, lighting and other streetscape elements, and incorporate these standards into the City’s zoning regulations. Corridor Specifics Richmond Road Richmond Road is the City’s predominant commercial corridor, serving as a transition from James City County to the heart of the City at College Corner, where Richmond Road meets Jamestown Road at the College of William & Mary. Great strides have been made over the past 20 years to enhance this corridor, and the greatest accomplishment has been the undergrounding of overhead utility lines from College Corner to the Virginia Power Easement near the City limits. Only one-half mile of the three-mile corridor remains to be placed underground. Other recommendations that have been implemented include new street name and traffic signage, new City entrance signs, the requirement of monument signs for commercial uses, and the planting of a substantial number of trees in the median of the dual-lane section of Richmond Road west of the Virginia Power easement.

Exhibit 6-4: Williamsburg Entrance Corridors

Areas of improvement that continue to be needed are to minimize and consolidate the number of curb cuts for commercial properties, to introduce additional street trees where possible, and to continue to encourage the elimination or reduction of parking in front of commercial buildings (as has been done with Red, Hot and Blue, Applebee’s, Chili’s, and the General Store). Additional improvements to sidewalks are needed, particularly in the close in section of Richmond Road between Brooks Street and College Corner.

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Monticello Avenue Monticello Avenue is a scenic entrance corridor into the City from the west, connecting directly to Route 199 and Route 5 in James City County. The importance of this corridor has increased because of the completion of Route 199, the construction of the Williamsburg-James City County Courthouse, the New Town Development in James City County, and this will serve in the future as the primary entrance to the College of William & Mary. Adequate greenbelts of at least 75 feet should be maintained along both sides of the road. The Ironbound Road/Monticello Avenue intersection should be improved, with new signage and landscaping identifying this entrance as an important gateway into the City. Except for the improvements, the wooded section of Monticello Avenue should remain a two-lane, undivided road for the balance of the distance to Compton Drive. In the future, this section should be improved as a “more refined parkway” without curb and gutter but with paved pedestrian connections to the College, the Williamsburg and Monticello shopping center area, High Street, the Williamsburg-James City County Courthouse, and New Town in James City County. The commercial section of Monticello Avenue, from Treyburn Drive to Richmond Road, will be greatly improved when the present underground wiring project is completed. This should be coupled with improved landscaping along this section of the corridor, as is being done by the City in cooperation with the owner of the Monticello Shopping Center. The incorporation of the Williamsburg Community Hospital site into the campus of the College of William & Mary will anchor the middle section of this corridor. Jamestown Road Jamestown Road connects the Center City to Route 199 and Jamestown and serves as an important entrance way from the southwest. Jamestown Road should continue to retain its residential character along its southwest portion, with commercial uses limited to the area around the Route 199 intersection. Lake Matoaka provides a clear transition between the southwest portion of the corridor and its terminus at College Corner, with the campus of the College of William and Mary located along the north side bordered by residential and residential scale buildings along the south side of the road. The “campus” character should be retained along the north side, but new development on the William & Mary campus should be compatible with the residential image of the south side. The lack of a sidewalk on the north side of the street in front of the College’s Phi Beta Kappa Hall interrupts the pedestrian flow along the corridor in the College area, and this gap should be filled in by the College. Additional sidewalk improvements on the College side should be incorporated into new developments along the corridor, such as the proposed Business School at the corner of Campus Drive and Jamestown Road. The maintenance of the College properties on the south side of Jamestown Road from Cary Street to the old College Bookstore should be improved, since their deteriorated physical condition detracts from the wellmaintained character of the rest of the corridor. North Henry Street/Route 132 The North Henry Street/Route 132 corridor is a major access route from the north, connecting Interstate 64 with the Colonial Williamsburg Visitor Center and the Center City. The portion of the route within the City (south of Bypass Road) retains its natural character because it follows the topography of the drainage swale, has little visible roadside development and has a heavily wooded edge. The character of this corridor should be maintained into the future by avoiding unnecessary pavement widening or excessive curb cuts. The City should continue to maintain the high quality landscaping at the northeast corner of North Henry Street and Lafayette Street, and the vacant lot on the southwest corner should be improved with landscaping and/or buildings as the City Square area is redeveloped.

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South Henry Street South Henry Street is the major access route from the south connecting Route 199 with the Center City. More importantly, the road section north of College Landing Park follows the historic route connecting Colonial Williamsburg with its southern port at College Landing on College Creek. The route retains much of its “country road” character with a natural landscaped edge and varied topography. The gateway character of the South Henry Street/Route 199 intersection should be emphasized by protecting and enhancing the signage and landscaping in this area. The adjoining lower section of South Henry Street should continue to retain its rural character and the integrity of the historic route should be protected, and it should be continue to be designated as a greenbelt corridor. Views to College Creek, College Landing Park and the proposed Papermill Creek Park at the crossing of College Creek and South Henry Street should be emphasized through careful management of the roadside landscape. The mixed use character of the corridor from Mimosa Drive to Francis Street should be retained and enhanced, and redevelopment on the west side of the street between Mimosa Drive and Ireland Street should respect both the residential character to the south and the “campus” character of the National Center for State Courts and the College of William & Mary Law School. Capitol Landing Road Capitol Landing Road serves as an important entrance into the City from the north, and follows the approximate location of the original eighteenth century road from Capitol Landing on Queen’s Creek into the Center City. The present entrance corridor extends from the Route 143/Interstate 64 interchange in York County and continues across Queen’s Creek (the corporate limits) for approximately one mile until it meets the Colonial Parkway and Page Street. The northern section from Queen’s Creek to the Merrimac Trail intersection is predominantly undeveloped and wooded in character, while the remainder of the route to the Colonial Parkway is primarily commercial in character, with numerous opportunities for further development and redevelopment. The section of the corridor from Queen’s Creek to the Merrimac Trail intersection is an important “gateway” into the City, and its importance will be increased as the land adjoining the corridor is developed. The majority of the road in this section is lined with mature trees and vegetation, and the greenbelt designation should be retained. The proposed future Capitol Landing Park at Queen’s Creek will further enhance the character of this corridor, which is recognized as one of the City’s character defining areas in the Historic Areas Plan. As the commercial portion of this corridor is developed and redeveloped, redundant entrances to individual parcels should be eliminated or consolidated. Sidewalk needs to be extended on the east side of Capitol Landing Road from Parkway Drive to Merrimac Trail to connect existing commercial and residential areas, and this sidewalk needs to be extended toward Queen’s Creek when the residential areas west of the Merrimac Trail intersection are developed. Second Street The Second Street corridor is dominated by auto-oriented commercial. The corridor was included in the Richmond Road and Second Street Streetscape Study, an in-depth analysis of the two commercial corridors that included specific recommendations for visual improvement of the area. Suggestions included placing overhead utility lines underground, planting continuous street trees, improving the street lighting, screening of parking, new landscaping and signage. A specific streetscape plan for Second Street was developed and implemented in 1990-91. There are several major parcels suitable for redevelopment east of Parkway Drive, which will present an opportunity to consolidate entrances and increase landscaping along the corridor. The placing of utilities underground should remain a future goal for this important corridor. York Street York Street enters the City from the east, and is the City portion of Route 60 from Route 199 to Page Street. This corridor parallels the CSX Railroad tracks and supports several business and four major 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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hotels. A large portion of the southern frontage is owned and used by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and is part of the Historic Area. The corridor terminates at the “Tri-Corner” intersection on York Street where Lafayette Street, Page Street and York Street intersect. In 1997, the City relocated the granite curb and widened the asphalt paving between Page and Lafayette Streets to accommodate truck turning movements. In addition, new brick sidewalks and painted crosswalks were installed. The importance of the York Street corridor will be increased by the future development of Quarterpath at Williamsburg at the southeast corner of the City, owned by Riverside Healthcare System, Inc. The existing sidewalks and bike lanes in this corridor will enhance the pedestrian and bicycle connection with the 900+ dwelling units proposed for this area. Page Street Page Street is not really an entrance corridor, but it provides an important connection between three other entrance corridors: Capitol Landing Road, Second Street and York Street. The section between the Colonial Parkway and Second Street is largely residential in character, and the east side of the street from Second Street to the CSX Railroad is commercial in character. There is a major redevelopment opportunity at the southeast corner of Page Street and Penniman Road, and the design for this area should be carefully reviewed because it is just across the railroad tracks from the eastern end of the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. The character of Page Street is defined more by the buildings than the landscaping, and the Architectural Review Board should carefully evaluate plans for new and renovated building in this corridor. GREENBELTS A successful recommendation of the 1989 and 1998 Comprehensive Plans has been for the establishment of greenbelts. Greenbelts are generally intended to be left undisturbed by future development where designated by the Comprehensive Plan, and the Zoning Ordinance requires a 50 foot greenbelt along designated streets, with 75 feet being required along Route 199. Approximately 13 miles of greenbelts are identified in the City, and this standard has been applied successfully to Holly Hills, Holly Hills Carriage Homes, Richmond Hill, The Oaks, Brandywyne, Spring Arbor Assisted Living Facility and Bristol Commons, and will be applied to the new developments of High Street and Quarterpath at Williamsburg. The recommended greenbelts are identified on Exhibit 6-5: Greenbelts, and comprise the following streets: •

• • • • • • • • • •

Ironbound Road -- north side of the street from Ernestine Avenue to the James Blair Middle School; south side of the street from the Wales subdivision to the old fire station; and east side of the street between Berkeley Middle School north to the existing houses fronting Ironbound Road Monticello Avenue -- north and south sides of the street from Ironbound Road to Treyburn Drive Jamestown Road -- north side of the road between the Citizen and Farmers Bank and Campus Drive-- south side of the road from Route 199 to Lake Matoaka Bypass Road -- north and south sides of the street from Route 132 to the Capitol Landing Road intersection Capitol Landing Road -- both sides of the street from Queens Creek to just beyond the Merrimac Trail intersection Route 199 -- north side of the street from the City Water Tower to the Route 60 East/Route 199 interchange North Henry Street --both sides of the street from Bypass Road to the CSX railroad South Henry Street --both sides of the street from Route 199 to Mimosa Drive Merrimac Trail -- east side of the road from just south of Capitol Landing Road to the Virginia Power Easement Strawberry Plains Road -- east side of the road from John Tyler Highway to the Strawberry Plains Planning Area boundary (except for the Mt. Pleasant Professional Center) Longhill Road -- east side of the street across from Kiwanis Park

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Greenbelts should be left in an undisturbed natural state, unless modifications are approved by the City. When retail and other commercial uses are adjacent to designated greenbelts, modifications to the character and width of the greenbelt may be allowed to provide the visibility that is needed for these uses. However, any modifications should preserve the landscaped and tree-lined character of the streets. Greenbelts will continue to play a prominent role in preserving community character, since they are located along important entrance corridors and connecting thoroughfares, as well as adjacent to major economic development areas. By protecting greenbelts, the City will ensure that the aesthetic form and function of these important corridors are Exhibit 6-5: Greenbelts preserved. At the same time, Williamsburg must allow adequate visibility for retail and other commercial uses in order to support the local economy. OPEN SPACE An important element of the City’s character is its system of greenbelts and open spaces. These open space areas are generally depicted on the Future Land Use Map as “Sensitive Environmental Areas and Resource Protection Areas,” “Parks, Parkway and Recreation,” and “Greenbelts.” Regulation A primary means of control of this open space is through the implementation of the City’s Chesapeake Bay Preservation Districts. The RPA (Resource Protection Area) requires a 100 foot buffer from the edge of a wetland or shoreline, and this can result in major areas of open space around and through new developments such as Holly Hills, Savannah Green, Strawberry Plains and Brandywyne). Approximately 18 percent of the City’s land area is designated as Resource Protection Areas, and another 42 percent is designated as RMA (Resource Management Areas) - this comprises land within 500 feet of an RPA. Another means of regulatory control is the requirement of maintaining a certain percentage of a site as landscaped open space. This is required in the City’s multifamily residential and most of the nonresidential zoning districts, and ranges from 15 to 50 percent. In addition, cluster subdivisions require that at least 25 percent of the gross land area of the subdivision be maintained as open space. These requirements can be further enhanced in those areas where greenbelts are mandated, as discussed later in this chapter 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 6 – Community Character 6-10


Acquisition The City should continue to actively investigate and pursue opportunities to acquire open space. There are several examples of the positive impacts of this program: • The 1987 purchase of the Minor’s Store property at Capitol Landing Road and Page Street, jointly funded by the City and the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. The store was demolished, and the property was landscaped to become Minor’s Park. • The 1988 purchase of the College Woods property, beside and behind Berkeley Middle School on Strawberry Plains Road. This property was formerly approved for a 130 lot single family subdivision. The rear 37 acres was exchanged with William & Mary for property on South Henry Street. The remaining 13 acres is designated for development as Mixed Use land use. • The 1996 purchase of the remaining 160 acres of the proposed Holly Hills subdivision. This allowed for the establishment of the Richneck Conservation Area (105 acres), which will be preserved for open space and utilized as part of the City’s Chesapeake Bay preservation program, through its designation as Regional Reserved Open Space. This acquisition allowed the preservation of the viewshed from College Landing Park and from Route 199. • The 1996 land exchange agreement with the College of William and Mary. The City received 37 acres on the east side of South Henry Street north of Papermill Creek, and the College will received 37 acres behind Berkeley Middle School as described above. This exchange allowed the College to further preserve the Lake Matoaka watershed, and will allow the City to develop a passive park on the north shore of Papermill Creek. Restrictive covenants were placed on both properties to preserve their use as passive open space. The City should continue the acquisition program with the highest priority placed on obtaining the Capitol Landing Park site and the College Creek nature area. The Capitol Landing site will allow the City to preserve the historic site of one of Williamsburg’s Colonial ports, and this land should become a passive park similar to College Landing Park. The College Creek Nature Area, comprising approximately 40 acres, bounded by South Henry Street, Route 199 and College Creek, should be preserved as undeveloped open space to help South Henry Street retain its character as a scenic entrance corridor, but a small area adjacent to College Landing Park could be linked to the park through an extension of the existing marsh walk. The College Creek Nature Area and the contiguous lands of College Landing Park, Richneck Conservation Area, Papermill Creek Park (proposed) and Great Neck Picnic Area (closed) comprise 200 acres of passive open space, forming a major open space area in the southern section of Williamsburg. A small, but important, parcel should be preserved as open space in the Municipal Center area. This one acre area between the First Baptist Church and the Crispus Attucks PUD was proposed as open space with the development of the Armistead Avenue PUD in 1974, but was not shown as open space in the 1989 and 1998 Comprehensive Plans. It should be designated as Parks, Parkway, Recreation land use on the Future Land Use Map, and remain as a passive open space. Institutional Preservation While the City’s parks and parkways are essential elements of the open space system and are “protected” because of their public ownership, the preservation of land by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and the College of William & Mary greatly contribute to the quality of Williamsburg’s environment. The Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area is the preeminent open space in the City, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and expanded by 128 acres in 2002. The College of William & Mary designates substantial portions of its land for preservation, including the 245 acres of the College Woods will be maintained in its natural state. This large area is complements the landscaped grounds of the Main Campus. The College and the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation together provide the City with a quantity and quality of open space that is unmatched by any other City in the Commonwealth, if not the country. Chapter 6 – Community Character

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 6-11


Chapter 7 Land Use Categories EXISTING LAND USE In March 2006, 67.5% (3,886.7 acres) of the City’s 5,760 acres was developed. Environmentally sensitive land and water features comprise 21.2% of the total (1,219.9 acres), and 11.3% of the land is vacant and available for future development (653.4 acres). The various land use categories are listed in Table 7-1. Future development patterns will be greatly influenced by the existing land use patterns. Residential There are 969.5 acres (16.8%) that are currently developed as residential. Of the residential total, 735.9 acres (75.9%) are devoted to single-family detached dwellings (including room rentals to visitors), which are located throughout the City. Duplexes and townhouses occupy 49.9 acres (5.1% of residential), and condominiums and apartments total 183.7 acres (19.0% of residential). Commercial Commercial development in the City is located around the Merchants Square area in the Center City and along the major entrance corridors. The majority of the corridor commercial uses are located along Richmond Road, with secondary concentrations along Second Street, Capitol Landing Road and York Street. The Jamestown Road/Route 199 intersection is another important commercial node. A total of 285.5 acres, or 5% of the City’s total land area, are in commercial and office land use areas. Unlike most similarly-sized communities, the majority of this commercial land area is tourism-oriented, and developed as hotels, restaurants and retail establishments serving Williamsburg’s visitors. Open Space While there has been substantial growth in Williamsburg over the past 50 years, the City continues to retain its natural beauty and parkland. There are 642.2 acres (11.2% of the City’s total land area) committed to park, parkway and recreational uses. This is supplemented by 1,219.9 acres (21.2% of the City’s total land area) of sensitive environmental areas and water features, and a majority of this area is regulated by the City’s Chesapeake Bay Preservation regulations. This park land and open space provides a generous amount of active and passive, recreational opportunities. Institutions The City’s open spaces are augmented by the expansive institutional holdings of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and the College of William & Mary. The Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area and the main campus of the College provide substantial amounts of open space for passive recreational activities. In total and exclusive of sensitive environmental areas, the College of William & Mary (Main Campus, Law School Campus, Dillard Complex and College Woods) comprises approximately 740.4 acres (12.9% of the City), while Colonial Williamsburg occupies approximately 577.7 acres (10% of the City). Just as the College and Colonial Williamsburg comprise a significant amount of the City’s developed property, these institutions also own a significant portion of the City’s undeveloped land. Williamsburg’s environmental quality has been, and will continue to be, greatly influenced by these institution’s development decisions. Vacant land Bordering the “active” uses described above are 653.4 acres of vacant property, or almost 11.3% of the City’s total land area. This represents that is available for residential or commercial development, and does not include land designated as sensitive environmental areas. A large portion of these vacant lands the High Street property on Richmond Road, and the Riverside Health System property at the southeast corner of the City – are slated for development in the near future.

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TABLE 7-1 2006 EXISTING LAND USE SUMMARY LAND USE CATEGORY

TOTAL PERCENT OF TOTAL ACREAGE CITY LAND AREA

RESIDENTIAL Single Family Detached Duplex Townhouses Condominiums Apartments Room Rental to Visitors Total Residential COMMERCIAL Office Banks and Financial Institutions Retail Shopping Center Restaurants Hotel and Motel Automotive Commercial other Total Commercial INSTITUTIONAL CW Historic Area CW Support Facilities William and Mary Total Institutional PARKS, RECREATION & PARKWAY Public Colonial Parkway Total Parks, Recreation & Parkway OTHER PUBLIC & SEMI-PUBLIC City of Williamsburg Facilities Churches Public Schools Private Schools Fraternal Organizations Nursing Homes Hospitals Total Other Public & Semi-Public TRANSPORTATION Street Rights-of-Way Railroad Total Transportation ENVIRONMENTAL Surface Water Area Environmentally Sensitive Areas Total Environmental VACANT Residential Commercial Total Vacant

TOTAL CITY LAND AREA

726.1 17.9 32.0 79.3 104.4 9.8 969.5

16.8%

36.7 5.8 18.5 47.2 36.5 106.4 18.3 16.1 285.5

5.0%

177.7 400.0 740.4 1,318.1

22.9%

491.1 151.1 642.2

11.1%

52.2 38.3 50.4 32.7 1.1 12.1 15.9 202.7

3.5%

417.7 51.0 468.7

8.1%

142.3 1,077.6 1,219.9

21.2%

304.0 349.4 653.4

11.4%

5,760.0

100.0%

Source: March 2006 Land Use Survey Conducted by the Williamsburg Planning Department

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THE PLANNING PROCESS The initial stages of the preparation of the 2006 Comprehensive Plan reviewed the development that had occurred in the City since the adoption of the 1998 Comprehensive Plan, delineated the remaining large tracts of undeveloped land and identified citywide opportunities for infill development and redevelopment. Two neighborhood focus areas were mapped on Richmond Road and Jamestown Road adjacent to the College of William & Mary, identifying where special care needed to be taken to preserve neighborhood character. This information was transferred to a master map, which was used as a tool to guide discussions at a series of three initial public forums described as “Community Conversations.” Following these initial forums, a series of more focused Community Conversations was developed, addressing the following areas: •

Richmond Road Neighborhood Focus Area This area, adjacent to the College, included neighborhoods along Richmond Road and Lafayette Street from Virginia Avenue to Bacon Street. Jamestown Road Neighborhood Focus Area This area, adjacent to the College, included neighborhoods along Jamestown Road from Chandler Court to Lake Matoaka Center City Focus Area This area included Braxton Court, Crispus Attucks, Kinnamon Townhouses, Counselor’s Close, and residential areas on Scotland Street, Henry Street, Boundary Street, a portion of Newport Avenue, and Mimosa Drive. Also included were the Merchants Square area, the commercial area at Richmond Road and Scotland Streets, the City Square area, and office and institutional uses south of Ireland Street. Commercial Corridors These corridors included Richmond Road, Mooretown Road, Monticello Avenue, Capitol Landing Road, Second Street area, York Street, and the Jamestown Road/Route 199 intersection.

Planning Commission and staff used the information derived from all of these forums, and the comments made by citizens and property owners, as the future land use recommendations were developed for the 2005 Comprehensive Plan. The Planning Area concept that was successfully used in the 1989 and 1998 Comprehensive Plans has been replaced with chapters organized by land use type: Residential Neighborhoods and Housing, Institutions (Colonial Williamsburg and William & Mary), and Commercial Areas and Economic Development. Since most of these areas have been either fully developed or planned for development over the past 16 years, it made more sense to focus on specific types of uses throughout the City, and their interrelationships, than segregating them into distinct geographical areas. As was the case with the past two Comprehensive Plans, the planning process has attempted to seek the optimal path for future growth in the City, with protection and enhancement of Williamsburg’s unique character being the most important planning goal. The specific land use recommendations in the following chapters are those which (1) best express the “Vision for Williamsburg” by successfully integrating the community’s planning goals and objectives, (2) are capable of implementation while allowing the City to responsibly supply municipal services and infrastructure, and (3) provide positive community-wide benefits with the least negative impact on both the natural and built environment. URBAN LAND SUITABILITIES The 1989 Comprehensive Plan adopted a creative approach for determining the suitability of land for urban development, and recognized that the physical characteristics of the land allow it to “speak for itself” in terms of suitability for development. For instance, it is evident that for commercial development, flat land works better and produces more useable area for development than steeply sloped Chapter 7 – The Land Use Plan

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 7-3


land. Similarly, the lot yield in a residential subdivision is limited by the presence of steep slopes and wetlands. Thus, the physical planning process should recognize the fact that physical characteristics significantly impact the development potential of the land, and future land use recommendations should be made with these considerations in mind. The analysis of these physical parameters, which began in 1989, were incorporated into the Zoning Ordinance in 1991, continued with the 1998 Plan, and have been used as an important part of the future land use evaluation and selection process for the 2005 Plan. These considerations include the following factors: • • • • •

• • • •

Slopes less than 10% are generally suitable for urban uses and infrastructure. Slopes in the 10% - 20% range begin to restrict the urban development potentials of individual parcels. Slopes greater than 20% pose significant constraints for urban development and should be restricted to a greater degree than more gently sloping properties. Areas of significant archaeological and geologic features should be avoided to the extent possible. Floodplains, tributary streams, tidal marshes, wetlands and major drainage channels are needed to maintain hydrologic equilibrium in the watershed and development of these areas should be avoided, and the development of adjacent areas should be allowed only under close scrutiny. Significant and/or rare vegetative cover is an important part of the natural environment, and should be respected as vacant land is developed. Future land uses adjoining developed areas must respect their architectural scale, density and character. Land areas identified as necessary to accommodate public facilities, utilities and related infrastructure should be reserved. Construction should be prohibited on land identified as by the Zoning Ordinance as Chesapeake Bay Resource Protection Areas, and development on land identified as Chesapeake Bay Resource Management Areas should incorporate sufficient water quality management features to meet the standards described by Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act.

By applying these parameters to the land that is available for development and redevelopment, conclusions can be drawn for the suitability of the land, the most appropriate uses, the location of “sensitive environmental areas” on which development should be restricted, and the location of land which should be reserved for public facilities and infrastructure improvements. When looking specifically at residential land, the concept of “net developable acreage,” as introduced in the 1989 Plan, provides a rational approach for estimating its development potential. This concept was incorporated into the Zoning Ordinance in 1991, was supported by the 1998 Comprehensive Plan, and is an integral part of the 2005 land use recommendations. The “net developable acreage” methodology allows for a better estimate of a given property’s development capacity. For example, an area with a gross acreage of 100 acres, but having 20 net acres of land which have been identified as “sensitive environmental areas,” would yield 80 “net developable acres”. The application of this concept offers an environmentally sound process through which the land use yield of a given area can be measured. When the “net developable area” concept is used in conjunction with site planning for individual development projects, the zoning district regulations will, in effect, combine conventional zoning standards with environmental performance standards. The end result is an implementation process which is responsive to the physical characteristics of the land, and which provides a consistent formula for applying land use criteria to tracts of varying size and physical characteristics.

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LAND USE CLASSIFICATIONS The Comprehensive Plan assigns land use classifications for the optimal arrangement of land uses in the City. These are shown on the Future Land Use Map, which summarizes the recommendations contained in the text of the Plan. The following descriptions illustrate the types of uses that are recommended for each category. Recommendations for revisions to the Zoning Ordinance to implement these planned land uses are discussed in Chapter 12, Implementation. Residential Categories Williamsburg’s neighborhoods accommodate a variety of residential dwelling types and densities. The Plan’s goals and objectives seek to encourage well designed and appropriately located neighborhoods to maintain an appropriate mix of housing types. Five separate residential planning categories are proposed, and they represent the maximum projected yield for each particular residential use. 1.

Low Density Single Family Detached Residential 3 du/net ac. This category addresses the lowest intensity of residential development - large lot single family detached residential areas – with densities of up to 3 dwelling units per net acre. Lot sizes will generally range from 10,000 SF to 20,000 square feet. This category is currently implemented by the RS-1, RS-2 and PDR zoning districts.

2.

Medium Density Single Family Detached Residential 5 du/net ac. These land areas are planned for single family detached residences developed at a moderate density of up to 5 dwelling units per net developable acre. This category is intended to promote the development of affordable detached housing on small lots located within master planned, neo-traditional styled subdivisions. The recommended option for implementation is to create a new RS-3 District tailored specifically to this density. An average lot size of 7,200 square feet, with a minimum lot width of 60 feet, is recommended.

3.

Medium Density Multifamily Residential 8 du/net ac. Duplexes, townhouses and apartments with a maximum density of 8 dwelling units per net developable acre are recognized by this land use category. Design standards must be applied to ensure adequate off street parking, open space and compatibility with surroundings, especially existing residential neighborhoods. Apartments and other forms of multi-family dwellings may be allowed by special use permit in certain areas within this residential category if they are properly designed. With minor modifications, the existing RM-1 zoning district would be used to implement this medium density housing category.

4.

High Density Multifamily Residential 14 du/net ac. This land use category is applied to the City’s high density multifamily residential areas. There are three major areas in the City that fit this category: Merrimac Trail, Mt. Vernon Avenue, and Patriot Lane. Each of these areas incorporates low rise, garden-styled apartments (up to three stories) at densities in the range of 14 dwelling units per net developable acre. The existing RM-2 zoning district would be used to implement the high density housing category.

5.

Downtown Residential 8-22 du/net ac. This land use category is designed specifically for residential areas in the Center City that are suitable for higher density residential use: the Blayton Building property on Scotland Street and the west side of South Henry Street south of South Boundary Street. A variety of housing types from single family to multifamily allowed, with a base density 8 dwelling units per net developable acre, with up to 22 dwelling units per net developable

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acre allowed with a special use permit. The extra review accorded by this process is designed to ensure that higher density residential uses are high quality and compatible with existing neighborhoods and non-residential development in the area. A new RDT zoning district would be used to implement this medium to high density housing category in the Center City area. Office, Commercial and Mixed-Use Categories The Land Use Plan designates five office, commercial and mixed-use classifications. Estimates of net non-residential density for these categories are based on a Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of 0.25, except for the Downtown Commercial and Mixed Use categories where an FAR of 1.00 is used. FAR represents the ratio of total building floor area (excluding parking garages) to the net developable area of the property. 1.

Office The office land use category accommodates primarily offices and financial institutions as low density transitional uses between residential neighborhoods and higher intensity business uses. This land use is intended for designated areas in the Center City and Midtown Planning Areas, as well as outlying areas including Strawberry Plains Road, John Tyler Highway, Monticello Avenue, Ironbound Road and Bypass Road. Office land use is implemented by two zoning districts: LB-3 Limited Business Residential for the Center City area, and LB-4 Limited Business corridor for the outlying areas. The basic uses permitted by right would be offices as well as financial institutions. Residential uses would be allowed only in the LB-3 District in the Center City, with a base density of 8 dwelling units per net developable acre, and up to 14 dwelling units per net developable area with a special use permit for areas that are suitable for a higher density. The extra review required is designed to ensure that higher density residential uses are high quality and compatible with existing neighborhoods and non-residential development in the area. These densities match the densities allowed in the Downtown Residential areas. Supplementing the office uses, a limited range of related low intensity commercial uses would be allowed with a special use permit.

2.

Downtown Commercial The Downtown Commercial land use category is intended to promote a variety of business uses in the Center City, and includes the Merchants Square area and other predominantly retail business areas adjacent to the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area and the College of William and Mary. Due to its downtown location, the density of development in this area is higher than other office and commercial areas in the City. Continued use and adaptation of residential dwellings is supported in the Center City, and residential uses on the upper floors of buildings are encouraged at a density of 22 units per net acre, with a maximum of 10 dwelling units in an individual building to encourage a true mixed-use environment. The B-1 zoning district, with modifications, should be used implement the Downtown Commercial land use category.

3.

Corridor Commercial This land use category designates land on the City’s heavily traveled entrance corridors for commercial and service uses primarily oriented to the automobile. This category applies to local shopping areas, as well as to existing and future hotels, restaurants and other tourism retail uses. It also includes the automobile-oriented commercial uses along Second Street. Substantial sections of Richmond Road, Capitol Landing Road, York Street and Second Street are currently developed in this land use pattern, which is also intended for the small portion of Mooretown Road that is located within the City Limits. To ensure high quality development, the more intensive commercial uses should require special use permits. Corridor Commercial land use is intended to promote the City’s

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economic development policy for its limited, remaining high-visibility commercial sites. Residential should be allowed in Corridor Commercial areas but only as multifamily combined with non-residential uses in a mixed-use format. This will ensure that valuable commercial land is not completely used for residential purposes. Residential uses should require a special use permit to ensure compatibility with commercial uses. The B-2 zoning district, with modifications, will implement this land use category. It should, however, be renamed Corridor Business District instead of the current Tourist Business District. 4.

General Commercial General Commercial designates the City’s most urban commercial corridor along Richmond Road between Monticello Avenue and Ironbound Road. It includes the City’s two largest shopping centers, and many commercial buildings located close to the street. The area includes a mix of retail, office and service businesses, as well as hotels and timeshares. Residential should continue to be allowed in the General Commercial areas, primarily as multifamily combined with non-residential uses in a mixed-use format. Because this area includes shopping centers with a full range of commercial uses, and is located close to the downtown areas, it can also be a suitable location for multifamily dwellings used as housing for older citizens. All residential uses should require a special use permit to ensure compatibility with commercial uses. The B-3 zoning district, with modifications, will implement this land use category.

5.

Mixed Use The Mixed Use land use category is intended to provide a degree of flexibility in land uses to be developed in areas suitable for a mixture of residential and commercial uses. Incorporating a potential range of residential, office, and moderately-scaled commercial uses, mixed use development should be subject to a thorough urban design review which stresses quality architecture, proper building siting, and well designed landscaping. Equally important, this category should promote the preservation, revitalization, and adaptive reuse, where appropriate, of existing historic structures. The density of the residential component of mixed use development should be appropriate to the character of the area, and will be higher in the Center City area to encourage a more urban character. The mixed use category will be implemented by the LB-1 Limited Business Downtown District for the City Square area north of Merchants Square, which allows a mixture of residential and commercial uses that are more restricted than the adjacent B-1 Downtown Business District. To encourage a reasonable number of residential units on the second and third floors of buildings, while discouraging large apartment complexes, allowed residential density should be 22 units per net developable acre, with a maximum of 10 units on an individual lot. Residential yard and height requirements should also be imposed to preserve the transitional scale and character of the area. The other Mixed Use areas are Richmond Road between Brooks Street to the Williamsburg Shopping Center, south of Berkeley School and on the east side of Ironbound Road adjacent to the Wales subdivision. For these areas, an LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood zoning district should be created to allow the implementation of the mixed use concept. The LB-2 District would allow a range of uses including single family and duplex dwellings, banks, bake shops, hotels with 10 or less rooms, museums

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and art galleries and offices. More intensive uses, such as multifamily dwellings, hotels with more than 10 rooms, restaurants and retail stores would require a special use permit. Residential uses should be allowed at a base density of 8 dwelling units per net acre, with the ability to increase the density to 14 dwelling units per net acre with a special use permit. Mixed Use is designed to be more limited than Corridor Commercial and General Commercial, but more flexible than Office land use. Economic Development Category The Land Use Plan designates one economic development land use classification. 1.

Economic Development The Economic Development land use category is intended to encourage economic development activities that provide desirable employment and enlarge the City’s tax base. This category combines the 1998 Comprehensive Plan’s recommendations for economic development with the Plan’s concepts for Mixed Use land use, creating a hybrid that incorporates the best ideas from these two important land use categories. The most important concept is that large new developments can contribute to the City’s character and economic well-being by having a well designed mix of uses, rather than being a monolithic commercial, office, health care or residential development. This land use category expands the historic mixed use concept beyond the core area of the City into the two remaining largest areas for future development – the City’s High Street parcel on Richmond Road between Bypass and Ironbound Roads, and the Riverside Health System property on the east side of Quarterpath Road. The development of areas designated as Economic Development land use should address a range of important goals stated by the Comprehensive Plan: enhancement of the natural and built environment; discouragement of strip development practices; use creative urban design standards; thoughtful master planning; coordinated urban design themes; appropriate scale street improvements; quality planning for residential uses; reservation of suitable areas for commercial, entertainment, office, and medical uses in a mixed-use setting with an emphasis on landscaping and high quality design standards; and providing tax revenues to balance the cost of providing services for residential development. Most important is the Plan’s overall goal for land use, which is to “plan for an integrated mix of residential, commercial, and economic development uses which will provide suitable housing, shopping, tourism and employment opportunities for City residents.” The ED and ED-2 Districts will implement this land use category. To ensure that the majority of the Economic Development land is developed for tax-generating commercial, entertainment, office, and medical uses, areas used exclusively for residential use should be limited to a minority of the land use in each of the Economic Development areas designated by the Plan, and integrated into the overall design of the development.

Institutional Categories The institutional categories include the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area, Colonial Williamsburg Support and the College of William and Mary. The three institutional use designations are designed to accommodate the variety of uses necessary for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and the College of William and Mary. 1.

Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area This district encompasses the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area and is established to preserve, protect and maintain the distinctive character and historic importance of the restored area.

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2.

Colonial Williamsburg Support The Colonial Williamsburg Support uses include a variety of commercial and industrial facilities that support the functioning of the Colonial Williamsburg Historic District.

3.

The College of William and Mary The College of William and Mary classification identifies the major land holdings of the College of William and Mary. It is recognized that the City cannot regulate the use of land owned by the College, yet these lands are an integral part of the City’s character and future development and are critical to successful corridor planning and environmental preservation goals. Together, the City and the College must be committed to cooperative planning for the development and redevelopment of the College’s property.

Public/Recreation/Conservation Categories This land use designation is divided into three areas - Public/Semi-Public, Parks/Parkway/Recreation, and Sensitive Environmental Areas. These areas warrant special attention and regulatory oversight and must be carefully managed to maintain public resources for future generations. 1.

Public and Semi-Public Areas Public and Semi-Public uses are generally institutional and municipal buildings and lands. These uses include the Municipal Center, Court House, public and private schools, hospitals, religious uses, and cemeteries.

2.

Parks, Parkway and Recreation Areas This category encompasses parks, parkways and recreation facilities which are owned by the City, the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, or the Federal Government. These lands are used for City park purposes, or are part of the privately owned and operated Golden Horseshoe Golf Courses or the Colonial Parkway, which links Yorktown, Williamsburg and Jamestown.

3.

Sensitive Environmental Areas This category designates the lands that have physiographic characteristics critical to the ecological stability and water quality of the region. The protection of these areas is one of the primary goals of this Comprehensive Plan and any development within these areas should be allowed only under strict performance standards and permitting procedures. The Sensitive Environmental Areas include the following: Stream valleys and ravines. Much of the City’s rarest vegetation and wildlife habitats are located within these stream valleys and ravines. Visually, these areas may serve as buffers between conflicting land uses and provide opportunities for passive, natureoriented recreational activities. Development hazards, such as flooding, poor soil bearing strength for building foundations, high erosion, and water table problems which result in soggy yards and wet basements, make building in these areas costly and frequently unsafe. Development in these areas will not only degrade water quality and eliminate natural habitats, but will increase the incidence and magnitude of downstream flooding. Steep Slopes Adjacent to Stream Valleys and Ravines. Construction on steep slopes and on slopes with soils of high erodability may require extensive clearing and grading resulting in soil erosion and the introduction of sedimentation into adjacent streams. 100-Year Floodplains. 100-Year Floodplains are recognized by City and federal regulations as areas where flooding is a significant hazard to development. Development in these areas lowers water quality since eroded soil during clearing and construction, and surface pollutants after construction, are washed into streams during rain storms. In addition, these floodplain areas often have rich wet soils which provide wildlife habitats

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2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 7-9


and support plant growth. The City’s 100-year floodplains are protected from development because they are located entirely within the Resource Protection Areas designated by the Chesapeake Bay Protection section of the Zoning Ordinance. Tidal and Non-tidal Wetlands. Marshlands are an irreplaceable resource which is essential for the production of marine and inland wildlife, waterfowl, finfish, shellfish and flora. They also serve as a flood buffer, slow erosion of adjacent shores, and protect water quality by absorption of silt and pollutants. Resource Protection Areas and Resource Management Areas. The resource protection areas (RPAs) and resource management areas (RMAs) are recognized by the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act and regulated by the City’s Zoning Ordinance. RPAs include lands adjacent to water bodies with perennial flow that have an intrinsic water quality value due to the ecological and biological processes they perform, and development in these areas is strictly limited. RMAs are adjacent to the RPAs, and while development is allowed it must meet strict water quality standards.

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Chapter 8 Neighborhoods and Housing Williamsburg is a city of neighborhoods, which range in character from large lot single family to high density multifamily, and with densities ranging from 1½ to 60 units per acre. The Plan’s goal for Neighborhoods and Housing is to “Protect and enhance the quality of the City’s residential neighborhoods, and encourage the provision of affordable housing for City residents.” 2000 CENSUS Housing Type Single-family homes dominate the housing market in the Williamsburg region, ranging from 57% of the total housing stock in Williamsburg to 86% of the total housing stock in York County. However, 42% of Williamsburg’s housing stock is two-family or multi-family dwellings - significantly higher than the surrounding counties, where the two-family and multi-family housing stock accounts for less than 15% of the total, and substantially higher than the average of 27% for all of Hampton Roads.

Figure 8-1: Housing Type in the Williamsburg Region, 2000

70%

Hampton Roads

86%

York

14%

57%

Williamsburg 10%

20%

Single-Family

30%

3%

12% 2%

79%

James City

0%

27%

42%

40%

50%

2-Family/Multi-Family

60%

70%

80%

7%

1%

90%

100%

Mobile Home/Other

However, because college students make up 45% of the population and not all can be housed by the College of William and Mary, multi-family housing is in high demand in Williamsburg. Figure 8-2 illustrates the distribution of housing types in Williamsburg as compared to other areas with substantial college-age populations. Exhibit 4-1 illustrates the distribution of housing types in the City by block group. Only two of the nine block groups are dominated by any form of multi-family housing. Because the City has just a few areas where multi-family dwellings dominate the housing stock, density is relatively low. Exhibit 4-2 indicates that most areas of the City have 1-7 housing units per acre, while only two census blocks have a density greater than fourteen units per acre. Figure 8-3 shows that the majority of population in the City currently resides in single-family dwellings.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-1


Figure 8-2: Comparison of Housing Type in Williamsburg and Other College Towns/Cities

57%

Williamsburg

42%

62%

Hanover, NH

1.4%

38%

0.0%

Charlottesville

55%

45%

0.8%

Charleston, SC

55%

44%

1.2%

60%

Carlisle, PA

0%

10%

20%

30%

Single-Family

39%

40%

50%

2-Family/Multi-Family

60%

70%

0.4%

80%

90%

100%

Mobile Home/Other

Figure 8-3: Population by Housing Type Williamsburg City, Virginia 2% 3% 3%

0% 1, detached

12%

1, attached 2 3 or 4

8%

5 to 9

53%

10 to 19 20 to 49 50 or more

9%

Mobile home Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing

Boat, RV, van, etc.

3% 7%

In part because of the higher number of multi-family dwellings in Williamsburg, housing units in the City are comparatively smaller. According to the 2000 Census, most housing units in Williamsburg have 4 or 5 rooms (21% and 20% respectively) with the median being 5.2 rooms. This is considerably smaller than the median of 6.2 rooms in James City, 6.6 rooms in York, and 5.8 rooms in Virginia (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Housing and Population, Summary File 3, Tables H24 & H25). Regardless of their size, most units are not crowded. Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 8-2


Exhibit 8-1

Exhibit 8-2

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-3


Households According to the 2000 Census, Williamsburg has a total of 3,880 housing units of which 3,619 are occupied. This is slightly higher than the national occupancy rate of 91%, but is the same as the rest of Virginia (93%) and slighter lower than the Hampton Roads region (94%). A relatively high percentage of the occupied units are renter-occupied when compared with the rest of the region. Figure 8-4 shows that less than a quarter of the occupied units in James City and York Counties are renter-occupied compared with over 55% in the City of Williamsburg. When compared with the region (37.8%) and the state as a whole (31.9%), Williamsburg still has a much higher number of renters. Figure 8-4: Housing Tenure in the Williamsburg Region

Williamsburg

44.3% Owner-Occupied

James City County

77.0% Owner-Occupied

York County

Hampton Roads

State

55.7% Renter-Occupied

23.0% Renter-Occupied

75.8% Owner-Occupied

24.2% Renter-Occupied

62.7% Owner-Occupied

37.8% Renter-Occupied

31.9% Renter-Occupied

68.1% Owner-Occupied

Figure 8-5: Housing Tenure in Virginia College Towns

Blacksburg

Fredericksburg

Charlottesville

30.4% Owner-Occupied

69.6% Renter-Occupied

35.6% Owner-Occupied

64.4% Renter-Occupied

40.8% Owner-Occupied

59.2% Renter-Occupied

Williamsburg

44.3% Owner-Occupied

55.7% Renter-Occupied

Radford

44.6% Owner-Occupied

55.4% Renter-Occupied

Lexington

54.9% Owner-Occupied

45.1% Renter-Occupied

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census of Population & Housing

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 8-4


The City of Williamsburg’s high proportion of college students accounts for some of the disparity between rental occupancy in Williamsburg and the surrounding region, but cities generally tend to have higher rental rates than suburban counties. Figure 8-5 illustrates that, when evaluated in relation to five other cities and towns in Virginia that have large colleges or universities, the proportion of renters to owners in Williamsburg is actually below average. Because the College of William & Mary houses about 76% of its full-time undergraduate students and 18% of full-time graduate students, according to an October 2004 report by the Virginia Association of College and University Housing Officers, the demand for rental housing near campus remains high. This accounts for the concentration of rental housing around the campus, particularly in the Richmond Road area. Additional concentrations of renters are also seen in the Merrimac Trail, Mount Vernon Avenue and Jamestown Road/Route 199 areas. A significant portion of Williamsburg’s population, about 37%, lives in group quarters (dormitories, nursing homes, etc.). As with housing tenure, the City has a much higher percentage of residents living in group quarters than does the rest of the region, attributable to the high number of college students living in the City (98% of the total non-household population). Table 8-1: Williamsburg and the Region: Non-Household Population Institutionalized Population

Correctional institutions James City 460 York 0 Williamsburg 0 Hampton Roads 17,348 Virginia 64,036

Nursing homes 42 118 136 7,006 38,865

Noninstitutionalized Population

Other institutions 492 0 0 1,992 8,583

College dormitories 0 0 4,354 10,898 65,557

Military quarters 0 372 0 26,536 33,752

Other noninstitutional group quarters 251 137 8 3,887 20,605

Total 1,245 627 4,498 67,667 231,398

2000 Census Summary File 1, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, University of Virginia

Household Size The average size of households in Williamsburg is much smaller than that of its suburban neighbors: the 2000 Census computes the average household size for the City to be 2.07 persons, down from 2.11 in 1990 and significantly smaller than the average of 2.47 for James City County or 2.78 for York County. The difference in household size is a product of the larger number of one and two-person households in Williamsburg, which account for over 75% of the total in the City. Conversely, one and two-person households account for 63% of all households in James City County and only 50% of all households in York County). These differences in average household size also reflect the type of households in each locality. According to the 2000 Census, family households make up 74% of all households in James City County and 79% of the total in York County, but only 49% in Williamsburg. Table 9 provides a breakdown of family and non-family households for the Williamsburg region. Approximately 25% of all households in the City are occupied by residents who are 65 or over; over 30% are occupied by residents between the ages of 15 and 24. The latter are primarily students at the College of William and Mary living in nonfamily households. This 2000 Census section of this chapter was prepared for the City by the staff of the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-5


HOUSING TRENDS As pointed out in Chapter 6, Population, the character of Williamsburg’s housing stock is very different for that of the surrounding counties of James City and York. Williamsburg has a much higher percentage of multifamily housing (42% vs. 14% for James City and 12% for York). Williamsburg also has a higher percentage of rental housing according to the 2000 Census – 55.7% vs. 23.0% for James City and 24.2% for York. Although Williamsburg is much different from the surrounding jurisdictions, the residential character is fairly typical for a small city that is also a college town. One of the trends that has occurred in the City since the adoption of the 1998 Comprehensive Plan is the increase in the amount of multifamily housing constructed in the City. Although the 1998 Plan recommended that no new multifamily housing, construction since the 1998 Plan has added 336 multifamily and duplex dwellings compared with 204 single family dwellings. However, unlike past multifamily construction in the City, all of these have been developed as condominiums – the last rental project that was built in the City was Clinton Gardens in 1984. As the housing market evolves, one of the primary tasks of the 2005 Plan is to determine the proper mix for future housing in the City, both in terms of type and density. One of the first tasks in the preparation of the 2006 Plan was to identify residential neighborhoods where special care was needed to preserve their character. Three specific “focus areas” were identified in the Center City, adjacent to the College of William and Mary and the Merchants Square area. These areas met the criteria of “threatened neighborhoods” in the 1998 Comprehensive Plan, which identified three major pressure sources: the gradual influx of college students into the neighborhoods, increased throughtraffic concerns, and the presence of substandard or rapidly deteriorating housing. However, the City recognizes that there are other neighborhoods in the City that may face similar circumstances. The general goals for Neighborhoods and Housing in Chapter 3, and the Housing Plan on the following page, reinforce the City’s commitment to protect and enhance the quality of all of the City’s residential neighborhoods. Concerning the major impact of the College on the City’s neighborhoods, the 1998 Plan noted: As the College continues to gradually expand its student population without allocating a corresponding amount of new dormitory space, student demand for off-campus housing opportunities will increase. Given the fact that the current Plan does not call for any additional high density residential development, the influx of students into established neighborhoods near the College will continue, further threatening the stability of these communities. To address this issue, the College should consider providing more dorm space to serve the projected increases in enrollment as it proceeds with the ongoing update of its master plan. Over the past five years, the City has taken significant steps to address the pressures on the City’s residential neighborhoods. These programs and initiatives, as listed below, should be monitored, refined and expanded, as needed. • • • • •

The enforcement of the City’s property maintenance code on a consistent citywide basis. The creation of a residential rental inspection program in July 2003. Pursuing grants and CDBG programs to improve infrastructure and housing (Wales, Strawberry Plains, and Braxton Court). The creation of a Neighborhood Guide to provide concise information to assist citizens in accessing programs and activities offered by the City government. Creation of a neighborhood task force to facilitate student/resident relations in residential neighborhoods near the College.

In addition, citizens have reorganized and revitalized the Neighborhood Council, giving a voice to neighborhoods citywide. Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 8-6


HOUSING PLAN The 2006 Comprehensive Plan envisions a multifaceted Housing Plan that is detailed in the following sections of this chapter. The Housing Plan is summarized below: 1.

Preserve and protect the City’s single-family neighborhoods. Property maintenance and neighborhood preservation should be promoted by enforcement of the Property Maintenance Code, Rental Inspection Program, Zoning Ordinance, and Residential Permit Parking program. Incentives should be offered to encourage owner-occupied housing, such as the program promoted by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority to give them first right of refusal for the purchase of single family houses through the recordation of restrictive covenants. Necessary infrastructure improvements should be identified and funded, and should be included in the City’s Capital Improvement Program. Zoning regulations should be continually reviewed to make sure that they adequately protect the character of these neighborhoods.

2.

Encourage a greater residential presence in the Center City area. To enhance the highquality mixed-use character of this area, the allowable residential density should be increased to 14 units/net acre for the Office area on South Henry Street south of Merchants Square, and 22 units/net acre for Merchants Square and areas to the north and west, and for the west side of South Henry Street between South Boundary Street and Mimosa Drive. Special use permits should be required for these higher densities to insure compatibility with existing residential neighborhoods. Owner-occupancy of these dwelling units is encouraged, and should be a consideration in the evaluation of requests for special use permits for increased density.

3.

Encourage new mixed-use neighborhoods. New higher density housing should take place in a master planned mixed-use context, such as in High Street Williamsburg and Quarterpath at Williamsburg.

4.

Limit high density residential development to existing areas. High density residential is primarily concentrated in the following areas: Merrimac Trail/Parkway Drive, Mount Vernon Avenue, Patriot Lane/Claiborne Drive, and the Jamestown Road/Route 199 intersection. With 42% of the City’s dwelling units being multi-family, the City has its fair share of this land use. New high density residential uses should be integrated with office, commercial and other non-residential uses in master planned mixed use developments.

5.

Limit residential uses in Corridor Commercial areas. These areas should be reserved for commercial rather than residential use. Sufficient land is available outside of Corridor Commercial areas for the City’s housing needs.

6.

Encourage the development of low and moderate income owner-occupied housing in appropriate locations. The City, primarily through the efforts of the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority, has developed 104 subsidized rental units and 75 owner occupied single-family dwellings. Future efforts for affordable housing should concentrate primarily on owner-occupied housing.

7.

Develop an adequate solution to college student housing. The demand for student housing on the campus of the College of William and Mary and in the area surrounding the College has an impact on the largely single family neighborhoods adjacent to the College along Richmond Road and Jamestown Road. It is the responsibility of the College to provide an appropriate amount of student housing on the campus. Additionally, City regulations should encourage appropriate student oriented housing offcampus to supplement the housing provided by the College.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-7


When this Housing Plan is translated to land use, there is a potential for approximately 700 new singlefamily homes, and 1,800 new multi-family dwellings. Of these new dwellings, 68% are estimated for owner-occupancy, and 32% for rental-occupancy. Low and moderate income housing could comprise up to 200 dwelling units, or 8% of the projected housing growth. Housing in master planned mixed-use developments should total approximately 1,600 dwelling units, or 64% of the projected growth. Completion of this development will represent a residential build-out for the City. Based on the 2000 Census, and the type of development anticipated, the City should have approximately 4,000 owneroccupied dwellings (56%) and approximately 3,200 renter-occupied dwellings (44%) at build-out. This compares to the 2000 Census figure of 1,602 owner-occupied dwellings (44%) and 2,017 renter-occupied dwellings (56%). RESIDENTIAL FOCUS AREAS Jamestown Road Focus Area Exhibit 8-3

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 8-8


This area extends along Jamestown Road from Chandler Court to Lake Matoaka, and includes several historic neighborhoods that are included in the Architectural Preservation District (see Chapter 6, Community Character): Chandler Court was developed in the late 1920s by John Garland Pollard, who served as Mayor and was elected Governor of Virginia in 1930. Chandler Court has a formal entrance from Jamestown Road and is characterized by simple Colonial Revival style houses with well developed residential landscaping. There is a distinctive “court” or circular drive in the center, and an unusual pedestrian connection with Pollard Park. Chandler Court was placed on the National and State Registers of Historic Places in 1997. Pollard Park adjoins Chandler Court to the south. It was developed by Governor Pollard in the 1930s, and the landscaped ravine in the center provides a park-like setting for its Colonial Revival style houses that reflect the influence of the contemporary Colonial Williamsburg restoration. Along with Chandler Court, Pollard Park was added to the National and State Registers of Historic Places in 1997. Indian Springs subdivision was developed in the 1940s and 1950s, and is characterized by small, predominantly Colonial Revival style houses in a variety of forms. This single-access, looping subdivision is significant in that the plat designated parks, parkways and walkways to be shared by the residents. Burns Lane Subdivision was developed in several stages. The upper portion was platted between 1929 and the 1940s, and is characterized by small, predominantly Colonial Revival style houses in a variety of forms. The lower portion, which is outside of the Architectural Preservation District, was subdivided in 1946 and was developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Analysis In 2005, the Jamestown Road Focus Area has a total of 402 dwelling units: 217 single family dwellings (including 10 Bed and Breakfasts), 24 duplex dwelling units in 12 buildings, 43 multifamily dwelling units in eight buildings, and 118 multifamily dwelling units in the Ludwell Apartments (seven buildings), which is leased by the College. There are 186 owner-occupied dwelling units (46.3%) and 216 renteroccupied dwelling units (53.7%), compared to the City totals of 44.3% owner-occupied and 55.7% renteroccupied. If the Ludwell Apartments are excluded, there are 186 owner-occupied dwelling units (65.5%), and 98 renter-occupied dwelling units (34.5%). The breakdowns by neighborhood are: • • • • • •

Burns Lane area: 92.5% owner-occupied; 7.5% renter-occupied. Indian Springs: 69.1% owner-occupied; 30.9% renter-occupied Jamestown Road: 55.9% owner-occupied; 44.1% renter-occupied Griffin Avenue area: 46.6% owner-occupied; 53.4% renter-occupied Rolfe Road with Ludwell Apartments: 9.2% owner-occupied; 90.8% renter-occupied Rolfe Road without Ludwell Apartments: 92.3 owner-occupied; 7.7% renter-occupied

Like any of the downtown residential neighborhoods, portions of the Jamestown Road area are not exclusively residential in character. In addition to the dwellings described above, there are 10 College buildings and 5 church or synagogue buildings. Although not in the “Jamestown Road Focus Area,” the main campus of the College is directly across the street, and the edge along Jamestown Road is characterized by dormitories, classroom buildings, Phi Beta Kappa Hall, and parking lots. New construction proposed by the College will definitely have an effect on this area, and includes the Barksdale Dormitories in 2005-06, the Parking Garage next to Adair Gym on Campus Drive in 2005-06; the renovation of the Lake Matoaka Amphitheater in 2006-07; and the new Business School at the corner of Jamestown Road and Campus Drive (no construction schedule established).

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-9


An important transitional use for this area is the location of Room Rentals to Visitors (Bed & Breakfast) along Jamestown Road. Over the past ten years, Bed & Breakfasts have become an important stabilizing influence along the entrance corridors bordering the City’s older residential neighborhoods. The last revision to the Bed & Breakfast regulations, made in 1995, allowed these uses to expand to four rental bedrooms along designated corridors, with a quota established along each corridor (15 for Jamestown Road). The Jamestown Road Area Parking and Traffic Study was completed in 2004, and identified projects such as the reconfiguration of the Campus Drive intersection, additional crosswalks and sidewalks, and traffic calming measures for the Newport Avenue/Griffin Avenue area. A conceptual plan for a roundabout on Jamestown Road at College Corner was presented for future consideration. Recommendations The Jamestown Road Focus Area is a predominantly single family owner-occupied residential neighborhood, except for the concentration of students in the Griffin Avenue and Rolfe Road areas, and the College, religious and Bed and Breakfast uses located along Jamestown Road. With this in mind, the following recommendations are made for the future land use in this area: 1.

Land Use Designation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 units/net acre) should be continued for this area, with the exception of the existing High Density Multifamily Residential (14 units/net acre) for the Ludwell Apartments on Rolfe Road.

2.

Neighborhood Preservation should continue to be a City priority to ensure that this remains a viable single family residential area. Suggested actions include: a.

b. c.

Offer incentives to encourage owner-occupied housing, such as the program promoted by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority to give them first right of refusal for the purchase of single family houses through the recordation of restrictive covenants. Continue proactive enforcement of the Property Maintenance Code and the Residential Rental Inspection Program. Review zoning regulations to make sure that they adequately protect the character of the residential neighborhoods in this area.

3.

Bed & Breakfast uses should be granted additional flexibility so that they continue as a viable use in this neighborhood, but this should be tempered with limitations that ensure that the residential character of the area is not compromised. To this end, the quotas should be adjusted as needed, and the Zoning Ordinance should be amended to allow for the potential to increase the number of rooms rented, based on criteria to ensure compatibility with the neighborhoods.

4.

The College of William & Mary should be encouraged to improve its maintenance of its Jamestown Road houses between Cary Street and the old Bookstore, and to consider neighborhood impacts as its construction and expansion plans along Jamestown Road are developed. In the event that these houses are no longer needed for College purposes, the College is encouraged to offer them for conversion back to residential use.

5.

Transportation needs for this area should continue to be monitored, with improvements being made as appropriate. These improvements may include additional traffic calming measures, bicycle and pedestrian improvements, and intersection improvements at Campus Drive and College Corner.

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 8-10


Richmond Road Focus Area Exhibit 8-4

This area extends along Richmond Road from Scotland Street to the Williamsburg Shopping Center, and includes several historic neighborhoods located in the Architectural Preservation District (Chapter 6, Community Character). College Terrace was developed by the College of William & Mary in the late 1920s and early 1930s on land subdivided from the Bright Farm. Also included is the Henley Jones Subdivision on the north side of Brooks Street, platted in 1933. One of the purposes of the development was to provide housing for professors at the College, but several fraternity houses were also built. The majority of the houses were built in the Colonial Revival style. The landscaped median along College Terrace, the main interior street, provides a "parkway" character. College Terrace, along with West Williamsburg Heights, provides a transition between the commercial and office areas on Richmond Road west of Brooks Street and the College campus to the east. West Williamsburg Heights is located on the north side of Richmond Road between Virginia Avenue and Nelson Avenue on land subdivided from the Bozarth Farm in 1925. Harry D. Bozarth developed this neighborhood in the late 1920s and 1930s, characterized by predominantly Colonial Revival style houses in a variety of forms. The adjoining Bozarth Court 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-11


Extended, located at the east end of Virginia Avenue and Harrison Avenue, was platted in 1939. West Williamsburg Heights complements College Terrace across Richmond Road and helps create a distinctive approach to the College of William and Mary and the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. West Williamsburg was platted in 1928 when this portion of the City was located in York County. The area is bounded roughly by Richmond Road, Bacon Street, the CSX railroad and Wythe Street. The houses are predominantly one to one and one-half stories in height, and the area contains several notable Bungalow-style houses around the Lafayette Street-Wythe Street intersection. Analysis The residential component of the Richmond Road Focus Area is a predominantly single family residential with a strong concentration of rental dwellings (except in the College Terrace area). In 2005, the Richmond Road Focus Area has a total of 219 dwelling units: 168 single family dwellings (including 10 Bed and Breakfasts), 24 duplex dwelling units in 12 buildings, and 27 multifamily dwelling units in six buildings. There are 99 owner-occupied dwelling units (45%) and 120 renter-occupied dwelling units (55%), compared to the City totals of 44.3% owner-occupied and 55.7% renter-occupied. The breakdowns by neighborhood are: • • • •

College Terrace: 92% owner-occupied; 8% renter-occupied. Matoaka Court: 38% owner-occupied; 62% renter-occupied West Williamsburg Heights: 36% owner-occupied; 64% renter-occupied West Williamsburg: 32% owner-occupied; 68% renter-occupied

In addition to the residential areas listed above, there are many non-residential uses along Richmond Road, Westover Avenue and Bacon Avenue: 18 office/bank buildings, seven commercial buildings, three motels and one College building. Although not in the Focus Area, the main campus of the College is behind and beside College Terrace and Matoaka Court, and it is characterized parking lots, playing fields and dormitories. A transitional use for this area is the location of Room Rentals to Visitors (Bed & Breakfasts) along Richmond Road. Over the past ten years, Bed & Breakfasts have become an important stabilizing influence along the entrance corridors bordering the City’s older residential neighborhoods. The last revision to the Bed & Breakfast regulations, made in 1995, allowed these uses to expand to four rental bedrooms along designated corridors, with a quota established along each corridor (ten for the Richmond Road corridor). Recommendations The following recommendations are made for the future residential land use in this area (the Richmond Road mixed-use corridor from Brooks Street to the Williamsburg Shopping Center is discussed in Chapter 10, Commercial and Economic Development): 1.

Land Use Designation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for this area, including the vacant “Casey Field.”

2.

Neighborhood Preservation should continue to be a City priority to ensure that this remains a viable single family residential area. Suggested actions include: a.

b.

Offer incentives to encourage owner-occupied housing, such as the program promoted by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority to give them first right of refusal for the purchase of single family houses through the recordation of restrictive covenants. Continue proactive enforcement of the Property Maintenance Code and the Residential Rental Inspection Program.

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 8-12


c.

Review zoning regulations to make sure that they adequately protect the character of the residential neighborhoods in this area.

3.

Transportation improvements should include improvements to and extensions of the sidewalk system.

4.

Bed & Breakfast uses should be granted additional flexibility so that they continue as a viable use in this neighborhood, but this should be tempered with limitations that ensure that the residential character of the area is not compromised. To this end, the quotas should be adjusted as needed, and the Zoning Ordinance should be amended to allow for the potential to increase the number of rooms rented, based on criteria to ensure compatibility with the neighborhoods.

Center City Focus Area This area has Merchants Square as its center, and extends north to the CSX Railroad, south to Mimosa Drive, west along Richmond Road to Scotland Street, and west along Jamestown Road to include the properties owned by the College of William & Mary. Because of the mixed-use character of this area, it is discussed in Chapter 10, Commercial and Economic Development. MAJOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS Quarterpath Road Area Quarterpath Park Area (Area 1) The area the north end of Quarterpath Road, opposite Quarterpath Park is a prime site for residential redevelopment. Its location across from a major City park and within walking and biking distance of the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area and the Center City commercial area is a plus for the redevelopment of this area into a quality residential neighborhood, and a density of 8 units/net acre would be appropriate since it is adjacent to existing commercial development and across the street from Quarterpath Park. At this density, and with a net acreage of approximately 10 acres, this area would support up to 80 dwelling units.

Exhibit 8-5

The redevelopment of this property, which should be considered for a variety of dwelling types, will need to use a creative site design strategy because of the narrow width of the property. Any lots fronting on Quarterpath Road should have driveway access from side and rear yards, and an alley system may be necessary. The interior street network could take the shape of a neotraditional pattern in order to provide an urban feel to the development. Quarterpath Road needs to be widened an improved in conjunction with this development, and bikeways and sidewalks also need to be provided.

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing 8-13


Recommendation. The existing Medium Density Single Family Dwelling land use (5 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 dwelling units/net acre). This land use should be implemented by the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District, but because of the design issues outline above, the property should not be rezoned until an acceptable master plan is submitted. Redoubt Park Area (Area 2) This tract of vacant land is located across Quarterpath Road from the proposed Redoubt Park, and and the Access to the property needs to be coordinated with access to Redoubt Park and the bicycle and pedestrian facilities planned along Quarterpath Road. This site has the potential for high quality residential uses with views of the Golden Horseshoe Green Course on the west and the historic character of Redoubt Park to the east. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued, implemented by the existing RS-1 Single Family Dwelling District. This gives a potential for 18 houses on approximately 6 net developable acres. Quarterpath at Williamsburg (Areas 3-6) Quarterpath at Williamsburg is a 358 acre mixed-use development proposed by Riverside Healthcare Association, Inc., and is located on the east side of Quarterpath Road between the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Nursery and Route 199. This master planned development is located on the largest tract of undeveloped land under a single ownership in the City, and fulfills the 1998 Comprehensive Plan’s recommendation that this area be developed as a comprehensively planned mixed-use community which protects the beauty of its sensitive environmental and historic areas. The overall design creates a project that incorporates the best ideas from the 1998 Plan’s recommendations for economic development and mixed-use areas, resulting in a project that contributes to the City’s character by having a well designed mix of uses, rather than being a monolithic development. The housing component of this project, although much more than the 195 dwelling units recommended by the 1998 Plan, fits within the City’s overall planning framework. The exact number of dwelling units on the property, shown as 955 units on the conceptual plan submitted with the rezoning request, will be determined as the development plans are finalized, and will be governed by the applicable zoning regulations and the proffers accepted for this project. In addition to the residential component of the development, Riverside’s conceptual plan proposes a hospital with up to 150 beds and 573,000 square feet of neighborhood retail and destination retail. The non-residential component is discussed in Chapter 10, Commercial and Economic Development. The residential component is divided by Tutter’s Neck Pond and its tributary streams, which form the environmentally sensitive center of this project. Area 3, located north of the Pond, has 96 net developable acres and will support up to 480 homes at a medium single-family density of 5 dwelling units/net acre. In conjunction with the development of this area, major improvements are needed to the transportation infrastructure, including a major north-south collector road and facilities for bicycles and pedestrians. This main collector road should be

Exhibit 8-6

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designed to accommodate through traffic between York Street and Route 199 without unduly impacting the residential development. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to Medium Density Single Family Detached Residential (5 units/net acre). This land use should be initially implemented by the existing RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District (3 dwelling units/net acre), with an ability to request rezoning to PDR Planned Development Residential District if an acceptable development plan can be designed which addresses the issues outlined above. The PDR District is strongly encouraged, since this category allows a variety of dwelling types, allowing a better integration of the development with sensitive environmental areas. Adjoining this section is Area 3A, located behind the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Nursery. This area is now designated Low Density Single Family Detached Residential (3 dwelling units/net acre), and should be changed to Medium Density Single Family Detached Residential (5 units/net acre). While this 11 net acre area is not a part of the adjoining Quarterpath at Williamsburg development (Area 3), it should be planned for the same density in order to allow development at the same scale and intensity. There is the potential for 55 dwelling units on this site at a density of 5 units/net acre, and design and development needs to be coordinated with Quarterpath at Williamsburg to ensure that adequate vehicular access is provided. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to Medium Density Single Family Detached Residential (5 units/net acre). This land use should be initially implemented by the RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District (3 dwelling units/net acre), with an ability to request rezoning to PDR Planned Development Residential District if an acceptable master plan can be developed which addresses the issues outlined above. The PDR District is strongly encouraged, since this category allows a variety of dwelling types, allowing a better integration of the development with sensitive environmental areas. Moving south of the Tutter’s Neck Pond, Areas 4, 5 and 6 are planned for Economic Development land use (10 dwelling units/net acre for the residential component). The non-residential component of the development is discussed in Chapter 10, Commercial and Economic Development. Residential uses are limited by the Zoning Ordinance to not more than 40% of the total area of the ED Economic Development District, and this area is also subject to additional limitations through zoning proffers: no more than half of the density allowed in the ED District, and no more than one dwelling unit for each 2,000 square feet of non-residential use in the commercial area at the eastern end of the ED District adjacent to James City County. The 197.4 net developable acres of Economic Development land use, with the approved proffers, will result in a potential for up to 987 dwellings, although only 485 are shown on the conceptual plan. Areas 4 and 5, close to Quarterpath Road, are planned by Riverside for mixed-use, including 185 condominium units. Area 6 will be the location for Doctor’s Hospital at Williamsburg and major commercial uses. Its residential component will include 300 age-restricted dwelling units proposed alongside a 120-bed nursing home and a 60-bed assisted living facility. As with the area north of Tutter’s Neck Pond, major improvements are needed to the transportation infrastructure including major improvements to the Quarterpath Road/Route 199 intersection and construction of Battery Boulevard, the major east-west collector road that has been shown in the Comprehensive Plan since 1989. Major utility improvements for water and sanitary sewer are needed, including a 1MGD elevated water storage tank on the eastern end of the property and one or more sanitary sewer pump stations connecting to the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Force Main along Route 199. Most of the site is located in Chesapeake Bay Preservation Areas, and this development will require construction of new stormwater retention ponds and the preservation of substantial buffer areas throughout the project area. Since Route 199 is designated as a Greenbelt street, a 75 foot buffer will also be required along its length. Preserving these environmentally sensitive areas will be a benefit both to the 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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environment and to the residents of the area. In addition, 21.4 acres will be dedicated to the City as Redoubt Park along Quarterpath Road, preserving two Civil War redoubts that were part of Williamsburg’s defensive perimeter. Recommendation. The existing Economic Development land use along Route 199 should be continued, implemented by the existing ED Economic Development District which is intended to allow commercial, entertainment, office and medical uses in a high quality, mixed-use setting, with residential allowed as a secondary use (no more than 40% of the area of the ED District can be devoted exclusively to residential use). High Street Williamsburg The existing land use for the High Street Williamsburg property on Richmond and Ironbound Roads is Economic Development land use, and this should be continued. The project design has evolved from strictly commercial and entertainment into a true mixed-use development, with 250,000 square feet of commercial floor area anchored by a multiplex cinema and 531 multifamily dwelling units (apartments, condominiums and townhouses). The commercial component is discussed in Chapter 10, Commercial and Economic Development. As with the Quarterpath at Williamsburg area, no more than 40% of the area of the ED-2 Economic Development District it is located in can be devoted exclusively to residential use. A residential density of 12 dwelling units/net acre will give this area an urban ambiance with accessibility to shopping and entertainment, which will be supplemented by an integrated pedestrian circulation system. Richmond Road, Ironbound Road and proposed Treyburn Drive provide vehicular access to the site. An interior connector street will extend from New Hope Road to Ironbound Road, and the majority of the Exhibit 8-7 residential uses will be west of this street. Two buildings closer to Richmond Road will have their second and third floors devoted to apartment use, further adding to the urban character. A major stormwater management facility to control runoff and enhance water quality will be located on the southern end of the property, and will serve as both an environmental and visual amenity for the development. A trail system will be constructed around the pond, and the trails will extend west of Treyburn Drive along existing ravines. These features both protect and utilize the sensitive environmental features which are part of the City’s Chesapeake Bay Preservation Areas, and which provide a natural counterpoint to this urban development. Recommendation. The existing Economic Development land use should be continued for this area, implemented by the ED-2 Economic Development District.

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OTHER RESIDENTIAL AREAS Capitol Landing Road/Page Street Area This area extends along Capitol Landing Road and Page Street from the CSX Railroad to their intersection at the Colonial Parkway. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued. This area includes two historic neighborhoods that are located in the Architectural Preservation District (see Chapter 6, Community Character). These neighborhoods, together with Minor’s Park, help provide a transition between the commercial area of Capitol Landing Road north of the Colonial Parkway and the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. Capitol Heights on the west side of Capitol Landing Road was platted in 1916, and has a consistent scale with uniform setbacks and landscaping. The modest houses vary in style and include bungalow, Colonial Revival, and simple builders' houses that date mainly from the 1920s through the 1950s. The east side of Capitol Landing Road is characterized by Colonial Revival houses in a variety of forms and two Vernacular Victorian houses, one of which was relocated to the area in the 1930s from the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. Pine Crest subdivision, located on the east side of Page Street, was platted in 1939 on a 12-acre parcel known as the "Tan Yard lot." Pine Crest complements the architectural character and scale of the nearby Capitol Heights subdivision, and contains a mixture of architectural styles having a consistent character. Pine Crest, together with Capitol Heights and Minor's Park, reinforces the small-scale residential character of this area of the City. Haynes Drive/Forest Hills Drive/Woods Drive Several single-family subdivisions are tucked in behind the commercial frontage on the west side of Capitol Landing Road between Parkway Drive and Woods Drive. These areas take advantage of a natural setting of wooded ravines and wetlands and close proximity to the Historic Area and the Center City. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for these areas, implemented by the RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District. Northern Section (Merrimac Trail to Queen’s Creek - Areas 1 and 2) The section of Capitol Landing Road begins at the Merrimac Trail intersection and ends at Queen’s Creek, which is the northern corporate limit. Capitol Landing was at this location and operated as a colonial port during the 1700s, linked to Williamsburg by Capitol Landing Road. This area is located in an Archaeological Preservation area, and the historic site should be preserved and maintained for future archeological study. Future development should be concentrated away from this historic park area. There are two major opportunities for residential development along Capitol Landing Road, both appropriate the lowest residential density of 3 dwelling units/net acre. Area 1 is located on the west side of Capitol Landing Road south of Queen’s Creek. This 18.7-acre area could support 45 new houses on the area’s 14.9 net developable acres. Area 2 is located directly across Capitol Landing Road, and is bounded on the north, south and east by the steep slopes bordering Queen’s Creek. This 10.9-acre area could be developed with up to 26 new houses on the area’s 8.7 net developable acres. The development of these two areas must respect the sensitive historical and environmental character of Capitol Landing and be coordinated to share access and utility extensions. A greenbelt is designated along both sides of Capitol Landing Road, and this buffer will preserve the rural character of the historic Capitol Landing Road, a major entrance corridor into the City. The critical slopes and wetlands in and around Queen’s and Palace Creeks are not suitable for development and should be preserved as permanent open space. However, these sensitive environmental areas provide excellent siting opportunities for new development.

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A passive park is proposed at Capitol Landing east of Capitol Landing Road in Area 2, and has been part of the City’s Comprehensive Plan since 1953. This will be similar to the park at College Landing south of the Historic Area, and will ensure that both of the City’s colonial port sites are preserved. Planned development should be designed to respect the setting of this historic site and the park should be one of the major character defining features of the residential development. Extensive utility improvements are necessary to allow new development in this area. Water and sanitary Exhibit 8-8 sewer lines must be extended from the Merrimac Trail/Capitol Landing Road intersection, and a sewer pump station is necessary to provide wastewater removal. In addition, best management practices must be utilized so that Queen’s Creek is not adversely impacted by the development. Most of this area is located within the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area, and the maintenance of water quality is especially important. There is also an opportunity for development of a retention pond at the outfall of the drainage way that forms the southern border of Area 2, which could serve as a focal point for future home sites in the area. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for Areas 1 and 2, implemented by the RS-1 Single Family Dwelling District. Brandywyne at Williamsburg, a 79-lot single-family cluster subdivision approved under the City’s PDR Planned Development Residential District zoning regulations, anchors the southern end of this area. This development has its houses clustered near Capitol Landing Road and Merrimac Trail with the major wetlands at the east and south maintained as permanent open space. This area also provides a transition from the lower density residential on Capitol Landing Road to the north (Areas 1 and 2) and the High Density Multifamily residential to the east along Merrimac Trail. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) and Medium Density Multifamily land used (8 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to Medium Density Single Family Detached land use (5 dwelling units/net acre), as it better reflects the scale and density of the existing development. This land use is implemented by the existing PDR Planned Development Residential District, which was specifically approved for the Brandywyne development. Merrimac Trail The Merrimac Trail area between Capitol Landing Road and the southeastern corporate limits is one of the City’s three major concentrations of multifamily housing, with a total of 790 dwelling units (the others are the Patriot Lane and Mt. Vernon Avenue areas). Apartment complexes in this area are Village at Woodshire, Colonial Pines, Colonial Towne and Parkway Apartments. Barclay Square is a condominium, and Priorslee and Shellis Square are townhouse subdivisions.

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Recommendation. The existing High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 units/net acre) should be continued, implemented by the RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling District. Parkway Drive Parkway Drive between Second Street and Capitol Landing Road has developed as a residential area since the 1998 Comprehensive Plan. Wyndham Plantation East is a 100-unit condominium development adjoining the Colonial Parkway. Approved, but not built, are Wyndham Plantation West on the north side of the Colonial Parkway and Parkway Condominiums on the south side of the Colonial Parkway, totaling 72 units. Recommendation. The existing Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 units/net acre) north of the Colonial Parkway should be continued, and the existing General Business land use south of the Colonial Parkway and west of Parkway Drive should be changed to High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 units/net acre). This land use should be implemented by the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District. Highland Park Area Highland Park is a residential neighborhood located along North Henry Street north of the CSX Railroad and west of Route 132. A 12 acre undeveloped parcel is located on the east side of North Henry Street north of the 29-unit WRHA subsidized apartment complex on Dunning Street. This land has the potential to be developed as a low and moderate income single family detached subdivision similar in character and quality to the Crispus Attucks and Strawberry Plains subdivisions. To maximize the amount of housing that could be provided, and with an acceptable design, housing density could be increased to 6 dwelling units/net acre using the special use permit process in the RS-2 District. The topography of the site will require careful placement of roadways and the maintenance of proper screening from Route 132, which is designated as a Greenbelt street. To create a suitable pedestrian environment, sidewalks should be provided on both sides of the street and link to the existing sidewalks on North Henry Street. Recommendation. This existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued, except for a small portion adjacent to Dunning Street which should continue to be designated Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 units/net acre) – this encompasses the 29-unit apartment complex owned by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority. These land uses should be implemented by the RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District and the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District. South Henry Street South Henry Street south of Mimosa Drive adjoins the Center City Focus Area, and is comprised of four distinct residential developments. The Coves is a single-family subdivision that is bordered on either side by the Port Anne and Richmond Hill single-family cluster subdivisions. The Oaks on Henry, a townhouse subdivision, is located on the east side of South Henry Street just south of Papermill Creek. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 units/net acre) should be continued the single-family areas, implemented by RS-1 Single Family Dwelling District and the existing PUD Planned Unit Development District for Port Anne. The existing Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 units/net acre) should be continued for The Oaks on Henry, implemented by the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District.

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South England Street This area extends south along South England Street from Newport Avenue to Route 199, and begins with an historic neighborhood that is included in the Architectural Preservation District (see Chapter 6, Community Character). The Colonial Extension subdivision was developed following the extension of South England Street. The Colonial Extension Company, Inc. purchased the 299-acre Tazewell Hall property in 1906, and the original subdivision plat had one street parallel to South England Street to the west (Colonial Street, later renamed Tyler Street), five cross streets (Tazewell Hall Avenue, later renamed Newport Avenue, Williamsburg Avenue, Pocahontas Avenue, Powhatan Avenue, and Park Avenue) and a park at the southern end of the subdivision. A few small, vernacular and builder-catalog style houses from this early 1910 development era survive. Much of the area below Williamsburg Avenue was developed with small Colonial Revival style houses in the 1930s and 1940s. Two eighteenth-century houses were relocated to this subdivision from the Historic Area: the Powell-Hallam House at 410 Tyler Street and the Galt James Cottage at 420 Tyler Street. The existing Low Density Single Family Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued, except for a small section west of Tyler Street that is designated Medium Density Multifamily Residential (8 units/net acre) for the Tyler Court Townhouses. The small-scale residential character of this neighborhood should be maintained. Further south and separated from the Colonial Extension subdivision by the Governor Spotswood Golf Course are four developable areas. Areas 1, 2 and 3 are located between South England Street and the Colonial Parkway, and Area 4 is located on the east side of South England Street between the Golden Horseshoe Green Course and Route 199, adjoining the wetlands of Tutter’s Creek. Together, these four areas have 42 net developable acres with a potential for 127 houses at the lowest residential density of 3 dwelling units/net acre. Exhibit 8-9 Each of these areas has severe topographical constraints that limit the density of uses, and future development must be sympathetic to the surrounding natural areas and the natural settings of the Colonial Parkway and South England Street. The sensitive environmental land located outside of the developable areas must be maintained as permanent open space to maintain the natural beauty of the area. Another limitation is the fact that South England Street south of the Colonial Extension Subdivision is not a public street, and the City’s Zoning Ordinance requires that lots front on public streets. The solution to this problem is to dedicate the roadway as a public street in order to allow the development of these areas into single-family lots, or to utilize the PDR Planned Development Residential district which allows residential development on private streets that meet City construction standards. The PDR District gives the developer the ability to use a variety of housing types that will help the design respond to the difficult topography of this area.

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Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for this area, implemented by the RS-1 Single Family Dwelling District. The PDR Planned Development Residential District could be utilized for the land south of the Colonial Extension subdivision if an acceptable master plan can be developed. Richmond Road/Longhill Road Area The residential areas between Richmond Road and Longhill Road are a combination single-family and multifamily development. The oldest single-family subdivision in the area, Skipwith Farms, is bracketed by the more recent subdivisions of Longhill Woods, Piney Creek and Savannah Green. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 units/net acre) should be continued for the single family subdivision, implemented by the RS-2 Single Family Residential District and the PUD District for Longhill Woods. The multifamily developments along Richmond Road are one of three major concentrations of multifamily housing in the City, with a total of 330 dwelling units (the Merrimac Trail and Mt. Vernon Avenue areas are the others). Recommendation. The existing High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for the three developments on Patriot Lane (Patriot Condominiums, Patriot III and Westgate), implemented by the RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling District. The existing Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 units/net acre) for the adjoining Claiborne at Williamsburg should be continued. The same Medium Density Multifamily Land Use (8 units/net acre) should be continued for the small area on Waltz Farm Drive adjacent to Patriot Condominiums. Approximately eight dwelling units could be accommodated on this one net acre site. Further east at the entrance to Skipwith Farms, the Townhomes at Skipwith should also continue to be designated Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 dwelling units/net acre). All of these land uses should be implemented by the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District. Mt. Vernon Avenue Mt. Vernon Avenue between Monticello Avenue and New Hope Road, with a total of 294 dwelling units, is one of the City’s three major concentrations of multifamily housing (the others are the Patriot Lane and the Merrimac Trail area). Located on Mt. Vernon Avenue are five apartment complexes constructed between 1963 and 1986: Julia Ann, Spring Road, Spring Road Annex, Spring Garden and Clinton Gardens. These apartments are located between the College of William and Mary and the High Street Williamsburg development, interconnected by a growing network of sidewalks and bike lanes as well as the Treyburn Drive extension. The proximity of this area to the College makes these apartments very attractive for helping to meet the need for college student housing. Because of its strategic location, this area should be further studied to determine whether or not it should be considered for a higher residential density and/or mixed-use redevelopment. Recommendation. The existing High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for this area, implemented by the RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling District. If future studies determine that a higher residential density and/or mixed-use redevelopment is suitable for this area, amendments to the Comprehensive Plan and the Zoning Ordinance should be considered. Strawberry Plains Road Mixed Use Area This area is located south of Berkeley School, and borders the office uses fronting on Strawberry Plains Road on the east, existing residential lots on the south, and property owned by the College of William & Mary on the east. This land is suitable for mixed use development with an emphasis on office and institutional land use. The residential component of the mixed use development could be in several different forms: an extension of the Strawberry Plains Redevelopment area discussed below, providing 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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additional low and moderate income Exhibit 8-10 housing in a single-family and/or multifamily format; student-oriented multifamily housing; and/or seniororiented multifamily housing. At a density range of 8 to 14 dwelling units/net acre, this 10 net acre site could support between 80 and 140 dwelling units, which could be integrated with office and/or institutional uses. Care should be taken in planning for the development because of its proximity to Lake Matoaka and the surrounding environmentally sensitive lands, and no rezoning should be approved until an acceptable master plan has been submitted. The major access to the site will be across an 80 foot strip of land between the existing office buildings on Strawberry Plains Road with an opportunity to connect to the street system of the Strawberry Plains Redevelopment Area as a secondary access. Stormwater management would be provided by the existing retention basin. Recommendation. The existing Mixed Use land use should be continued, implemented by the new LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District (base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre, with the ability to increase to a maximum of 14 dwelling units/net acre with a special use permit). The adjoining Office land use should be changed to the same Mixed Use land use, also to be implemented by the LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District. Strawberry Plains Redevelopment Area The Strawberry Plains Redevelopment Area is located on the east side of Strawberry Plains Road just south of existing residential development, and is adjacent to College Woods on the south and east. The 24 acre site redeveloped by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority (WRHA) was recommended for low and moderate income housing in the 1989 and 1998 Comprehensive Plans. In 2000, WRHA prepared a master plan for this site, assembling approximately 30 irregular parcels to create a master planned subdivision centered on a future City park. 57 new lots were created, and four existing houses were incorporated into the plan. This has resulted in the creation of an owner-occupied low and moderate income single family subdivision similar to the successful Crispus Attucks community developed in 1975 at the corner of Lafayette Street and Armistead Avenue. A large part of the Strawberry Plains site (31%) was preserved as green space, addressing the environmental concerns for this area, which is in the Lake Matoaka watershed. Although the majority of this site was not located in a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area, extra steps were taken to meet the Chesapeake Bay water quality standards by building a large stormwater management facility adjacent to the subdivision. Recommendation. The existing Medium Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (5 units/net acre) should be continued, implemented by the new RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District. Wales Area Bristol Commons Bristol Commons is a 110-unit condominium development on the south side of Ironbound Road, bordering the Virginia Gazette to the east, the High Street Economic Development Area to the south, and Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing

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the single family Wales Subdivision to the west, designated High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 units/net acre). This area fits in with the evolving urban character of this area, and will be linked to the High Street Williamsburg development in the future by a trail system that will be built adjacent to its southern border. The three lots fronting on Ironbound Road west of Bristol Commons are more suited for multifamily development rather than the single-family land use of the Wales Subdivision. Recommendation. The Exhibit 8-11 existing Medium Density Single Family Detached land use (5 dwelling units/net acre) for this area should be changed to High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 dwelling units/net acre), implemented by the RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling District. Wales Subdivision The Wales subdivision was developed in the 1940’s and includes over 40 homes. It is named after a former pastor of the Mt. Ararat Baptist Church who purchased the land and sold it on a lot-by-lot basis after naming the internal streets for each of his four children: Ernestine, Roland, Calvin, and Wilhelmina. With help from Housing Partnerships, the City received a Community Development Block Grant in 1996 to begin the revitalization process in the northern developed portion of the subdivision. This resulted in the renovation of several houses and many infrastructure improvements: 300 feet of new sewer line and connections to nine existing houses on Roland Street east of Ernestine Avenue; upgraded water lines and new fire hydrants; widening of Ernestine and Roland Streets with curb and gutter added; and replacement of existing drainage ditches with a 15� storm drain along Roland Street. The undeveloped southern half of the Wales Subdivision (3.8 net developable acres) has the potential to build on the improvements that have been made to the front half, expanding this area as a low and moderate income area. Access would be by the extension of Ernestine Avenue to the south, but the creation of a practical layout for the new houses will require replatting the existing lots to create a subdivision that respects the environmental constraints of the property and includes proper screening from the adjacent mixed use area (Area 2). At a density of 5 dwelling units/net acre, this undeveloped southern half will support up to 19 new single-family homes. However, because of the need for additional low and moderate income housing in the City, this area should be further studied to determine whether or not it should be considered for a higher residential density of 8 or 14 units/net acre (the density of the adjoining Bristol Commons is 14 units/net acre). For a higher density plan to be acceptable, it would need to respect the character of the existing single family area, as well as respecting the environmental constraints of the property. In any case, the new development needs to create a suitable pedestrian environment by providing sidewalks and linking to the High Street trail system along with Bristol Commons. These pedestrian connections will help to integrate all of the residential areas into a cohesive neighborhood.

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Recommendation. The existing Medium Density Single Family Detached land use (5 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for this area, implemented by a new RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District allowing the same residential density. If future studies determine that a higher residential density is suitable for this area, amendments to the Comprehensive Plan and the Zoning Ordinance should be considered. Jamestown Road Area (west of Lake Matoaka) Jamestown Road west of Lake Matoaka is a stable residential area. Single-family residential developments in this area are Walnut Hills, Richneck Heights, Holly Hills, Yorkshire and The Woods. Recommendation. The existing Low Density Single Family Detached Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre) should be continued for the single-family areas, implemented by the RS-1 Single Family Dwelling District. Multifamily developments on the east side of Route 199 are Village Green and Woodlands Condominiums, as well as the adjoining Holly Hills Carriage Homes, a duplex subdivision. Recommendation. The existing Medium Density Multifamily Residential land use (8 dwelling units/net acre) for these areas should be continued, implemented by the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District. On the west side of the Jamestown Road/Route 199 intersection are Peppertree and Jamestown Commons condominiums, adjacent to commercial areas and developed at a higher density than the east side of the street. Recommendation. The existing High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 dwelling units/net acre) for these areas should be continued, implemented by the RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling District. AFFORDABLE HOUSING Williamsburg’s Comprehensive Plans’ have dealt with the issue of affordable housing and the improvement of housing conditions since 1953. Recommendations in 1953 and 1968 led to the establishment of the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority (WRHA) in 1969. Projects sponsored by the WRHA include Crispus Attucks Place, a 19 lot single-family subdivision; Strawberry Plains Redevelopment Area, a 56 lot single-family subdivision; the Blayton Building, a 38 unit elderly housing apartment complex on Scotland Street; and three subsidized apartment complexes on Mimosa Drive (14 units), in Highland Park (29 units), and on New Hope Road (28 units). This a total of 75 single family lots and 104 subsidized rental units. This Plan recognizes the need for more affordable low and moderate income housing, and several areas previously discussed are suitable for this use. •

The undeveloped portion of the Wales subdivision on Ironbound Road (page 8-19) will support 19 additional single-family dwellings, and would build on the successful upgrades that have been made to the existing subdivision by a Community Development Block Grant in 1996. If future studies determine that a higher residential density is suitable for this area, amendments to the Comprehensive Plan and the Zoning Ordinance should be considered. A plus for this area is that it will be in walking distance of the High Street Williamsburg development both over existing sidewalks and a proposed trail system. The Mixed Use area on Strawberry Plains Road south of Berkeley Middle School (page 8-18) will support up to 140 dwelling units of various types in a mixed use context, or a lesser number of houses if developed as a single-family subdivision to match the existing Strawberry Plains Redevelopment Area. This area is within walking distance of the Berkeley Middle School and the proposed City park to the south.

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A 12 acre undeveloped parcel in the Highland Park neighborhood is located on the east side of North Henry Street north of the 29-unit WRHA subsidized apartment complex on Dunning Street. This land has the potential to be developed as a single family detached subdivision similar in character and quality to the Crispus Attucks and Strawberry Plains subdivisions. The topography of the site will require careful placement of roadways and the maintenance of proper screening from Route 132, which is designated as a Greenbelt street. This area is within walking distance of the Center City area and the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. The Blayton Building property in the Center City area (more specifically discussed on page 10-8) is proposed for primarily Downtown Residential land use (8 dwelling units/net acre base density, 22 dwelling units/net acre with a special use permit), which will allow the construction of approximately 39 additional elderly housing units on this centrally located site. In addition, the area to the west of the Blayton Building fronting on Scotland Street will be designated as Downtown Commercial land use (8 dwelling units/net acre base density, 22 dwelling units/net acre with a special use permit), which will allow for the option of construction office or commercial space adjacent to the Triangle Block.

While this section has focused on housing specifically built for low and moderate income housing needs, it should be noted that a large percentage of the City’s existing housing stock falls within the affordable range. The City’s property tax records, based on the July 1, 2005 reassessment, listed 2,982 taxable parcels for single-family, duplex and townhouse dwellings. Of these 2,982 dwellings, 1,327 (44.5%) had an assessed value of $180,000 or less (the threshold for moderate income housing for a family of four with a family income of $47,350) and 736 (25%) had an assessed value of $120,000 or less (the threshold for very low income families with a family income of $29,600).

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Chapter 9 Institutions Since its establishment in 1699, Williamsburg has been defined by its major public institutions. The College of William and Mary and Bruton Parish Church preceded the City and were its first institutional partners. The state government was based here from Williamsburg’s founding in 1699 until the Capital moved to Richmond in 1780. The Publick Hospital, which became Eastern State Hospital, was a major presence in the City from 1773 until completing its move to James City County in 1970. Finally, the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation traces its origin to 1926 when John D. Rockefeller, Jr. began the restoration of the Colonial Capital. This chapter will discuss the impact of the College and Colonial Williamsburg on the City of Williamsburg. THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY The College of William and Mary, one of the nation’s premier state-assisted liberal arts universities, has played an integral role in the City from the start. The College was chartered in 1693 by King William III and Queen Mary II, and is the second oldest educational institution in the country. Today, College enrollment is approximately 7,500 students, projected to grow to 7,900 students by 2011. The College provides high-quality undergraduate, graduate and professional education, and is comprised of the Schools of Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Law, and Marine Science, with an instructional faculty numbering 576.

The College Yard, circa 1840 The centerpiece of the College is the Wren Building, attributed apocryphally to the English architect Sir Christopher Wren, is the oldest academic building in continuous use in the United States. It was constructed between 1695 and 1699, prior to the founding of Williamsburg. The Wren Building, together with the Brafferton (1723) and the President’s House (1732), comprise the original campus of the College. The restoration of the Wren building was the first project undertaken in Williamsburg by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Along with the restored Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area, this original campus is a character defining feature of Williamsburg.

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Physical Improvements The original campus served the needs of the College from 1693 until 1920. From 1920 until 1950, the “Old Campus” was developed west of the Wren Building to the Crim Dell area. The “New Campus” developed in the 1960s with buildings of a modern design. Strategic infill took place between 1980 and 2002. In 2005, William and Mary is beginning its largest building program since the development of the New Campus in the 1960s, which will have broad implications for the City as the College renovates and expands its facilities. Major new facilities will include the Barksdale Dormitories on Jamestown Road housing 388 students, the new School of Business Administration at the northwest corner of Jamestown Road and Campus Drive providing 175,000 square feet of classroom, office and meeting spaces, a new Parking Garage on Campus Drive adjacent to Adair Gymnasium, and the moving of the School of Education to the Williamsburg Community Hospital site on Monticello Avenue.

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The Student View For the first time since the City began the comprehensive planning process in 1953, the opinions of William and Mary students were actively solicited during the preparation of the plan. The primary mechanism for this was the Sharpe Community Scholars Program which was established in 2001. Three projects were completed by the Sharpe Scholars: Analysis of Off-Campus Housing in 2002, the development of an Off-Campus Housing web site in 2003, and a Student Survey in 2004. All three of these studies provided many insights about the City from the student perspective, important for the City to know since approximately one-half of the City’s population is made up of students at the College. Planning Issues The College, as an arm of the Commonwealth, is exempt from City land use regulation. This makes it important that the College and the City work together to preserve Williamsburg’s very special character. The City does not wish to interfere with the College’s ability to plan and decide on land use issues interior to the campus, but becomes concerned when these issues affect adjoining City neighborhoods, commercial areas and historic areas. While many college towns have given up on close-in residential neighborhoods adjacent to campus, Williamsburg should not and must not surrender the character and livability of these valuable and historic neighborhoods. Architectural Character. The architectural character of the College is of utmost importance to both the College and the City (see Chapter 6 – Community Character). Recognizing the importance of this issue, the College developed a Campus Design Guidelines Report in May, 2003. This document formulates design guidelines to help reestablish the consistency of planning and design principles exemplified in the Old Campus, and envisions “a unified campus image and character based on the historic expression of the Old Campus and the Sunken Garden Quadrangle, formulated on a new framework of clearly organized pedestrian pathways and public spaces. The disparate images portrayed by multiple existing campus precincts will be consolidated into a seamless transition between three newly defined campus landforms: North Campus, South Campus and West Woods.” The general architectural framework in this report echos the urban design concerns expressed in Chapter 6 – Community Character as well as in the Design Guidelines adopted by the City’s Architectural Review Board. The College and the City need to work cooperatively together to make sure that new buildings constructed on the campus complement the character of the surrounding City neighborhoods, and that new construction in the City does the same for the character of the College. The area adjoining the Old Campus is located in the City’s Architectural Preservation District, and the New Campus adjoins the Corridor Protection District along Jamestown Road. The development of the new School of Education will also abut a Corridor Protection District along Monticello Avenue. Student Housing. The College has an enrollment in 2005-06 of 7,529 students, which includes 5,604 undergraduates. On-campus housing is provided for 4,217 of the 5,604 undergraduates (75%), and for 239 of the 1,925 graduate students (12%). For the entire student body, 4,456 students are housed oncampus (59%). The completion of the Barksdale Dormitory (388 student capacity) will be offset by the planned abandonment of the Dillard Complex for student housing (269 student capacity), resulting in a net gain of 119 beds. The College estimates a growth of 387 students to a projected enrollment of 7,916 students in Fall 2011 (+5%). Undergraduate enrollment, which generates the greatest demand for oncampus housing, is projected to grow by 279 students from 5,604 in 2005 to 5,883 in 2011 (+6.5%). There is a great demand for student housing on campus and in the area surrounding the College, which has an impact on the largely single family neighborhoods adjacent to the College along Richmond Road and Jamestown Road. It is the responsibility of the College to provide an appropriate amount of student housing on the campus. Additionally, City regulations should encourage appropriate student-oriented housing off-campus to supplement the housing provided by the College. There are several options that could be considered to serve these needs:

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• •

• •

Construction of additional dormitory space on the main campus. Retaining the Dillard Complex for student housing or student apartments. The existing buildings could be either renovation or demolished and redeveloped. The fact that this area will be better connected to the main campus by the construction of Treyburn Drive, and will be next to the mixed-use High Street Williamsburg development should make Dillard much more desirable as a location for student housing. Construction of student housing on the Williamsburg Community Hospital site, which will be renovated for the School of Education. Construction of student-oriented housing on the City-owned Mixed Use land use property south of Berkeley Middle School on Strawberry Plains Road. This abuts College Woods, but has no direct access to the main campus. Construction of new multifamily units planned for High Street Williamsburg, Quarterpath at Williamsburg, and in the Center City area. While these are not planned specifically as student housing, these approximately 1,000 new units will give students wishing to live off-campus additional options outside of the traditional close-in City neighborhoods.

Commercial Development Adjacent to the Main Campus. As pointed out by the Sharpe Scholars, there is a need for additional student-oriented business near the campus to serve the needs of the large number of students in the area. The logical place new business development adjacent to the campus is the commercial area on the north side of Richmond Road between Armistead Avenue and Scotland Street. The success of Wawa at 315 Richmond Road affirms the attractiveness of this area for businesses that also serve the student population. The Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority’s Braxton Court project will add additional commercial space besides Paul’s Delly, and several other key property that are suitable for redevelopment are located between the College Delly and the Williamsburg Baptist Church. The redevelopment of this area, which may require the demolition of several buildings, should be done carefully and with great sensitivity to the existing historic character. The City’s Architectural Review Board should closely review the design of any new proposed building before approving the demolition of existing buildings to make sure that the proposal conforms to the City’s Design Guidelines. Other locations with potential for commercial expansion that will also serve student needs are the proposed Mixed Use area between Brooks Street and the Williamsburg Shopping Center, and the Office area across Monticello Avenue from the future School of Education. The College administration should work closely with the City’s Planning Department and Economic Development Manager to help encourage appropriate redevelopment in these areas. Traffic and Parking. Traffic flow and parking in and around the College is an important concern for the City, and resulted in the Jamestown Road Area Traffic and Parking Study, prepared for the City and the College by Kimley Horn and Associates in 2004. This was supplemented by the College Corner Transportation Study in 2005, which analyzed this important intersection. Major issues for the College include: • The construction of the School of Business on the Common Glory parking lot will displace the existing 318 parking spaces, and change nearby traffic patterns and volumes. The Jamestown Road/Campus Drive intersection will need to be reconfigured to provide three full-width lanes (two southbound and one northbound), and studied to determine if it meets traffic signal warrants. • A satellite parking lot oriented for long-term and storage parking needs to be considered when the School of Business is constructed on Jamestown Road (and which will eliminate the 318 space Common Glory parking lot). At least some of this need may be able to be satisfied by the parking that will be available at the site of the new School of Education. Pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Pedestrian and bicycle facilities are an important part of the College, and several improvements and expansions to the existing system are needed: Chapter 9 – Institutions

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High Street Williamsburg will be a major destination for students. A bicycle and pedestrian link needs to be made from the main campus to the new School of Education, so that students can access the new bike lanes and sidewalks on Treyburn Drive. A connection also needs to be made at the north end of Treyburn Drive, at the Ironbound Road intersection, connecting the bicycle and pedestrian facilities to the Dillard Complex and Plumeri Park. New Town is another potential student destination, now served by bike lanes and Williamsburg Area Transport buses. There is a need to design and construct a paved walkway paralleling Monticello Avenue to provide a connection from the main campus to this activity center. Jamestown Road needs sidewalk improvements, particularly with the construction of the proposed School of Business. The Jamestown Road study identified needed sidewalk along the north side of Jamestown Road from Phi Beta Kappa Circle to Rolfe Road.

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PROPERTY OWNERSHIP Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and College of William and Mary

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THE COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG FOUNDATION Colonial Williamsburg has attracted more than 100 million visitors have come since 1932. This 300 acre area encompasses the majority of the 18th Century Colonial Capital, established in 1699. Williamsburg flourished for the next 80 years, until the state capital was moved to Richmond in 1779. The removal of the capital began a period of decline until 1927 when John D. Rockefeller, Jr. inspired by Reverend W. A. R. Goodwin, began the restoration of the colonial city. Colonial Williamsburg contains eighty-eight original 18th and early 19th-century structures. Many other main buildings and outbuildings have been reconstructed on their original foundations, based upon archaeological investigation and historic research. Notable buildings include the Governor’s Palace, the Capitol, the Courthouse, Bruton Parish Church, Raleigh Tavern and the Powder Magazine. Ninety acres of gardens and greens have also been recreated. The Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area is a National Historic Landmark and is also the centerpiece of the City’s Architectural Preservation District (see Chapter 6 – Community Character).

The Historic Area is operated by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, a private, not-for-profit educational institution that receives no regular state or federal funding. The Foundation preserves and interprets the Historic Area, as described by Colonial Williamsburg Foundation President Colin Campbell: The Historic Area is the core of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. It is the focus and a resource for our education efforts, indeed for everything we do. It is a remarkable collection of original buildings and reconstructions, trade sites and shops, greens and 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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gardens, livestock and rare breeds, coaches and wagons, four taverns working in eighteenth-century fashion, and three-hundred-year old boulevards and byways. No wonder that, when he visited the Williamsburg Restoration, President Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed our central thoroughfare, the mile-long Duke of Gloucester Street, “The most historic avenue in all America.” In addition, the Foundation operates for-profit subsidiaries, including hotels, restaurants, convention facilities, and golf courses; and sells licensed products and reproductions. The Foundation also operates the DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Museum, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Bassett Hall, Carter's Grove (currently closed for renovation), and the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library. The Historic Area The Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area defines the character and drives the economy of the City. Initially conceived as areas on and near Duke of Gloucester Street with concentrations of restored buildings, the Historic Area has evolved and grown since the Restoration began in 1927. In 1939, formal boundaries of the “Restored Area” were established, which included areas along Duke of Gloucester, Francis and Nicholson Streets, and the adjoining historic campus of the College of William and Mary. This was expanded in 1949 to include Waller Street and more of the east-west streets. The official name was changed to the “Historic Area” in 1962, and 1968 saw an expansion to include include the Public Hospital and Custis blocks, the Timson house and several other areas. The most recent expansion added 128 acres to the Historic Area in 2002, and included areas adjacent to the Custis garden site and the Williamsburg Inn, Bassett Hall and its surroundings, and vacant land northwest of the Timson House. The City’s planning and zoning regulations have always kept the protection of this important national resource as a high priority. The “Historic Colonial Area” zoning district was established with the City’s original zoning ordinance in 1947, and enabled the Board of Zoning Appeals to permit the restoration or reconstruction of colonial buildings, and to allow their uses for uses that existed in the 18th Century. Additional controls were administered by a Board of Architectural Consultants established in 1958, which approved the architectural design of buildings. The regulations were refined to their current state in 1991, when a separate “Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area” zoning district was created, and when the Board of Architectural Consultants became the Architectural Review Board, reviewing the architectural character of the Architectural Preservation District which included the Historic Area. The interpretation of the Historic Area is Williamsburg’s most important attraction, illustrated by Colonial Williamsburg’s credo: “That the future may learn from the past.” However, Colonial Williamsburg, along with other history museums nationwide, is dealing with changing demographic and public tastes, competition with other vacation destinations, and a decline in the appeal of historic attractions. This is being addressed by the continued evolution of Colonial Williamsburg’s interpretative programs, Electronic Field Trips, expanded web sites, and continual reinvestment in the physical aspects of the Historic Area. Support Facilities Supporting the Historic Area is a wide array of facilities, ranging from the Bruton Heights School Education Center adjacent to the Historic Area to the Vehicle Maintenance Facility on Route 60 East. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation has made significant capital improvements in recent years to support its operations as well as the local tourism industry. Between 1999 and the anticipated completion date for all projects in 2006, the investments for the projects listed below will exceed $200 million. Visitor Center Expansion and Pedestrian Bridge to Historic Area Woodlands Hotel Williamsburg Inn Renovation Williamsburg Lodge Renovation

Spa and Fitness Center Construction Peyton Randolph Site Reconstruction DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Museum and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum Centralization

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College Corner Building Kimball Theatre Renovation

Great Hopes Plantation Construction Vehicle Maintenance Facility

Planning Issues The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation is subject to the City’s land use regulations, and it is important for the Foundation and the City work together to preserve the special character of the City and most importantly of the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. The importance of the relationship between the City and the Foundation is illustrated by the fact that the Foundation is both the City’s largest taxpayer and the largest property owner. Architectural Character. The maintenance of the architectural character of the Historic Area and the surrounding neighborhoods is a critical planning issue (see Chapter 6 – Community Character). Over the years, the City has built upon the skill and expertise of Colonial Williamsburg, supplementing the Foundation’s knowledge and expertise in the restoration of the Historic Area with complementary City regulations of land use and architectural character. While the Foundation’s stewardship of the Historic Area is unmatched, the continued disposition of properties surrounding the Historic Area makes the City’s role in protecting its setting even more important. The City’s Architectural Review Board needs to work closely with developers to ensure that new buildings constructed along the edges of the Historic Area complement its quality and character. The Colonial Open Space. Williamsburg Historic Area is an essential element of the City’s open space system, particularly in its relationship to the Center City commercial and residential areas. Coupled with the campus of the College of William and Mary, the 128 acre Historic Area provides the City with a quantity and quality of open space that is unmatched by any other City in the Commonwealth, if not the country. Merchants Square. Merchants Square is the City’s premier high quality commercial area, ideally situated between the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area and the College of William and Mary. It was developed by Colonial Williamsburg in the 1930s, and has evolved into both a tourist shopping area and a regional shopping and dining destination. The City has been involved in planning for this area since the 1953 Comprehensive Plan, and the most recent City activities in the area are the construction of the 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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Prince George Parking Garage and the completion of streetscape improvements for Prince George Street and North Henry Street. Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development proposes zoning changes for Merchants Square and the areas to the north and south that will provide increased opportunities for residential development, and enable the Center City to continue to function as a true mixed-use development. Traffic and Parking. Traffic flow and parking in and around the Historic Area and Merchants Square is important both for the Foundation and the City. The basic traffic infrastructure is in place, with the only major future improvement being adjustments to the Jamestown Road/South Boundary Street intersection (see Chapter 11 – Infrastructure). Parking has long been a cooperative venture, with the City policing parking lots that are owned and maintained by the Foundation. A traffic study for the Center City area was prepared in December 1995 by Desman Associates, and led to a number of improvements, the most notable being the 362 space Prince George Parking Garage. Improved directional signage has also been provided for the parking Merchants Square parking facilities.

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Chapter 10 Commercial and Economic Development Williamsburg continues to rely on tourism and its related businesses as a primary source of both employment and revenue – there are 47 hotels/motels, 85 restaurants, 33 bed and breakfasts, and one time share development in the City. Due in part to this tourism connection, the City has been able to generate over $29,000 in per capita retail sales in a single year, far more than any other locality in Virginia. However, during the past decade, commercial development and retail growth in the neighboring counties have outpaced that in Williamsburg. The 1998 Comprehensive Plan discussed this same issue, and noted that In spite of this trend, Williamsburg clearly remains a major player in the regional retail marketplace. However, great care should be taken by the City to recognize and stay on top of the ever-changing dynamics of the market and to respond to them in an appropriate manner (i.e. find and fill market niche opportunities). The City must commit itself to doing this in order to maintain its status as the economic hub of the region and a trendsetter among successful tourism-supported communities in the country. This concern resulted in the creation of the Economic Development land use category, and the identification of redevelopment areas throughout the City in the 1998 Comprehensive Plan. The latter was deemed to be important because of the limited amount of land available for commercial and economic development uses, both as new development and redevelopment – there were 14 redevelopment areas identified on Richmond Road and Capitol Landing Road. Two of the redevelopment areas on Richmond Road are now the sites for the Hilton Gardens, Springhill Suites, Residence Inn, Red Hot and Blue, Applebee’s and Chili’s, and the majority of another area will be part of High Street Williamsburg. Two redevelopment areas on Capitol Landing Road are now the sites for the Hampton Inn and Alexander Commons (offices). As stated in the 1998 Plan, and recognized in the earlier Comprehensive Plans, it is essential for the continued economic health of the City that quality development and redevelopment be encouraged, particularly with the limited amount of land available in the City for commercial development and redevelopment. COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT TRENDS There have been numerous major commercial projects in the City over the past 25 years: 1979 Safeway (now Staples), Richmond Road and Monticello Avenue 1981 Williamsburg Shopping Center expansion, Monticello Avenue 1986/7 Patriot Plaza area, Richmond Road 1995 Food Lion expansion, Williamsburg Shopping Center 1999 CVS/Citizens & Farmers Bank, Jamestown Road and Route 199 2001 College Corner Building 2003 Williamsburg Chrysler-Jeep-Kia, Richmond Road 2003 Penske Vehicle Maintenance Facility, Route 60 east 2005 Yankee Candle, Richmond Road Although these projects have been large developments within the context of the City’s commercial areas, they are small relative to the recent major commercial developments in James City and York Counties, such as: Monticello Marketplace commercial area, Monticello Avenue and Route 199 Prime Outlets, Richmond Road New Town, Monticello Avenue and Ironbound Road Sentara Hospital complex, Mooretown Road Wal-Mart/Lowes area, Rochambeau Drive and Mooretown Road 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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During the preparation of the 2005 Comprehensive Plan, High Street Williamsburg and Quarterpath at Williamsburg were approved. These major mixed-use developments, both with major commercial components, are of similar scale to the large county developments mentioned above, and will help to solidify Williamsburg’s niche in the regional marketplace. In addition to commercial projects, the City’s stock of hotels and restaurants is an important component of the tourist segment of the City’s economy. Looking at past development shows that there was a gain of 1,631 hotel rooms between 1975 and 1987 (1,677 new rooms were built and 46 rooms were demolished). Hotel construction ceased from 1988 to 1995. Between 1996 and 2005, the City’s room supply was modernized and upgraded, with a gain of 375 hotel rooms (1,086 new rooms were built and 711 rooms were demolished or converted). The construction of new restaurants has been steady over the past 28 years, with an average of one new restaurant each year. The City now has 83 restaurants, and the new restaurant buildings added over the past 25 years make up 37% of the total. There has been a net gain of 12 restaurants between 1995 and 2005. COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN The 2006 Comprehensive Plan envisions a diverse Commercial and Economic Development Plan, as summarized below: 1.

Maintain the Merchants Square area as the City’s premier high quality commercial area. Merchants Square is strategically located between the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area and the College of William and Mary, has high quality and historically important architecture, and is served by ample off-street parking and both Williamsburg Area Transport and Colonial Williamsburg bus systems.

2.

Encourage businesses to locate adjacent to the College of William and Mary. These businesses will serve the needs of the 7,500 students at the College, as well those of residents and visitors. These businesses should be located adjacent to the College, primarily on Richmond Road and Prince George Street between Armistead Avenue and Scotland Street. Secondary areas are Richmond Road between Brooks Street and Williamsburg Shopping Center, and Monticello Avenue across from the proposed School of Education (present Williamsburg Community Hospital).

3.

Promote Richmond Road between Brooks Street and the Williamsburg Shopping Center as a unified Mixed-Use Area. New regulations should be developed to treat both sides of this important corridor uniformly, with low intensity uses such as offices and banks allowed by right, and higher intensity uses like retail and restaurants requiring a special use permit. Home studios for artists and artisans should also be allowed by right or with a special use permit, depending on their character and intensity. The location of this area near the College and the Center City should support specialty shopping and office uses. This is an important transition area between automobile-oriented commercial to the west and bed and breakfast and residential uses to the east.

4.

Encourage the “Shopping Centers Area” to serve as the centerpiece of the City’s urban commercial corridor. Williamsburg and Monticello Shopping Centers will continue to serve local shopping needs, and are also located conveniently to the College. The adjacent Richmond Road corridor between Monticello Avenue and Ironbound Road will connect the shopping centers with the High Street Williamsburg mixed-used area. Multifamily housing can be an important component of this area, particularly at the eastern end.

5.

Promote the City’s entrance corridors as the primary location for tourist-oriented businesses. The primary tourist-oriented areas are Richmond Road west of Ironbound Road, York Street, Second Street and Capitol Landing Road. These areas, along with the

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Colonial Williamsburg Foundation hotels around the Historic Area, provide locations for the majority of the City’s lodging and restaurant businesses. Both new development and redevelopment should be encouraged in these areas, building on the substantial reinvestments made since the 1998 Comprehensive Plan. The Second Street corridor also serves as a primary location for automobile-oriented business. 6.

Support development of High Street Williamsburg and Quarterpath at Williamsburg as the City’s primary mixed-use developments. High Street Williamsburg will be a high quality shopping and entertainment area, anchored by a multiplex cinema, and Quarterpath at Williamsburg with be a diverse area with a important medical uses (Doctors’ Hospital of Williamsburg), local commercial, and an area for a major “destination retail” development. Both of these areas are master planned to integrate residential areas with the planned commercial and medical uses.

7.

Provide opportunities for additional mixed-use development on Penniman Road and Ironbound Road. A small existing mixed-use area on Penniman Road near the York County line is strategically located adjacent to the Corridor Commercial areas and within walking distance of Colonial Williamsburg and the Center City area. Ironbound Road at Eastern State corner is adjacent to small-scale mixed-use development in James City County and across the street from Eastern State Hospital.

8.

Maintain appropriately located areas for office use throughout the City. These areas provide needed transition uses between major commercial areas and residential areas. Primary office areas are located along the John Tyler Lane/Strawberry Plains Road corridor, south of Merchants Square along South Henry Street, and along Capitol Landing Road. Office uses can also be a part of mixed-use areas.

9.

Owner-occupied housing Encourage owner-occupied housing throughout the City. contributes to the City’s economic vitality and well-being, and the City should provide incentives to encourage the development and maintenance of owner-occupied housing throughout the City. This is addressed in more detail in Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing.

CENTER CITY FOCUS AREA This area has the Merchants Square commercial area as its center, and extends north to the CSX Railroad, south to Mimosa Drive, west along Richmond Road to Scotland Street, and west along Jamestown Road to include the properties owned by the College of William & Mary. The Center City includes three historic areas that are located in the Architectural Preservation District (see Chapter 6, Community Character). Merchants Square was developed by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in the 1930s as a shopping center to relocate local businesses and services from the Historic Area. It was one of the first planned shopping centers in the United States and still serves as an active retail and office center. As Merchants Square evolved into a tourist district, these local businesses and services were relocated beginning in the 1950s to the Williamsburg Shopping Center and the Municipal Center. Duke of Gloucester Street was closed to vehicular traffic in the 1970s and Merchants Square became more pedestrian oriented. Expansion took place in the early 1990s with the conversion of the old Post Office at the corner of Francis and Henry Streets to shops and a restaurant, and again in 2004 with the construction of the Corner Building at the corner of Duke of Gloucester and North Boundary Streets and the City’s Prince George Parking Garage. Peacock Hill is a residential area that developed north of Merchants Square with the advent of the railroad in the 1880s. The land between Scotland Street and the railroad was subdivided from the Wheatland Farm by R.S. Henley in 1894 and was known as the Northington tract. Henley and 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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later Francis O’Keefe, the father of artist Georgia O’Keefe, further subdivided the Northington tract throughout the late 1890s and early 1900s. The area south of Scotland Street was developed in the early 1900s. Fashionable Vernacular Victorian and Queen Anne style houses were built in this area, with more modest houses constructed in the Buttermilk Hill area around the corner of Prince George Street and Nassau Street. From this turn of the century era, only 14 houses still stand. Exhibit 10-1

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Braxton Court on Scotland Street is an early twentieth century neighborhood developed and established by African-Americans. Robert H. Braxton platted the subdivision in 1928 and sold lots throughout the 1930s to local African-Americans. Many of the houses were built by him using local African-American carpenters and apprentices from the Hampton Institute (now Hampton University), and the architecture of the neighborhood reflects the variations on Colonial Revival and other early-twentieth century suburban vernacular designs found throughout the City. Braxton’s house is located at the top of the cul-de-sac at 128 Braxton Court. In addition to these three areas of historic significance, there are several distinct non-residential areas: the Municipal Center located around City Square on North Boundary Street, the Delly area adjacent to the College at the intersection of Richmond Road and Scotland Street, the portions of the College campus north and south of College Corner, the Wallace Museum on Francis Street, and the Center for State Courts/Law School area on South Henry Street. Other residential neighborhoods included in the Center City area include Crispus Attucks, Kinnamon Townhouses, Counselor’s Close, and residential areas on South Boundary Street, South Henry Street, Newport Avenue and Mimosa Drive. The Center City Focus Area is an authentic mixed-use area combining retail, office, museum, residential and educational uses. This area has evolved since the City’s establishment in 1699, and has the authenticity and character that neo-traditional plans try to emulate but cannot duplicate. The irreplaceable charm of this area is a combination of 300 years of history, the quality and scale of the building (both historic and modern), and the quality of the streetscape. This area brings together all of the major character defining features of the City: Colonial Williamsburg, the College, the Municipal Center, and diverse residential neighborhoods. The challenge for the City, and for this Plan, is to allow new development and redevelopment in the Center City area while preserving its historic character. The most important part of this character is maintaining a proper mix between commercial and residential uses. The non-residential uses located throughout the Center City Focus Area include: 20 office or bank buildings, 26 commercial buildings, 25 public/semi-public buildings (government, church, school, or museum), and 53 College of William & Mary buildings. And although not in this Focus Area, the historic campus of the College is directly to the west (Wren Building, President’s House and Brafferton), and the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area adjoins to the east. The Center City has several areas with distinct (and different) characteristics: • The Merchants Square and Prince George Street area - generally bounded by Prince George Street, Henry Street, Francis Street and Boundary Street – includes retail shops, the College bookstore, restaurants and offices. The Merchants Square area was named to the National Register of Historic Places in June 2006. Most of this area is owned by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, and is primarily oriented toward visitors. Parking is provided by internally located parking lots and the Prince George Parking Garage (which opened in 2004 on land recommended by the 1953 Comprehensive Plan for public parking). • The Municipal Center is located north of Scotland Street in the area roughly bounded by Armistead Avenue, North Henry Street, and the CSX Railroad. It is organized around City Square, and includes numerous public uses: Williamsburg Library, Stryker Building, Community Building, City Square Parking Terrace, Police Station, Fire Station, Municipal Building, Transportation Center, and Post Office. • The Commercial area located on Richmond Road, Prince George Street and Scotland Street between Armistead Avenue and Delly Corner (Richmond Road and Scotland Street intersection). This area, as demonstrated by the existing Dellys and the recently constructed Wawa convenience store, has the ability to serve the major concentration of college students located across Richmond Road on the main campus of William & Mary and in nearby residential areas, as well as residents and visitors.

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-

There are a number of key parcels near the intersections of Richmond Road/Scotland Street and Prince George Street/Armistead Avenue that could be adaptively reused or redeveloped to better serve the commercial needs of the immediate area. Because of the historic character of this area, great care needs to be taken in the design of new commercial buildings and the reuse of existing buildings. As stated in the Architectural Review Board’s Design Review Guidelines, the proper balance must be maintained between preserving buildings that make important contributions to the history and character of the City and surrounding neighborhood, and allowing for new development. - The need for additional student-oriented commercial uses was identified by a survey prepared by students in the Sharpe Community Partnership Program in May 2004. The survey identified a lack of student-oriented activities around the campus, and concluded that “if more businesses were added – such as a coffee house or movie theater – not only would more students choose to patronize this business and not go to off-campus parties, but it would also bring in additional tax revenue to the city.” The Mixed-Use area is centered on Scotland Street between North Boundary Street and North Henry Street, and is in the process of being redeveloped since City Square was completed in 1999. Buildings adaptively reused include College offices, a Montessori School, and a proposed Health Evaluation Center on North Henry Street. This area provides a transition between the Merchants Square commercial uses and the residential uses on the east side of North Henry Street, and is served by the major infrastructure improvements that the City completed in the City Square and Prince George Street areas, including the City Square Parking Terrace and the Prince George Parking Garage. The Office area is located on South Henry Street south of Ireland Street, and is bracketed by the Wallace Museum and the Marshall-Wythe School of Law. Major uses include the Digges Building, the National Center for State Courts and the Verizon switching center. As with the Mixed Use area to the north of Merchants Square, this is a transitional area between commercial uses and the residential uses beginning south of South Boundary Street.

The Center City’s residential component is spread throughout the area, and is predominantly multifamily and renter occupied. In 2005, the Focus Area had a total of 346 dwelling units, and 67% were renteroccupied: 112 single family dwellings (including one Bed & Breakfast), 32 duplex dwelling units in 16 buildings, and 202 multifamily dwelling units in 95 buildings. There are 115 owner-occupied dwelling units (33%) and 231 renter-occupied dwelling units (67%), compared to the City totals of 44.3% owneroccupied and 55.7% renter-occupied. The breakdowns by neighborhood are: • • • • • •

Crispus Attucks: 79% owner-occupied; 21% renter occupied. Newport Avenue area (portion Newport, S. Boundary, Crump, Counselor’s Close): 61% owner-occupied; 39% renter-occupied. South Henry Street area (S. Henry, Mimosa): 26% owner-occupied; 74% renter-occupied. Merchants Square area (Prince George, Henry): 25% owner-occupied; 75% renter-occupied. City Square area (Scotland, N. Henry, N. Boundary): 23% owner-occupied; 77% renter-occupied. Braxton Court area: 14% owner-occupied; 86% renter-occupied.

The Center City Focus Area’s residential component is an important part of the City’s character, and a major determining factor is the density that is allowed for new development and redevelopment. The densities that are now allowed in the Center City area range from 8 to 14 dwelling units/net net acre. Higher residential densities are appropriate in some areas, and will help to make downtown Williamsburg a more vibrant and viable area for both living and shopping. A 22 dwelling unit/acre density goes back to the City’s 1953 Comprehensive Plan, and was used prior to 1991. This is an appropriate net acreage density to consider today for the Downtown Business and Mixed Use land use categories that include Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development

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Merchants Square and the areas to the west and north (implemented by the B-1 Downtown Business District and LB-1 Limited Business Downtown District). The base density for these areas should be 8 dwelling units/net acre, with up to 22 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit. A maximum of 10 dwelling units should be allowed on an individual lot, which will allow for a reasonable number of units on second and third floors while discouraging large apartment complexes. The Center City area south of Merchants Square, which is more residential in character, should have a residential density based on the existing zoning along South Boundary Street (8 and 14 dwelling units/net acre, implemented by the existing RM-1 and RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling Districts). The Office land use area along South Henry Street and Newport Avenue (implemented by the LB-3 Limited Business Neighborhood District) should have a base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre, with up to 14 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit. The area on the west side of South Henry Street south of South Boundary Street, however, has a different character. It is located on a designated entrance corridor, and is across from the William and Mary Law School. It also has the potential of being redeveloped in several larger parcels, instead of on a lot by lot basis. Because of these characteristics, this area should have a base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre, with up to 22 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit. Recommendations 1. Residential Density. The maximum residential density for portions of the Center City area should be increased to 14 or 22 dwelling units/net acre with a special use permit. This will provide a potential for up to 200 new dwelling units, which translates into a practical yield of about 150 dwelling units. The 346 existing dwelling units in the Center City area would then increase over time to about 500 dwelling units. Owner-occupancy of these dwelling units is encouraged, and should be a consideration in the evaluation of requests for special use permits for increased density. 2. Merchants Square/Delly Area/Triangle Block (Area 1). • The existing Downtown Commercial land use designation should be continued, with residential density increased from the existing 14 dwelling units/net acre to a base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre with up to 22 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit, and a maximum of 10 dwelling units on an individual lot. • The existing Mixed Use designations for the Williamsburg Presbyterian and Williamsburg Baptist Churches, and the area bounded by Armistead Avenue/Scotland Street/North Boundary Street, should be changed to Downtown Commercial land use, and the zoning designation should be changed from RDT Downtown Residential and LB-1 Limited Business Downtown to B-1 Downtown Business District. • The Downtown Parking District should be extended west from North Boundary Street to the Delly corner at Scotland Street and Richmond Road to allow the development of new businesses without requiring additional off-street parking. 3. City Square Area (Area 2). The existing Mixed Use land use should be continued, with residential density increased from the existing 8 dwelling units/net acre to a base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre, with up to 22 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit, and with a maximum of 10 units allowed on an individual lot. 4. North Henry Street (east side) and Scotland Street (Area 3). The existing Medium Density Multifamily land use (8 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to Medium Density Single Family land use (5 dwelling units/net acre). This area is separate and distinct from the adjoining City Square area, and contains eight single family detached dwellings and two vacant lots. This would be implemented by a new RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District (or lacking this new district, the existing RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District).

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5. Blayton Building Area (Area 4). The existing High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to the new Downtown Residential land use (with 8 dwelling units/net acre as the base density and up to 22 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit). In addition, the area to the west of the Blayton Building fronting on Scotland Street should be changed to Downtown Commercial land use (8 dwelling units/net acre base density, with up to 22 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit), which will allow for the option of construction office or commercial space adjacent to the Triangle Block. This will allow for the option of constructing additional elderly housing on this close-in lot, either separately or in conjunction with other uses. There are now 38 dwelling units on the 3.5 net acre site (which excludes the one acre of land designated Park, Parkway, Recreation land use between the First Baptist Church parking lot and Crispus Attucks subdivision), and the Downtown Residential/Downtown Commercial designation will allow approximately 62 dwelling units, which could provide an additional 39 units of low and moderate income elderly housing. Exhibit 10-2

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6. South Boundary Street/South Henry Street area north and south of Newport Avenue (Area 5). The existing Low Density Single Family Residential land use (3 dwelling units/net acre), and Medium Density Multifamily land use (8 dwelling units/net acre) along South Boundary Street should be changed to the High Density Multifamily Residential land use (14 dwelling units/net acre) north of Newport Avenue, implemented by the existing RM-2 Multifamily Dwelling District. The area along South Boundary Street south of Newport Avenue should remain as Medium Density Multifamily land use (8 dwelling units/net acre), implemented by the existing RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District and PUD Planned Unit Development District (Counselors Close). The existing Office land use along South Henry Street and Newport Avenue should continue, but with the residential density increased from 8 dwelling units/net acre to a base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre with up to 14 dwelling units/net acre allowed with a special use permit. 7. South Henry Street - west side from Boundary to Mimosa (Area 6). The existing Medium Density Multifamily land use (8 dwelling units/net acre) should be changed to the new Downtown Residential land use (base density of 8 dwelling units/net acre with up to 22 units/net acre allowed with a special use permit). 8. Bed & Breakfast uses should be granted additional flexibility so that they continue as a viable use in this neighborhood, but this should be tempered with limitations that ensure that the residential character of the area is not compromised. To this end, the quotas should be adjusted as needed, and the Zoning Ordinance should be amended to allow for the potential to increase the number of rooms rented, based on criteria to ensure compatibility with the neighborhoods. RICHMOND ROAD FOCUS AREA (WEST OF BROOKS STREET) The entire Focus Area extends along Richmond Road from Scotland Street to the Williamsburg Shopping Center, but this section will discuss only the section along Richmond Road west of Brooks Street, which is the primary commercial section for the Focus Area. The non-residential component of the Richmond Road Focus Area west of Brooks Street is predominantly office use, with 18 office/bank buildings, seven commercial buildings, and two motels. Although not in the Focus Area, the main campus of the College is behind and beside College Terrace and Matoaka Court, and it is characterized parking lots, playing fields and dormitories. The adjoining residential component of the Richmond Road Focus Area is a predominantly single family residential with a strong concentration of rental dwellings (except in the College Terrace area). In 2005, the Richmond Road Focus Area has a total of 219 dwelling units: 168 single family dwellings (including 10 Bed and Breakfasts), 24 duplex dwelling units in 12 buildings, and 27 multifamily dwelling units in six buildings. Additional discussion of the residential component is contained in Chapter 8, Neighborhoods and Housing. Recommendations Richmond Road is now designated Mixed Use land use on south side of Richmond Road from Brooks Street to the Williamsburg Shopping Center, and Office land use on north side from Brooks Street to Westover Avenue. To encourage the continuation of this area as a viable commercial area, a unified Mixed Use land use area should be designated on both sides of Richmond Road from Brooks Street to Matoaka Court on the south side, and from Brooks Street to Bacon Avenue on the north side (including lots on the east side of Bacon Avenue and the west side of Westover Avenue). The Mixed Use land use would be implemented by a LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood zoning district, which would be more limited than the existing B-3 General Business zoning on the south side and more flexible than the existing LBR Limited Business Residential zoning on the north side. Single family detached dwellings should be encouraged as an integral part of the mixed use character of the area.

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The new LB-2 zoning designation is similar in intent to the LB-1 Limited Business Downtown District in the City Square/Merchants Square area, and is designed so that the more intensive uses require a special use permit. Uses such as single family and duplex dwellings, banks, bake shops, hotels/motels/ timeshares with 10 or less rooms, museums/art galleries and offices would be allowed by right, and uses such as restaurants, retail stores, hotels/motels/timeshares with more than 10 rooms, and multifamily dwellings (condominiums could be required, and senior housing could be a possibility) would be allowed with a special use permit. Home studios for artists and artisans should also be allowed by right or with a special use permit, depending on their character and intensity. The current B-3 District allows condominiums at 14 units/net acre, provided that they occupy no more than 50% of an individual building. The current LBR District allows 8 dwelling units/net acre, with single family and duplex dwellings allowed by right, and multifamily dwellings and townhouses allowed with a special use permit. Residential density for the LB-2 District is proposed with a base density of 8 units/net acre allowed by right, with an ability to increase to 14 units/net acre with a special use permit. This allows for a potential of 35 new dwelling units at a density of 14 units/net acre. To provide increased housing opportunities for senior citizens, multifamily dwellings used as housing for persons 55 years of age or older, as regulated by Sec. 36-96.7 of the Code of Virginia, should be allowed with a special use permit at a density of 14 dwelling units/net acre.

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OTHER COMMERCIAL AREAS Exhibit 10-4

Residential Uses in Corridor Commercial and General Commercial Areas. While residential uses can be an important part of commercial areas, steps should be taken to ensure that land in the Corridor Commercial and General Commercial land use areas remains available for commercial development and redevelopment. This is particularly important since housing demands in today’s strong residential real estate market place pressure on the use of commercial land for residential purposes. Commercial property provides a more diversified tax base than residential property, and this is important to the long term fiscal health of the City. To this end, the existing B-2 and B-3 Districts allow condominiums, provided that no more than 50% of an individual building’s floor area can be used for residential purposes (typically one floor of commercial uses with one floor of residential above). Since there have been no residential developments using this zoning provision, additional flexibility is warranted to encourage well planned mixed-use projects with residential use as an important component (for example, the Economic Development districts allow housing provided that no more than 40% of the district is devoted exclusively to residential use). However, the B-2 and B-3 zoning regulations should not be changed allow an entire commercial parcel to be used for residential use.

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Recommendation. To allow more flexibility and to encourage well-planned mixed-use projects, apartments and condominiums should be allowed in the B-2 and B-3 Districts, but with a special use permit to allow the review of projects on a case by case basis. The residential threshold should be raised to 67% of the total floor area on an individual lot, which would allow either one floor of commercial use with two floors of residential use above, or commercial use on the front of the property with residential use on the rear. This will make it more financially feasible to develop a residential component while requiring that a portion of the lot be reserved for commercial use. Shopping Centers Area (Richmond Road and Monticello Avenue) Two large community shopping centers anchor this locally oriented shopping area, which is the most urban section of the City’s commercial corridors. The Williamsburg Shopping Center was built by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in the 1950s to provide additional space for commercial growth in the area, and has been expanded several times. This full service shopping center contains two department stores and a supermarket, drug store, hardware store, bookstore, several restaurants and assorted retail and service uses. The Monticello Shopping Center on the opposite side of Monticello Avenue contains a variety of retail, service and restaurant uses, and a movie theater has been converted to a church. West of the shopping centers along Monticello Avenue are four medical office buildings that take advantage of the present location of Sentara Williamsburg Community Hospital. When the hospital relocates to York Country in Summer 2006 and the building is redeveloped by the College to house the School of Education and related uses, there will be opportunities for these buildings to be converted to other uses more suitable to the area, and additional zoning flexibility needs to be provided to encourage this redevelopment. Land across Richmond Road from the Williamsburg Shopping Center is used for compatible commercial uses, and also has potential for future redevelopment, as does the Southern Inn property fronting on the south side of Richmond Road just east of the shopping center. Residential uses can also play an important part in the evolution of this urban area. Because this close in area is served by Williamsburg Area Transport, and has a wide variety of commercial services within walking distance, it is well situated to be a good location for multifamily housing, and particularly housing for senior citizens. Recommendation. The General Commercial land use designation for this area should be continued, and the Office land use adjacent to the future William & Mary School of Education should be changed from Office land use to General Commercial land use in order to build upon the strength of this area – its close-in location, proximity to the College of William & Mary and the High Street Williamsburg area, and the potential for redevelopment of key parcels. This land use should be implemented by a revised B-3 General Business District, and the existing LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District along Monticello Avenue should be changed to B-3. For the B-3 District, uses such as automobile dealerships, plant nurseries, carwashes, contractor’s establishments, drug or alcohol treatment centers, fortune tellers and palm readers, miniature golf courses, and mini-storage warehouses should be eliminated as either permitted or special use permit uses. Residential uses in the B-3 District should be revised to require a special use permit for multifamily dwellings at the current density of 14 units/net acre, with 67% of the floor area of an individual building allowed to be used for residential uses. Multifamily dwellings used as housing for persons 55 years of age or older, as regulated by Sec. 36-96.7 of the Code of Virginia, should be allowed with a special use permit at a density of 22 dwelling units/net acre. [The adjoining land in James City County along Treyburn Drive is designated as Low Density Residential land use and is zoned B-1 General Business District, PUD-R Planned Unit Development District, and R-2 General Residential District.] Richmond Road (Ironbound Road to Monticello Avenue) This section of the Richmond Road corridor is a logical extension of the urban character of the Shopping Centers Area. When entering Williamsburg, a noticeably more urban character begins at Ironbound Road – buildings are closer together and closer to the street, and the predominant character defining feature of the street is buildings and sidewalks rather than parking lots. This urban character will be enhanced with Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development

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the development of High Street Williamsburg, which will locate major buildings at the 15 foot setback line, with parking lots located behind most of the buildings. The existing sidewalks along Richmond Road will be supplemented with a comprehensive interior sidewalk system, reinforcing the pedestrian friendliness of this area, which is also served by Williamsburg Area Transport busses. This area is designated by the 1998 Comprehensive Plan as General Commercial land use from Monticello Avenue to New Hope Road/Bypass Road, and as Corridor Commercial land use from this intersection to Ironbound Road. Except for the High Street Williamsburg property this area is now zoned B-3 General Business District. The High Street Williamsburg property, which is contiguous to Richmond Road, is zoned ED-2 Economic Development District, which has a character similar to that allowed by B3 General Business zoning. There are two prime redevelopment parcels in this area. The first is a 3.2acre area located at the corner of Richmond Road and Monticello Avenue, adjoining the CSX Railroad. The site contains two vacant parcels, an abandoned motel, and a vacant gasoline station, and will front on an improved Richmond Road. The second is the Governor Spottswood Motel property between the Holiday Inn Express and the Crown Station at the corner of Ironbound Road. Both of these properties are ideally situated for new commercial uses that will add to the vitality of the corridor. Recommendation. The General Commercial land use for this corridor should be extended to Ironbound Road to promote a more unified urban commercial character for this section of Richmond Road, which will be implemented by the B-3 General Business District. As stated in the previous section, the permitted uses in the B-3 District should be modified to encourage this urban character. [The adjoining land in York County across the CSX Railroad tracks is designated as General Business and Economic Opportunity land use and is zoned GB General Business District and EO Economic Opportunity District.] Richmond Road (west of Ironbound Road to the City Limits) The western end of the Richmond Road commercial corridor, from Ironbound Road to the City Limits, has always been a tourist-orient business area. This section of Richmond Road contains eight hotels, 21 restaurants, one shopping center (Patriot Plaza) and various other commercial uses. This area was identified for major redevelopment opportunities by the 1998 Comprehensive Plan, and since that Plan was adopted, property was redeveloped for three new hotels (Hilton Gardens, Spring Hill Suites and Residence Inn), three new restaurants (Red, Hot and Blue, Chili’s and Applebee’s), a large Yankee Candle retail store, and a new automobile dealership (Williamsburg Chrysler-Jeep-Kia). Three out parcels around the Yankee Candle building are slated for future restaurant development. This redevelopment replaced three older large motels, and has substantially improved the long term commercial viability of this section of Richmond Road. This western portion of the Richmond Road corridor is ideally situated between the Prime Outlets factory outlet center in James City County and the High Street Williamsburg project, and future redevelopment should take advantage of this location. The large concentration of restaurants makes this the premier dining corridor in the area, located in close proximity to the major commercial uses of Prime Outlets, Yankee Candle, High Street Williamsburg, Williamsburg Shopping Center and Monticello Shopping Center. The City, James City County and York County are consistent in recognizing this area as a major commercial corridor. Recommendation. The existing Corridor Commercial land use should be continued for this area, which will be implemented by the existing B-2 Tourist Business District (recommended for renaming to Corridor Business District). [The adjoining land in James City County along Richmond Road is designated Neighborhood Commercial and Community Commercial land use, and is zoned B-1 General Business District. The adjoining land in York County between Richmond Road and the CSX Railroad is designated as General Business land use and is zoned GB General Business District.]

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Mooretown Road The Mooretown Road commercial area is separated from the rest of the City by the CSX Railroad, and is adjacent to property in James City County and York County. The residential uses in this area (five singlefamily rental dwellings and three multifamily rental dwellings) are nonconforming, and this property is suitable for redevelopment. Architectural review is required for this area, but is not required for the adjoining properties in the two counties, where nearby uses include a campground, two mini-storage warehouses, a brickyard, and a concrete plant. Recommendation. The existing Corridor Commercial land use should be continued for this area, but the B-2 Tourist Business District (recommended for renaming to Corridor Business District) should be revised to allow more intensive uses such as mini-storage warehouses with a special use permit. Because of the existing character of the surrounding James City and York County land uses, the designation of this area as a Corridor Protection District, requiring review by the Architectural Review Board, should be eliminated. [The adjoining land in York County is designated Limited Industrial land use and is zoned Limited Business/General Business; the adjoining land in James City County is designated Limited Industry land use and is zoned M-1 Limited Business/Industrial District.] Capitol Landing Road The Capitol Landing Road commercial area from Bypass Road to Merrimac Trail developed when this area was one of the major entrances into the City, prior to the construction of Route 132 and Interstate 64. The major uses in this area are tourist-oriented business (seven hotels and three restaurants) and offices. After many years of relatively stable land use, there have been a number of new developments recently approved for the area – an office complex, a new hotel and an assisted living facility. This area has great potential for future development and redevelopment because of several key vacant properties and several older motels that are suitable for future redevelopment. Recommendation. The existing Corridor Commercial land use should be continued, as well as Office land use on the west side of the Capitol Landing Road/Merrimac Trail intersection. An additional Office area (LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District) should be established north of the Woods Drive area - both Office designations will provides a transition area from Corridor Commercial land use to adjoining Low and Medium Density Residential land uses. The B-3 General Business District at the southeast corner of Capitol Landing Road and Merrimac Trail should be changed to B-2 Tourist Business District (recommended for renaming to Corridor Business District). Second Street Second Street and the adjoining Page Street commercial area have two major orientations – an “automobile commercial” area with one major dealership and six automobile-oriented business, as well as a tourist-oriented area with four hotels and four restaurants. A major redevelopment opportunity exists at 301 Second Street and 320 Penniman Road, a portion of the former Williamsburg Motors business. This 5.3 acres parcel is located between Second Street and Penniman Road east of Patriot Buick-PontiacGMC. Recommendation. The existing General Business land use should be changed to Corridor Commercial land use, which more clearly represents the character of this corridor. To implement this land use change, the existing B-3 General Business District zoning should be changed to B-2 Tourist Business District (recommended for renaming to Corridor Business District), and appropriate changes to the use regulations should be made to allow additional more intensive uses that were previously allowed in the B-3 District such as car washes and mini-storage warehouses with a special use permit. [The adjoining land in York County along Route 143 is designated as General Business land use, and is zoned GB General Business District.]

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Penniman Road The largely vacant area on the south side of Penniman Road east of Page Street and adjacent to the CSX Railroad tracks has been planned for commercial land use since 1968, but has never developed as a viable commercial area because of lack of visibility and access from both Page Street and Second Street. This area is largely vacant, with the most intensive uses being an 86 room hotel and three office buildings located near Page Street. This area adjoins the recommended Corridor Commercial area on Second Street while being within easy walking distance of the Center City area and the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. The majority of this area is being proposed for development as a 400-unit timeshare resort, taking advantage of its location adjacent to the Colonial Williamsburg Historic Area. For these reasons, this area should be considered as Corridor Commercial land use, except for a small existing mixed use area near the York County line, which should be considered for Mixed Use land use. Recommendation. The existing General Commercial land use should be changed to Corridor Commercial land use, which will match the recommended Corridor Commercial land use for Second Street. To implement this land use change, the existing B-3 General Business District zoning should be changed to B-2 Tourist Business District (recommended for renaming to Corridor Business District) to correspond with the change proposed for Second Street. The existing mixed use area near the York County line (305, 315, 319, and 323A Penniman Road) should be designated as Mixed Use land use, implemented by a LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood zoning district, designed so that the more intensive uses require a special use permit. Uses such as single family and duplex dwellings, banks, bake shops, hotels/motels/ timeshares with 10 or less rooms, museums/art galleries and offices would be allowed by right, and uses such as restaurants, retail stores, hotels/motels/timeshares with more that 10 rooms and multifamily dwellings would be allowed with a special use permit. Home studios for artists and artisans should also be allowed by right or with a special use permit, depending on their character and intensity. [The adjoining land in York County designated High Density Single Family Residential (3 units/acre), and is zoned R-13 High Density Single Family Residential.] York Street York Street is primarily a tourist-oriented commercial area, including five hotels and two restaurants. This will serve as an important connecting route between the Center City area and the Quarterpath at Williamsburg development in the future. Recommendation. The existing Corridor Commercial land use should be continued for this area, which is implemented by the B-2 Tourist Business District (recommended for renaming to Corridor Commercial District). [The adjoining land located in James City County along Route 60 East is designated as Mixed Use land use in their Comprehensive Plan (suggested uses are commercial and office development with moderate density residential encouraged as a secondary use), and is zoned B-1 General Business District. The adjoining land in York County, across the CSX Railroad tracks, is designated High Density Single Family Residential land use (3 units/acre), and is zoned R-13 High Density Single Family Residential.] Quarterpath Road/Route 199 Intersection An area with potential for economic development land use is located on the northwest corner of Quarterpath Road and Route 199. This location provides an opportunity for retail businesses to serve the shopping needs of Kingsmill residents as well as Route 199 commuters and future residents of Quarterpath at Williamsburg. In conjunction with the neighborhood commercial component of Quarterpath at Williamsburg, this 15-acre area will provide an appropriate location for a well planned commercial center. This area will be served by the improvements to the Quarterpath Road/Route 199 intersection that are being made for Quarterpath at Williamsburg. Recommendation. The existing Corridor Commercial land use designation should be changed to the same Economic Development land use that exists on the east side of Quarterpath Road, to be 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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implemented by the ED Economic Development District. [The adjoining land across Route 199, located in James City County, is designated Federal, State and County Land and Low Density Residential land use, and is zoned R-4, which is intended to permit development of large, cluster-type communities. The James City County Government Center is located directly across Route 199 from the City property.] South Henry Street/Route 199 Intersection A small office area is located just north of the South Henry Street and Route 199 intersection, adjoining the Colonial Parkway. Recommendation. The existing Office land use designation should be continued, implemented by the existing LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District. Brookwood Drive/Route 199 Intersection A small office area is located at the southeast corner of the Brookwood Drive and Route 199 intersection, and is adjacent to Holly Hills and Holly Hills Carriage Homes. Recommendation. The existing Office land use designation should be continued, implemented by the existing LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District. [The adjoining land across Route 199, located in James City County, is designated Low Density Residential land use, and is zoned R-5 Multi Family Residential District and R-8 Rural Residential District.] Jamestown Road/Route 199 Intersection A small commercial area is located at the corner of Jamestown Road and Route 199 intersection, primarily serving neighborhood shopping needs with businesses including a drug store, two banks, a convenience store. Recommendation. The existing General Commercial land use on the northwest, southwest, and northeast southeast should be changed to Corridor Commercial, which matches the existing B-2 zoning. The existing Office land use designation on the southeast corner should be continued. The three acres of existing General Commercial land use that fronts on Mill Neck Road should be changed to Office land use, which is more compatible with the adjoining residential uses and the existing Office land use at the end of Mill Neck Road. To implement this land use change, the zoning designation for this parcel and the existing office building on the opposite side of Mill Neck Road adjacent to Route 199 should be changed to LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District. [The adjoining land in James City County is designated Low Density Residential, Moderate Density Residential, and Community Commercial land use, and is zoned B-1 General Business District and R-2 General Residential District.] John Tyler Lane/Strawberry Plains Road Three office areas are located along the John Tyler Lane and Strawberry Plains Road corridor. Governor Berkeley Professional Center was developed in the 1980s as a Planned Unit Development for professional offices, and the Mount Pleasant Professional Center was developed in 1981. The offices south of Berkeley Middle School (150 and 156) were developed/redeveloped in 1991 and 2000. These areas are located close to both the Route 5 and Route 199 corridors, and near the emerging Monticello Avenue/Ironbound Road office area. Recommendation. The existing Office land use should be continued for the Mount Pleasant and the Governor Berkeley Professional Centers. The existing Office land use south of Berkeley School should be changed to Mixed Use land use to match the designation of the City-owned land to the rear (because of the largely residential character of this area, it is discussed in Chapter 8, Neighborhoods and Housing. [The adjoining land in James City County is designated Low Density Residential and Moderate Density Residential land use. This land is zoned B-1 General Business District adjacent to the Mount Pleasant Professional Center and Governor Berkeley Professional Center, and B-1

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General Business District, R-2 General Residential District and R-5 Multifamily Residential District at the Strawberry Plains/Ironbound Road intersection (Berkeley Middle School).] Monticello Avenue/Ironbound Road Intersection The northeast corner of Monticello Avenue and Ironbound Road is planned as one of the three future economic development areas in the City. Because of environmental constraints, future development is proposed only on the western edge of the property adjacent to Ironbound Road – the eastern edge of this developable area is defined by steep slopes, a tributary to College Creek, and an area defined by the 1994 Natural Areas Study prepared by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation as an exemplary occurrence of a southern mixed hardwood forest, reported to be one of the best examples of such a natural community in all the Commonwealth. In addition to maintaining the existing vegetation on the sensitive environmental areas to the east, 75-foot greenbelt buffers should be maintained along both Monticello Avenue and Ironbound Road, and only a single vehicular access point should be allowed from each street. This 24 acre parcel is owned primarily by the College of William & Mary, and is located in College’s North College Woods. The location of this property directly across Ironbound Road from the Williamsburg-James City County Courthouse and James City County’s New Town development makes this an ideal location for office or research and development uses. The New Town area is designated by the county as Mixed Use land use with a Community Character Area designation, and the suggested principal uses are a mixture of commercial, office, and limited industrial with residential as a secondary use. The James City Comprehensive Plan states that the development in New Town should be governed by a detailed Master Plan which provides guidelines which complement the scale, architecture, and urban pattern found in the City of Williamsburg. The City should work with the College to market and develop the property into appropriate economic development uses that are compatible with New Town and will provide increased employment opportunities in the region. At a floor area ratio of 0.25, this site could support up to 260,000 square feet of new gross leasable space. Recommendation. The existing Economic Development land use should be continued for this area, to be implemented by the ED Economic Development zoning district. [The adjoining land in James City County is designated Mixed Use land use with a Community Character Area designation, and the suggested principal uses are a mixture of commercial, office, and limited industrial with residential as a secondary use, and is zoned M-U Mixed Use District.] Ironbound Road at Eastern State Corner This 4-acre area is located west of the Wales Subdivision and borders Ironbound Road across from Eastern State Hospital, on the southeast corner of Ironbound Road and the Longhill Connector. Because this is a transitional area located between Eastern State Hospital and existing commercial development in James City County on the west side of Ironbound Road and the existing Wales Subdivision to the east, it is planned for a mixed-use development with a combination of commercial, office and residential uses. The small stream that forms a natural boundary along the eastern edge of the site will serve as a natural buffer between the future mixed-use development and the existing residential area. This use will be similar to, and compatible with, the recently developed Ironbound Square area directly to the south in James City County. Recommendation. The existing Mixed-Use land use should be continued for this area, to be implemented by the LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District that is also proposed for Richmond Road between Brooks Street and the Williamsburg Shopping Center. A lot-by-lot development is not desirable for the site. Instead, the property should be designed as an integrated mixed-use project, and should not be rezoned until a suitable development plan has been submitted. [The adjoining land in James City County is designated Federal, State and County Land (Eastern State property), Limited Industry (Tewning Road area), and Low Density Residential (Ironbound Square area) land use, and is zoned R-2 General Residential District (Eastern State property), M-1 Limited Business/Industrial District (Tewning Road area), M-U Mixed Use District (Ironbound Square area).] 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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MAJOR MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENTS High Street Williamsburg

Exhibit 10-5

High Street Williamsburg is located on 55 acres at Richmond and Ironbound Roads in an area first designated for Economic Development land use in the 1998 Comprehensive Plan. This project is located on a site proposed for Wal-Mart in 1992, which was denied by City Council and later purchased by the City. The project design has evolved over the years into a true mixed use project with a strong residential component, which will give this area a true urban ambiance. High Street Williamsburg will have 250,000 square feet of commercial floor area and an eight screen, 1,100 seat multiplex cinema. The major entrance will be from Richmond Road, with secondary entrances from Treyburn Drive and Ironbound Road. A parking terrace with 670 spaces will be constructed, supplemented by over 500 off-street parking spaces. The residential component will include 531 multifamily dwelling units (apartments, condominiums and townhouses) located primarily to the west of the commercial area, connected by an integrated pedestrian circulation system. A major stormwater management facility to control runoff and enhance water quality will be located on the southern end of the property, and will serve as both an environmental and visual amenity for the development. A trail system will be constructed around the pond, and the trails will extend west of Treyburn Drive along existing ravines. These features will protect the sensitive environmental features which are part of the City’s Chesapeake Bay Preservation Areas, and will provide a natural counterpoint to the urban character of the High Street. High Street Williamsburg will anchor this section of Richmond Road, drawing on area residents as well as visitors (approximately 3,500 hotel rooms are within a one mile radius of High Street). A residential density of 12 dwelling units/net acre will give this area an urban ambiance with accessibility to shopping and entertainment. The comprehensive pedestrian circulation system, composed of both sidewalks and trails, will connect High Street Williamsburg with existing residential areas to the north, west and east, and will also provide easy access from the College of William & Mary. This area will also be served by Williamsburg Area Transport, and bike lanes along Treyburn Drive which will provide connections to the regional bikeway system. Recommendation. The existing Economic Development land use should be continued, implemented by the existing ED-2 Economic Development District which is intended to allow a mixture of commercial, entertainment, office and residential uses in a high quality mixed-use setting. To Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development

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preserve the commercial component as the predominant land use, no more than 40% of the area of the ED-2 Economic Development District it is located in can be devoted exclusively to residential use. [The adjoining land in James City County along Treyburn Drive is designated as Low Density Residential land use and is zoned R-2 General Residential District, PUD-R Planned Unit Development District, and B-1 General Business District.] Quarterpath at Williamsburg Quarterpath at Williamsburg is a 358 Exhibit 10-6 acre mixed-use development proposed by Riverside Healthcare Association, located on the east side of Quarterpath Road between the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Nursery and Quarterpath Road. This area is located on the largest tract of undeveloped land under a single ownership in the City, and was designated for Economic Development and Corridor Commercial land use in the 1989 and 1998 Comprehensive Plans. The conceptual plan for this project that was submitted with the rezoning request fulfills the 1998 Comprehensive Plan’s recommendation that this area be developed as a comprehensively planned mixed-use community which protects the beauty of its sensitive environmental and historic areas, and contributes to the City’s character by having a well designed mix of uses. The final details for Quarterpath at Williamsburg will be determined as the development and site plans are finalized, and will be governed by the applicable zoning regulations. The non-residential component of the development consists of Doctors’ Hospital of Williamsburg (up to 150 beds, and associated with a 120-bed nursing home and a 60-bed assisted living facility), 78,000 square feet of neighborhood retail near Quarterpath Road, and 495,000 square feet of destination retail adjacent to Route 60 East and accessed through land located in James City County that is designated as Mixed Use land use in their Comprehensive Plan (suggested uses are commercial and office development with moderate density residential encouraged as a secondary use). The residential component of Quarterpath at Williamsburg is discussed in detail in Chapter 8, Neighborhoods and Housing. Major infrastructure improvements are needed as this area develops. Major improvements are needed to the Quarterpath Road/Route 199 intersection, and the quality of the landscape design should be at the same level as the Kingsmill entrance directly across Route 199 in James City County. Battery Boulevard, a major east-west collector road that has been shown in the Comprehensive Plan since 1989 needs to be constructed, and Redoubt Road, a major north-south collector road, needs to be built to provide a connection between York Street and Route 199 without unduly impacting the residential development located north of Tutter’s Neck Pond. Complete facilities for bicycles and pedestrians need to be provided, including the development of a continuous corridor between York Street and Route 199 which will provide connections to the Center City area as well as to adjacent development in James City County. Major utility improvements for water and sanitary sewer are needed, including a 1MGD elevated water storage tank on the eastern end of the property and one or more sanitary sewer pump stations connecting to the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Force Main along Route 199. Most of the site is located in Chesapeake Bay Preservation Areas, and this development will require construction of new stormwater retention ponds and the preservation of substantial buffer areas throughout the project area. Since Route 199 is designated as a Greenbelt street, a buffer will also be 2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan

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required along its length. Preserving these environmentally sensitive areas will be a benefit both to the environment and to character of this high quality development. In addition, 21.4 acres will be dedicated to the City as Redoubt Park along Quarterpath Road, preserving two Civil War redoubts that were part of Williamsburg’s defensive perimeter. Recommendation. The existing Economic Development land use along Route 199 should be continued, implemented by the existing ED Economic Development District which is intended to allow a mixture of commercial, entertainment, office and medical uses in a high quality, mixed-use setting, with residential allowed as a secondary use (no more than 40% of the area of the ED District can be devoted exclusively to residential use). [The adjoining land to the east adjacent to Route 60, located in James City County, is designated Mixed Use land use, and is zoned B-1 General Business District. The adjoining land across Route 199, also located in James City County, is designated Mixed Use land use, and is zoned R-4, which is intended to permit development of large, cluster-type communities, R-8 Rural Residential District, and M-1 Limited Business/Industrial District.]

Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development

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Chapter 12 Implementation The adoption of this Comprehensive Plan creates an urban design framework around which future land use decisions are made. The implementation of the Plan is directed by land use regulations such as the zoning ordinance, subdivision ordinance and architectural guidelines, and these need to be fully integrated into the Plan’s vision for the future. Quality urban design requires work by both the private sector (in defining specific market opportunities and project designs) and the public sector (in ensuring project land use compatibility within the context of the Comprehensive Plan). Developers and local officials need to become partners in the cooperative pursuit of maintaining and enhancing the image that is Williamsburg’s alone. ZONING ORDINANCE RECOMMENDATIONS The City's Zoning Ordinance was initially adopted in 1947, substantially revised in 1966 and revised again in 1991 and 1998 to implement the recommendations of the last two Comprehensive Plans. While a complete revision of the Zoning Ordinance is not required to implement the 2005 Plan, there are numerous changes that are necessary to implement its goals and strategies. This section outlines the specific changes that should be made following the adoption of the Plan. Center City Focus Area The Center City Focus Area plans contained in Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development mandate a coordinated approach to both the residential and commercial aspects of the area. Because of their interrelationships, a coordinated package of zoning changes should be adopted. These changes should be considered in two phases: Phase 1 - Center City South Zoning Text Changes 1. Revise the residential density in the LB-3 Limited Business Residential District to allow 8 dwelling units per net acre by right, and 14 dwelling units per net acre with a special use permit. 2. Revise the residential density in the RDT Downtown Residential District to allow 8 units per net acre by right, and 22 dwelling units per net acre with a special use permit. Zoning Map Changes 1. Change the RDT Downtown Residential District on the east side of North Henry Street at Scotland Street to RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District as an interim step. The final zoning designation should be RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District. 2. Change the RM-1 Multifamily Dwelling District along South Henry Street south of South Boundary Street to RDT Downtown Residential District. Phase 2 – Center City North Zoning Text Changes 1. Revise the residential density in the B-1 Downtown Business District to allow 8 units per net acre by right, and 22 dwelling units per net acre with a special use permit. 2. Revise the residential density in the LB-1 Limited Business Downtown District to allow 8 units per net acre by right, and 22 units per net acre with a special use permit, with a maximum of 10 units allowed on an individual lot. 3. Extend the Downtown Parking District west from North Boundary Street to the Delly corner at Scotland Street and Richmond Road to allow the development of new businesses without requiring additional off-street parking.

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Zoning Map Changes 1. Change the RDT Downtown Residential District for the northwest corner of Richmond Road and Armistead Avenue, and for the area bounded by Armistead Avenue/Scotland Street/North Boundary Street, to B-1 Downtown Business District. 2. Change the RDT Downtown Residential District for the Blayton Building at 613 Scotland Street by changing the area fronting on Scotland Street between the Blayton Building and the First Baptist Church parking lot to B-1 Downtown Business District (the remainder of the lot including the area between the Blayton Building and the Crispus Attucks Subdivision, will remain as RDT Downtown Residential District). Richmond Road Focus Area The Richmond Road Focus Area plans contained in Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development describe a unified Mixed Use area for Richmond Road between Brooks Street and the Williamsburg Shopping Center. The following zoning changes should be adopted: Zoning Text Changes 1. Create a new LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District. Uses such as single family and duplex dwellings, banks, bake shops, hotels/motels/timeshares with 10 or less rooms, museums and art galleries, places of worship and offices should be allowed by right, and uses such as restaurants, retail stores, hotels/motels/timeshares with more than 10 rooms, and multifamily dwellings should be allowed with a special use permit. Home studios for artists and artisans should also be allowed by right or with a special use permit, depending on their character and intensity. The residential density allowed should be 8 dwelling units per net acre by right and 14 dwelling units per net acre with a special use permit. Zoning Map Changes 1. Change the LBR Limited Business Residential District and the portions of the B-3 General Business District that are designated as Mixed Use land use to LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District. Bed and Breakfast Uses The regulations for Room Rentals to Visitors (Bed & Breakfast) should be reevaluated and modified to grant additional flexibility to these uses so that they can continue as viable businesses along the residential corridors designated by the Zoning Ordinance (Richmond Road, Jamestown Road, Capitol Landing Road, Henry Street between Lafayette Street and Mimosa Drive, Lafayette Street and Page Street). To this end, the quotas for the residential corridors should be adjusted as needed, and the regulations should be amended to allow for the potential to increase the number of rooms rented, based on criteria to ensure compatibility with the adjoining neighborhoods. Commercial Corridors The plans for the Corridor Commercial areas contained in Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development recommend an updating of the zoning regulations to more closely reflect the character of these corridors. The following zoning changes should be adopted: Zoning Text Changes 1. Rename the B-2 Tourist Business District to the B-2 Corridor Commercial District. 2. Revise the use regulations to allow, with a special use permit, more intensive uses such as car washes, contractor’s establishments, mini-storage warehouses, and printing and photocopying shops. 3. Revise the use regulations to allow multifamily dwellings with a special use permit use at a density of 14 dwelling units per net acre, with 67% of the floor area on an individual lot allowed to be used for residential uses. Chapter 12 – Implementation

2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan 12-2


Zoning Map Changes 1. Change the B-3 General Business District for the Second Street and Penniman Road area to B-2 Corridor Business District. 2. Change the B-3 General Business District at the southeast corner of Capitol Landing Road and Merrimac Trail to B-2 Corridor Business District. 3. Change the B-2 Corridor Business District for the properties fronting on Mill Neck Road and designated as Office land use to LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District. Shopping Centers Area The plans for the Shopping Centers Area at Richmond Road and Monticello Avenue in Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development recommend the updating of this General Commercial area to better regulate the most urban of the City’s commercial corridors. The following zoning changes should be adopted: Zoning Text Changes 1. Revise the use regulations to eliminate uses such as automobile dealerships, plant nurseries, car washes, contractor’s establishments, drug or alcohol treatment center, miniature golf courses, and mini-storage warehouses as either permitted or special use permit uses. 2. Revise the use regulations to allow multifamily dwellings a special use permit use at a density of 14 dwelling units per net acre (22 dwelling units per net acre for multifamily dwellings uses as housing for persons 55 years of age or older), with 67% of the floor area on an individual lot allowed to be used for residential uses. Zoning Map Changes 1. Change the LB-4 Limited Business Corridor District on the north side of Monticello Avenue east of Treyburn Drive to the B-3 General Business District. Mixed Use Areas Three additional areas are designated as Mixed Use land use as detailed in Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development: a small existing mixed use area on the south side of Penniman Road near the York County line; the east side of Ironbound Road south of Eastern State Corner, and the City-owned vacant land south of Berkeley Middle School on Strawberry Plains Road and the adjoining LB-4 Limited Business Corridor areas. The following zoning changes will apply to these properties: Zoning Text Changes 1. The Mixed Use land use for these areas will be implemented by the new LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District. Uses such as single family and duplex dwellings, banks, bake shops, hotels/motels/timeshares with 10 or less rooms, museums and art galleries and offices should be allowed by right, and uses such as restaurants, retail stores, hotels/motels/timeshares with more than 10 rooms, and multifamily dwellings should be allowed with a special use permit. Home studios for artists and artisans should also be allowed by right or with a special use permit, depending on their character and intensity. The residential density allowed should be 8 dwelling units per net acre by right and 14 units per net acre with a special use permit. Zoning Map Changes 1. The small existing mixed use area on the south side of Penniman Road should be rezoned to LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District. 2. The areas on Ironbound Road and Strawberry Plains Road should be considered for rezoning to LB-2 Limited Business Neighborhood District only when an acceptable master plan has been submitted for the property.

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Medium Density Single Family Detached Areas Four areas are designated as Medium Density Single Family Detached land use in Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing: the undeveloped portion of the Wales Subdivision, West Williamsburg along Lafayette Street, Brandywyne at Williamsburg on Capitol Landing Road (PDR Planned Development Residential District) and the Strawberry Plains Redevelopment Area (RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District with a special use permit for increased density). Zoning Text Changes 1. Create a new RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District allowing single family detached dwellings at a density of five dwelling units per net acre. Zoning Map Changes 1. Change the RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District for the Wales Subdivision to RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District. 2. Change the RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District for the West Williamsburg area along Lafayette Street to RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District. 3. Change the RS-2 Single Family Dwelling District on the east side of North Henry Street at Scotland Street to RS-3 Single Family Dwelling District. Landscape Standards The City’s landscape standards, contained in the site plan section of the Zoning Ordinance, have not been revised since 1991. A major review and update of these regulations is needed, and well as the formulation of landscape standards that can be used in the evaluation of site plan submittals, similar to the way that the Design Review Guidelines are used by the Architectural Review Board in the review of building design in the architectural review districts. In addition, the Greenbelt standards in the Zoning Ordinance should be revised to allow for approval of modifications to provide needed visibility for adjacent commercial and economic development uses. College Student Housing The demand for student housing on the campus of the College of William and Mary and in the area surrounding the College has an impact on the largely single family neighborhoods adjacent to the College along Richmond Road and Jamestown Road. It is the responsibility of the College to provide an appropriate amount of student housing on campus. The City’s zoning regulations should continue to allow student-oriented housing in appropriate off-campus locations to supplement the housing provided by the College. Architectural and Archaeological Review The City’s survey and assessment of architectural resources in the Architectural Preservation District, completed in 1992, should be updated to allow the City to better evaluate the continued proposals for new development and redevelopment in the Architectural Preservation District. The Archaeological Protection District was established in 1995, and established preservation and study procedures for archaeological resources. The Archaeological Protection Districts should be expanded based upon the recommendations contained in Chapter 6 – Community Character. Subdivision Ordinance The City's Subdivision Ordinance has not had a major revision since 1958. The sections relating to required improvements, subdivision design standards and plat and plan requirements could stand significant updates. The ordinance should incorporate greater detail on design standards for both public and private streets as well as conditions relating to when other public improvements (such as sidewalks and curb and gutter) would be required.

Chapter 12 – Implementation

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Affordable Housing Through the analysis in Chapter 8 – Neighborhoods and Housing, opportunities for affordable housing have been identified. The undeveloped section of the Wales Subdivision on Ironbound Road and a large vacant parcel on North Henry Street in Highland Park could be developed with single family detached housing similar in character to the Crispus Attucks and Strawberry Plains subdivisions. The Mixed Use land use areas south of Berkeley Middle School has a potential for both single family and multifamily affordable housing. The Blayton Building property on Scotland Street could be utilized for additional age restricted housing. There are opportunities in all of these areas for involvement of the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority in the development, redevelopment and renovation of low and moderate income housing stock. Neighborhoods Over the past five years, the City has taken significant steps to promote property maintenance and neighborhood preservation. These important programs and initiatives should continue, since the character of the City in determined in large part by the quality of its residential neighborhoods. These programs include: • Offering incentives to encourage owner-occupied housing, such as the program promoted by the Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority to give them first right of refusal for the purchase of single family houses through the recordation of restrictive covenants. • Enforcing the City’s property maintenance code on a consistent citywide basis. • Enforcing the Residential Rental Inspection Program. • Identifying necessary infrastructure improvements and including them in the City’s Capital Improvement Program. • Continually reviewing the City’s zoning regulations to make sure that they adequately protect the character of the City’s neighborhoods. • Pursuing grants and Community Development Block Grant programs to improve infrastructure and housing (e.g. Wales, Strawberry Plains, and Braxton Court). • Continually updating the City’s Neighborhood Guide, which provides information to assist citizens in utilizing programs and activities offered by the City government. • Supporting the Neighborhood Watch program. • Supporting the Neighborhood Council, giving a voice to neighborhoods citywide. Economic Development The stated goal for the City’s economy is to increase employment opportunities, income, business success, and City revenues by supporting and promoting the City’s tourism base and other development and redevelopment opportunities. The importance of economic development to the City has been demonstrated by the hiring of the City’s first Economic Development Manager in 2005. Plans and policies for commercial and economic development issues are found throughout this Plan, but most specifically in Chapter 10 – Commercial and Economic Development. Some of the major implementation measures are: • Develop a comprehensive economic development strategy and promotion program which emphasizes the strengths of the City's economic development climate and identifies opportunities (land, labor, governance, education, etc.) for both new and existing businesses. • Identify areas suitable for infill development and redevelopment, and develop strategies to encourage such development and redevelopment. • Participate in efforts to advance regional tourism and economic development goals both within the Historic Triangle and the greater Hampton Road region.

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Cooperate with the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, the College of William & Mary, and Riverside Healthcare Systems to coordinate their land use planning and economic development efforts with the City’s Comprehensive Plan.

INTER-JURISDICTIONAL COOPERATION The concept of “regionalism” in planning is widely promoted within the City and surrounding jurisdictions. Regional approaches to schools, libraries, parks and recreation programs have been successfully orchestrated and implemented by and between the three locales. In the coming years interjurisdictional cooperation will need to focus on environmental, transportation and economic development issues. Efforts should also be made for comprehensive and coordinated design review standards along major tourist access corridors. CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Capital Improvements are new or expanded physical facilities for the community that are of relatively large size, are relatively expensive and are permanent in nature. Examples relating to the Comprehensive Plan recommendations are street improvements, public buildings and park improvements. Capital Improvements are accounted for in the City budget in either the Sales Tax Fund for general improvements, or the Utility Capital Improvement Fund for water and sewer related projects. Revenues of the Sales Tax Fund are derived from the 1% Sales Tax that is collected and distributed monthly by the state. All taxable purchases in the Commonwealth of Virginia are charged at the rate of 4.5%, one percent of which is returned to localities by law. It has been the policy of the City Council for over 20 years to use this revenue to fund General Fund capital projects in the City. Examples of projects completed with the use of these funds are schools, municipal buildings, land acquisition, and street construction. Sales tax revenues generate approximately $4.0 million per year. The City intends to continue to fund the majority of its General Fund Capital Improvement Program (CIP) needs from the Sales Tax Fund on a pay as you go basis, and to pay for the bond debt service from the Sales Tax Fund for existing and future borrowing. Capital Improvements for the water and sanitary sewer system are funded from the Utility Fund, not the General Fund. The City's Five Year CIP is reviewed by both Planning Commission and City Council annually, and is adopted by City Council as a part of the City's annual budget. The Comprehensive Plan should be consulted annually in the development of the Capital Improvements Program. The following list of capital improvement projects are supported by the Comprehensive Plan: Transportation Streets • Richmond Road Improvement Project – Brooks Street to New Hope Road • Treyburn Drive • Quarterpath Road Improvements o Quarterpath Road/Route 199 intersection improvements o Quarterpath Road/York Street intersection improvements o Quarterpath Road widening/improvements between York Street and Route 199 • Monticello Avenue/Ironbound Road intersection improvements • Ironbound Road widening – Longhill Connector to Richmond Road • Patriot Lane/Richmond Road Intersection Improvements • Monticello Avenue Improvements (refined parkway concept) Bikeways • Major Bikeway Improvements, including: o Quarterpath Road Multi-Use Path o Kiwanis Park Multi-Use Path o Capitol Landing Road Shoulder Bike Lanes (Colonial Parkway to Merrimac Trail) Chapter 12 – Implementation

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Sidewalks • Major Sidewalk Improvements, including: o Center City area o Lafayette Street o Jamestown Road (William and Mary improvements) o Capitol Landing Road o Merrimac Trail o Parkway Drive o Bypass Road o Quarterpath Road Beautification and Underground Wiring Beautification • Development of design standards for sidewalks, lighting and other streetscape elements. • Planting of additional street trees where possible. Underground Wiring • Lafayette Street (Botetourt to Waller Street) • South Henry Street (Newport Avenue to The Coves) • Route 132 (CSX Railroad to Visitor Center Drive) • Richmond Road (Va. Power Easement to West City Limits) Stormwater Management • Regional BMP at High Street Williamsburg (Treyburn Drive) • Regional BMPs at Quarterpath at Williamsburg (Quarterpath Road) Municipal Center • New Williamsburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority Building (Armistead Avenue) • New Emergency Operations Center and Fire Administration Offices (North Boundary Street) • New or Renovated Council Chamber and City Hall (Stryker Building, North Boundary Street) • Police Station infill expansion (Armistead Avenue) Other Public Building • Ironbound Road Fire Station Parks, Recreation and Open Space Passive Parks • College Creek Parks o Papermill Creek Park – design and construction o College Creek Nature Area – acquisition o College Creek Conservation Area – pedestrian connection to College Landing Park • Redoubt Park – design and construction • Capitol Landing Park – acquisition, design and construction Active Parks • Kiwanis Park Master Plan Improvements o Relocation and improvement of two existing lighted ball fiends o Development of third lighted ball field o New concessions and restroom building o Upgrade parking facilities o Development of biking and walking trails • Strawberry Plains Park – design and construction

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Utility Improvements • Water Storage in Route 60 East area (Quarterpath at Williamsburg) • Water Storage Tank in Richmond Road/Mooretown Road area • Water Main extensions to serve new development • Water System improvements • Sanitary Sewer Main extensions to serve new development • Sanitary Sewer Main improvements and rehabilitation • Watershed protection and water quality at Waller Mill Reservoir

Chapter 12 – Implementation

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2006 Williamsburg Comprehensive Plan  

The Comprehensive Plan is the City's adopted policy guide for land use, and deals with issues such as community character, population growth...