Finding Shade

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Finding Shade University of Florida

Spring 2022 Martha Kohen Professor + Director of the UF Center for the Hydro-generated Urbanism

FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

School of Architecture


CREDITS

University of Florida President, Ken Fuchs College of Design, Construction, and Planning Dean, Chimay Anumba School of Architecture David Rifkind, Director Book Credits: Professor Martha Kohen, UF-SOA, Professor, CHU Director Dennisse Lescano, UF- SOA, Student, Editor in Chief Graphics Editor: Dennisse Lescano, UF- SOA, Student, Editor in Chief

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About CHU The Center for Hydro-generated Urbanism proposes new paradigms for the evolution of water-based settlements. From retrofitting the metropolis to envisioning future cities on the water, we advocate a reconsideration of fluvial urbanism and coastal landscapes and a recalibration of our settlement patterns in the context of climate variability, waste and energy management, global economic shifts, environmental migration and population growth. www.chu.dcp.ufl.edu

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The imperative of Finding Shade, an Introduction 03.

Following the IPCC Reports from this 22nd year of the XXI st. Century ,we realize the unavoidable need and urgency to contribute to the Mitigation of Climate Change, from the Built Environment , as one of the main culprits of the CO2 emissions across the planet. We are looking from the perspective of increasing occurrence of heat events, the need of better cooling devices, addressing the heat Island effect in cities, public spaces and building compounds. But we find that the prevalent strategies refer to the generation of renewable solar or wind energies and ventilation, rather than the prevention of the initial heat gains by solar radiation exposure. The displaced emphasis of our study refers instead to the avoidance of the heat gains provoked by the solar radiation. The study was named “the Imperative”, because architects must apply themselves now to contribute to the subject of finding shade from all available perspectives.

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In the Spring Semester 022 in the School of Architecture, University of Florida, a dedicated group of 26 students, graduates and undergraduates studied the possibilities of creating shade across time and space and at all scales of intervention. They created teams and worked remotely from different cities in these still pandemic times, for the production of a compendium, maybe an initial methodological dictionary, each team focalizing in a distinct aspect of the subject, but presenting together and being able to cross pollinate and mix the strategies as an informational corpus for their future projects’ reference. A simple enumeration of the subjects indicates the breath of this quest for shade. We started from the analysis of the Solar Energy generation, to counterpart to it the shade benefits, then studied the Vernacular Solutions across Civilizations in all continents, before then addressing the Design History of Shade, focalizing in the innovations of the Modern Movement. These sections collect numerous examples and graphic evidence of the proposals. Another group addressed innovation, both in novel materials and in construction methods. A fifth group studied the Flora Potential to contribute to shade at all scales, initiating a botanical dictionary. Finally the sixth group looked into public spaces in its various scales, from streets, squares and parks and the last group analyzed the applications in three paradigmatic and climatically diverse world Cities: Dubai, Barcelona and New York. As an exercise of application of the research, the Seminar worked with Sarah Vidal, from Gainesville City Hall, to address the manifested need of more shade for the newly created Depot Park, producing alternative visioning for public consideration, and allowing the University Students to give back ideas to the city that hosts us so generously. I am very grateful to this wonderful group of students for their dedication and insights, in the certainty that we have collectively developed a meaningful contribution for future reference in the subject of Finding Shade. In the brad sense of the word, we have Educated ourselves in the production of shade. And I would like to particularly thank Gabriel Hernandez and Kuljon Pierre who organized the multilayered weekly presentations, and Dennisse Lescano who assumed the tasks of graphic design and editing cohesively all the components. We are now wiser… Martha Kohen , Professor April 5 2022, Gainesville


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Description The Seminar will study the history of the canopy and the importance of shade in the conditioning of buildings, internal and external spaces. Civilizations have developed sophisticated shade systems in hot dry as well as hot humid climates. Shade, in all its poetic dimensions, has determined social performance, and provided primeval shelter to human activities. The Finding Shade seminar will research case studies on how shade is constructed around the world from the African Suk Markets to the Amazonian over roofs, progressing from the natural and vernacular systems to contemporary complex and smart materials and systems, displayed in the

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design of the external layers in private domestic as well as collective spaces. The resiliency of the shading provisions will be studied particularly for the Tropical Storm wind situation and be conducive to conceptual testing with the support of the UF and UPR laboratories. The case studies will drive the compilation of a Shade Dictionary that will be the resulting document from the class , and will be conceived as a theoretical and operative tool for guiding design. The Seminar will conduct field trips to selected sites in Alachua County in class time. An optional chance to participate in an International Design workshop to contribute the importance of shade as passive systems for thermal conditioning


Table of Contents 01. Energy Generation from the Sun 02. Vernacular Solutions Across Civilizations 03. Design History of Shade 04. Innovation in Materials and Methods 06. Public Space in its declinations 07. Paradigmatic Cases Anex: Depot Park, A community exercise

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05. Flora Potential to Contribute in Shade at All Scales

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06.

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Participants • Abigail Duffey

• Dennisse Lescano

• Mariana Capuchinho

• Alex Fulton

• Gabriel Gonzalez

• Maya Kwasniewski

• Alexander Boucher

• Gabriel Fernandez

• Merlina Operta

• Alexandra Kehoe

• Giselle Urbay

• Minami Guido

• Ana Carol Batalha

• Heting Wang

• Moises Villanueva

• Avery Dunavant

• Jenna Ims

• Oluwatoyin Lawal

• Baichuan Liu

• Jin Deng

• Stephen Boyle

• Brian Davis

• Kristy Price

• William Hoang

• Dana Shores

• Kuljon Pierre

• Yining Wang

• Daniel Abraham


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Seminar Content

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Stephen Boyle

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Author:

Group 1

Energy Generation from the Sun

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Biophilic designs are an essential element of sustainable vernacular architecture. The planets living organisms require “energy generation from the sun” for survival, while humanities elemental ingredient for survival is shelter from the solar rays which sustain all life forms. Thus, it is imperative the built-environment adopts the organic designs of nature to shade civilization from its own undoing.

Group 1

In a world dominated by anthropogenic activities and mankind's built-environment, modern society needs to reminisce on the natural systems sustained by solar energy, responsible for life on Earth. “Finding Shade” to combat unnatural heat gains created by humanities need for convenience and technological evolution advancements, is essential to sustain our planets biosphere. “(M. Kohen)”

Solar Energy Hydrologic Cycle

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Group 1

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The Shade Perspective

Solar Trees - Singapore Canopy cover from natural trees provides shade and cooling from solar rays above. Trees regulate temperature, collect rain water and provide habitat. These created “solar trees” capture solar energy with PV panels and capture the rainwater with artificial canopy cisterns elevated by the tree trunk, supporting a vertical garden and climbing vines. (1.)

Solar Supertrees in Gardens by the Bay in Singapore : Source, Grant Associates, UK (1.)


(Prevost & Lisa Prevost, 2021)

Solar Shading - PV Energy 12.

Group 1

As seen from the images, solar energy generation from the sun can be incorporated as functional architectural features. Awnings block UV rays; solar canopies provide shade and temperature regulation by reducing the urban heat island effect and the solar concentrator satellite dish is a testament to future free electricity generation from the sun.

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Group 1

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Passive solar techniques coupled with smart facades captures the natural abundance of free energy provided by the sun. Creating usable shade with solar panels can reduce thermal heat gains for exteriors and allows for natural daylighting. Building interiors can be passively cooled and heated from windows and shades; thermal and air control.

(II, BIPV: Building-integrated photovoltaics 2012)

(Commercial solar thermal system - solar dish at Geneva Observatory 2017)

Solar Gives Life Photobioreactor Algae Algae is dependent on sun for photosynthesis. By harnessing the benefits from algae organisms and storing them in translucent exterior shading panels, they can provide exterior insulation, daylighting and bio-fuel. In a closed loop bioreactor as seen in the image, they can power a whole building from sun energy and recycle the building greywater to grow the algae. Bio reactive facade – provides shade, captures solar energy & CO2 to grow micro algae and produces heat/biomass for renewable energy. Source 4. (Arup, SolarLeaf)


(Grow Energy , A hydrogen future.)

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Algae needs carbon dioxide to grow; solar bioreactor panels can remove the carbon in densely populated urban environments.These panels can be used as curtain walls while removing CO2 in urban environments. Recycles building wastewater, greywater contains nutrients helping microalgae to grow (Phosphorus & Nitrogen). Produces energy via collection of hydrogen gases/biofuel in the bioreactor panels. Turned into electricity by generator, which does not emit harmful emissions or hydrocarbons into the atmosphere.

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Group 1

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“Green Roof” Solar Photobioreactor Solar Bioreactor Panels Grow Microalgae


PV Curtain Wall

McDonalds flagship Net-Zero Energy 15.

Lake Buena Vista, Florida | Completed 2020

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Glazing Case Study: PV Glass By providing the same thermal insulation as conventional glass, along with the capacity to generate free clean electricity from the sun, it enables buildings to drastically improve their energy efficiency, decrease operation and maintenance costs, and reduce their carbon footprint. (Onyx Solar)

(Ross Barney Architects, McDonald's global flagship at Walt Disney World)

(Photovoltaic skylight glass- mcdonald́s Orlando_Onyx Solar)

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Group 1

Adaptive reuse of an existing building, redesigned to capture and sustain itself from the services provided by the biosphere. Carbon negative, carbon sequestration and rainwater harvesting. Net-zero energy building designed to functions as “living building” powered by the sun and not using finite nonrenewable resources to operate daily . Solar PV power, green walls, passive cooling and ventilation from operable louvers allowing hot air to rise and cool air to circulate and natural daylighting all situated under a shaded canopy building.

Group 1

Zero Energy – Case Study

(Onyx Solar , Balenciaga Miami)


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Passive Solar Chimney

18. Solar Chimney with PV Solar Glass (previous slide); PV glass is transparent and allows transfer of sun's thermal heat into building to heat interior air, while also creating an exterior surface to collect renewable energy.

Provides interior cooling and heating conventional climate control systems.

to

complement

The exchange and movement of air cools the building by driving heat to the outside. The process by which this movement of air occurs is called natural convection. Natural convection is created by solar energy heating air within the chimney. The heated air escapes out the top of the chimney and is replaced by air from the outside (through windows or vents elsewhere in the building). Solar chimneys are most effective in hotter climates with high cooling load.

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Solar chimneys are constructed to actively promote ventilation of unwanted heated or stale air by drawing fresh cooler air from vents at lower levels.

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Group 1

Solar Air Circulation

Solar Chimney – Integrate Solar PV Glass (Long et al., Benefits of integrating phase-change material with solar chimney and Earth-to-air heat exchanger system for passive ventilation and cooling in summer 2022)


Persian Architecture – Wind Catchers 20.

Group 1

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2000-Year-Old Air Conditioning; Solar Chimney

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(An ancient engineering feat that harnessed the wind)

(Wind Towers Catch the Breezes (Mid East) 2010)

Modern Solar Chimney - Natural Conditioned Ventilation Using solar radiation to heat interior air by daylighting and passive ventilation. Radiant heating and cooling for underground library.


Conclusion - Energy Generation from the Sun

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Group 1

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The sun provides energy, drives climate, lights and warms the planet; supporting life on Earth. The planet and humanity need more sustainable vernacular architecture and biophilic designs that incorporate not just solar energy but all natural passive systems for living organism buildings. Our biosphere and ecosystems depend on natural cycles to maintain and sustain all life forms, both abiotic and biotic.


• Daniel Abraham • Mariana Capuchinho • Dennisse Lescano • Merlina Operta

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Authors:

Group 2

Vernacular Solutions Across Civilizations

• Giselle Urbay 22.


Vernacular architecture can be defined as a type of local or regional construction, using traditional materials and resources from the area where the building is located. Consequently, this architecture is closely related to its context and is aware of the specific geographic features and cultural aspects of its surroundings, being strongly influenced by them. For this reason, they are unique to different places in the world, becoming even a means of reaffirming an identity.

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What is Vernacular Architecture?

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NORTH AMERICA

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Florida Cracker House In the hot and humid climate the wide porches provide shade and social spaces for settlers. It became necessary for homes to maximize shade and ventilation. Air passes through the open central hallway and under the crawl space and through the floorboards to cool the house. The porch provides a space that ranchers and farmers can sit and watch their herd and crops.

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Florida Cracker House The Cracker House is a style of wood-frame houses built by colonial-era pioneer settlers in Florida. It is characterized by pitched roofs, raised floors (crawl space), and straight central hallways from the front to the back of the home. The different styles of the Cracker house utilise different porches that can span the length of the house or wrap around.

Dog trot style

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Dog trot style side view.

Dog trot with wrap around.

I-House Style.

DOG TROT STYLE FRONT VIEW


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Cliff Dwellings One of the best-preserved and notable archeological places in the United States is the Mesa Verde Dwellings. The ancestral Puebloans lived there between 1190s and 1300, they built the villages beneath the overhanging cliffs. The

UNITED STATES

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Mesa Verde cliff dwellings

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structures vary in size and can have more than 150 rooms.


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Cliff Dwellings Observing the way that they arranged and built the villages it can be seen that they was looking for shade, to be protected. The Ancestral Puebloans have used stone and mud mortar to built these structures, along with wooden beams, but not all the buildings have the same technique applied, the older structures were made primarily of adobe (bricks

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made of clay, sand, and sticks).


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SOUTH AMERICA

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YANOMAMI VERNACULAR The heha is a multifunctional space, used to greet visitors, exchanging gifts, dancing, cooking the meats gathered in hunt parties, and the plays of children. It is the nexus of communal activities, open for everyone to see. The floor is swept constantly with a broom, giving a permanent clean look to it. It is the most

AMAZONAS, VENEZUELA

composed

by

the

villages shapono,

are a

circular sequence of mono-pitched roofs, so closely placed together that they give the illusion of being a single continuous body, all facing a central space akin to a plaza, called the heha.

towards it, life flows around it.

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YANOMAMI VERNACULAR

Yanomami

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The

essential aspect of the shapono; everything opens towards it, everything looks


30. The structure consists of a series of logs driven into the ground, of approximately a meter in height, with a

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horizontal beam tied at the top, where part of the

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structure that supports the roof is also placed. At three or four meters from those logs another series of taller logs is placed, also with a horizontal beam tying them together. In that higher beam is where most of the weight of the roof lies, and where the chinchorros, or hammocks, will be tied. The roof itself is made of

WARAOS DELTA AMACURO,

YANOMAMI VERNACULAR Shelters are constructed in family sections, where skills and abilities vary, resulting in irregular dimensions and construction techniques from section to section. Roofs are raised from the ground at a height of a person.

VENEZUELA

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palm leaves, placed in horizontal rows


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Warao Vernacular

horizontal beams that support the floorings, made of wooden sticks. The second structure is consisting of a set of driven columns that support the roof armature, with its ridge cap, braces, and palm leaves cover. The coupling of the two

columns at its corners over a wooden floor, that is itself raised a couple of feet

structures is achieved by carved, V-shaped, headings on the columns that fit on

from the ground or water by stilts. The interior space of these dwellings aims for

slits made on the flooring structure, with such precision that renders

an open plan, free of vertical columns that could hinder the flow in it.

unnecessary the use of rope tying.

the smoke from the space, which also serves as the main family and community gathering place. Some partial “walls”, made of vertically placed palm leaves, can be raised to seek protection from the wind and the sun.

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Some of the dwellings are the janokos, or “houses of hammocks”, where as the house of the kitchens, where the lack of walls helps to dissipate the heat and

The structural system of the Warao dwelling consists of two independent structures coupled together. The first structure is made of driven stilts and

The Warao live in dwellings without walls, where a thatch roof is raised by log

much as 17 hammocks can be found under the same roof, while others serve as

Warao Vernacular


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ASIA

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Derinkuyu Underground City 38.

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Location: Turkey, near the Nevsehir province of Cappadocia Time: Time of origin is not precisely dated and it was discovered relatively recently in 1963. Capacity: 20,000 inhabitants

Derinkuyu Underground City TURKEY

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Material: carved rock


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Derinkuyu Underground City • The entire underground system has up to 18 floors while the depth of the deepest floor is up to 85 m. • Spaces that identified at the underground city: • school • religious place of social gathering rooms

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• bedrooms • kitchens • bathrooms • stables for animals • water tanks

VENTILATION SHAFT

• caverns collecting for water wells • food storage, wine • separate tombs and burial place • weapons depot


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ROOM IN THE UNDERGROUND CITY


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Yaodong Vernacular One of the Chinese traditional dwellings, means "Cave House" building into the cliffside of the Loess plateau or underneath the plain ground. It was appeared for 400 years ago and still being occupied until these days. It was lived by over 40 million Chinese of the northern china, which is the half of all villagers from all

CHINA

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YAODONG

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types of house.


YAODONG

the ground to create a sunken dwelling, or built standalone by packing earth on top of a brick frame. Multiple dwellings are built adjacent to and on top of one another and together make up a tiered village, often for a single clan or extended family.

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They can be carved into a hillside, dug into

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Petra, Jordan The ancient city of Petra is located in the Ma’an Governorate of Jordan and was estimated to be inhabited as early as the 4th century by the Nabataeans.

JORDAN

Al-Khazneh. Photo by Slavi.

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Petra

Historically known as a major trading hub, the Nabataeans thrived and effectively utilized Petra’s mountainous terrain, showcasing their skill in rock carving and rainwater collection. Surrounded by canyons and gullies, many of Petra’s architecture consists of rock-cut tombs made by excavating into the cliffside. This technique created beautiful facades inset from the rock’s surface that provided a cool environment.


Bedouin Caves

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Home to the Bedouin tribe- claimed descendants of the Nabataeans- they used to reside in sandstone cave houses. Similar to the underground cities in China, these cave dwellings help provide cooler temperatures in the summer.

Palace Tomb Cave Dwellings


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EUROPE

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YPOSKAFOS - Cave houses The Santorinians built their houses into the volcanic rock and in this way entire villages have been formed into the island’s cliffs. An yposkafo can be a dwelling that is dug entirely into the rock or one with exterior additions that are usually covered by a dome. Typically, they are long and deep with narrow facades,

GREECE

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SANTORINI,

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Santorini Shades

windows and they are usually covered by domes in all sizes and shapes.


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Santorini streets Santorini is very hot and windy, they face a problem with the solar heat the outdoor surfaces reduce the solar load on indoor spaces. At the same time, outdoor areas can become too uncomfortable not only due to solar heat coming from the sky, but also reflected from the sunlit surfaces nearby,. Discomfort is intensified by the glare. Water scarcity and the strong winds prohibit the growth of climbers, so that couldn’t help with the streets uncunfort. So with that the protection and the shade of the streets come from shade of adjacent buildings or free-standing

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walls.


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THE VELARIUM - Roman Vernacular

ROME, ITALY

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Velarium

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“Velarium comes from the latin for curtain. It is almost exclusively used to describe the covering used in a theatre or amphitheatre.” It was a type of awning or overhang that stretched over the cavea, or seating area, of amphitheaters to protect spectators from the sun. Retractable awnings were a fairly common sight throughout the Roman Empire. “It covered just over one third of the inside of the arena because of the limited length of the post supporting it. It was not necessary to cover the whole of the Colosseum with a canvas because the walls were high and as the sun moved around it cast additional shadow and provided naturally shaded areas.”


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Carving the Street KOVACI, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

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Carving the streets The Sachnisi is a specific form evolving from a similar concept of balconies. In

“Evolution of North-Hellenic Tower type.”

SACHNISI

older cities balconies are not as present due to the narrow streets. And instead shutters are chosen along with small vertical elements. But the roof extrusions are not as deep.

The Sachnisi and Mashrabiya are similar. However the different lies in that the

Later on, balconies were included into the design, the form of the building. Much

Mashrabiya is a room of passive cooling strategies. While the sachnisi is a

like Sachnisis. They create a deeper extrusion and a canopy for the street.

technique of form that creates shelter for the street using the building. Because

In the VGM project we still see this concept of form and response to the street

of this, streets can become wider and add to the “roof” of a street.

considered today.

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Bosnian Streetscape. Kovaci.

A diagram of the height of street shading caused by neighboring buildings.

Projecting balconies in Taormina, Sicily, Italy.

A type of close balcony (“sachnisi”) on the upper floor of roadside buildings of recent times. The streets of the Old Town of Dubrovnik, Croatia.

VGM Living Wall. Tournesol Siteworks. Portland, Oregon.


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Setenil de las Bodegas

SPAIN

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Setenil de las Bodegas

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Located in southern Spain, directly in between Seville and Málaga, Setenil de las Bodegas is a small town of roughly 3,000 people. The whitewashed houses are beautiful, but that’s not what makes this town so special. It’s that the structures are built directly into the rocky cliffs surrounding the region. The result are beautiful natural rock formations hanging over streets, providing shade and stunning views.


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Setenil de las Bodegas

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Agueda PORTUGAL

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Cross over the river and you’ll find ‘Shade Street’ there’s lots of nice craft and foodie shops to browse around here. Part of the street is more like a tunnel where giant boulders create a natural ceiling.


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Agueda, Portugal

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Águeda's Umbrella Sky Project began in 2011 as a part of the Portuguese city's annual Ágitagueda Art Festival. Each summer, when temperatures soar, a handful of Águeda's narrow streets feature canopies of colorful umbrellas that provide shade to the pedestrians below.


AUSTRALIA & OCEANIA

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South Bank Parklands Location: South Brisbane, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Opened: June 20, 1992 Area: 0.068 square miles As part of the cultural precinct of South Bank, the parkland lies on the southern bank of the Brisbane River.

QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA

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Brisbane

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Once known as the business centre of Brisbane that became degraded due to the 1893 floods, the site was redeveloped as a parkland in 1988 when Brisbane held the World Expo 88.


South Bank Parklands

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The site consists of diverse, unpaved terrains such as rainforest, water, and grassy areas. This reduces the temperature and heat gain as compared to street plazas that are close to hot asphalt roads. The parkland also utilizes different strategies to cool the paved paths using a mixture of foliage, built structures, and indoor-outdoor seating areas.

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NORTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

Open Source

Streets Beach. Photo by Kgbo.

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Toba Batak


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Toba Vernacular

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Location: Samosir Island, Sumatra, Indonesia Population: 108,869 Area: 240 sq miles

Stilt houses are a common feature of tropical architecture to minimize impact in floodplains or unstable ground. The design of buildings on pillars is believed to be inspired by the design of raised rice barns, a culturally significant symbol of the Austronesian people whose lives centered on the cultivation of rice. In the case of the Indonesian vernacular, the raised structures served a defensive purpose during warfare, deter wild animals, and prevent flooding.

The Toba Batak people live in villages of up to 10 homes clustered together to preserve farm lands. By placing these houses so close to each other, the sides not covered by the eaves are shaded by their adjacent structures. Toba houses are typically constructed side by side with the entrances facing the individual rice barns, the space in between the structures becomes a datum line.

The structure of Batak houses is divided into 3 sections:

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Toba Vernacular

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The substructure layer consists of large wooden pillars with beams mortised into them. Not only do the stilts provide moisture protection from the damp earth, they allow wind to pass under and shade the ground below.

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The living area is small and dimly lit with a small window on each side, reflecting the outdoor lifestyle of the Batak people and thus, serving a simplistic and functional role of providing a sleeping space.

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The thatched roof dominates the structure with its steeply-pitched saddle back construction. The triangular eaves protruding out shield the walls from rain and sun. Lack of trusses allow for the attic to become usable as storage.


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Jawoyn Vernacular

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Location: Arnhem Land, Australia Population: 108,869 Area: 240 sq miles The Aboriginal people started to camp at this site 50,000 years ago. The group of Aboriginals that live in this area are called the Jawoyn. The name Gabarnmang means “hole in rock,” “passageway,” or “valley open from the center.”

AUSTRALIA

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ARNHEM LAND,

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Gabarnmung

Gabarnmang was created by tunneling into a naturally eroded cliff face. The spaces inside are about 2-2.5m tall and the roof is supported by 50 pillars created by natural erosion in the bedrock.

Left: John Gollings. Interior of Gabarnmang rock shelter. Right: John Gollings. Gabarnmang rock shelter in landscape.


Jawoyn Vernacular

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Some of the 50 pillars have been reshaped, painted, and moved around to create spaces in the rock.

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Originally some pillars made spaces too narrow to gather or pass through. By moving some pillars the Jawoyn were able to create larger spaces and more mobility. Some pillars were even turned sideways and used as beds.

Above: Gabarnmang rock shelter. Below: Jawoyn tour of Gabarnmang.

Left:


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AFRICA

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Kasbahs Kasbahs are made of indigenous mud or clay and are painted the same hue as the valley.They build an arresting structure that is both austere and delicate. The thick kasbah walls that climb to the sky serve as a reminder of these oases’ turbulent history, which was once rife with territorial battles.The Kasbah’s aesthetics express a preference for both sturdiness and subdued beauty.

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Kasbahs Moroccan Vernacular

As with the architectural practices of ancient civilizations and cultures, the kasbah coexist harmoniously with the natural world and landscape of which they are painstakingly constructed.


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Kasbahs

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Life in the kasbah is as easy as it is in the nomadic nomads’ tents. The furnishings are minimal and practical. Life occurs in the dark, when only slanted beams of light penetrate the small gaps that grace the walls. The absence of openings is deliberate and was designed to protect the building’s occupants while still providing thermal insulation. Candlelight illuminates the evenings.

Unlike us modern city dwellers, the kasbah’s inhabitants never saw the point of staying up late.

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The morning ushers in the sweltering heat of the workday, complete with planting and herding.


Discussion 82. The desire to create shade has long been inherent in architectural design. The diverse cultures addressed here have offered a wide range of solutions in their built vernacular; some that aren’t obvious, some that push structural boundaries through methods and materials. The utilization and intensity of these techniques reflect the environment they’re situated in such as the 85m deep underground system in Turkey. Cases like Santorini, Kovaci, Brisbane, and Agueda extend their shade past their buildings and into social spaces. Looking at the techniques throughout continents, it comes to evidence that many of them range from the similar, to the very specific and localized, due to their location and climate.

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The interest in studying vernaculars emanate from the fact that they were developed many generations ago, being a product of refinement of ancient typologies that have stood the test of time, being validated by still being in use. There are lessons to be learned from these ancestral techniques, in an era where we are returning to more natural solutions, instead of relying in modern, technological solutions, since our predecessors did not dispose of energy-based devices to keep their environments coolant comfortable.


83.

Group 3

Jin Deng Heting Wang Baichuan Liu Yining Wang Ana Carolina torres

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DESIGN HISTORY OF SHADE

Autors:


85. 84.

Group 3

Group 3

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87. 86.

Group 3

Group 3

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88.

Window

Roof

Structures

HOW WE STUDY HISTORY 5

Special

Natural

Form

Shading Devices

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Group 3

Group 3

Shading

89.


How to create shade?

How to create shade?

1. Window Shading

1. Window Shading 90.

91.

Group 3

Group 3

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1

How to create shade?

1

1. Window Shading

How to create shade? 1. Window Shading

92.

93.

Full Shade Cut-off Angle 80º

Group 3

Group 3

Fin

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How to create shade?

How to create shade?

1. Window Shading

1. Window Shading 94.

95.

Group 3

Group 3

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1

How to create shade?

2

1. Window Shading

How to create shade? 2. Roof

96.

ROOF the structure forming the upper covering of a building or vehicle

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In some buildings, glass curtain walls are used to achieve large areas of lighting. In order to make the building more energy efficient and environmentally friendly, some shading components are used such as fins and overhangs. These components create shadows and also have an aesthetic effect. Today, we can more accurately measure the rationality of shading components by measuring the “Shading Coefficient”, even can achieve the perfect shading effect through kinetic shading components.

Group 3

Window shading is one of the most direct way to create shade in a building. Due to previous technical limitations, only limited holes can be made in the wall. Therefore, the light transmittance of the wall is also limited. In hot regions, people keep shade indoors by making small holes in solid walls. With the advancement of construction and materials, people can now make relatively free openings in masonry walls to meet the lighting needs of public buildings. In a well-designed building, the orientation and size of the openings are carefully considered. When designing windows, designers try to avoid direct sunlight and consider various factors such as ventilation.

Group 3

Conclusion

97.


2

How to create shade?

2

2. Roof 98.

99.

Yoyogi National Gymnasium (1964) Kenzo Tange

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Frank Lloyd Wright

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Price House, Paradise Valley(1954)

This atrium is now the main space of the museum. By covering the lower courtyard with a glass mesh supported by a central column, natural light floods into the center of the existing complex and into the exhibition spaces on the third floor.

The large roof provides shade for the outdoor space.

Group 3

Group 3

Two large steel cables are supported between two structural towers in addition to being anchored into concrete supports on the ground. The suspended cables from a tensile tent-like roofing structure.


2

2 100.

101.

Menil Collection (1986) Renzo Piano The freedom of roof form has increased and become more " active ", with variable roof devices that let in light while preventing direct sunlight into the room.

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The form of the roof determines the sense of ambiance of the interior space, varying according to the needs of the interior space, thus creating different shadows as well.

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Louis Kahn

Group 3

Group 3

Yale Center for British Art (1974)


2

2 The building has a sober contemporary architecture.

102.

103.

It was built with long, narrow glass panels, rough concrete for the walls and aluminium on the main facade of the amphitheatre.

Jean-Michel Willmotte

Museum of Fine Arts (1992)

This atrium is now the main space of the museum. By covering the lower courtyard with a glass mesh supported by a central column, natural light floods into the center of the existing complex and into the exhibition spaces on the third floor.

1.Arian Mostaedi. Architectural Design - EDUCATION AND CULTURE. Monsa(2000).

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Adrien Fainslber

Group 3

Group 3

Institute Universitaire Technologique (1993)

For the roof, the use of skylights allows light to enter the interior public spaces. Because the top skylight is created at an angle, this ensures that light enters the interior while avoiding direct sunlight on the ground.

1.Arian Mostaedi. Architectural Design - EDUCATION AND CULTURE. Monsa(2000).


2

2 104.

Enlightened by the “shack with a double pitched roof” in Wang Meng’s painting, we turned the double-pitched roof over, made a “Y-shape” cantilever structure, juxtaposed these two “Y-shape” independent units, and created a new double Y shape space (YY). Using the structural form, many windows are created at the top of the main space to ensure indoor light, and in the outdoor space, the extended roof structure creates shade for the outdoor walkway.

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Guz Architects

Wetland Research and Education Center (2019) Atelier Z+

Group 3

Group 3

Tangga House(2007)

The relatively large eaves of the roof provide shade, while the use of grille material makes the shadows more interesting. The combination of roofing and planting effectively blocks heat from entering the house.

105.


2 Hisao & Hiroko Taki (2020)

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The “roof” which is composed of stepped greenery and bleachers, resonates with the green slanted wall of the adjacent library, collectively creating a green valley. The green valley serves as a new green space to invite life and activity for the students.

107.

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Above ground, the building takes on a lush mound-like form, seamlessly integrating with the surrounding landscape.

106.

Group 3

Kengo Kuma & Associates


3

3

How to create shade? 3. Structures 3.1 Woodland Cemetery (1940)

108.

3. Structures 3.2 Le Couvent de la Tourette (1960)

109.

Le Corbusier

Gunnar Asplund & Sigurd Lewerentz

The convent is built on the slope of the valley, facing a forest, and the environment is quiet. Most of the ground floor of the building is overhead, and the inner courtyard is transparent. The square convent is simple, without much decoration. Part of the structures are exposed, and sunlight passes through them to form shade. The architect carefully designed these shade to create rich spatial effects.

Group 3

Group 3

The most striking feature of the building is the porch that serves as the entrance space. Tall columns support the porch, which extends from the main body as a container for architecture and landscape. The sun shines on the columns, creating shade within the porch. The shade form a distinct rhythm of light and dark, making the space more rhythmic and sequential.

How to create shade?

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3

How to create shade?

3

3. Structures

How to create shade? 3. Structures

110.

3.3 Serpentine Gallery (2002, 2008)

111.

Toyo Ito & Cecil Balmond (2002) Frank Gehry (2008) In the Serpentine Gallery in 2002, the pavilion is composed of random triangles and quadrilaterals, and the contrast between transparency and solidity creates an interesting light and shadow inside. The irregular shape of the pavilion creates an ever-changing play of light and shadow inside the structure. In the Serpentine Gallery in 2008, the pavilion is a combination of glass and wood with a distinct grid structure, the glass enclosure exposes the building structure to sunlight and creates interesting shadows.

Conclusion Group 3

Group 3

At the beginning, the structure is just the structure for the building. Although sometimes it creates rich shades, but that is not an intentional design.It's just a coincidence that the structure of the building creates an unexpected shade. People may be amazed at this, but this shade is not the purpose of the original design of structures. And then, architects notice these interesting shades and start to use the method intentionally. Sometimes structure is intentionally exposed and arranged regularly to create the shade that architect wants. Although architects begin to explore various ways to create shades and the structure is deliberately used to create more shades, the main purpose of the structure is still to support the building, not to create shade.

2002

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2008

Now, some buildings have turned their attention to the shadows, and they have created various structures to achieve this goal. With the development of architectural technology, the shape of the structure is also allowed to become diverse. The supporting of the structure is no longer a condition to restrict creation, and architects can think more purely about how to create shades. Shade is no longer optional, it is becoming an important part of architecture.


4

How to create shade?

4

4. Special Forms

4. Special Forms

112.

113.

Conclusion Importance of shadow analysis The shadow analysis allows a the study of the amount of solar access to different parts of the site and building design. During design process it is important to assess the impact of physical obstructions and their effect on the access to direct solar radiation in not just the current conditions but also the future.

Group 3

Group 3

The Geisel Library at the University of California, San Diego. The building occupies a fascinating nexus between brutalism and futurism that its architect, William Pereira With its strong concrete piers and hovering glassy enclosures, the library beautifully occupies an ambiguous state between massiveness and levitation, as if the upper stories have only just been set into their base and can be lifted back out at any moment. The tension between these two conditions gives the library an otherworldly appearance and provides a startling statement about the generative and imaginative power of the architect.

How to create shade?

Impact on Massing and Orientation

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Based on the shadow studies, impact from sun orientation, neighboring buildings, trees and more can help determine the massing and orientation of the proposed design. This can be done to either take advantage of the sun and views, or limit it based on the project location and site.


5

5

How to create shade? 5. Natural Shading Devices

How to create shade? 5. Natural Shading Devices

5.1 Exterior

114. Strategy 1

Using the nature from the surrounding context by choosing a well shaded location and exposing the visibility of the architectural skin. Example Thorncrown Chapel

Strategy 2

Frederick C. Robie House, ca. 1910, Collection of the Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

Examples Wayfarers Glass Chapel Thong House

Thorncrown Chapel E. Fay Jones (1980) Ozark Mountains, Arkansas

Thong House NISHIZAWAARCHITECTS (2014) District 7, Vietnam

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Adding nature around the architectural skin and working with its openings. Major elements of consideration are growth time and spacing from the architectural skin.

Wayfarers Glass Chapel Lloyd Wright (1949-51) Paolo Verdes, CA

Group 3

Group 3

As the mindset of post world-war architecture shifts from pure functionalism to a finer sensibility of emotional expression, modernist ideologies such as the Prairie style of Frank Lloyd Wright, created architecture to be in harmony with its surrounding context. The impact of these ideas went many separate ways, though particularly in the use of natural devices to provide shade, the outcome has been rather successful and continues to be a fundamental concept explored in today’s designs. The analysis of natural shading devices splits into three categories: Interior devices, exterior devices, and devices in between the architecture.

115.


5

How to create shade?

5

5. Natural Shading Devices Strategy 1 Designing the structural elements around the existing nature, allowing the nature to grow undisturbed by the architectural skin.

5.2 Interior Nordic Pavilion Sverre Fehn (1958-62) Venice, Italy

Example Ford Foundation Headquarters

Example Mill Owners’ Association

117. Mill Owners' Association Le Corbusier (1958) Ahmedabad, India

SolarLeaf ARUP (2014) Hamburg, Germany

Example Sun Path House Strategy 3 Translating new materials into architectural elements. Example SolarLeaf

Sun Path House Christian Wassmann (2015) Miami Beach, Florida

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Example Exotic Workplace Garden

Exotic Workplace Garden Malinowski Design Urban & Landscape (2021) Gdansk, Poland

Strategy 1 Considering the habitability of each floor for people as well as nature. Natural systems should follow the logic of the spatial structure.

Strategy 2 Guiding nature with architectural elements.

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Strategy 3 Using nature across the entire spatial layout, prioritizing the visual connection to nature rather than architectural elements.

Ford Foundation Headquarters Kevin Roche (1968) New York

5.3 In between

Group 3

Strategy 2 Creating a single attractor space with natural devices, allowing the growth of the plants to change the larger space over time.

5. Natural Shading Devices

116.

Group 3

Example Nordic Pavilion

How to create shade?


CONCLUSION 1Window Shading Direct way to create shade. In a well-designed building, the orientation and size of the openings are carefully considered.

The “Shading Coefficient”

With the advancement of materials and technology, the form of the roof has gradually changed according to the needs of the people.

From unintentional to purposeful。

Different skylights. stuff,

During design process it is important to assess the impact of physical obstructions and their effect on the access to direct solar radiation in not just the current conditions but also the future. Based on the shadow studies, impact from sun orientation, neighboring buildings, trees and more can help determine the massing and orientation of the proposed design.

Nature can be incorporated into architecture for both asthetic and functional purposes. The primary interaction of natural and architectural elements result in shade and shade patterns. Important factors to consider: ● species/form ● density/pattern ● growth time/area ● maintenance ● interaction with architectural systems The incorporation of natural shading devices into architectural ideas continues to be a fundamental concept explored in today’s designs.

119.

CONCLUSION Through the analysis of the five main shade-creating methods of the building, we found that in modern architecture, the function of each part of the building is clear, and the way of creating light and shadow is more straightforward, mainly using wall and roof to create shading. In post-modern architecture there is a bolder use of exaggerated forms and complex structural elements to create more complex and interesting shadow effects. In post-modern architecture, there are more diverse ways to create shading. The concept of creating light and shadow and the components are diversified, which are also reflected that the strategies to create shading becoming more effective. Due to the continuous improvement of technology, more accurate analysis tools and more kinds of kinetic systems become possible. The upgrading concept of sustainability and environmental friendly designs reflects in combining of natural elements and also considers the effects of future environment.

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More intricate installations, etc.

As architecture techniques have advanced, shape of structures has become diverse in order to create the desired shade.

The shadow analysis allows a the study of the amount of solar access to different parts of the site and building design.

118.

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Kinetic shading components.

The role of creating shadow is always evolving.

Bring in natural light and create abundant interior shade.

5 Natural shading devices

The roof has a very important function in architecture.

Large eaves.

4 Special Form

Group 3

Some shading components are used such as fins and overhangs.

3 Structures

Group 3

When designing windows, designers try to avoid direct sunlight and consider various factors such as ventilation.

2 Roof

112.


Brian Davis William Hoang Alexandra Kehoe Kristy Price

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Authors:

Group 4

INNOVATION IN MATERIALS AND METHODS

120.


121.

122.

There are many advantages in using prefabricated aluminum panels that lead to a sustainable solution.

Lofts @ Cherokee

shade to cool the building,

Studio Hollywood,

reducing noise, enhancing

Aluminum panels are prefabricated in a controlled setting off site and assembled onsite. This strategy reduces

privacy, and still allowing for

the energy spent manufacturing the panels. Other advantages to the modular system is its ability to be

spectacular views

replicated quickly that equate to multiple cost and every saving benefit, it simplified logistics, and reduces on

California

site labor requirements and construction time. From a shade aspect, these perforated anodized aluminum panel shade the building and reduce the cooling loads required for the building. The screens offer the residence enhanced privacy, reducing noise off the busy street in front, and still allows for spectacular views.

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Pugh & Scarpa

Perforated anodized aluminum panels


123.

enhancing privacy, and still allowing for spectacular views

shade materiality to cool the The different and systems the Scarpa integrated into the design based on the building orientation and views building, reducing noise, enhancing privacy, and still allowing for spectacular views

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building, reducing noise,

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shade to cool the

124.


125.

126.

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Advantages of prefabricated shading system

modular

shading system

pre fabricated

Louvre Abu Dhabi Jean Nouvel Abu Dhabi, UAE


Light & Shadow Conceptually designed based on traditional arabic architecture, the façades

Rain of Light

of the multiple white structures that make up the interior of the complex are made up of 3,900 panels of ultra-high performance fibre concrete

127.

(UHPC). Inspiration to their design comes from low lying arab settlements. A large dome, inspired by the traditional cupola, blankets the majority of

Rays of light make their way through the dome as the sun’s path progresses, creating an enchanting cinematic effect.

128.

This effect is known as the “rain of light” and is inspired by

the structures that make up the museum and is visible from the sea and the

the palm trees in Abu Dhabi that filter sunlight and project

city of Abu Dhabi. This dome was constructed by steel and is made up of

dancing patterns onto the ground.

eight different layers; four outer layers clad in stainless steel and four inner layers clad in aluminium all separated by a steel frame. The dome itself is a complex pattern that is repeated at various angles and

Louvre Abu Dhabi encourages visitors to embrace the relationship between the sun and the dome.

sizes through the eight layers. As the sun moves throughout the day the light seems to dance along the structure and cast light and shadows within

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the interior.


129.

130.

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Al Bahr Towers Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Aedas Architecture


Advancing the Traditional Mashrabiya

131.

World’s Largest Computerized Dynamic Facade

Each tower consists of 1049 polytetrafluoroethylene panels that are grouped into sectors and operated by sun tracking software that allow the panels to respond to the movement of the sun, making it the largest computerized facade in the world. The system is ran by an automated preset technology that tracks the sun’s path and updates every 15 minutes. Advanced parametric

132.

modeling was critical in controlling the mashrabiya folding limits and developing the concept into

The extreme climate of Abu Dhabi resembles a desert with high

implementation. The system effectively reduces heat gain and glare by 50%.

temperatures and rare rain events. In response, buildings in the region must adapt to the associated challenges including solar heat gain and glare. The responsive facade of Al Bahr Towers is an ode to the traditional Islamic lattice shading device, the mashrabiya. The mashrabiya has provided shade in the Middle East for centuries and has evolved into a common high-tech responsive facade system.

Left Image: Traditional Mashrabiya

Right Image: Al Bahr Towers facade movement

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at Aedas

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Left Image: Responsive facade sketch by computational design team


The Bullitt Center Case Study The Bullitt Center was designed to demonstrate the capabilities of high performance buildings. Today, it’s considered the greenest commercial building in the world and

133.

used as a case study to advance awareness and adaptation of urban sustainability.

134.

This high performance building achieved a net positive energy rating by producing more energy than it consumes. Along with energy generation from it’s large solar canopy, The Bullitt Center reduces its consumption of energy largely due to it’s

The Bullitt Center Seattle, WA

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integrated window and shade system.


A Living Skin Exterior stainless steel venetian blinds act as the “living skin” of the building by preventing solar

135.

radiation from reaching the building envelope. Automatic blind deployment and slat angles are

136.

controlled by an astronomical time clock that locates the sun’s altitude and azimuth, and a sensor to signal cloud and weather conditions. The advanced system allows the building to optimize daylight and thermal comfort, reducing demand for electric lighting and air conditioning systems. The exterior

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Image Source: Peña & University of Washington Center for Integrated Design, 2014

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shading system of The Bullitt Center was one of the first applications of its kind in North America.

Mario Cucinella The New Dance School Reggio Emilia, Italy (2018)


137.

curved external shading system

shield internal space

reflects location

visual focus

culture

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Echos Tradition FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

Woven with Wood Veneer

138.


139.

140.

Environmental Sustainability

reduced demand of building energy by 53%

raised renewable energy

Simple, compact geometric shape

consumption to 35% opaque cladding to reduce heat dispersion in winter ●

minimise energy consumption by mechanical heating systems.

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142.

141.

Foster + Partners

allow dappled light to enter the space

Vatican Chapel Venice, Italy (2018)

slide independently

Jasmine vines planted around the structure

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Series of thin timber slats


143.

144.

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Tent-like membrane

tensegrity structure of cables and masts

wooden latticework

Left and Image Above: Vatican Chapel


145.

“MIT chemical engineers have created the new material and it is stronger than steel and as light as plastic, and can be easily manufactured in large quantities.”

Reflection 146.

Innovations in Materials and Methods Each project has infinite combinations of materials and methods that can be used to provided shade. In the case studies shown, materials include insulated glass, prefabricated metal panels, aluminum fabric, timber slats, and polytetrafluoroethylene panels. Common threads throughout the case studies include evolution of traditional shading elements, advanced computerized facades, and using shade to alter light rather than hide it.

2DPA-1 New Material MIT (2022)

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The methods utilized not only express the material, but give a dimension and added layer of detail that give each project an identity. With new materials, such as 2DPA-1, being researched daily, the future of material and methods will ever be evolving. This new material is described as a two-dimensional polymer that self-assembles into sheets, with an elastic modulus almost six times greater than that of bulletproof glass. MIT has also found that 2DPA-1’s yield strength is twice that of steel, even though the material has only about one-sixth the density. Now that MIT has provided a resilient material, one can only wait to see the innovative methods to follow.


FLORA POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTE IN SHADE AT ALL SCALES

147.

Group 5

A Botanical Encyclopedia FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

Authors: • Alex Boucher • Avery Dunavant • Minami Guido • Moises Villanueva © Martha Kohen


1.

Climbing Vines a. Jakob Wire Systems b. Coconut Club & Park c. Three to five of the best specific plant examples Urban Farming and Agriculture in the City a. Prinzessinnengärten b. Riverpark Farm c. Three to five of the best specific plant examples Green Roofs a. City Hall, Chicago b. Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall c. Three to five of the best specific plant examples Algae and other Marine Flora a. SolarLeaf b. Urban Algae Canopy c. Three to five of the best specific plant examples

2.

3.

4.

148.

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Defining the Terms

Group 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.


149.

1 | Climbing Vine Plants

150.

Vine Plant Types Architectural Products

Group 5

Group 5

“Botanical” (botanic) definition: adjective- of, pertaining to, made from, or

“Encyclopedia” definition: noun- resource containing articles on various topics, usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or, less commonly, all aspects of one subject

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containing plants

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WHAT IS A ‘BOTANTICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA?

Applications


151.

152.

Group 5

Group 5

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Climbers • • • • • • •

CLEMATIS ARMANDII FATSHEDERA LIZEI (FAT-HEADED LIZZIE) FICUS PUMILA (CREEPING FIG) HEDERA CANARIENSIS (CANARY ISLAND IVY) HEDERA HELIX ‘TRES COUPE’ HOLBOELLIA LATIFOLIA (BROAD LEAVED SAUSAGE VINE) HYDRANGEA SEEMANNII


154.

Group 5

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Fatheaded Lizzie is a hybrid between Japanese Fatsia and common ivy. Fatsia is a shrub plant while ivy is a vine/climbing plant which gives fat headed lizzie an ability to be trained into both a bush plant or a coverage plant. It is because of this versatility that it has gained popularity in landscape design. It is a fairly robust plant, capable of handling sea spray, growing underneath other plants and is resilient to air pollution. It feature white flowers as well.

153.

Group 5

Fat Headed Lizzie (Fatshedera Lizei)


156.

Group 5

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Creeping fig is a fast growing vine that can climb up to 15 feet. It has lavender colored fruits (when ripe) that offer a pop of color to the otherwise rich green appearance. Additionally, creeping fig features white flowers. While the vine grows quickly up walls, it is not very hearty in winter and will be reduced back to the ground. Because of this, it is often used as ground cover to avoid the inconsistency in wall coverage throughout the year.

155.

Group 5

Creeping Fig (Ficus Pumila)


158.

Group 5

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Not all plants are friendly. Algerian Ivy is a highly poisonous vine that can cause rashes and swelling upon contact. This plant is included to demonstrate that proper research must be done when selecting a climbing vine for a design. While the red berries are beautiful and offer a pop of color to any landscape, they are also poisonous. Despite this threat, uses still exist for Algerian Ivy. This vine grows quickly, to the point of being difficult to contain, therefore if a space exist for coverage that is removed from human contact, it is a great choice.

157.

Group 5

Algerian Ivy (Hedera Canariensis)


Case Study 1: Jakob Wire Systems

159.

Case Study 1a: GreenGuide

160.

Most simple modular system

Jakob Wiring Systems is a company dedicated to providing solutions to

designed to facilitate the growth of vine

Single or multidirectional wire mounted cleanly into single member

Group 5

product inventory exists three systems

Group 5

tension steel cable needs. In their

Variable cable length

plants. They are as follows: Green Guide

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Webnet - (with or without frames)

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GreenTrellis


Case Study 1b: Greentrellis

161.

Similar to GreenGuide but includes intersecting

Case Study 1c: WebNet

162.

Includes netting rather than wiring

wires

Suitable for high wind/snow load areas

Most capable for deadening noise and filtering

Group 5

Group 5

Greater stability; able to adapt

Creates higher density of plant growth

pollution Option to include frames for design choices

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Case Study 2: Coconut Club & Park 164.

Group 5

Group 5

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Cambodia

163.

T3 Architects


165.

166.

Group 5

Group 5

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2 | Urban Farming and

167.

Case Study 1 : Prinzessinnengärten

168.

Agriculture in the City Group 5

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Prinzessinnengärten | Nomadic Green Riverpark Farm | ORE Design + Technology Plant 1: Acer Plant 2: Tomatoes Plant 3: Beans

Group 5

• • • • •


169.

Case Study 2 : Prinzessinnengärten

170.

Location : Berlin, Germany

Group 5

Group 5

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171.

172.

Group 5

Group 5

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Case Study 2 : Riverpark Farm

173.

Case Study 2 : Riverpark Farm

174.

Similar to GreenGuide but includes intersecting wires

Suitable for high wind/snow load areas

Group 5

Group 5

Greater stability; able to adapt

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175.

176.

Group 5

Group 5

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FINDING SHADE SEMINAR RiverPark Farms farming techniques and installations


177.

3 Best Plant Examples 1.

178.

Acer plants ‘Bloodgood’ (Japanese Maple) Acer Palmatum

2.

Tomatoes

Group 5

Group 5

‘Crimson Queen’ (Laceleaf Japanese Maple) Acer Palmatum

Heirloom Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) Grape Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) Beans Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus) Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

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3.


Acer Plants

179.

‘Bloodgood’ (Japanese Maple) Acer Palmatum

Acer Plants

180.

‘Crimson Queen’ (Laceleaf Japanese Maple) Acer Palmatum

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Tomatoes

181.

Heirloom Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum)

Tomatoes

182.

Grape Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum)

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Group 5

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Beans

183.

Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus)

Beans

184.

Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

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Group 5

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3 Green Roofs

185.

Case Study 1 : City Hall, Chicago

186.

Chicago City Hall | McDonough + Partners

square foot green roof to help combat the urban heat island effect that

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Group 5

The rooftop of the City Hall of Chicago was re-designed to include a 38,800 occurs within the city. This semi-extensive greenroof that completed construction in 2001 also aids in the improvement of urban air quality. Due to this greenroof, Chicago’s City Hall building saves approximately

Meadow Saxifrage - Saxifraga Granulata

Houseleeks

Sea Thrift

Oregano

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Chicago City Hall | McDonough + Partners Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall | Emilio Ambasz Sedum

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• •

$5,000 each year on utility bills.


187.

188.

Chicago City Hall | McDonough + Partners

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McDonough & Partners of Virginia, won the American Society of Landscape

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This project, designed by Richard Price of the architecture firm William Architects 2002 Professional Merit Award. One green weather station and one tar weather station have been assembled on both sides of the roof where weather test data will be collected, such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and wind direction.

Roof Landscape Plan

There are over 20,000 herbaceous plants of over 150 varieties. Rainwater is collected and saved, as well as an additional irrigation system is in place.

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Chicago City Hall | McDonough + Partners


189.

Case Study 2 : Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall, Japan

190.

Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall | Emilio Ambasz

the city and also acts as a central exchanged of international and cultural

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Group 5

The ACROS Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall is located in the center of information, covering over 1 million square feet of land. ACROS stands for “Asian Cross Roads Over the Sea.” The architect of the building, Emilio Ambasz, designed 100,000 square meters of an existing park into the 15 stepped terraces of the city center.

The two trees are a Cockspur Hawthorn and a Prairie Crabapple.

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Roof Landscaping

The semi-intensive green roof features 100 woody shrubs, 40 wines, and 2 trees.

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Chicago City Hall | McDonough + Partners

The project aims to create more green space within an urban environment.


191.

192.

Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall | Emilio Ambasz

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venture where a commercial developer would develop the land during their

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The plot of land that was developed was utiized as a public-private joint 60 year lease. The agreement was that a fraction of the building would be for public and municipal program, while the rest of the space would be for the private sector. The architect wanted to present the building as an extension of the park “as

Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall | Emilio Ambasz

The north face of the building has an urban facade with a more formal entrance, as it faces the financial district. However, the south side features the terraced roof gardens that go up the entire height of the building. The building is structured with steel-framed reinforced concrete to hold its 14 above ground floors and 4 below ground floors.

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the city.

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an image of a mountain” rather than low vegetation that is common within


193.

3 to 5 Best Plant Examples 1.

194.

Sedum: Gold Sedum - Sedum Kamtschaticum

plants but now has 120 varieties of about 50,000 plants due to natural pollination.

Two Row Stonecrop - Sedum Spurium 2.

Meadow Saxifrage - Saxifraga Granulata

3.

Houseleeks

4.

Sea Thrift

5.

Oregano

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environment. At its initial construction, the green roof had 76 varieties of 37,000 total

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Each terrace has gardens for meditation, relaxation, and act as an escape from the urban

Widow’s Cross - Sedum Pulchellum

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Fukuoka Prefecture International Hall | Emilio Ambasz Section Drawings

White Stonecrop - Sedum Album


1. Sedum

195.

Gold Sedum - Sedum Kamtschaticum ●

1. Sedum

196.

White Stonecrop - Sedum Album

This variety of sedum in particular produces beautiful yellow flowers that are productive in attracting insects and easily add color to a green roof.

This plant is very hardy and easy to grow. It grows as more of a “mat-like” system that produces star-shaped white flowers during the summer time. It

Group 5

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only needs thin, dry soil and little maintenance as it grows low to the ground providing cover, insulation, and food and shelter for nature.

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1. Sedum

197.

Widow’s Cross - Sedum Pulchellum ●

198.

Two Row Stonecrop - Sedum Spurium

Widow’s Cross is drought resistant even with its delicate pink and green flowers. It is attractive to wildlife as well as attractive to landscape architects due

This variety thrives in well-drained, poor soil and is good for ground coverage. It features star-shaped flowers that bloom in pink and red colors during the summer in the center of large green succulent leaves. Because the leaves retain water, the plant acts as fire protection for a roof.

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to its colorful flowers that bloom in the spring and summer seasons.

1. Sedum

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2. Meadow Saxifrage - Saxifraga Granulata

199.

Widow’s Cross - Sedum Pulchellum ●

200.

Widow’s Cross - Sedum Pulchellum

A perennial plant that has white flowers from April to June, it grows up to 50cm tall, adding immense volume and contrast to ground coverage to any

Houseleeks are evergreen, alpine plants that can grow in bricks or rocks, making it ideal for a rooftop landscaping project. The cobweb species is one of the most popular, as it is particularly attractive with summer flowers and mass of spiraling rosettes.

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green roof. It also grows well in full sun as well as is rich in nectar and pollen, so it attracts bees.

3. Houseleeks

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5. Oregano

4 Algae and Marine Flora

201.

202.

Widow’s Cross - Sedum Pulchellum ●

Oregano is often found in the Mediterranean, but it survives in generally any well-drained soil with little maintenance, making it ideal for use on a green

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ground cover and attractiveness with its pollen-rich flowers.

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roof. It is also a good option to include in a green roof because it can allow for an easier beginning of creating an herb garden, while also providing

• •

SolarLeaf | Arup Urban Algae Canopy| EcoLogicStudio Biokinetics | Mani Karami and Drew Kauffman Types of Algae Spurlina

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• • •


Case Study 1 : SolarLeaf

203.

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© Arup

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“Because microalgae absorb daylight, bioreactors can also be used as dynamic shading devices. The cell density inside the bioreactors depends on available light and the harvesting regime. When there is more daylight available, more algae grows – providing more shading for the building.” -Arup

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SolarLeaf is the world’s first bio-reactive facade system that looks to generate renewable renewable energy through algae species like spirulina. These panels were the first iteration of a fully integrated building system that were later installed on the Bio Intelligent Quotient House in Hamburg, Germany in 2013.

204.

Panels Installed on the Bio Intelligent Quotient House, 2013

© Arup


How it Works 205.

© Arup

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© Arup

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© Arup

206.

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Bioreactors with algae on the interior, absorb heat from the sun on the exterior facade. The bioreactor facade is a part of a closed loop system that is connected to the building’s energy management system, which helps to turn biomass and absorbed heat to energy for the building. excess heat absorbed by the facade can be used for supplying hot water to the building.


207.

Case Study 2 : Urban Algae Canopy

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© Arup

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© Arup

208.

© EcoLogicStudio


209.

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-EcoLogicStudio © EcoLogicStudio

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© EcoLogicStudio

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© EcoLogicStudio

210.

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“Microalgae, in this instance Spirulina, are exceptional photosynthetic machines; they contain nutrients that are fundamental to the human body, such as minerals and vegetable proteins; microalgae also oxygenate the air and can absorb CO2 from the urban atmosphere ten times more effectively than large trees. The innovative architecture of the Alge Folly originates from the evolution of the well known ETFE architecture skin system; in this instance it has the ability to provide the ideal habitat both to stimulate Spirulina's growth and to guarantee visitors' comfort. On sunny summer days the microalgae will grow rapidly thus increasing the shading potential of the architectural skin and improving human comfort; visitors, with their presence, will in turn activate the digital regulation system which will stimulate algal oxygenation, solar insolation and growth.”


211.

Kinetically Adaptive Bioreactor Facades Masters Research Project by Mani Karami and Drew Kauffman University of Florida, 2020

212.

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© EcoLogicStudio

Case Study 3 : Biokinetics


213.

214. Facade

© Mani Karami and Drew Kauffman

Structural Layer © Mani Karami and Drew Kauffman

Photobioreactor Layer

Shading Mechanism Layer

Shading Fan Layer

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Biokinetics looked to develop and fabricate a module that could be used within a multi-unit system to integrate biological algae growth systems with a kinetic facade typology to create shade.

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The Module

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When paired with one another, the biokinetic module developed by Karami and Kauffman was part of a 4 layer facade system composed of the structural layer, which attached the system to the building, the photobioreactor layer, consisting of the algae, and then the shading mechanism and fan layer, which could be open and closed as desired.


Built Prototype Single Module Shading Fan

Proposed Facade with Additional Shading

215.

The biokinetic system was proven as a viable solution as a facade and its ability to create shade for the interior of a building. To the right is two examples, one at summer solstice showing the full shade created by the biokinetic system with open shading fans, and the other showing closed shading fans during the winter solstice, allowing for sun penetration to the interior of the building for natural heating.

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Summer Solstice 12:00 Shading Closed

Winter Solstice 12:00 Shading Open © Mani Karami and Drew Kauffman

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© Mani Karami and Drew Kauffman

216.

Shading


Types of Algae 2.

Chrysophyta (Golden-brown algae and Diatoms)

3.

Pyrrophyta (Fire algae)

4.

Chlorophyta (Green algae)

5.

Rhodophyta (Red algae)

6.

Paeophyta (Brown algae)

7.

Xanthophyta (Yellow-green algae)

218.

Spirulina is edible and high in biomass, which makes this type of algae ideal for architectural use. It is the primary algae type used in each of the case studies presented in this section.

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Euglenophyta (Euglenoids)

Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis)

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1.

217.

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© ScienceDirect

© The Green Grocer


Discussion 219.

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We would be remiss to conclude this section without the mention of trees in their relation to shade. All these aforementioned case studies looked to use fauna to their advantage in order to create and manipulate shade in and around their buildings. However large trees are not simply integrated into an architecture. Their expansive root system is extremely intensive, and their weight makes it impractical for use on top or as part of the building. large trees in architecture are a supplement, something to acknowledge, to build around, but cannot be truly designed or exploited for shade. They make extremely viable armatures for tree houses or can supplement a design well. Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth House is an excellent example of large trees and their place within design. the large sugar maple that stood out front of the house endured all seasons for decades before the home was built in 1951. However, following a lightning strike, and a harsh winter this tree had reached the end of its lifespan and was removed from the property in 2013. This trees removal is a good example of how often we can plan around large trees in our designs but cannot always account for them to be there as they are intended only for supplement.

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Nature has always provided the earliest and often simplest forms of shade. From large trees to the smallest microalgae, fauna presents a vast and diverse array of natural shading strategies that can be used for benefit and for beautification along the façade or a roof of a structure. These strategies are helpful beyond just their use in shading, but also in combating heat island effect in urban environments, as well as providing removing carbon dioxide and replenishing the air with oxygen.


• Gabriel Fernandez • Gabriel Gonzalez • Maya Kwaśniewski • Kuljon J. Pierre

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Authors:

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Declination of Public Spaces

220.


Table of Contents Declination

02.

Scales of Public Spaces Large Scale -

United States National Infrastructure

-

Barcelona Superblocks

-

Metropol Parasol

-

Universidad Central de Venezuela

-

Enlace Arquitectura - Public Barrios

-

Art Installations as Ephemeral Shade

Small Scale -

Anti-Homeless Architecture

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Medium Scale

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01.

221.


The Death and Life of Great American Cities

Jane Jacobs

Declination

problem with city planners of the Group 6

3.

only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.”

Jane Jacobs believed that the

ASTRONOMY the angular distance of a point north or south of the celestial equator. "the declination of Arcturus is 19 degrees north" GENERAL formal refusal. "in the face of this declination of the proposition" GROUP 06 process of degradation over time for various external and/or internal issues

preceding century—and with her Group 6

2.

223.

contemporaries—was that they planned for the short term and without much input from the people who would be affected. She advocated for a bottom-up

TRANSLATIONS at a given point, the angle between the line connecting this point with the

1.

geographical center of the earth and the equatorial plane at a given point, the angle between magnetic north and true north

2.

act of declining

3.

a way of categorizing nouns

4.

difference between true and magnetic (compass) north

5.

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Déclinaison

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1.

222.

“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody,

approach to ensure that people living in cities would be able to shape where they live.


Forces of Decline & Regeneration

Jane Jacobs 224.

“There is no logic that can be superimposed on the city; people

Jacobs approached cities as living beings

225.

make it, and it is to them, not buildings, that we must fit our plans.”

and ecosystems. She suggested that over time, buildings, streets, and neighborhoods Group 6

response to how people interact with them. She explained how each element of a city, including

the

sidewalks,

parks,

neighborhoods, government, and economy

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together

like

the

natural

environment.

KEY FINDINGS

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function

United States National Infrastructure

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function as dynamic organisms, changing in


WHAT DOES THE GRADE MEAN?

227.

Public parks should strive to be walkable, shaded, accessible and ensure that facilities and infrastructure are maintained to acceptable standards, in order to avoid “park deserts”.

227.

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The 2021 Report Card defines a D grade as “Poor, At Risk: The infrastructure is in fair to poor condition and mostly below standard, with many elements approaching the end of their service life. A large portion of the system exhibits significant deterioration. Condition and capacity are of serious concern with strong risk of failure.”

On average, Americans visit public parks more than twice a month. However, despite their popularity and significance in local communities, the much needed investment is drastically lacking. Parks play a critical role in providing naturally shaded spaces where families can play and relax for extended periods of time. They also are crucial to maintaining healthy and resilient communities with their green spaces and stormwater management systems.

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226.

The 2021 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure reveals we’ve made some incremental progress toward restoring our nation’s infrastructure. For the first time in 20 years, our infrastructure is out of the D range. However, a overall C- is still disappointing, especially when all the individual categories that directly correlate to the quality of public spaces are still in the D range.

MAINTAINING PUBLIC PARKS


INFRASTRUCTURE SERVES PUBLIC SPACE 228.

229.

Good infrastructure at all scales and levels of development is necessary for well-functioning communities and serves the public realm so that its spaces can be human-centered. Advancements in resilient infrastructure should prioritize projects that improve the quality of public space and all

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of its facets. A nation’s infrastructure is regularly regarded as the backbone for economic and social prosperity, which is why we should be incentivized to improve all sectors that deal with the public realm and, how people access it, and the quality of shaded spaces that are created there.


BARCELONA SUPERBLOCKS 231.

This project demonstrates a people-centred urban plan that offers the opportunity to gain new public spaces by creating proximity squares in the chamfer corners and shaded green streets where previously there were cars.

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The idea of a superblock, or superilla, was explored in response to too much traffic and a lack of green space in a city. The community space was created with short term and temporary design elements that can be removed in the streets, such as playgrounds, tables, places to sit, and trees.

Leku Studio | 2019

This style of city planning and distribution of public space embodies the philosophy of Jane Jacobs and her ideology of returning the streets to the people while providing ample shade to pedestrians. It also demonstrates how a revitalized city infrastructure can work to rejuvenate public spaces.

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230.

In superblocks, curbside parking is transformed into underground parking to allow for street room for markets, outdoor games, and events. Pedestrian space converts from 45% of the surface area to 74% and carbon emissions decrease in these areas. If there are multiple superblocks in the city, then it suggests that these places are public spaces that anyone from any part of town can enjoy.

SUPERBLOCK OF SANT ANTONI


232. 233.

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METROPOL PARASOL Jurgen Mayer| 2011

235.

235.

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In Seville, Spain, the Metropol Parasol created a new contemporary urban centre with its unique urban space which brought new life to what used to be a barren area mainly used for parking. Its design scheme also offers an abundance of shade which is a valuable commodity to the city which experiences a regular hot climate.

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234.


METROPOL PARASOL Jurgen Mayer| 2011

This type of infrastructure allows the public space to be activated by more pedestrian activity now that it engages with the larger urban fabric. This is another excellent example of how to shade a large area of public space and create an accessible and desirable location for people to want to visit; tourists and locals alike.

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237.

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236.


“CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA”

Universidad Central de Venezuela CARACAS, VENEZUELA

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239.

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238.

Carlos Raúl Villanueva 1970 Founded in 1721, it is the oldest university in Venezuela and one of the oldest in the Western Hemisphere. It grew to become a pivotal institution for the foundation and industrialization of the nation. Villanueva implemented radical designs to incorporate public art into architecture. The scale of these designs would greatly benefit the physical and social urban fabric of Caracas.


TIERRA DE NADIE 240.

Villanueva arranged the programs in a way so that a central park would be the essential communal space for the university. Contrasting the

241.

desolate main spaces that are continually abused by the sun, the covered pathways implement innovative structural and material

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advances to symbolize the countries own innovative intentions.


242.

243.

AUDITORIUM BREEZEWAYS The connective spaces between the auditorium and other classroom are all external, yet the way Villanueva articulated the facades, they all feel like

Group 6 Years of mismanagement and abandonment has degraded not only the structures but the spaces within and around them.

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comfortable interior spaces. His use of breezewalls allowed him to passively manipulate natural lighting and ventilation to create spectacular timeless spaces due to the local materiality and simplistic gestures. These spaces are part of the reason why the UCV was declared a World Heritage site in 2000 by UNESCO.


like

countless

other

projects that face neglect, spaces have become unusable. The juxtaposition in spatial experience over the years only further exposes the importance of fully shaded interventions.

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just

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Unfortunately,

245.

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244.

Enlace Arquitectura

BARRIOS ACROSS CARACAS, VENEZUELA

Enlace Arquitectura is an award-winning Venezuelan design practice with experience in a variety of project typologies, scales and budgets, in both urban and rural environments. Led by Elisa Silva


248.

Situated along the ridges of El Hatillo, the El Calvario barrio is just one of thousands of makeshift settlements that propagate throughout Caracas. These disenfranchised communities face many explicit and implicit socio-spatial issues that Enlace Arquitectura designs resilient solutions for the spaces and people.

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El Hatillo, Caracas 2017

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THE CANOPIES OF EL CALVARIO

247.

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246.

The plan: motivate public discourse and mobilization for community revitalization via the very same community members. Enlace, through intimate conversations with community leaders, create frameworks and interventions realizable for these unique dense spaces who have historically been denied the luxury of public space, shade, and comfort. The colorful canopies create an itinerary throughout the barrio’s extent, connecting the highest points to the local park at the bottom of the mountain.


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248.

249.


Interventions such as these destigmatizes these spaces/communities while beautifying them to a point that reinvigorates local social consciousness and hope through resilient, shade making, strategies.

252.

250.

251.

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252.

253.

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2012

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La Morán, Caracas

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CAUDRA LA ACEQUIA

Barrios contain a socio-spatial infrastructure that mimics traditional public spaces but condenses it within natures/architectural interstitial spaces. Without proper public maintenance, these spaces can dangerously affect the quality of life in these communities.


DENSITY AS SHADE The dense nature of barrios means the spaces in between, those traditionally used for circulation, are comfortably shaded automatically.

254.

255.

Additionally, a large portion of the barrios in Caracas use the southern mountain range as a shading device as well. Thus, Enlace makes it a point to generate public spaces out of those left over spaces, unused and decaying,

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to encourage a healthier occupation of the communities shared areas.

LA CEIBA Petare, Caracas 2018 Through educational games and participatory design workshops, the community designed several elements to build their new public space. These included the renovation of an underused small plaza with a canopy to protect people from the sun and rain, and yet tall enough and porous enough to allow light in and allow the air to circulate freely.


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256. 257.


SCULPTED SHADE 259.

258.

When thinking about shading public spaces, it is important to consider the way people interact with the shading device. Art installations have the ability to play with color, light, shadow, and form in ways that traditional shading devices

Art Installations as Ephemeral Shade A GLOBAL CATALOG

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cannot. The implementation of art installations into public spaces can enhance the culture and feeling of unity within an exterior space. By creating ephemeral qualities in the space, the art engages the public in a shared experience and creates opportunities for conversion and human interaction.


260.

261.

Janet Echelman sculpts at the scale of buildings and city blocks. Echelman’s work defies categorization, as it intersects Sculpture, Architecture, Urban

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JANET ECHELMAN

Design, Material Science, Structural & Aeronautical transforms with wind and light, and shifts from being “an object you look at, into an experience you can get lost in.”

“BENDING ARC” ST. PETERSBURG, FL

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Engineering, and Computer Science. Echelman’s art

“EARTHTIME” 1.78 BORÅS, SWEDEN

“EVERY BEATING SECOND” SAN FRANCISCO, CA


MIST INTERACTIVE ART INSTALLATION 262.

263. During summer, Long Island City’s MoMA PS1 offers a way to cool off while taking in installation art. Lumen, a is “socially and

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environmentally responsive structure that adapts to the densities of bodies, heat, and sunlight” is the winner of the 2017 Moma PS1 Young Architects Program and was on display in the courtyard from June 29-August 27 of

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2017.

“SHE CHANGES” PORTO, PORTUGAL

“BENDING ARC” ST. PETERSBURG, FL

ILLUMINATED AT NIGHT


A CANOPY OF COLORFUL UMBRELLAS During the summer, a new canopy of colorful

264.

265.

umbrellas was created to adorn the streets of Portugal. In 2012, photographer Patricia Almeida

introduced

the

world

to

this

whimsical installation put on by production

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company Sextafeira Producoes for the annual arts festival Agitagueda. Held every July in the city of Agueda, the festival draws thousands who come to the city to enjoy art exhibits and concerts. While 2013's umbrellas appeared darker in color than the previous, with more

The immersive, interactive artwork is responsive and dynamic. Over 1 million yards of digitally knitted fiber hang in 250 tubular structures called stalactites which release a cooling mist in response to visitors’ proximity. The installation not only responds to human interaction but transforms in color depending on the sunlight, absorbing enough solar power to emit a glow after sundown. Soft white fabric sways overhead from various wooden seats scattered under the canopy.

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primary colors, in 2014 we see a softer palette with sprinkles of purples and pinks. The public can’t get enough of this cheerful installation. It's something to look forward to every July in Portugal.


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266. 267.

Anti-Homeless Design Practices

SHADE AS SHELTER

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“ANTI-HOMELESS”

268.

269.

Otherwise unoccupied space brutalized to deter unhoused population. (See

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Miami Underline for positive possibilities).

The current housing solution often implemented as a “solution” to homelessness. -

Needs shading. Asphalt gets, very hot, cold, and wet. People should be protected from above and have a comfortable place to sleep.

-

Settlements could have raised foundations to protect from animals and more


SOLUTION: PARASITIC HOUSING

UNHOUSED INCLUSION 271.

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270.

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“Homes for the Homeless” by James Furzer of Spatial Design Architects

-

Inclusive Underline (does not directly address hoomelessness; homelessnes can be integrated)

-

Welcoming and convertible spaces. (Top right) Provides address for homeless shelter.

-

Shading elements can be used to define space and enclosure (not only from above) without having to construct costly building.


DISCUSSION 272.

273.

1. Public Space is human right!

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The Kibera Public Space Project 02 -

Home to around 250,000 residents, Kibera is characterized by crowded conditions, a lack of waste disposal and sanitation services, high unemployment and crime rates and severe flooding. Yet despite these economic, social and environmental challenges, Kibera also has many assets: entrepreneurship, ingenuity, a strong social fabric, and extensive community activism. The land was previously considered unbuildable due to severe flooding and erosion from the river. Articulating public space to benefit the community. The focus on self-sufficiency paid off, with RUG saving enough money through their programs, amenities, and savings and loans group to invest in an additional water storage tank in 2013.

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2. Access to shade is a human right! Our group, through the curation of precedents of shading strategies for public spaces at various scales from around the world has come to understand the true importance of providing comfortable spaces to the masses. These spaces, whether using passive or active strategies, should promote an overall sense of community and equity all while reminding the occupants of the beauty of manipulating light and shadows through architecture. The collected research represents more than just traditional interpretations of public space and methods to shade them, it begins to disseminate just what makes public spaces favorable/attractive while recontextualizing what we consider shading strategies for different contexts and cultures.


Paradigmatic Cases of Global Cities

274.

Group 7

• Dana Shores • Alex Fulton • Jenna Ims

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Authors:


1.

Global Cities a. Barcelona b. Dubai c. New York City Barcelona a. Mercat del Encants b. Parc del centre del Poblenou c. Cloud 9 Dubai a. Apple Mall b. 2020 Dubai Expo c. The Bastakiya Quarter New York City a. Impact of the City Grid b. Lowline c. 550 Madison Garden Proposal

2.

3.

4.

275.

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Defining the Terms

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.


GLOBAL CITIES

276.

Barcelona New York City

Barcelona

Dubai

New York City

Spain

United Arab Emirates

United States

Cultural, Historical, and Technological Considerations

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Group 7

277.


278.

279.

Bringing Permanence to an Old

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FERMIN VAZQUEZARCHITECTS ARCHITECTS FERMIN VAZQUEZ 2013 2013 BARCELONA,SPAIN SPAIN BARCELONA,

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Mercat del Encants Mercat del Encants

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Tradition Taking the place of a makeshift flea market that's existed for decades, Fermin Vazquez Architects was commissioned to built a permanent pavilion structure for the public realm to use as they wish.


Energy of Encants

Engaging the City 280.

281.

On select days, you can find people circulating fluidly along the sloped walkways of the three-tiered marketplace, browsing through knick-knacks, grabbing a bite to eat, and socializing. Meanwhile the metallic mirror cladding of the overhead structure reflects the energy below, bouncing light and shadow and making the space feel alive.

This open flea market is located towards the center of District 22, an urban renewal area of Barcelona known as the technology and innovation hub. District 22, however, is dotted with Barcelona’s best displays of

Group 7

public space examples.

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contemporary architecture, and Mercat del Encants is the epitome of

Photo by author, Jenna Ims. January 2020.


Constructing Shade

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283.

Group 7

282.

The triangular forms that constitute the roof system allow for slits of light and natural ventilation to penetrate the space, while protecting users from the natural elements. Once again, the reflective cladding material makes the space feel larger and allows the user to get a sense of the space and activity below from any level.

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Protection from the Elements

During construction, these triangular steel frame pieces had to be cranked to appropriate heights along meticulously placed steel columns. Often where a column rises, there are two overlapping roof sections attached to it, allowing the roof to undulate and air to move freely. The metallic panels are composed of a metallic steel coating; 55% aluminum, 43.4% zinc, and an alloy coating providing great corrosion prevention.


JEAN NOUVEL 2008 BARCELONA, SPAIN

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Parc del centre del Poblenou

285.

- Jean Nouvel

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“The story of Poble Nou Park is written in the language of shades.”

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Group 7

284.

“In praise of shade”

Parc del Centre del Poblenou - Designed by Jean Nouvel (2008) focuses on utilizing the rapid growth of ivy, ficus, and other vine species to create shade around the park. Igloo-like dome installations bring the vines down to smaller-scale spaces as well as shading incorporated with the infrastructure of the city/park. These spaces for exploration are a link to the gardens around the site.


Poetic areas

Transformative shade 286.

287.

-

Jean Nouvel

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“From subdued shades, punctuated with patterned sparks of sunlight, to black shadows created by walls that assert the geometry of their boundaries, from jagged shadows moving around openings in the foliage to square pattern shadows underneath the plaited lianas, from glistening water-shadows to the profound matte shadows of a far-away place, of undergrowth.”

Integration with infrastructure

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“Shade becomes a heaven, perfect for walks, tranquillity, reading, entering into friendly dialogues, for children’s non-violent play on the couch-hammock, for families wandering through the labyrinth of boules- or chess-player’s.”

Nature (in)forms the space.


(Urban Parallel) / Paris, France - Allée 288.

289.

Creates shade in between the rows with a now combined canopy, effective in cities parallel to streets, courtyards, parks, ect.

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Group 7

Landscape space created by evenly spacing trees in a linear manner and manipulating with maintenance.

ENRIC RUIZ GELI 2010 BARCELONA, SPAIN

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Media-TIC


Standing Out from the Rest 290.

Innovating the Facade 291.

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In order to increase energy efficiency within the building, the architect wanted to create curtain wall shading system that would utilize the building’s orientation southern orientation. This facade is constructed through a dynamic diagrid made of innovative material and techniques.

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The Media-TIC building is an information and technology hub located in the experimental design district of Barcelona called ‘District 22’. Its unique and versatile facade is what sets its apart from the rest of the surrounding buildings, all by renowned architects.


Inflatable Ingenuity Attached to a steel structural frame are inflatable ETFE (eco-efficient material ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) skins with various tints and perforations. These inflatable panel skins adjust accordingly to climatic conditions, opening in the winter for maximum solar gain and closing in the summer to cool the interior spaces. The layers and inverse perforations allow for this illusion of opening and closing.

293.

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Group 7

292.

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Cloud 9 Often referred to as ‘Cloud 9’, the Media-TIC’s southwest-facing facade also incorporates nitrogen-based fog within the skin system, creating a greater opacity and density of particles and aiding in the facade’s ability to protect its inhabitants, hence, the ‘cloud-like’ solar filter. The inflatable panels also have their own regulating system since they have their own climatic conditions within.


What Makes Dubai Unique

294. 295.

Unprecedented Building Boom

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Group 7

Challenges

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Cultural, Demographic, and Economic Considerations

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Dubai

Explosive growth over the past 30-40 years; in 1975 the city had about 150,000 people, roughly the size of Gainesville, FL today An economic environment and available land provides opportunities to make big projects happen - large developers dominate

● ●

Imported building designs - not responsive to local culture and climate - rely heavily on air conditioning Wide streets and highways, car oriented, disconnected buildings and streetscape - lacks a human scale Desert environment - ocean water desalination is energy intensive; consumes 10% more water than the average American

Dubai is located at 25 degrees latitude, the same as Miami


Apple Dubai Mall - An Innovative Response to Southwest Sun 297.

Made entirely of lightweight carbon fiber, each wing has multiple

a southwest facing opening. Designed by Foster + Partners, is intended to

layers of tubes forming a dense net. Following an in-depth study

be a celebration of the sun, using daylight to create an ambience within.

of sun angles, the rods have been distributed in a higher

Reinterpreting the traditional Arabic Mashrabiya, innovative “solar wings”

concentration where the solar radiation is most intense over the

gently shade the outside during the day and open majestically in the

year. This unique pattern allows clear views out for people

evening to reveal the waterside promenade and fountains.

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The design Apple Mall is an innovative response to the need for shade on

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296.

“Solar Wings”

standing on both levels of the store, and the sunlight streaming through the winds casts dappled shadows deep into the interior.


299.

298.

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HOPKINS ARCHITECTS 2021 DUBAI, UAE

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2020 Dubai Expo

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Inspired by the geometry of a date palm, these 52 structures are a scaled up version, decorating and shading the space below.


300.

Along the central spines of the Expo Master Plan stands giant column structures means to shade the exterior plaza and corridor spaces below.

The Bastakiya Quarter

301.

These are tensile structures supported by an internal steel column for which the perforated screens are tied to along steel cables, forming the funnel shape.

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Narrow streets provide shade Ancient Middle Eastern typology

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DUBAI, UAE


Impact of the City Grid Finding Light Images from“The Struggle for Light and Air in America’s Largest City” By Quoctrung Bui and Jeremy White NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK

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Density, Historical, and Cultural Considerations

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New York City

303.

Group 7

Group 7

302.


“ To understand how shadows operate in New York City, it helps to become more conscious of how the city grid is oriented relative to the compass points.” Shadow studies from Broadway and Staten Island show the difference in density.

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New York City and the dense nature of the grid provides interesting architectural considerations for lighting and shading. The comfort and search for clean air and warm sun in the city is evident in the well-utilized parks across the city. Architects, urban designers, and landscape architects must be creative in adaptive tight spaces to provide natural light and shade through the concrete canopy of the skyline. Finding this comfort zone in the city that undergoes such a large change in seasons becomes the incentive.

305.

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304.

Bringing Light into the City

Orientation & Grid Density


Analysis 307.

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“Sunlight and shadow shape the character and rhythm of New York’s public spaces. They have the power to control the flow of foot traffic on our city streets and decide which plazas hum with activity and commerce and which stay barren and desolate. And probably most noticeably, they have the power to change the rent. In most parts of America, sunlight is not debated the way it is in New York, where the city’s thirst for living space, working space and economic growth has turned the sun into a virtual commodity.”

LOWLINE

“The unusually bright, sun-dappled street corners of

“…to the summertime shadows that form crosses in

Midtown Manhattan in spring.

Madison Square Park.”

James Ramsey(RAAD Studio) and Dan Barasch with Signe Nielsen and John Mini 2015-2020* NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK

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Group 7

306.


Underground Park 308.

Collecting Light

The Lowline would have been the world's first underground park occupying the former Williamsburg Bridge Trolley Terminal in Lower East side Manhattan but the project went on hold in 2020 due to lack of funds. The project’s aim is to use solar technology to bring light down into the space through “remote skylights”. The research for this process lead to the creation of the Lowline Lab, testing new materials and methods to aid underground growth. This park brings a new way to think of a public green space, adapting the use of the historic terminal to benefit the community with a flexible cultural space

309. The solar technology uses “remote skylights” to capture light from a location nearby location and funnels the light down to the underground green space. The collection

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system

Perceived render of the subterranean environment.

Testing the created landscapes

tracks

the

sun

path

for

sun

throughout the year. If construction goes through this project could be an important case study for this technology.


311.

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Group 7

310.

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Snøhetta 2021 NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK

LowLine Lab test installation utilizing different species in their imagined park-scape.

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550 Madison Garden Proposal


312.

Urban Refuge

Between Space 313.

Privately-owned public space (POPS) approved by the NYC Planning Commission.

Example of Adaptive Reuse to the postmodernist office building by Phillip Johnson + John Burgee

Will be granted LEED Platinum + WELL Gold certifications.

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“re-envisions the building’s public space as a generously expanded, densely vegetated garden”

Reconnects the building with street activities and creates an oasis for people, flora, and fauna. Offers some shade while providing ample natural light for a space that would normally get dark.


Discussion 314.

315.

Group 7 Existing conditions (below) and Proposed intervention (above)

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As demonstrated through these paradigmatic case studies, different locations have various approaches to finding shade. These shading strategies depend on several factors including climate, culture, infrastructure and material availability. Such factors render a plethora of results. Barcelona’s shading strategy focus mainly on public spaces and structures. Barcelona is not afraid to be experimental with form, materiality, color and technological innovations. Mercat del Encants and Cloud 9 are the best examples of this while Parc del centre del Poblenou plays with natural foliage and arching and spherical forms as a means of creating shade. Dubai presents a unique situation in that its extreme environment means that shade is vital for livability in the city. Public space cannot exist without it. Likewise, many of the skyscrapers must utilize shade facade strategies in order to keep the interior space comfortable. When this is not possible, the density and shade of stereotomic vernacular buildings becomes the next best option. Dubai is a city of modern architecture, built on a car dependent model. The case could be made that this is an outdated model and one that does not positively influence human well being for the long term. It is a case study in the departure of modern architecture from tried-and-true local vernacular that responds to local climate, and instead replaces it with “imported” architecture that is relies heavily on air conditioning. Modern technology allows for unique responses to climate, represented in projects such as Apple Dubai Mall. However, ancient Middle Eastern vernacular such as the Mashrabiya and narrow passageways demand respect and could be translated into solutions for American cities, so many which are car dependent and lack a human scale. Likewise, New York City depends on the density of the city grid for creating ample shade. Whether the shading conditions are in between buildings or underneath existing infrastructure, New York must adapt to shading conditions throughout the changing seasons, and therefore, light and dark become important.


Design History of Shade, from the Modern mement onwards

316.

DEPOT PARK, A community park in search of shade

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APPLICATION EXERCISE


317.

Introduction The Finding Shade seminar will study the history of shade making strategies and their relationship to buildings, internal and external spaces and how people inhabit them. Civilizations have developed sophisticated shade systems in hot dry as well as hot humid climates. Shade, in all its poetic dimensions, has determined social performance, and provided primeval shelter to human activities. Our collaborative efforts will cultivate a research that holistically outlines and analyzes vernacular strategies, botanicals, historic examples, public spaces, new materials, energy intake/outake, etc. The resiliency of the shading provisions will be studied particularly for the Tropical

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Storm wind situation and be conducive to conceptual testing with the support of the UF and UPR laboratories. The case studies will drive the compilation of a Shade Dictionary that will be the resulting document from the class , and will be conceived as a theoretical and operative tool for guiding design. The following proposals are our effort of synthesizing interventions that begin to implement the successes, from the precedents we’ve studies so far, that effectively cast shade for spaces within Gainesville, Florida’s Depot Park.


318.

Agenda 01. Site 02. Team 01 03. Team 02 04. Team 03 05. Team 04 06. Group Discussion

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07. Conclusion


319.

Site Masterplan, Climate, and Spatial Conditions.

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Depot Park


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320.

Shade Proposals


Team 01: Covered Walkways

321.

Team 01 FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

Members: Daniel Abraham Stephen Boyle Mariana Capuchinho Dennisse Lescano Merlina Operta Giselle Urbay Base photo source, Jola Inc. Site map developed by Merlina Operta.


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Pros: - Can be connected to power grid and supply energy both day and night. Cons: - These areas become pavement, less grass. Base photo source, Jola Inc. Site map developed by Merlina Operta.

Team 01

Team 01

Technology:

323.

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322.

SOLAR CANOPY: - Provide shade during the day. - “Create usable shade with the shade of night” (M. Kohen). Solar panels to charge batteries for the Cade Museum or connected to the power grid. Supply energy at night to power the “URBAN SUN’s far-UVC lights”.

Solar canopy sketch by Stephen Boyle.


324.

325.

Team 01

Team 01

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Welch, D., Buonanno, M., Grilj, V. et al. Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Sci Rep 8, 2752 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21058-w

Solar canopy sketch by Stephen Boyle.

Each unit of the inverted canopy or Ulta Chaata has the capability to harvest and filter up to 100,000 litres of water during the rainy season. Along with a maximum solar capacity of 1.5 kW, the product also includes a lighting system which provides various levels of programmable lighting options and a mobile charge unit, thereby making it a completely self-sustaining installation for the outdoors. Copyright © www.smartcitiescouncil.com Smart Cities Council Inc. 2021.


327.

326.

Team 01

Team 01

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Structure: Pros: - Underdeveloped spaces benefit from connective architecture. Cons: - Cost - Possible overdevelopment. Base photo source, Jola Inc. Site map developed by Merlina Operta.


Preliminary Designs: Canopy Rainwater Collection Canopies: The system is quite simple. The catchment area is generally the building's slab or roof, but water can also be drawn from other surfaces, such as a road or a square. From there, the water is directed through gutters and pipes until it reaches the reservoir. The reservoir is the most expensive component of the entire system, and its correct dimensioning is vital so that the rainwater can be used

Team 01

329.

Shenzhen Shenwan Street Park / AUBE CONCEPTION. Image © Tianpei Zeng

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Team 01

328.

Structured canopy renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.


Preliminary Designs: Canopy

15. Structured canopy renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.

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Team 01

331.

Team 01

330.


332.

333.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Table of Plants

Cons: - Some species require regular maintenance. - Additional support may be required. Base photo source, Jola Inc. Site map developed by Merlina Operta.

These plants grow well in Florida. They tolerate the Florida heat, the soil conditions of depot park and are

1.

Jasmine

01.

Blazing Star (Liatris)

02. Bamboo

02.

Citronella

03. Bougainvillea

03.

Dianthus (Sweet William)

04.

Lavender

SHORT

Team 01

01. Asiatic/Carolina

TALL

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Pros: - Low impact bamboo species can be harvested as building materials. - Promote native flora and pollinators. - Collaboration with IFAS.

6.

fragrant and colorful.

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Team 01

Nature:

5.

04.

Crepe Myrtles

05.

Orange Blossom

05.

Marigolds

06.

Wisteria

06.

Viola

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.


Preliminary Designs: Trellis

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Team 01

335.

Team 01

334.

Preliminary Designs: Bamboo Forest

Trellis path renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.

Bamboo path renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.


Preliminary Designs: Bamboo Forest

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Team 01

337.

Team 01

336.

Preliminary Designs: Bamboo Forest

Bamboo path renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.

Bamboo path renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.


Preliminary Designs: Bamboo Forest

338.

339.

Team 01

Team 01

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Gathering Spaces: Bamboo

Bamboo path renders shot at different times. Daniel Abraham.

by Sean, staff writer of japan-guide.com

© Su Chen, Chun Fang


Team 02

Team 02

Structural Celebration

340.

Members: ● Jin Deng ● Avery Dunavant ● Minami Guido ● Baichuan Liu ● Moises Villanueva ● Heting Wang ● Yining Wang

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● Alexander Boucher


Concept

need

node

network

342.

Concept

Material

maintenance

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Concept

shade for

shading

shading

existing

unit

modules

users

(singular)

(multiple)

shading

shading

mediums +

growth &

techniques

impact

Team 02

Team 02

341.

Goals


Node 343.

344.

Team 02

Need

Site Analysis

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Team 02

Case Study

Relationship with existing nature.


Case Study 345.

346.

Material Use

Team 02

Network Case Study

Network

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Team 02

Locally Sourced Wood Material

Easy Maintenance


How to relate natural and man-made form? Material Use 347.

Case Study

Network

1. Climbing Plants Along Structure

348.

Solar Control Botanicals

Team 02

Team 02

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Glass

• • • • • • •

CLEMATIS ARMANDII FATSHEDERA LIZEI (FAT-HEADED LIZZIE) FICUS CARICA (FIG) HEDERA CANARIENSIS (CANARY ISLAND IVY) HEDERA HELIX ‘TRES COUPE’ HOLBOELLIA LATIFOLIA (BROAD LEAVED SAUSAGE VINE) HYDRANGEA SEEMANNII


How to relate natural and man-made form? 2.

349.

Larger Trees Throughout Park and Within Structure

Site Mapping 350.

Botanicals

ARBUTUS X ANDRACHNOIDES (RED BARKED STRAWBERRY TREE) ELAEAGNUS X EBBINGEI (FRAGRANT MOUSEBERRY) ILEX AQUIFOLIUM (HOLLY) ILEX PERADO (POSH HOLLY) PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (CHERRY LAUREL) PRUNUS LUSITANICA ‘MYRTIFOLIA’ (PORTUGUESE LAUREL) VIBURNUM TINUS (LAURUSTINUS)

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Team 02

• • • • • • •

Team 02

Trees under 20’ that are exposed to wind and sun:

Where to create shade?


Sketches

Design Development

Team 02

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352.

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351.

How to create shade?

PLAN

SECTION


Design Development

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Team 02

353.

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC

PERSPECTIVE


Team 03

354.

Team 03

Assembly Canopies Photo Source: BioMat at ITKE/University of Stuttgart

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Brian Davis Alex Fulton William Hoang Jenna Ims Alexandra Kehoe Kristy Price Dana Shores

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Members:


Team 03

356.

Biobased Material Canopy: Sustainable materials created biomass and are biodegradable

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Team 03

355.

from

LightPRO Shell Pavillion: a lightweight structure that combines an active-bending gridshell made of natural fibre biocomposite profiles (flax & hemp) with a tensile membrane.

Photo Source (top left, top right, bottom left): BioMat at ITKE/University of Stuttgart

Photo Source (bottom right): Thread Curve

Conceptual Sketches Base Photo Source: Jola Inc., Graphics developed by Team 03 members.


Team 03

358.

Team 03

357.

SITE PLAN-CANOPY CONCEPT 1 (HIGHLIGHTED IN YELLOW)

Base Photo Source: Jola Inc., Graphics developed by Team 03 members.

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CONCEPT 1

THE COVERED STRUCTURE ACTS AS A SPACE TRUSS THAT CAN SPAN IN MULTIPLE DIRECTIONS WITH THE OVERHEAD FABRIC OFFERING SHADE ALONG THE PROMENADE AS WELL AS A PLACE TO ASSEMBLE UNDERNEATH.

CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE- VIEW TO THE WATER RENDERING BY STUDENTS


359.

360.

Team 03

Team 03

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CONCEPT 2

SITE PLAN-CANOPY CONCEPT 2 (HIGHLIGHTED IN YELLOW)

Base Photo Source: Jola Inc., Graphics developed by Team 03 members.

Photo Source (top left): Sun Calc

Shading the Amphitheatre ● ● ● ● ●

Proposing the ability to hold events during the day with a flexible, economical, and replaceable canopy. Increases interaction and serves as a community space for assembly with a shading structure. Can be customized and easily installed. Permanent or temporary options. Shades from the harsh South & SW sun.


361.

362.

Team 03

Team 03 Shading during the day and illuminating at night can provide a duality to the space allowing for creative possibilities with assembly to occur.

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Amphitheatre as a Canopy of light

Photo Source (top left): Sun Calc

Shading the Trellis Structure ● Proposing adding to the existing corten steel trellis structure with sails. ● Can utilize ficus ripens or any other low maintenance vine species. ● Also representative of another low-cost solution


The Nuts and Bolts Strong Poles, Deep Footings, and Plenty of Concrete

363.

364.

● Steel posts are preferable to wood

Shading the Promenade ●

Proposing adding a sail pavilion structure in the middle of the promenade on the lake.

A node for assembly in one of the hottest spots of the park.

Able to be extended along the lake to the next promenade node.

Team 03

Photo Source (top left): Sun Calc

● Thickness of poles/posts is determined by span of shade; larger spans require thicker posts ● Steel is a higher upfront material cost but reduced lifetime cost

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Team 03

● Wood posts will sag to the middle over time and are vulnerable to wood rot and storms

● Steel posts can be sourced from local metal and fence suppliers or by a specialized supplier of commercial shade sail products ● Deep concrete footings are recommended for maximum sturdiness and durability


Members: • Gabriel Fernandez • Gabriel Gonzalez • Maya Kwaśniewski

Team 04

Measured Organics

365.

• Kuljon J. Pierre

Team 04 FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

Creating proposals that provide repose within Depot Park. These structures use a heavy measure to regulate the organically conceived park plan. The design is constructed with breadth creating light-weight structures that provide opportunity for temporary habitation for people and botanicals under shade.


Preliminary Designs Design Development 366.

367.

Team 04

Team 04

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00.

PLAN

The materials contrast the design. From the heavier main structures to the light secondary structure. From the inanimate hard materials to the soft organics (people and plants). These juxtaposing gestures and concepts are meant to inspire visitors to enjoy the splendors of shade and the Wisteria Vines vibrant hues and pleasant perfumes.

PERSPECTIVE


Botanicals

American Wisteria is an elegant plant for a trellis-like framework, with rapid growth and ease of care. It is a hardy vine with dark, glossy leaves and clusters of hanging blooms that attract butterflies, bees and other pollinators in mid- to late spring.

368.

369.

Team 04 PERSPECTIVE

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC - PAVILION VS. BOTANICALS

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Team 04

Case Study: Exclusivity

Anti-Unhoused Design


Preliminary Designs: Inclusivity

Team 04

Team 04 FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

371.

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370.

Case Study: Organic Atmospheres

Encouraging Temporary Habitation


372.

373.

Team 04

Team 04 FINDING SHADE SEMINAR

Preliminary Designs: Shaded Shelter

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Preliminary Designs: Shaded Shelter


374.

Bibliography

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Bibliography

375.

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