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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

NEWSLETTER


Number 7 · April–June · 2018

CHIR MEMBERS Director Polioptro F. Martínez Austria udlap

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

CONTENTS

CURRENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE

for Water Resources in the

RIO BRAVO BASIN

MEMBERS Víctor Hugo Alcocer Yamanaka Comisión Nacional del Agua

Felipe Arreguín Cortés Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua

Erick R. Bandala González Desert Research Institute, EE. UU.

Benito Corona Vázquez

udlap

Johanness Cullmann

World Meteorological Organization Geneva

Carlos Díaz Delgado

Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, uaem

P. Hernández-Romero (Corresponding Author) · C. Patiño-Gómez

3

Current and Future Perspective for Water Resources in the Rio Bravo Basin

10

Participation in the “Ancestral Practices in the Productive Use of Water” Conference, Quito, Ecuador

Carlos Escalante Sandoval

Facultad de Ingeniería, unam

Matthew Larsen

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, EE. UU.

Carlos Patiño Gómez

THE VOLUME OF WATER CONCESSIONED FOR ENERGY GENERATION (NON-CONSUMPTIVE USE) IS

udlap Sofía Ramos University of Arizona, EE. UU.

María Elena Raynal Gutiérrez

udlap José Ángel Raynal Villaseñor

udlap José D. Salas Colorado State University, EE. UU.

Jim Thomas Desert Research Institute, EE. UU.

Juan Valdés

University of Arizona, EE. UU.

2

http://www.udlap.mx/catedraunesco/

16

Special Issue of UNESCO Chairs of the Aqua LAC Journal

12

Water Security in Mexico: Collaboration with the Engineering Academy

4,789.65 HM³/YEAR, WHICH IS DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS: LA BOQUILLA, MADERO, LA COLINA, LA AMISTAD, AND FALCÓN.

BACKGROUND According to estimates from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA) and based on the results from technical studies performed in the hydrological region (HR) no. 24 Bravo-Conchos, at least 11,881.3 cubic hectometres1 (hm³) of water per year is required to supply this region in its entirety. Of the total volume extracted, 86% of the total water supply in the region originates from rivers, surface currents, and reservoirs, i. e., only 14% originates from underground sources or aquifers. These figures are significant since the average volume of natural runoff generated is 5,590 hm³/year, with a deficit of natural water supply of just over 52%.

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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

CLASSIFICATION OF WATER USES

4

hm /year 3

1. hm3 = = 1,000,000 m3 (one million cubic meters)

A clear example are the water volumes distributed to users in the different irrigation districts (ID) settled in the basin, since it grew from 1,516.17 hm3/year in 2005 to 1,652.06 hm3/year in 2015. Today, 9% more water is required for agriculture, despite the fact that the physical area irrigated has decreased in about 32% (276,966 ha against 187,071 ha) in that same period (CONAGUA, 2016b). Figure 1 shows the physical area irrigated and the volumes distributed in this period.

Table 1. Supply Sources for Consumptive Use of Water in HR-24: BravoConchos. Prepared by authors with data from CONAGUA (2011).

360,000

2,625

270,000 1,750 180,000 875

90,000

5 01

4

14 -2

01 20

3 01

13 -2 20

12 -2

01 20

01

2

0

1

0

DISTRIBUTED VOLUME

3,500

11 -2

Water pressure in the region has increased rapidly in recent years. The degree of pressure, defined as the volume of water concessioned divided by the volume of renewable water, was 50% in 2003 and increased to 77% in 2015. According to CONAGUA, each of the sub-basins in the region report water deficit due to their scarce water availability. This situation is the result of the following factors:

450,000

20

SITUATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN THE BASIN

Figure 1. Physical Surface Irrigated and Volumes Distributed to ID in HR-24. Prepared by the authors with data from CONAGUA (2016b).

0

The 1944 Water Treaty is one of the main binational water treaties between Mexico and the United States established to regulate the distribution of water between the two countries. This treaty provisions that Mexico would receive 1,850.23 hm³/year of water from the Colorado River in the US and the US would receive a third of water that reaches Rio Bravo (431.7 hm³/year) from the six rivers deemed as tributaries. Compliance with this international agreement has been affected by the droughts that have hit Mexico in recent years. This phenomenon caused, in some periods, a lack of water deliveries to the US for almost a complete cycle, causing intense binational negotiations to find a cooperative solution to this climate crisis.

01

100.00%

10 -2

3.40%

7,091.79

20

241.17

1,689.71

9

182.49

5,402.09

00

58.69

Total

09 -2

Self-supplied industry

2

20

11.67%

8

827.68

00

191.27

08 -2

636.41

7

Public supply

INCREASE IN THE DEMAND OF IRRIGATION WATER

20

241.17

84.93%

07 -2

SELF-SUPPLIED INDUSTRY

%

6,022.94

00

hm3/year

Total

1,315.95

20

827.68

Underground

6

PUBLIC SUPPLY

Surface 4,706.99

00

«

hm3//year

Use Agricultural

06 -2

«

6,022.94

CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER (hm³/year)

20

«

AGRICULTURAL

In 2010, the population in the region reached 10.98 million according to the population and housing census for that year. In addition, the National Population Council (CONAPO) projects a total population of 13.91 million in the region for the year 2030. Therefore, based on this extraordinary population growth, in the near future, more water will be required for agricultural use and food production.

05 -2

Volumes concessioned by CONAGUA, per consumptive use (with data from conagua, 2011).

POPULATION INCREASE

20

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

1

FISICAL AREA IRRIGATED

The volumes concessioned or granted to users of national waters in basin organizations are recorded in the Public Registry of Water Rights (REPDA). This registry classifies water according to its use; however, CONAGUA has used the term “grouped use” to integrate several items established by REPDA into a single classification, differentiating whether its use is consumptive. According to CONAGUA (2016a), of the total volume of water for consumptive use determined for AHR-VI, a volume of 7,091.79 hm³/year (76.2%) is used to meet current requirements from the agricultural sector, public supply, and self-supplied industry in HR-24: Bravo-Conchos (CONAGUA, 2011). Table 1 shows the supply sources for consumptive use, the percentages they represent for the entire region, and the volumes granted by grouped uses. According to CONAGUA (2011), the volume of water concessioned for energy generation (non-consumptive use) is 4,789.65 hm³/year, which is divided into the following hydroelectric plants: La Boquilla (713.61 hm hm³/year), Madero (245.79 hm³/year), La Colina (741.74) hm³/year), La Amistad (1,464.26 hm³/year), and Falcón (1,624.26 hm³/year).

YEARS

Physical Area Irrigated (Ha)

Distributed volume (hm3)

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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

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URBAN GROWTH

HR-24 is predominantly urban, with 99.7% of the total population settled in urban areas2. Thus, challenges related to water supply and sanitation are enormous, and in the near future, higher efficient uses will be required to cope with the increase in the concentration of people.

4

CONTAMINATION OF WATER BODIES

Wastewater discharges are basically classified into two categories: municipal and industrial. Taking into account only municipal wastewater, 853.3 hm3/year is generated for HR-24, and 95.4% (813.9 hm3/year) of this wastewater is collected and channeled to treatment plants. The remaining 4.6%, equivalent to 39.3 hm3/year, is discharged directly to water bodies in the region. Of the total collected, only 88.4% is treated, and the rest is discharged into the environment without any treatment.

5

In 2012, CONAGUA performed a prospective technical analysis with the objective of generating water supply and demand alternatives, as well as determining the challenges and possible solutions for each of the axes of the water agenda for this HR. As a result, the 2030 Agenda was structured into four important national priorities: 1) balanced basins and aquifers, 2) clean rivers, 3) universal coverage of drinking water, sewers, and sanitation, and 4) safe settlements against catastrophic floods. Based on this agenda, the AHR-VI River was divided into 24 planning cells4 using the hydrological state borders. The planning cells with the greatest current water gap5 estimated are Conchos Chihuahua with 695.2 hm³ (50.9%), Salado Nuevo León with 223 hm³ (16.3%), and Coahuila Sureste with 188.9 hm³ (13.8%).

The outlook for the year 2030 is that water demand in HR-24 will increase by 33% and supply will increase by 3%, increasing the current gap by 68%, from 1,366 hm³ to 3,662 hm³ (Figure 2). The increase in water demand in the region will be mainly related to accelerated population growth, the recovery of agricultural land in ID, and industrial growth (CONAGUA, 2012). Table 2 shows the water gap by planning cell for the year 2030; with special emphasis on the Conchos Chihuahua cell, that represents 40% of the total gap with 1,432 hm3. If the water deficit in the region is analyzed as the relationship between gap and supply6, the five cells with the greatest gap/supply are Monclova Coahuila (329%), Acuña Coahuila (277%), Coahuila Sureste (233%), Salado Nuevo León (106%), and Sabinas Coahuila (103%).

Figure 2. Water Gap 2012 and 2030. Prepared by the authors with data from CONAGUA (2012).

AQUIFER OVEREXPLOITATION Within HR-24, there are 50 aquifers and according to the Official Federal Gazette (DOF), 33 of them exhibit water availability, while the remaining 17 do not. In addition, there are five overexploited aquifers and five more are experiencing soil salinization and brackish groundwater. The average regional reload volume for these aquifers is 3,674.5 hm3/year and the volume of concession extraction is 2,355.69 hm3, with an exploitation index3 of 0.64 (CONAGUA, 2017c).

6

CURRENT AND FUTURE WATER GAP IN THE REGION BY 2030

2. According to INEGI, this number refers to towns with a population exceeding 2,500 people 3. Exploitation index = volume of concession extraction/reload volume 4. A planning cell is defined as a set of municipalities from the same state located within the limits of a hydrological sub-region (CONAGUA, 2012). 5. Water gap = water demand − sustainable water supply

GAP 2012

GAP 2030

1,366 hm3

3,662 hm3

6. Relationship between gap and supply = Value of sustainable gap/supply

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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

CONCLUSIONS

WATER GAP BY 2030 PER PLANNING CELL (hm³)

Id

Key

Planning Cell

Area

Population

Sustainable Supply

Demand

Gap

Gap/ Supply

km²

Inhabitants

hm³

hm³

hm³

%

State

1

501

Amistad

Coahuila

11,462.96

126,238

45

83

38

84%

2

502

Cuatro Ciénegas

Coahuila

37,175.61

24,111

91

113

22

24%

3

503

Piedras Negras

Coahuila

16,067.93

219,087

332

450

118

36%

4

504

Sabinas

Coahuila

11,023.06

155,867

37

75

38

103%

5

505

Monclova

Coahuila

14,173.93

325,465

45

193

148

329%

6

506

Coahuila Sureste

Coahuila

16,479.94

736,543

123

410

287

233%

7

507

Acuña

Coahuila

2,196.69

9,768

65

245

180

277%

8

508

Salado

Coahuila

7,409.19

6,444

69

78

9

13%

9

805

Juárez Bravo

Chihuahua

9,987.91

1,331,000

369

548

179

49%

10

807

Conchos

Chihuahua

100,467.78

1,338,216

1,742

3,174

1,432

82%

11

1901

Salado

Nuevo León

16,373.38

69,125

386

795

409

106%

12

1902

Monterrey

Nuevo León

20,085.44

3,925,548

1,074

1,452

378

35%

13

1903

Linares

Nuevo León

3,163.08

81,225

128

130

2

2%

14

1904

Aramberri Zaragoza

Nuevo León

3,953.41

20,425

58

58

0

0%

15

1905

Los Aldama

Nuevo León

3,480.17

9,751

38

51

13

34%

16

1906

Álamo

Nuevo León

3,519.36

13,972

7

7

0

0%

17

1907

Galeana

Nuevo León

7,009.03

38,930

65

82

17

26%

18

1908

Dr. Arroyo Mier y Noriega

Nuevo León

6,031.25

40,316

2

3

1

50%

19

2801

Tamaulipas Norte

Tamaulipas

16,693.88

1,580,942

1,658

2,049

391

24%

Total

306,754.00

10,052,973

6,334

9,996

3,662

58%

According to official data from CONAGUA, the water deficit in HR-24 is a current issue, since each of the basins in the region does not currently exhibit water availability. In addition, 17 of the 50 aquifers in the basin report a negative availability and 5 of them are being overexploited. The water gap in HR-24 for 2012 was projected at 1,366 hm3 and the gap expected for the year 2030 is 3,662 hm3 (an increase of 168%), without considering the effects of climate change. This gap is a function of water demand and sustainable supply. According to CONAGUA (2012), an increase of 3% is expected in the sustainable water supply, based on current trends for building feasible infrastructure, and the water demand will be 33% for that year, due to accelerated population growth, increased irrigation of the agricultural area and accelerated industry growth. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is part of a project sponsored by the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT), within the framework of the Scientific Development Program to Address National Problems, project 240080. The authors also wish to express appreciation for the support received from the Universidad de las Américas Puebla.

REFERENCES conagua (2011). Agreement by which the results of the technical studies for the hydrological region number 24 BravoConchos are disclosed. Mexico DF: Official Federal Gazette. conagua (2012). Regional Water Program-Vision 2030. Administrative Hydrological Region VI Rio Bravo. Mexico: National Water Commission. conagua (September 14, 2016a). Public Registry of Water Rights (REPDA). Statistical Information by Basin Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/ attachment/file/154673/REPDA_GR-06.pdf conagua (September 10, 2106b). Hydrometric Statistics. Agricultural Statistics for Irrigation Districts. Retrieved from: http://www.edistritos.com/DR/estadisticaHidrometrica/ organismo.php conagua (August 26, 2017c).Underground water. Availability by Aquifers. Retrieved from: https://www.gob.mx/conagua/ acciones-y-programas/availability-by-acuiferos-66095

Table 2. Water Gap by 2030 per Planning Cell (hm³). Prepared by the authors with information from CONAGUA (2012).

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UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

Participation in the

“ANCESTRAL PRACTICES IN THE PRODUCTIVE USE OF WATER” CONFERENCE, Quito, Ecuador Benito Corona Vásquez, Director of the Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering at the University of the Americas, Puebla, and member of the Chair, was a guest speaker at the international conference on “Ancestral Practices in the Productive Use of Water.” The conference, organized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador, the European Union and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development, was held on March 7 and 8, 2018, with the purpose of exploring solutions to some of the challenges faced by small and medium agricultural producers in Ecuador and the Latin American region, and analyze the contributions that may be drawn from ancestral practices of the native peoples of these regions. Dr. Benito Corona focused his presentation on “Dialog between Ancestral Practices and Contemporary Research on the Use of Water for Agriculture in Mexico.” The lecture was based on the thesis, proven on numerous occasions in Mexico, that ancestral practices may still be applicable when combined with science and modern technological developments, which incorporates technology to the expertise and experiences of people who have inhabited these

Dr.

THE CONFERENCE, ORGANIZED BY THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK OF ECUADOR, THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE SPANISH AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, WAS HELD ON MARCH 7 AND 8, 2018

10

The organizers of the event have identified the following challenges for small and medium agricultural producers, in relation to water management:

1

The permanent decrease of water for productive uses and human consumption.

2

A huge uncertainty about the climate behavior, which is affecting the organization of their agricultural cycles due to changes in the rainfall regime.

3

The most rigorous impact of climatic events, which affect production, productivity, migration of species, and the appearance of new pests and diseases.

4

The excessive and rapid loss of moisture in crops.

5

Degradation, deforestation, and desertification and their impact on humidity.

6

Increasing water and soil contamination.

areas for many generations and therefore can make valuable contributions. Such has been the case, for example, of traditional cultivation techniques in small plots and backyards, which have been a fundamental component in the food supply of the inhabitants of small rural communities and which have now been improved with localized irrigation technologies developed in Mexico. In addition, the case of collecting rainwater for human consumption, which thanks to a better knowledge of on-site treatment techniques has been improved with the design of affordable water filtering, treatment, and purification systems for rural inhabitants. As part of his activities in Quito, Dr. Benito Corona also participated in radio interviews in which he had the opportunity to share the Mexican and UDLAP experiences on the subject.

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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

chieving water security is the central objective of the water policies of any country. However, water is currently a matter of growing concern for international organizations, think tanks, policy makers, and decision makers, as well as for public and private sectors around the world. In Mexico, due to various circumstances, water security has not been achieved yet, and in some aspects, it faces increasing challenges. In the most recent report on global risks of the World Economic Forum, the water crisis is identified as the third global risk with the greatest impact and is also listed among the risks that are most likely to materialize. Water crisis is also associated with two major global risks: the occurrence of extreme climate events and the failure to mitigate and adapt to climate change. These risks, all of them of great impact and probability of occurrence, feed from each other, so that the probability or presence of one of them increases that of the others. The United Nations Organization proposes the following definition for water security (UN-Water, 2013):

A

The capacity of a population to secure sustainable access to adequate water quantities of acceptable quality for the support of livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, to guarantee protection against pollution transmitted by water and water-related disasters, and for the conservation of ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.

WATER SECURITY IN MEXICO: Collaboration with the Engineering Academy 12

IF MEASURES ARE NOT ADOPTED TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY IN THE USE OF WATER AND REDUCE ITS CONSUMPTION, BY THE YEAR 2030, THE DEMAND WILL EXCEED WATER SUPPLY BY

40%

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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

The document concludes with the following recommendations:

It is important to note that in many countries, water security has not been achieved and in fact, it is increasingly threatened. Population growth, economic development, urbanization, climatic variability resulting from global climate change, and environmental degradation continue to increase the pressure on water resources, in such a way that permanent or recurrent conditions of scarcity are already reported in some regions. Inadequate water management often aggravates this problem. Without considering the effects from climate change, the Water Resources Group prepared a study of worldwide water demand by the year 2030 and found that if measures are not adopted to increase the efficiency in the use of water and reduce its consumption, by the year 2030, the demand will exceed water supply by 40% (Water Resources Group, 2009). However, these global figures hide huge differences in scarcity between regions. With this background, the Engineering Academy recently published the Water Security in Mexico report, in which water security is assessed in terms of both water quantity and quality. Due to its relevance for urban water supply, the text places special emphasis on the situation of groundwater. The authors of the document are Polioptro F. Martinez Austria, Carlos Diaz Delgado, and Gabriela Moeller Chávez, the former, members of the UNESCO Chair in Hydrometeorological Risks. After assessing the current water situation, the document addresses the main challenges for water security, including climate change and hydrometeorological risks, demographic factors, and water governance.

14

Despite advances in water supply infrastructure, water treatment, and risk reduction, the text creates a landscape evidencing the need for a profound reform in the water sector in Mexico. This reform must include aspects related to governance -particularly legal and institutional-, sector financing, human capital formation, new environmentally friendly works and modification of public policies that, despite investments, have not been able to stop and reverse the current trend toward lower water security in Mexico. This reform must be discussed and agreed upon at a social level; however, some necessary and urgent measures can be pointed out.

In terms of drinking water supply and sanitation, it is urgent to review the policies on tariffs and subsidies, which have led most of the operating agencies to a precarious situation, in which operating costs are hardly covered, and the necessary investments for expansion and preservation of works are not possible.

The monitoring network must be expanded, in terms of both quantity and quality, to improve the conservation of hydrological systems (basins and aquifers). In addition, the rules for unloading treated wastewater require urgent revision, as despite the increase in the number of treatment plants, the quality of water bodies has not been improved. In this regard, better water quality indicators are necessary.

Local studies on vulnerability to climate change are indispensable, with consequent actions for increasing and adopting resilience. Public participation systems in decision making also require urgent review, improvement, and operationalization to allow water information to be effectively available to all users in Mexico. Furthermore, existing information must be organized and designed to provide answers at different decision making levels, and guarantee that this information is effectively used for this purpose.

Some impact reduction alternatives for groundwater include water saving strategies for food production, with improvements in water use rates using technology in irrigation and planting systems for crops to significantly increase their resistance to water stress and their nutritious and economic value and above all, respect cultural and environmental aspects to foster a sustainable implementation.

Water use efficiency in agriculture at a global scale and particularly in Mexico is precarious and estimated at 35%–50%; therefore, modernization and technification of irrigation systems, and monitoring of associated climatic variables in real time, are undoubtedly one of the most critical priorities. Thus, one of the important challenges for the country is to increase its agricultural production by reducing the exploitation of water, particularly underground water. For these purposes, a change in national policies that inhibit water resource management is required. For example, a zero cost per m3 of water used in agriculture, and probably reorienting this type of subsidies to the Mexican agriculture production-sale chain.

A feasible alternative for the reduction of overexploitation of aquifers and surface water bodies is the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture, fully complying with quality standards to preserve health and minimize risks of disease and soil salinization and negative effects on agricultural crops.

In addition, improvements are required in the generation of national public policies that may foster the strengthening of a) qualified human capital in the area, b) investments in water science and technology, c) participatory strategic planning processes with an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, d) design of information for decision making, and e) improvement of transparency and accountability.

Finally, it is emphasized that for the application of all these recommendations, the opinion of independent experts, coming from the academy, should be heard, as well as engaging, with the necessary economic and human resources, the universities in the priority research topics related to this issue.

WATER SECURITY MAIN CHALLENGES

WATER SHORTAGES

MAIN TRIGGERING FACTORS

Demography

POLLUTION

Food production

HYDROMETOROLIGAL EXTREMES

Energy demands

WATER CONFLICTS ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES TO BASINS AND ACQUIFIERS

Climate change

Poor water management

« « « « «

• •

Population growth Urbanization

• •

Increasing food demands Dietary Changes

• •

Increasing demands Biofuels

• • • •

Less rainfall and runoff Ice glaciar melting Extreme hydrometeorological events Increasing farming Water demands

• • • • •

Pollution Inadequate legal framework Institutional deficiencies Little social engagement Poor governance

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Number 7 · April–June · 2018

UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

SPECIAL ISSUE OF UNESCO Chairs

OF THE AQUA LAC JOURNAL he International Hydrological Program (IHP) is the only intergovernmental United Nations program dedicated to water research, water resources management and education, and building water resource capacities. The program, adjusted to the needs of the member States, is performed in six-year phases, which supports adaptation to a rapidly changing world. The program is currently in its eight phase (IHP-VIII: Water Security: Responses to Local, Regional and Global Challenges), which will be performed during the 2014–2021 period and was prepared through a discussion process with member states. The eighth IHP phase is the result of greater knowledge of existing interfaces and interconnections between water, energy and food, through which continuous improvement is intended for the Integrated Water Resources Management. From the UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science in Latin America and the Caribbean in Montevideo, (http://www. unesco.org/new/es/office-in-montevideo/ciencias-naturales/water-international-hydrological-programme/), the IHP implements regional and local initiatives, in dialog with the countries of the region through national committees and focal points, with the support of the UNESCO Water Family and in coordination with UNESCO headquarters and other offices in the region. Among its activities, it publishes the Aqua LAC Journal.

T

16

In contrast, the UNESCO Water Chairs are a fundamental part of the UNESCO Water Family and, in the framework of the quarterly meetings of the Chairs in Latin America, a special issue dedicated to the dissemination of the investigations developed through these chairs was approved for publication.

Thus, in March 2018, issue number 1, volume 9 of the magazine was published, with the following content: THE ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW IN INTEGRATED BASIN MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY (RÍO VERDE, OAXACA, MEXICO) González Villela, R., Sánchez Chávez, J., Grande Inclán, L.A. and Mijangos Carro, M. RAINWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION, SYNONYMOUS WITH SAFE WATER Basán Nickisch, M., Sánchez, L., Tosolini, R., Tejerina Díaz, F. and Jordan, P. WATER BALANCE IN AQUIFERS AS A BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT AND SECURITY D’Elia, M., Paris, M. and Pérez, M. ARUBA’S DESALINATION’S KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE: CONQUERING THE SEA TOWARD DESALINATION’S SUSTAINABILITY Marchena, F. A. and Halman, J. I. M. ORIGIN OF SOILS DEPOSITED IN THE TAPACALÍ RIVER SUB-BASIN, MADRIZ, NICARAGUA THROUGH THE USE OF THE STABLE ISOTOPE TECHNIQUE FOR SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS Caballero Arbizu, Y. S. and de los Santos Villalobosm, S. HYDROGEOLOGICAL UPDATE AND AVAILABILITY OF THE SÉBACO VALLEY AQUIFER, NICARAGUA Delgado Quezada, V. and Flores Meza, Y. C. ANALYSIS OF THE CRITERIA FOR AQUATIC LIFE PROTECTION: THE SONORA RIVER AFTER THE 2014 MINING SPILL Díaz Caravantes, Rolando E.; Duarte Tagles, Héctor; Pallanez Murrieta, Maribel; Moreno Vázquez, J. L., Mejía Santellanes, J. A. and Durazo Gálvez, F.

CONSERVATION FLOWS OF THE RÍO FRIO RAINWATER ECOSYSTEMS IN COLOMBIA-CAJICÁ-CHÍA Agualimpia Dualiby, Y. C. and Castro Méndez, C. E. WATER, INCOME AND POVERTY Vargas Hidalgo, A. and Martínez Austria, P. WATER BREAKS THROUGH WITH THE FRANCISCO DE ALBEAR CHAIR Torres Hugues, R. and Martínez Valdés, Y. WATER-RELATED CONFLICTS AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN MEXICO FROM THE IWRM PERSPECTIVE Vargas Velázquez, S. RIPARIAN LINES, WATER RISK AND IWRM. CASE OF THE QUEMQUEMTREU RIVER IN EL BOLSÓN, RÍO NEGRO PROVINCE, ARGENTINA Nini, M., Lozeco, C. and Petri, D. FLUCTUATING HYDROLOGICAL SCENARIOS IN A HUMID REGION AND ITS RELATION TO WATER AVAILABILITY Hämmerly, R., Cristanchi, M. A., Cristina, I. M., Basán Nickisch, M. and Valiente, M.

As stated in the editorial, the articles of this issue capture results and contributions about water supply to the population in conditions of scarcity and/or in scenarios of climatic variability; the knowledge and experience in the desalination of seawater; methodologies for the determination of ecological and environmental flows and keys for their implementation, and the knowledge of aquifer systems and quantifications of the water balance. At the same time, they highlight the importance of promoting improvements in infrastructure and technological developments that allow access to sanitation, the recognition of the risks associated with water resources, their prevention and damage, and especially the need to improve water governance conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean. This special issue of Aqua LAC is only an example of the vitality and relevance of the work of the UNESCO Water Chairs in Latin America and the Caribbean and reveals the excellence of the academic community in the region, as well as its conviction to address the critical challenges faced by its population. This special issue was coordinated by the guest editors Dr. Polioptro F. Martínez Austria, Director of the UNESCO Chair in Hydrometorological Risks, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Mexico, and Dr. Marta Paris, Water and Education Chair for Sustainable Development, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina.

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NEWSLETTER OF THE UNESCO CHAIR ON HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL RISKS

EDITORIAL COORDINATIONS

Editor

Polioptro F. Martínez Austria

Style correction

Aldo Chiquini Zamora Andrea Garza Carbajal

Editorial design

Angélica González Flores

The unesco Chair on Hydrometerological Risks Newsletter is a quarterly publication which reports on the activities of the Chair and its members, unesco news related to it, as well as general information on disasters and hydro-meteorological risks. It is elaborated by the Universidad de las Américas Puebla. Ex hacienda Sta. Catarina Martir s/n. C. P. 72810, San Andres Cholula, Mexico.

www.udlap.mx/catedraunesco polioptro.martinez@udlap.mx

Newsletter Unesco chair 7  

Newsletter Unesco Chair on Hydrometeorological Risks 6 (Apr- Jun 2018)

Newsletter Unesco chair 7  

Newsletter Unesco Chair on Hydrometeorological Risks 6 (Apr- Jun 2018)