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DAGWA AGIN/BIBOON

2021-22

Treaty Gathering 2021 Rekindling Our Council Fire

PLUS! e ishinaab

An ift guide g y a d i l ho 88 on page

Brandon Petahtegoose Cultural Revitalization

Inside

Annuities Court Case Update RHT 1850 Currency Treaty Governance Language Resurgence


Letter from the EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Aanii, Boozhoo Kiinaawayah, First, miigwech for taking the time to pick up our latest edition of E-Wiindaamegejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times. The Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin (RHW) team, in collaboration with the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund (RHTLF), has been working hard to bring you a collection of stories and articles from around the Robinson Huron Treaty area, featuring the people, places and programs making an impact in the area, as well as useful Treaty history and other information. Our second edition, 2021-22 Dagwaagin/Biboon, follows the fall and winter seasons. We trust that you will enjoy this latest edition as we feature our Treaty relationship with Mother Earth and all the changes that occur each season. Our focus at RHW was preparation for the next steps as well in our relationship with the Crown and what the Robinson Huron Treaty promises (Waawiindamaagewin) means to us in that relationship with Canada. As fall is a time for winter preparation—from harvesting the garden, to drying fruits, veggies and meat—and so too do our Treaty partners prepare for rekindling our sacred trust as bestowed on us by the Creator to fulfill our responsibilities to our Treaty lands moving forward. As well as harvesting fish and game and tanning their hides, to ensure there was adequate clothing, tools, heat and food storage, so too must we begin to reap the benefits of resources shared with settlers from the bounty of our Treaty lands with little returned to communities as was promised. Gathering firewood was important, as was building and repairing structures to last through the winter and again we look to this time to rebuild our Council Fires of governance over Treaty lands. The winter was a time for storytelling and education. RHW will continue to educate our citizens on Treaty understandings and hear our stories of current activities of occupying Treaty lands with our mapping exercise. Take the time to read this edition and get involved with RHW over the coming months. We have many stories to share about the work being done by RHW, such as our new Virtual Tour featuring Baawaating and an update on our Use and Occupancy Mapping project. There are highlights that focus on our people who are revitalizing Our Language, Culture and Ceremony. Once again, gchi-miigwech for joining with us on our path forward at RHW. We hope you enjoy reading our stories and articles as much as we have enjoyed developing them. In Unity,

Earl Commanda Executive Director, Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin

FOLLOW RHWon SOCIAL MEDIA facebook.com/Waawiindamaagewin youtube.com/channel/UClC0qXOPb_HsilsZZ8TgHXQ


Inside

Our Annuities Trial Trial Update

Petition and Memorial

History of the RHT

Our Waawiindamaagewin RHT 1850 Currency

Treaty Governance

RHW GIS Program Update

Miidjim Miigwechwendam

Our Celebrations Ogimaak Assembly

Ogimaa Pamajewon

Seasonal Rounds

Our Stories Treaty Gathering

Treaty Relationship

Ash Baskets

Indigenous Love Story

Our Language Language Resurgence

Dgwaagi-Bboon Word Find

Hawlii Pichette Colouring Page

Our People Great Lakes Cultural Camps

Brandon Petahtegoose

8th Gen Collective

Water Walkers


On the

COVER In this issue we feature Brandon Petahtegoose from Atikameksheng Anishnawbek. He shares his experiences growing up struggling with his connection to culture and how returning home helped him return to ceremony and service to his community. Read his story on page 70.

Community Feedback “You folks are the model of communication… for other Indigenous collectives to follow—great work, and thanks for doing so much on social media. Miigwech!” Sara Mainville, April 23, 2021

“Aanii Cheryl and Nicky, I am sitting here at home catching up on everything I missed or didn’t get to look at more than quickly over the term, and that includes getting time to read E-Wiindamaagejig! Wow, it is so beautiful and amazing—with Rita on the cover, and her work on Treaty interpretation, and that incredible tribute to Joe. And maple sugaring vocab. The whole magazine is delightful. And to learn more about the work that you are doing on mapping, Nicky. Just wow. And the videos you are producing, and the language lessons embedded. It’s quite the amazing resource, and it is so beautifully produced. Congratulations! All the best, Heidi.”

PUBLISHERS Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund

MAGAZINE COMMITTEE Cheryl Recollet, Jolene Recollet, Earl Commanda, Barret Dokis, Peter Recollet, Laura Sharp, Melanie Laquerre, Vendela Edmonds

ART DIRECTION & DESIGN Melanie Laquerre

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Steven McCoy, Hans Matthews, Kaella-Marie Earle, Stephanie Pheasant-Recollet, Sam Manitowabi, Art Petahtegoose, Erin Kendall, Colleen Romaniuk, Elizabeth Carlson-Manathara, Tasha Beeds, Martina Osawamick

PHOTOGR APHERS Melanie Laquerre, Matt Lachance, Scott McLeod, Stefanie Recollet, Mike Kaiser

Heidi Bohaker, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Toronto, Co-Director of the Great Lakes Research Alliance

Community Contributions If you have any questions or comments about the Dagwaagin/Biboon 2021-22 issue of E-Wiindamaagejig, or would like to share any feature story ideas for our next issue, please send an email to: Jolene Recollet, Content Coordinator, Jolene@waawiindamaagewin.com. 4

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Dagwaagin/Biboon 2021-22 Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin 473-A, Hwy 17 West Cutler, Ontario P0P 1B0 Phone: 1-877-633-7558 www.waawiindamaagewin.com All content produced in E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times is the property of the Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin and the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund. Reproduction of content is strictly prohibited without explicit permission. If you would like to request to use this content, please contact Cheryl Recollet at Cheryl@waawiindamaagewin.com.


Our Annuities Trial

Letter from the CHAIR of the ROBINSON HURON TREATY LITIGATION FUND In August of 2010, the Ogimaak and Councils of the 21 First Nations made the final decision to proceed with litigation against the Crown governments to enforce the annuity augmentation clause in the treaty. The Ogimaak and Councils adopted a Trust Indenture that bound each of the First Nations to pursue an action in the Superior Court of Ontario. Once the Trust Indenture of the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund, was created we began the work of preparing for the litigation. This turned out to be a huge endeavour as our intention was to rely on the perspective of Anishinabe people of treaty making at the time. This involved a major initiative to research the history of the treaty. We relied on historical and linguistic experts to bring our story to the court. We engaged some of our people to give expert testimony in court that told of how the Anishinabek understood the process of negotiating the treaty. That was an amazing journey involving Anishinabe experts; Alan Corbiere of M’Chigeeng who presented the history of Anishinabe and Crown relations in that time, Rita Corbiere of Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory who described in detail how the Anishinabek would have understood the differences in language and communications and Elder Fred Kelly from Treaty 3 area who is an expert on Anishinabe laws. We also engaged an economic historian, Dr. Carl Beal, to develop a strategy that might be used to determine the extent of resource revenue from the territory and how the annuity should have been increased from time to time. To complement the historical perspective, we also engaged Elders Irene Makedebin and Irene Stevens, who told the court how the Crown’s failure to increase the annuity impacted their lives. The court agreed with our perspectives and ruled in Stages One and Two of the trial, that the annuity should have been increased. Justice Hennessy has stated numerous times that the preferred route is that the parties to collectively negotiate a settlement that would provide justice to the Anishinabek claim. However, Ontario decided to appeal the Stage One and Stage Two rulings. Both appeals were heard in the Ontario Court of Appeal. We are awaiting the rulings on those appeals. The Ontario Court of Appeal also stated it would be preferable for the parties negotiate a settlement rather than continue with the court process. The Anishinabek strongly agrees. Canada has now received a negotiation mandate but desires Ontario’s participation. You can send a letter via our website telling Ontario it is time to negotiate.

Mike Restoule Chair, Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund

FOLLOW RHTLF on SOCIAL MEDIA facebook.com/RobinsonHuronTreatyAnnuity1850 twitter.com/1850RHTreaty E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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MEET our LEGAL TEAM David C. Nahwegahbow, IPC, LSM, LL.B. David Nahwegahbow, Giizh ga nang (Daystar) is Anishinaabe from Whitefish River First Nation. David is co-lead counsel for the Restoule litigation and is involved in all aspects of the Robinson Huron Treaty annuities case. David received his LLB from the University of Ottawa, was called to the Bar of Ontario in 1982 and is the founding Partner of Nahwegahbow Corbiere. Over the last 39 years he has advocated for the rights of First Nations peoples and has represented First Nations at all levels of court in land claims, as well as several landmark Treaty and Aboriginal title and rights cases. For his tireless advocacy, David has been recognized with multiple awards including the designation of Indigenous Peoples Council from the Indigenous Bar Association, the Law Society Medal from the Law Society of Upper Canada, a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Anishinabek Nation and the Award of Justice from the Advocates Society.

Roger Jones, IPC, LL.B. Roger Jones is Anishinaabe from Sagamok First Nation. Roger is co-lead counsel for the Restoule litigation and is involved in all aspects of the Robinson Huron Treaty annuities case. Roger has played a critical role in key legal and political developments internationally and in Canada including: the development of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the negotiations surrounding the repatriation of the Canadian constitution, the Federal Crown First Nations Political Accord in 2005, and the Ipperwash Inquiry in Ontario. Roger has also been involved in emerging developments on a wide range of matters such as consultation and accommodation, Treaty implementation and resource revenue sharing. Roger was the founding president of the Indigenous Bar Association, served on the Board, and was the former Vice-Chair, Native Law section of the Canadian Bar Association. He has also worked as the Legal Advisor to the Assembly of First Nations.

Dianne Corbiere, IPC, H.B.S.W., LL.B. Dianne Corbiere is Anishinaabe from M’Chigeeng First Nation. Dianne is one of the primary senior lawyers for the Restoule litigation and has been involved in all aspects of the Robinson Huron Treaty annuities case. Dianne received her Honours Bachelor of Social Work from Laurentian University, her LLB from the University of Toronto and was called to the Bar of Ontario in 1998. Dianne is the Managing Partner of Nahwegahbow Corbiere and has dedicated her career to working for First Nations, specializing in Treaty and Aboriginal rights for First Nations representing First Nations across Canada, but mostly in Ontario. Dianne served as a Bencher for the Law Society of Ontario. For her tireless advocacy, Dianne has been recognized with multiple awards including the designation of Indigenous Peoples Council from the Indigenous Bar Association and the Indspire Award for Law and Justice.

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Our Annuities Trial

Joseph J. Arvay, OC, OBC, QC Joseph Arvay passed on to the Spirit World in December of 2020. Joe was one of the primary senior lawyers for the Restoule litigation and was involved in all aspects of the Stage One and Stage Two trials. He was a brilliant litigator who practiced with an emphasis on public law, particularly constitutional, Aboriginal and administrative law. Joe was counsel on a number of landmark cases in the Supreme Court of Canada—a court he appeared in dozens of times. His tireless advocacy earned him numerous awards, honours and designations throughout his career. Joe brought the full wealth of his experience and tenacious work ethic to the Restoule litigation. Throughout the litigation, Joe made it a personal commitment to better understand Anishinaabe perspectives so that he could champion them in the courtroom. Joe’s tireless advocacy was an integral part of the success of the Robinson Huron Treaty First Nations in the Stage One and Stage Two decisions from the Ontario Superior Court of Justice.

Catherine Boies Parker, QC Catherine Boies Parker is one of the primary senior lawyers for the Restoule litigation and has been involved in all aspects of the case, including the recent appeals before the Ontario Court of Appeal. Catherine worked closely with Joe Arvay throughout her entire legal career and practices in several areas of law including constitutional, administrative, environmental and Aboriginal law. She has appeared at all levels of court and here advocacy has been recognized with numerous awards and honours including the Contribution to the Law Award from the Victoria Bar Association, the Human Rights Honours Award from the Vancouver Island Human Rights Institute, the George S. Goyer QC Memorial Award for Distinguished Service and the designation of Queen’s Counsel.

Donald E. Worme, QC, IPC, LL.B. Donald E. Worme is a Cree lawyer from the Kawacatoose First Nation, Treaty Four, Saskatchewan, and is one of the leading advocates in the province for human rights, criminal law and Treaty litigation. Don was involved as a senior lawyer in the Stage One trial in the Restoule litigation. He graduated with his Bachelor of Laws in 1985 from the College of Law at the University of Saskatchewan and received his call to the Bar of Saskatchewan in 1986. He is a Senior Partner at Semaganis Worme Lombard in Saskatoon.

Mark L. Stevenson, IPC, LL.B. Mark is a Métis lawyer whose family originates from the historic Métis community of Lac St Anne, Alberta. Mark has assisted with negotiation advice for the Annuities Claim. He has a Masters of Law from the University of British Columbia, Bachelor of Law from McGill University, and Master of International Relations from Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. Mark’s career began in 1982 at the Privy Council in Ottawa working on Indigenous constitutional matters. He then worked as Legal Counsel for the Ontario Native Affairs Secretariat from 1987 to 1991, and as a Chief Treaty Negotiator with the Government of British Columbia from 1991 to 1998, when he entered private practice to work with First Nations in the British Columbia Treaty Process. E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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MEET our LEGAL TEAM Scott Robertson, LL. B. Scott Robertson is a Haudenosaunee from the Six Nations of the Grand River. Scott played a key role in preparing the Restoule claim and throughout the Stage One trial before the Ontario Superior Court of Justice. He received his LLB from the University of Ottawa and also has a Bachelor of Arts from Carleton University and Bachelor of Education from Queen’s. He was called to the Bar of Ontario in 2007. Scott is a senior lawyer at Nahwegahbow Corbiere who regularly advises clients on Treaty, Aboriginal title and rights issues as well as tax and business structures. Scott has extensive experience advising clients on the Crown’s duty to consult and accommodate.

James Hopkins, LL.B., LLM James Hopkins is Algonquin (non-status) from Quebec and a senior lawyer at Nahwegahbow Corbiere. James assists primarily with research as well as providing strategic advice. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto (BA/LLB) and Harvard Law School where he completed the joint master of laws and international tax program. He is a member of the Ontario Bar and has taught for twenty years as a full-time law professor at the University of Arizona with visiting appointments at the University of Victoria and the University of Ottawa. He served as Chief Justice for two Arizona-based tribal governments: The Pascua Yaqui Tribe’s Court of Appeals and the Court of Appeals for the White Mountain Apache Tribe.

Chris EJ Albinati, JD, LLM Chris Albinati is the primary junior lawyer on the Restoule legal team and has been present in court throughout all stages of the Restoule litigation, including the recent hearings before the Ontario Court of Appeal. Chris received his Juris Doctor from Thompson Rivers University, was called to the Bars of British Columbia and Ontario in 2015 and joined Nahwegahbow Corbiere as an Associate. In 2017, Chris successfully defended his LLM thesis titled, “Indigenous Blockades and the Power to Speak the Law: From Settler Colonialism to Indigenous Resurgence” at Osgoode Hall Law School. Prior to joining the Restoule litigation Chris was working on a PhD dissertation which involved novel research into the assertion and performance of Indigenous laws and jurisdiction. Chris advocates exclusively for First Nations clients and practices solely in Aboriginal law, primarily in Treaty, Aboriginal Title and rights litigation. He has appeared at all levels of court, including the Supreme Court of Canada where he was co-counsel for the Indigenous Bar Association.

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Alexander Kirby, JD Alex Kirby is a junior lawyer at Arvay Findlay who provides support to the senior lawyers regarding the litigation. Alex received his JD from the University of British Columbia and joined Arvay Finlay after articling with the federal Department of Justice and clerking for five justices of the British Columbia Supreme Court. Alex was called to the bar in British Columbia in September, 2020. Alex’s primary practice areas include administrative and constitutional law, environmental law, and Indigenous and Aboriginal law. He has appeared before all levels of court in British Columbia, as well as the Federal Court and the Tax Court of Canada.

Laura Sharp, JD Laura Sharp is a Mohawk member of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy from Six Nations of the Grand River and a junior lawyer at Nahwegahbow Corbiere who provides support for the senior lawyers in the Restoule litigation, as well as communications support to the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund. Laura received a Bachelor of Arts with an Honours Specialization in Political Science from the University of Western Ontario in 2014. She received a Juris Doctor from Osgoode Hall Law School in April 2019. She joined Nahwegahbow Corbiere in 2019 as an articling student and was called to the Bar of Ontario in 2020. Laura has been a member of the Indigenous Bar Association Board of Directors since 2017 and is currently serving as Secretary. Laura’s practice is focused on First Nations Treaty and Aboriginal rights litigation.

Daniel Mccoy, JD Daniel McCoy is Anishinaabe from Batchewana First Nation and a junior lawyer at Nahwegahbow Corbiere who provides support for the senior lawyers in the Restoule litigation. Daniel joined Nahwegahbow Corbiere in 2021. Daniel is currently the document specialist on the legal team and plays a critical role in managing the tens of thousands of documents involved in the case. Daniel received his Juris Doctor from Osgoode Hall Law School in 2018 and was called to the Bar of Ontario in 2019. Daniel’s practice is focused on document management and advocating for First Nations in Treaty and Aboriginal title and rights litigation.

Alain Bartleman, JD Alain Bartleman is a member of Rama First Nation and a junior lawyer at Nahwegahbow Corbiere who provides support for the senior lawyers in the Restoule litigation. Alain studied law at the Institut des Etudes Politiques de Paris, the University of Geneva, as well as at McGill University.

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Our Annuities Case – RHT LITIGATION FUND UPDATE By Laura Sharp, Associate, Nahwegahbow Corbiere

Overview The Robinson Huron Treaty (RHT) was signed on September 9, 1850. The Treaty promises annuities payments to beneficiaries of the Treaty. The Treaty also contains an ‘augmentation clause’—a provision that states the annuities would be increased if the Crown could do so without incurring a loss. The annuity payments were increased from approximately $1.60 per person to $4.00 in 1874. The annuity payments have not been increased since. In 2014, the Robinson Huron Treaty Anishinaabe sued the governments of Canada and Ontario for breach of Treaty, breach of the honour of the Crown and breach of fiduciary duty for the Crown’s failure to increase the annuity. The Robinson Huon Treaty case is being heard alongside a similar case brought by two First Nations under the Robinson Superior Treaty (RST), which contains the same augmentation clause.

Due to the many complex issues and volume of evidence involved, the trial was divided into three separate stages to be argued before Justice Patricia Hennessy in order to make the process more manageable. Stage One was focused on whether the First Nation Treaty parties have a collective right to have increased, from time to time, the promised annuity payment if the net Crown resource revenues from the territory permit the Crown to do so without incurring loss. In December 2018, the decision was released ruling in favour of the First Nation plaintiffs. Stage Two of the trial considered Crown defences, including Crown immunity and limitations. In June 2020, the First Nation plaintiffs again received a favourable ruling. Ontario has appealed both the Stage One and Stage Two decisions to the Ontario Court of Appeal. These appeals were heard in the Spring of 2021. A decision on the appeals is expected sometime in late 2021. The Ziigwan (Spring) 2022 issue of E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times will contain an update on the appeal decisions.

TO HELP THESE EFFORTS, YOU CAN WRITE A LETTER TO YOUR PROVINCIAL MPP, PREMIER DOUG FORD, AND THE HONOUR ABLE GREG RICKFORD, ONTARIO MINISTER OF INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS TELLING ONTARIO TO NEGOTIATE A SETTLEMENT AND UPHOLD THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES TO THE ROBINSON-HURON TREATY. A LETTER CAMPAIGN HAS BEEN LAUNCHED ON OUR WEBSITE, WWW.ROBINSONHURONTREATY1850.COM/ABOUT-US, WHERE YOU CAN EASILY JOIN US TO CALL ON ONTARIO TO NEGOTIATE AN AGREEMENT THAT WORKS FOR EVERYONE IN ONTARIO.

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A more fulsome discussion of the augmentation clause, as well as the Stage One and Two trials and appeals can also be found in the Ziigwan (Spring) 2021 issue of E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times. Looking Forward—Stage Three Trial The legal team is currently preparing for Stage Three of the trial, which will begin in the Fall of 2022 and is expected to take several months. The last stage of the trial will consider the remaining issues. One key issue is the amount of compensation owed to the Plaintiffs (the RHT and RST First Nations). Two questions must be answered: (1) What are the net Crown resource revenues from the Treaty territory, and (2) what is a fair share of that should be paid to RHT. Another key issue is Crown allocation—whether Canada, Ontario, or both are liable to pay for the augmented annuity. Thus far, the Crowns have failed to resolve the allocation issue amongst themselves. We believe their failure to resolve this issue as an impediment to negotiations to settle the claim. Expert reports are in the process of being prepared for the Stage Three trial. One expert report will consider actual net Crown resource revenues: this will be a dollar amount of what the Crown approximately or actually collected. Another expert report will consider the value of the resources in the RHT Territory and the value of the territory.

This is a counter analysis regarding what the Crown could have collected in resource revenues, rather than what they actually did collect in resource revenues. This report is necessary because the Crown essentially gave away resources from the Treaty territory in order to encourage resource development and collect both business and personal income tax revenues. Evidence will also be led on the Anishinaabe perspective of ‘fair share’. Canada’s Negotiation Mandate In concert with our preparation for Stage Three of the Annuities Claim trial, the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund, primarily through spokespersons Ogimaa Dean Sayers and Ogimaa Duke Peltier, have been consistently requesting the Crowns settle the claim through negotiations rather than litigation. On August 13, 2021, the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund received a letter from Minister Carolyn Bennett indicating Canada is ready to negotiate, but states that Ontario’s involvement is desired:

“I am writing today to advise that our mandating process is complete and Canada is prepared to enter into negotiations with the Robinson-Huron and Robinson-Superior First Nations in order to resolve the litigation out of court. Given the Province of Ontario’s shared responsibility in implementing the Robinson Treaties of 1850, it is important to note that from Canada’s perspective, the Province of Ontario will need to be a party to the negotiations and settlement.” If Ontario decides to negotiate, there is a possibility that the Annuities Claim will be settled through negotiation rather than proceeding to the Stage Three trial. The Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund has devised a communications strategy aimed at telling Ontario it is time for them to issue a mandate to negotiate. Enforcement of the Stage One and Stage Two Decisions The RHT First Nations have received two favourable decisions. Neither Canada nor Ontario have sought to stay the Stage One or Two decisions and they are binding on the Crown. While quantification of past compensation for

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Our Annuities Trial

failure to implement the Treaty promise is the subject of Stage Three, Canada and Ontario have an obligation to implement the augmentation promise on a go-forward basis. There is no reasonable basis for the Crown’s failure to implement the augmentation promise going forward.

Ontario, The Honourable Elizabeth Dowdeswell calling on the Crown to honourably and in good faith engage in a process to carry out, implement and fulfill the judgments and declarations of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice. You can read the full Petition and Memorial on pages 14-21 of this issue of the E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times.

The RHT Ogimaak have signed a Petition and Memorial to the Governor General of Canada, Her Excellency the Right Honourable Mary Simon, and the Lieutenant Governor of

Annuities Case: Timeline of Events Dec. 21, 2018 Oct. 7, 1763 Royal Proclamation set out the principles for Treaty making, Declaration of the Crown, affirmed Aboriginal title and ownership of lands.

Sept. 9, 1850 Signing of the Robinson Huron Treaty.

2012 Notice of claim filed.

Stage One Trial Decision: The Court rules that the Crown has a mandatory and reviewable constitutional obligation to increase the annuity to reflect the economic value the Crown receives from the Treaty Territory.

Fall 2022 April 13-28, 2021 The Ontario Court of Appeal heard Ontario’s appeal of the Stage One decision. Canada did not appeal. The decision of the Court has not yet been released.

Feb. 10, 1763

July 1764

2010

Sept. 25, 2017

June 26, 2020

Signing of Treaty of Paris.

Council of Niagara, 1700 Indigenous inhabitants gathered, a diplomatic exercise where the British sought to renew and strengthen the Covenant Chain.

Formation of the RHT Litigation Fund.

Stage 1 begins with opening statement of RHT plaintiffs.

Stage Two Trial Decision: Justice Hennessy, again, ruled in favour of the RHT and RST First Nations, finding the plaintiffs’ claims are not barred by Ontario’s limitations legislation and that Ontario does not benefit from the doctrine of Crown immunity.

The Stage Three trial dates are currently set to begin in March, 2022. The Stage Three Trial will consider all remaining issues, including the amount of compensation, if any, is owed to the First Nations plaintiffs.

June 1-3, 2021 The Ontario Court of Appeal heard Ontario’s appeal of the Stage Two decision. Canada has not appealed. The decision of the Court has not yet been released.

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ROBINSON HURON TREATY CHIEFS’ PETITION AND MEMORIAL TO THE GOVERNOR GENER AL OF CANADA AND LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR OF ONTARIO On the 171st anniversary of the signing of the Treaty, the 21 First Nations of the Robinson Huron Treaty (RHT) are calling on Canada and Ontario to engage in honourable negotiations to fully implement the augmentation clause regarding the annuities. The Governor General of Canada and Lieutenant Governor of Ontario are representatives of the Crown. At the Treaty Gathering, the Robinson Huron Ogimaak signed a petition addressed to Governor General Mary Simon and Lieutenant Governor Elizabeth Dowdeswell. The petition echoes the call that the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund has made for over a decade: it is time for the Crown to act honorably in accordance with the law. The 21 RHT First Nations have received favourable decisions in Stages One and Two of their Annuities Case litigation. Neither Canada nor Ontario has sought to stay the Stage One or Stage Two Judgments of the Superior Court. Yet to date, more than two years following the June 17, 2019, Judgment, and despite the legal obligations,

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declarations and determinations pronounced by the Superior Court, the annual annuity payments under the Robinson Huron Treaty have not been increased by the Crown beyond the $4.00 per person last fixed in 1875. In fact, the Crown has taken no steps to implement the Treaty augmentation promise on a go-forward basis. While the Petitioners and Memorialists acknowledge that the quantification of past compensation is part of Stage Three of the litigation, there is no reasonable basis for the Crown’s failure to implement the augmentation promise going forward. “With the recent announcement from the Government of Canada that they will seek negotiations, we have an unprecedented opportunity before us,” said Ogimaa Sayers, “Entering negotiations is a chance to strengthen communities in the Robinson Huron Treaty territories and a chance to move forward from unnecessary litigation in a way that benefits everyone in Ontario.” (Full text of petition and signatures follow.)


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The HISTORY of the ROBINSON HURON TREATY By Laura Sharp, Associate, Nahwegahbow Corbiere

This article comes from a portion of David Nahwegahbow’s opening statements during Ontario’s appeal of the Stage One decision of the Annuities Case at the Ontario Court of Appeal. David Nahwegahbow is the Robinson Huron Plaintiffs’ lead legal counsel. His statements have been edited for clarity and length. This is a map of Upper Canada in 1838 which shows that all the new settlements and townships at that time reached as far as Lake Simcoe. Just north of this is the Robinson Huron Treaty Territory. It stretches along the north shores of Georgian Bay and Lake Huron to Batchewana Bay, just past Bawaating (Sault Ste. Marie), and up to the height of land (where the water north of the height of land flows to James Bay and water south of the height of land flows to the Great Lakes and surrounding watersheds). Roughly, the Treaty Territory makes up the vast areas described as ‘Great Tract of Wilderness’ and ‘Immense Forests’ in the 1838 map of Upper Canada. This is all ‘Anishinaabe Country’— Anishinaabeakiing. In 1838, up to the time of the Treaty in 1850 and for some time beyond, the population of this area was almost exclusively Anishinaabe. There were some non-Anishinaabe people living at or around trading posts at Bawaating (Sault Ste Marie) and Michipicoten. But apart from that, this is Anishinaabeakiing territory, lands and waters, that the Anishinaabe have an inherent relationship with. This is an important point to understand because apart from a military garrison at Penetanguishene, there was no state apparatus or physical Crown presence in the territory. The Crown depended upon its longstanding alliance and Treaty 22

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relationship with the Anishinaabe to protect the territory from incursion. The history of the Crown-Anishinaabe alliance relationship dates back to the 1750s, during the Seven Years War when the French and the British fought for control over what is now Ontario and Quebec and the northeastern United States. At the start of the war, the Anishinaabe had been in a military alliance with the French and for much of the war, the British were unable to defeat them. A pivotal point came in 1760 when the British, through Sir William Johnson—the first Superintendent General of Indian Affairs—were able to convince the Anishinaabe and other

TODAY, THE PROCLAMATION AND THE INALIENABILITY OF INDIAN LANDS TO ANYONE BUT THE CROWN, IS RECOGNIZED AS THE SOURCE OF THE FIDUCIARY DUTY AND THE HONOUR OF THE CROWN.


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former French allies to remain neutral. This contributed significantly to the ability of the British to prevail over the French. However, holding on to control of the territory was not guaranteed. The British did not conquer the Anishinaabe in 1760. This fact became clear over the next 3 years. The British had started to occupy former French Forts without Anishinaabe consent and also failed to continue the French practice of providing tribute or presents to the Anishinaabe. This aroused concerns amongst the Anishinaabe and other Indigenous Nations resulting in what is known as Pontiac’s War. The efforts of Sir William Johnson during these 3 years were instrumental to resolving these hostilities peacefully. In this period, Johnson’s main strategy was to renew or extend the Covenant Chain to the Anishinaabe, making them allies of the British. The Covenant Chain was a diplomatic and military alliance initially established between the Dutch, and then the English, with the Haudenausonee (the Iroquois Confederacy). The Covenant Chain Alliance signified a Nation-to-Nation relationship. Two key events in establishing this alliance relationship were the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Treaty at

Niagara in 1764. The Royal Proclamation recognized the autonomy, independence and territorial rights of Indian Nations, including the Anishinaabe. It prohibited squatting on Indian land; it prohibited colonial governments from granting patents to Indian lands and made purchase of Indian lands illegal by anyone except the Crown. It established a Treaty process by which the Crown could obtain the consent of Indigenous Nations to share their lands, through the negotiation of Treaty terms. Today, the Proclamation and the inalienability of Indian lands to anyone but the Crown, is recognized as the source of the fiduciary duty and the honour of the Crown. As monumental as the Proclamation was, to the Anishinaabe it was a Crown document, which had yet to reflect the consent of Indigenous Nations. Johnson knew this. Because of his knowledge and familiarity with the diplomatic protocols of the Great Lakes area, Johnson knew that to secure and strengthen the nation-to-nation relationship with the Anishinaabe would require holding a Council Fire. In 1764, Johnson held a Council Fire at Niagara where he presented the Anishinaabe with the Great Covenant Chain Wampum belt. Upon presenting the Wampum Belt, Johnson stated that “you will fix one end of it with the Chipaweighs at St. Mary’s whilst the other end remain at my House.” E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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The Anishinaabe Council Fire ‘Chipaweighs at St. Mary’s’ is where the Robinson Huron Treaty Council took place in 1850. In this way, the Treaty in 1850 has a direct connection to the Treaty at Niagara in 1764 and the nature of the relationship that was established there. The French called it Sault Ste. Marie. The Anishinaabe call it Bawaating, which means place of the rapids. For centuries it was an important place of gathering and governance for the Anishinaabe. The Crown carefully maintained their relationship with the Anishinaabe from 1764 onwards through strict observance of the protocols of Great Lakes diplomacy. The Crown called upon their Anishinaabe allies many times, including during the War of 1812. The Crown depended on the military ability and readiness of the Anishinaabe during the most pivotal conflicts in this country’s history. Canada, and certainly Ontario, would not look the same today without the contributions of the thousands of Anishinaabe warriors. Chief Shingwaukonse One of those Anishinaabe warriors who fought in the War of 1812 played a central role in the making of the Robinson Treaties: Chief Shingwaukonse. Shingwaukonse was born near Mackinac Island around 1773. His mother was from Bawaating. In the photo above, Chief Shingwaukonse is in the middle. After fighting in the War of 1812, Chief Shingwaukonse would settle at Ketegaun seebee—Garden River, which is just east of Bawaating. Shingwaukonse was very knowledgeable about the Covenant Chain relationship; he was a visionary leader and a prominent spokesperson for the Anishinaabe. He established personal relationships with many representatives of the Crown, including Lt. Gov. Colborne in the 1830s and Gov. Gen. Lord Elgin in the 1840s, as well as Anglican missionaries, Indian Department agents, and of course William Benjamin Robinson, the Treaty Commissioner appointed to represent the Crown. He even hired his own lawyer, Allan MacDonell, to assist him in Treaty negotiations. Chief Nebenaigoching Chief Nebenaigoching from Batchewana was also instrumental in the making of the Treaty. He is a direct ancestor of the present-day Chief of Batchewana and one of the named plaintiffs in the Annuities Case, Chief Dean Sayers. In the photo of the three men above, Chief Nebenaigoching is on the right. 24

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Chief Nebenaigoching’s father fought and was killed in the War of 1812. At the age of 8, the British invested Chief Nebenaigoching with his father’s war medals and other symbols of authority at the Council Fire on Drummond Island. These medals can be seen on Chief Nebenaigoching in the photo. Such moments of recognition were all part of the ongoing renewal and maintenance of the Covenant Chain relationship between the Anishinaabe and the Crown. William Benjamin Robinson William Benjamin Robinson was from a prominent family in Upper Canada and would eventually become the Commissioner of the Robinson Huron Treaty. In the photo of the three men, William Benjamin Robinson is the person on the left. He was involved in many business ventures, including the fur trade. His fur trade ventures were made possible by connections his oldest brother had established with the Anishinaabe during the War of 1812.


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Through his experience in the fur trade, Robinson not only made connections with the Lake Huron Anishinaabe, but became familiar with Anishinaabemowin—the language spoken by the Anishinaabe. Over time, Robinson had earned a reputation among the Anishinaabe as a fair man who could be trusted. The Anishinaabe valued relationships more than anything. If someone was not related, the Anishinaabe made them fictive kin. This recognition of trust and respect is evident in the photo above: Shingwaukonse has arms around both Robinson and Nebenaigoching. In describing this image in her testimony during Stage One of the Restoule Annuities case, expert historian Dr. Heidi Bohaker pointed out the significance of the headdress, beaded legging and other items that Robinson is wearing. Robinson is dressed in traditional Anishinaabe garb—not the clothes of an English Gentleman. Petitions Chief Shingwaukonse and Chief Nebenaigoching frequently reminded the representatives of the ongoing relationship between the Crown and the Anishinaabe and the principles embedded within it. Some of the most prominent records of this are captured in the pre-Treaty petitions, memorials and speeches by Shingwaukonse and others. They form an important context for understanding the common intention of the Treaty parties. For example, Shingwaukonse petitioned:

“The Great Spirit, we think, placed these rich mines on our lands for the benefit of his red children, so that their rising generation might get support from them when the animals of the woods should have grown too scarce for our subsistence. We will carry out, therefore, the good object of our Father, the Great Spirit—we will sell you these lands, if you give us what is right—at the same time, we want pay for every pound of mineral that has been taken off of our lands, as well as for that which may hereafter be carried away.” It is important to understand that these petitions were prompted by unilateral actions taken by the Colonial Government in approximately 1845 and later, to allow

settlement and development activities on Anishinaabe lands, particularly mining activities, without Anishinaabe consent, contrary to the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

THE PARTIES ENTERED INTO A SACRED TREATY AROUND THE ANISHINA ABE COUNCIL FIRE AT BAWA ATING ON SEPTEMBER 9, 1850 AND CREATED TERMS FOR LIVING TOGETHER THAT ARE NOW PART OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL FABRIC OF THIS COUNTRY.

Not only were these encroachments on Indian lands illegal under the Crown’s laws, they were a violation of the Covenant Chain alliance and illegal under Anishinaabe laws as well. The Anishinaabe saw these actions as a direct challenge to their jurisdiction, their relationship with their territory, and their relationship with the Crown. This prompted a major resistance to colonial unilateral actions, which culminated in the Mica Bay Incident in NovemberDecember of 1849. The level of Anishinaabe resistance to unilateral government action prompted the Crown’s direct representative, Lord Elgin, to step in and acknowledge the conduct of colonial officials violated the Royal Proclamation and ordered the Government to make a Treaty. This was the situation leading up to the Treaty Council in 1850. The Crown needed Anishinaabe consent to regularize mining permits and to continue allowing newcomers to develop and settle in their territories. The Anishinaabe were prepared to share the lands by way of a Treaty, but expected to share in the benefits. The parties entered into a sacred Treaty around the Anishinaabe Council Fire at Bawaating on September 9, 1850 and created terms for living together that are now part of the constitutional fabric of this Country.

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The RHTLF MEDALLION By Azhiinikwe Newatchgiizhig, Kaella-Marie Earle

In my early days of Indigenous advocacy, I led the way with a fire in my heart. Fire that presented as rage. Rage that my family members went to residential and day schools. Rage that my communities were living in such poor socio-economic conditions compared to the rest of Canada. I don’t think rage is the right way to approach new relationships like the ones required by age-old treaties. But in this story, that anger taught me something important. When I first learned about the Robinson-Huron Treaty of 1850, I remember wondering why it wasn’t part of the university-wide curriculum at my post-secondary school. When I asked, I didn’t get an answer. I felt a lot of frustration, because all I wanted was an answer, and a commitment to do better. The anger inside of me about the injustices my family and community have had to face as a result of not honouring Treaty commitments always propelled me to do something about situations that I felt were not right. Do something now, even if the existing system wouldn’t support it and wouldn’t support me in doing something about it. So I did. I gathered the resources I needed to hold a small campus gathering to teach the community about the Robinson-Huron Treaty of 1850. In a few days, I raised a few thousand dollars to make it happen, supported by a few helping hands in the university community. I invited speakers to an RHT 1850 gathering to discuss the importance of RHT 1850 and foster discussion among university students about what that meant. We also had a sacred fire and shared a feast. As I got older, I realized that when the university wouldn’t support me in doing this, it was one of the most significant teachings that I would receive. It was that week that I learned that I don’t need permission to be Indigenous. 26

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Being Indigenous is in my DNA, and found inside the DNA of all Indigenous peoples is the ability to naturally recognize Indigenous law. Indigenous law is in the water. Indigenous law is in the land. Indigenous law speaks to us through all of our animal and plant relations. Despite all young Indigenous people, including me, being their grandparents greatest dream come true that was never supposed to happen—Indigenous law came out of us that day. Indigenous law came out of us because Indigenous law cannot be taken from Indigenous people. Our culture and languages will always be there, sleeping, waiting for us to reclaim them. Whispering to our people in the winter wind, but never gone. That day, a sacred fire was lit in my heart and the hearts of other Anishinaabeg who knew that the litigation of the Robinson Huron Treaty of 1850 was not just litigation, but a journey of Anishinaabeg people reclaiming their inherent right to practise Indigenous law. This inherent right is something that we must recognize as a critical step in Canada’s journey toward truth and reconciliation, and toward the building of a new nation-to-nation relationship. My mother taught me that the name Canada is really kinaa daa in Anishinaabemowin, meaning that “we all live together.”


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Beaded medallion Stephanie Pheasant/Opwaagan Onashkina’aad Kwe (She/Her) is an Ojibway/Potawatomi member of Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory, from Sudbury, Ontario. Although a self-taught multimedia artist, Stephanie’s focus is bead and birch bark work.

Later sought by Peter Recollet for additional medallions, I was then provided with smoked hide (in support of traditional practices) for the backing and neck braid; as well as collective agreement to remain as natural as possible.

“I came to design the Robinson Huron Treaty medallions, as requested gifts from Kaella Earle. Provided with the grey RHT logo, I settled upon a white background, with the main focus being the foreground. I chose the four colors to symbolize the connection with our way of life, its people and nations amongst the Robinson Huron Treaty (of) 1850; also displayed on the medallion. The blue border is to represent our duty and thankfulness to the water and all that she provides for us as nations; then and now.

In the beginning stages of my artist’s journey, I wouldn’t have thought a beaded medallion design would connect me with so many familial bonds and opportunities within the community and across Turtle Island. I am forever thankful to Kaella Earle and Peter Recollet for allowing me such a task, and to Melanie Laquerre for evolving the design digitally! Chi-miigwech.

And really, that is what the story of this medallion is. They were made with the intent to honour the people beginning this journey. Each medallion stayed with me until it found where it was meant to be. Some made their way to chiefs, some made their way to the RHT 1850 team. One is with a major oil and gas company, serving as a reminder to the natural resource extraction company that they have a duty to recognize Indigenous law. Serving as a reminder to me in my goals to spread the important understanding of Indigenous law. While the spirit of every RHT 1850 medallion has its own place in the story of the Treaty, each one of them is a testament to the fact that we are all Treaty people living together. If you hold one, you must understand that it is your sacred duty to honour it and remember your obligation to lead in Indigenous law in the spirit of kindness and respect. The recognition and honouring of RHT 1850 by all peoples in all directions, as signified by the medicine wheel around the edges of the medallion, provide the direction we need to heal, together. Chi-miigwech. Debwewin minwaa zaagi’idiwin.

From beadwork to digital illustration and logo On March 26, 2021, the Litigation Management Committee unanimously adopted the branding logo developed by graphic designer, Melanie Laquerre. For over 20 years, Melanie has worked closely with Indigenous communities developing brand identities and marketing material. The Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund entrusted Melanie with the task of creating a digitally illustrated replica of the beaded medallion, respecting its original details, colours and font style. She feels honoured and grateful to have been a part of this historical journey.

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ROBINSON HURON TREATY AREA 1850 CURRENCY By Hans Matthews

In 1850 the most common currency in use was based on coinage provided by the mint in Great Britain. Throughout the 1850s, the imperial and colonial governments debated the issue of colonial currency and coinage. The imperial government favored a system where all colonies used currency based on sterling, which could be either British currency or local colonial currency tied to sterling, including a decimalized currency. The colonial governments increasingly favored a decimal monetary system based on the United States dollar, because of the practical implications of the increasing trade with the neighboring United States. 28

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BRITISH COLONIAL CURRENCY Copper Farthings

Half Crowns

Dating back to the reign of Charles I when coins were minted in various forms of tin or copper (or a combination) and sometimes used as tokens. During the 19th Century they were copper until 1860 when they switched to bronze. Worth a quarter of a penny, during Victoria’s reign the copper years were 22 mm in diameter and the bronze years 20 mm, and produced every year except 1837, ’70, ’71 and ’89. The coins featured a bust of the queen on the obverse with the date below, which changed along with the metal used in 1860 to include a laureate and draped robe on her shoulders. On the reverse sat Britannia with a helmet, shield and trident, and a rose, thistle, and shamrock below, then in 1860 a lighthouse and sailboat were added, and the date appeared below. From 1838 to the end of 1859 the same dies used to produce the obverses of the gold sovereign were used on the farthings.

First issued in 1526 as a small gold coin, during Victoria’s reign it was sterling silver, had a 32 mm diameter, and equaled 2 shillings and 6 pence, or 30 pence (one eighth of a pound). From 1838 to 1850 the obverse featured a young bust of the Queen with her hair in a bun and the date underneath. The reverse portrayed a shield bearing the Royal Arms, encircled with a laurel wreath, a crown above, and a rose, thistle, and shamrock below.

Silver Coins British Silver coins became more important in circulation in some parts of British North America after about 1830. The intermediate denominations were the most common.

Sovereigns The Sovereign was perhaps the most widely used gold coin in Canada. It was used extensively by banks and the government for redeeming paper money right up to the 20th century. Sovereign (pound): Equaling 240 pence, or 80 threepence, or 40 sixpence, or 20 shillings, or 10 florins, or 8 half-crowns, or 4 crowns. The gold sovereign was minted throughout Victoria’s reign with a diameter of 22 mm. The obverse featured young bust of the Queen with the date below from 1838 to 1887.

Sixpence Sixpence (tanner, half shilling): Made of sterling silver and 19.5 mm in diameter, from 1838 to 1887 the sixpence obverse featured a young profile of Victoria with her hair in a bun. The reverse had SIX PENCE within a wreath, a crown above, and the date below. The nickname ‘tanner’ likely came from John Sigismund Tanner (1705 to 1775) who was the Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint at the Tower of London from 1741 until shortly before his death. E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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UPPER CANADA CURRENCY The Bank of Upper Canada was established in 1821 in York (Toronto, Ontario) under a charter granted by the Province of Upper Canada in 1819. When Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1841 to form the Province of Canada, it was decided that only the bank that held the government accounts should have the right to issue copper tokens. This privilege was enjoyed by the Bank of Montreal until 1848. Following the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849, rioting in Montreal led to the destruction of the legislative buildings and the capital of the province was transferred to Toronto. As a result, the right to issue tokens passed to the Bank of Upper Canada. Between 1850 and 1857 the Bank of Upper Canada issued a series of penny and halfpenny copper tokens. The obverse

of a penny token issued in 1850 is shown and features a St. George and the dragon motif encircled by the legend BANK OF UPPER CANADA and the date. The face of the 1850 penny and half penny features the seal for Upper Canada. Upon the creation of Upper Canada, a seal for the province was authorized by royal warrant dated 28 March 1792. The obverse was described as the Calumet of Peace (Peace Pipe) with the Anchor and Sword of State encircled by a Crown of Olives. Above this is a representation of the royal crown. In the upper right hand was the Union Jack, on the seal of 1817 replaced by the new Union Jack of 1801 with the St. Patrick’s Cross. Below are two cornucopias in saltire.

PROVINCE OF CANADA In June 1851, representatives of the Province of Canada, met in Toronto to discuss the introduction of a joint decimal currency to eventually replace British currency. The Government in London agreed in principle to a decimal coinage. Following the 1851 conference, the government of the Province of Canada began to move towards decimal currency. The provincial Parliament passed an act to introduce a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal

Video Feature:

LEROY BENNETT Leroy shares with us the value of the coins that were shared at Treaty: “At that time, currency, using British money, we have one dollar, silver half dollar and 10 cents, which equates to $1.60, or in current times, $4.00, and till this time, we still continue to receive the $4.00.” https://youtu.be/_PhY-JmPlH0

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fractional coinage. The idea was that the fractional values would correspond to exact values of fractions of the US dollar. The Preamble to the statute expressed the hope that the decimal currency could “hereafter be advantageously made common to all the Provinces of British North America, as being simple and convenient in itself, and well calculated to facilitate their commercial intercourse with other parts of this continent.” A related statute passed in the same session continued the statutory exchange rates for British and US currency used in Canada.


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Royal Crown Calumet of Peace (Peace Pipe)

Bank of Upper Canada Copper Penny: Face

Union Jack Flag

Anchor and Sword of State Between 1850 and 1857 the Bank of Upper Canada issued a series of penny and halfpenny copper tokens. Cornucopias in saltire Prior to the signing of the Treaty, copper was an important metal to Anishnawbek since time immemorial for trade, weapons and utilitarian purposes. It was the conflict over copper which led to the signing of Robinson Huron Treaty— discoveries of ancient Anishnawbek copper mines by settlers north of Sault Ste. Marie (Mica Bay).

Bank of Upper Canada Copper Penny: Obverse

St. George and the dragon motif

The obverse of a penny token issued in 1850 is shown and features a St. George and the dragon motif encircled by the legend BANK OF UPPER CANADA and the date.

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TREATY GOVERNANCE— What is it? By Sam Manitowabi

The term ‘governance’ is used to describe the way a group of people organize themselves in order to achieve goals and share responsibilities. When we discuss Anishinabek and the relationship with the ‘Crown’, we usually speak about ‘Treaty’. Treaty Governance can then refer to the structures Anishinabek create to make decisions about how the Treaty is maintained, managed and promoted. In my research for this article, I came across an undated document produced under the guidance of Elders that had gathered some time ago, and it reads:

Anishinawbek Enahkonegawin Ginawind gidaa zhitoonan maanda ezhiwaawiindmaageng miinwa n’waawiindmagmin ehpeeche gunawaab migwing ginawind dinawenmaaganinanik minawaa. Mshi shi wii gnawaab migyiing G’itchi Manidoo ezhchigeyiing giinwin. Anishinawbek Waawiindmaagewin Gwayakondiwin (wiidookodaadiwin) mdaaswaakshi-nshwaaswaakshi-naan-midna ji nakiiyiing maamwi ji kawaamdamang waa naagdooyiing gaa bi32

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zhichgewaad Anishinawbek mewzha weweni gii naagdawenmowaad kina gegoo gda kimnang, dedbinwe bemwidooyiing. Gnishdawambdaanaa gitchitwaa wendaagog enaagdawendimamang weweni ji mnaaden mang aki (gda kiimnan) miinwaa nbi geni zhi-mnojawendagoziwin yaamang edinakii’ang miinwaa ezhkibmaadzijig geni niigaaniijigi yaamwaad. We make this pledge and promise in witness of all our relations and in full view of G’Chi Manidoo that we the Anishinawbek Treaty Alliance of 1850 will work in unity to defend our inherent rights and promote the sovereignty of our Nation as protectors and stewards of our ecosystem within our traditional territories and our original rights. We recognize our sacred responsibility to respectfully manage the lands and waters for the prosperity of our communities and our future generations. This pledge, although brief, captures the spirit and intent of Treaty Governance in that it identifies that our goals,


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responsibilities and obligations are to defend our inherent rights, promote sovereignty, and protect our ecosystems. This pledge along with the RHW Declaration, signed on September 9, 2020, in Bawaating provides a framework of Treaty Governance for us to build upon.

GICHINA AKINAGEWIN

The Declaration speaks about the principles of Minigoziwin (inherent sovereignty), Gichinaakinagewin (great laws), kidakiimnaan (land), and Debendiziwin (the right to govern ourselves). Through these principles, Gichimanidoo defined our responsibilities and obligations. We see Minigozowin in the Treaty, our leaders declared that “we shall always have reserved jurisdictions over our full territory, as our rights to harvest within the full extent of the territory, underlying title to the land and to a share of resource revenues were guaranteed.”

KIDAKIIMNA AN (LAND), AND

Gichinaakinagewin (great laws), given to us by the Creator, define our responsibilities and obligations to kidakiimnaan (land), and debendiziwin (the right to selfdetermination). These laws govern all our relationships to allow us to live in harmony with all creation. These responsibilities and obligations given to us cannot be altered or taken away by any foreign government. Anishinabek have occupied, exercised authority and jurisdiction over our communities, our economies and our ways of life within this territory prior to the arrival of the settlers and their foreign governments that they have since established. Our Elders speak about Anishnaabek’s commitment to the principle of reciprocity by sharing, working together and working through any conflicts, with respect for each community to support one another, to work together on common goals and most importantly, to assert our collective rights within the territory. This principle of reciprocity must be invoked in all things we do, without it, we create an opportunity to follow the settler’s practices where one side wins and the other loses. When we take, we must compensate or give something in return, so there is balance, and enough resources for our future generations. Next, we need to determine our structures and decisionmaking model to ensure our Treaty is maintained, managed and promoted.

(GREAT LAWS), GIVEN TO US BY THE CREATOR, DEFINES OUR RESPONSIBILITIES AND OBLIGATIONS TO DEBENDIZIWIN (THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION).

Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin has been charged with this responsibility and have generated a ‘Protocol’ and ‘Strategic Plan’ to provide guidance on the development of structures and practices. RHW continues to work with the 21 Ogimaak on the development of a governance framework which will incorporate Ogimaak, elders, women and youth. This framework will be determined by the principles outlined in the RHW Declaration adopted on September 9, 2020. It is our hopes that we will all recognize our roles, obligations, and duties, to work together respectfully to implement all aspects of our Treaty. Strong Treaty governance is an important foundation not only for economic development and cultural and land protection, but for the strength of First Nations as a whole. RHW consists of the signatory First Nations of the Robinson Huron Treaty of 1850, and beneficiaries within the Treaty area. Currently we meet each season. Each meeting begins with Anishinaabe customs and protocols, which will include a Feast to remind us of the promises made and understand our history. Each leader will have an opportunity to be heard and then decisions and action plans will be made on a consensus basis. The Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin Ogimaak have the authority to pass laws that represent the interests of the Nation, and contribute to the preservation and wellbeing of the entire Nation, in the custom and practises of our traditions, as Creator has given us Debendiziwin. As we continue to work, develop and grow under the guidance and direction of our leaders, RHW will maintain the right to engage, discuss, negotiate, plan and enter into agreements with any Nation or corporation that will enhance opportunities and circumstances for the Treaty beneficiaries.

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Treaty Use and Occupancy: Gearing up for Community Interviews By Cheryl Recollet

The Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin is undertaking a Treaty-wide research project to understand how our people are using and caring for our lands. This mapping project will provide valuable information for our Nations. The resulting data sets can be used in several different applications to protect our Anishinabek rights and interests, assert our jurisdictions, and provide baselining to monitor changes. We are happy to provide an update on our project. Phase One of the project includes nine of our communities in our territory’s eastern and southern area, including Nipissing, Dokis, Wasauksing, Shawanaga, Magnetawan, Henvey, Pointe Grondine, Wahnapitae and Atikameksheng. The first step in our research project has been the research design phase. Summer 2021: Research Design Phase Our Research design phase included having one day indepth workshops with land users in each of our phase one communities; 9 workshops were held. The research design process is necessary to determine the questions that we will be putting in our survey. Our survey will be used for the interviews with our land users. During each workshop, we reviewed the parameters of the project, such as who to interview, species identified, locations, timeframes and why. Once we completed all the research design workshops, Terry Tobias, of Tobias and Associates, our Use and Occupancy Mapping expert will then develop our data collection manual and survey. During the research design phase, we are also busy preparing our base maps. The base maps will be used during the one-on-one interviews to identify locations of use and occupancy. Fall 2021: Methodology Pre-Test Phase Once our data collection manual and survey have been completed, we will be testing the survey by interviewing two people from each community. Going through actual 34

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interviews with the survey and base maps we created will help us see any unclear questions or areas where our survey needs improvement. This methodology pre-test will have 18 strong land users go through the survey’s interview process. Terry will then go back and make improvements to the survey and base maps. We will then be ready for our data collection phase. Winter 2021/2022: Data Collection Blitz Our data collection blitz will be scheduled for the winter of 2022 and will have Terry and his team going out to each of our communities to survey our land users. The interview process can take roughly 1-3 hours and will be one-onone. All COVID-19 precautions will be carried out. We are looking to identify the names of people who should be interviewed. If you are interested or know a harvester who might be, please get in touch with us.

If you are interested in participating in our project, please reach out to your lands and resources departments or contact: Stefanie Recollet, Use and Occupancy Analyst, Stefanie@waawiindamaagewin.com, or Cheryl Recollet, Director of Research and Communications, Cheryl@waawiindamaagewin.com


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Huron of 1850 Engagement at Youth Odena’s Ode’miin Giizis Virtual Festival By Jenilee Neveau

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This past summer, I was given the opportunity to engage and teach youth about Treaty at the Youth Odena Ode’miin Giizis Virtual Festival. This festival was part of Bringing Spirits Together in a Good Way, a collaborative project led by Youth Odena to increase reconciliatory relationships, increase access to safer cultural spaces, and deepen understanding of ceremony as it relates to concepts of worldview, time, space, and the universe. The project incorporates culture and ceremony to broaden awareness, heal trauma, and create meaningful relationships with multiple communities. The Youth Odena Ode’miin Giizis Virtual Festival was held over three days in June and brought together multiple mainstream and Indigenous child and youth organizations, including child welfare, educational, and social services. Ode’min Giizis is what Anishinaabe refer to as the Strawberry Moon and is the sixth moon of the year. During this moon cycle, communities usually hold their annual feasts, welcoming everyone home, regardless of their differences over the past year, letting go of judgment and self-righteousness. Also, the strawberry is the first berry to ripen and is thought to be good medicine for the heart and teeth. The virtual conference was made possible by Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin, Larimar Homes Inc., Laidlaw Foundation, CatalystsX and Northern Lights Collaborative. Youth participants were provided with laptops so they could attend the conference, and many of the youth won additional prizes as well. The youth and staff from Youth Odena and Larimar Homes Inc. particularly liked the first day. Participants enjoyed getting familiar with the website link, watching the video about the 7 Grandfather Teachings, and getting out onto the land to discover the beautiful rocks Jenilee hid for them at the Rankin Powwow Grounds. It was a beautiful sunny day, and everyone was excited about the introduction gifts from Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin and Youth Odena. Some participants even created their own artwork about the 7 Grandfather Teachings and shared the pictures with us. The second day was a beautiful warm day and participants shared pictures with festival organizers of them enjoying the festival in the beautiful sun. Participants enjoyed learning about Robinson Huron

Waawiindaamaagewin, an organization created by the 21 First Nations of the Robinson Huron Treaty. Most notably, the adult participants who work with Indigenous youth were impacted by gaining a basic understanding of these topics.

DURING THIS MOON CYCLE, COMMUNITIES USUALLY HOLD THEIR ANNUAL FEASTS, WELCOMING EVERYONE HOME, REGARDLESS OF THEIR DIFFERENCES OVER THE PAST YEAR, LETTING GO OF JUDGMENT AND SELFRIGHTEOUSNESS.

The adult participants were able to help the youth work through the Treaty Tracks Activity Booklet and most families finished all the activities. On the third and last day, I led the participants through the Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin GIS Portal to teach them some mapping skills and give them a better perspective on what their Treaty area and communities look like. Some families chose to let children draw maps for this activity if the GIS was too complicated for them, but some youth created maps using the GIS tool. Overall, everyone said it was a fun way to learn about mapping.

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ROBINSON HURON WA AWIINDAMA AGEWIN GIS PROGR AM UPDATE By RHW GIS Team

In our first edition of The Robinson Huron Treaty Times, we introduced you to Geographic Information System (GIS): what it is and how we are using it. We also featured our developing projects, highlighting the GIS Portal, which if you have not had a chance to check out, you can find it on our website at www.waawiindamaagewin.com. Try it out following the steps of our Quick Guide listed on page 41 or reach out to our team if you would like to schedule personal or community training, and allow us to demonstrate using the application. Let us know what you feel is missing or provide feedback of your experience—we are continuously working to add to the list of available data sets. Ndoo-Dbaajmowninaan (Our Story)— Anishinaabe within the Huron 1850 Treaty We are using our GIS Portal to map our ways, tell our stories, and share our knowledge of our connections and relations to the land and water with our treaty partners and all our relations: our systems, our governance and council fires. We also are working on Virtual Tours that can be taken using the GIS Portal. Baawating—the place where the Robinson Huron Treaty was signed—is the first community featured on our Virtual Tour in the GIS Portal. Ogimaa Sayers shares a journey with us along the St. Mary’s River, through Baawaating, also known as Sault Ste. Marie. 38

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We are excited to share with you ‘Our Story’, from the Anishinaabe lens, of the time and place as it was before and at the onset of colonization. Our governance, our relations and our obligations to the land, as we inherited rights to live in peace in harmony with all our relations. Ndoo-Dbaajmowninaan is now accessible on our website or by following the link below. Please take time to listen to the voice of Ogimaa Sayers as he shares key origins of our journey and our connections. This is a small piece of the stories to share and the ones we know exist and wish to include. If you would like to contribute and add your voice, or if you wish to recommend others to continue the process for the entire RHW community, please reach out. We have more to come as we continue to visit our relatives along the way. Stay tuned!

Access our survey on the website under ANOKAAJIGAN, then NDOODBAAJMOWNINAAN, or by visiting https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/ f65e1c8ea7964f4190032e4833945efc\


Our Waawiindamaagewin

Coming Soon—Virtual Tour Development 2021 Youth Stories

Nation to Nation

Youth Stories feature the voices of our youth as they talk Treaty, share knowledge, visit and explore the Robinson Huron 1850 Treaty. We look forward to continuing Ndoo-Dbaajmowninaan and sharing their journeys, which capture and share with us the origins through the lens of our youth.

We are working hard to develop a similar application to share with you the historical timeline of our Treaty from the onset of European Exploration. Starting with the 1455 Papal Bull and the Doctrine of discovery, 1497, 1670, 1671, 1754, 1763, 1746, 1776, 1794, 1812, 1836, 1850 to the Signing of the Huron Treaty.

Do you know where the Huron 1850 Treaty was signed?

Click on the map features or take the guided tour of Baawaating

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Our Waawiindamaagewin

DNAKIIWINAN (Places) In our last article, we shared that we were beginning to build a spatial survey to collect, capture and showcase places within the Huron 1850 Treaty area in our Anishinaabemowin. Since then, we have started using the survey to collect information, from our team, community, historians, and available resources. We are in search of your knowledge of places within our Treaty and in our language. We are compiling as many place names as possible, capturing the waters, land and many landmarks throughout our territory. We hope you have a chance to use our survey and add to our database. We are looking forward to having you share more Dnakiiwinan, places you remember, pasted from our ancestors, our communities. The survey should be easy to use—see the following for a few tips. Access our survey on our website under ANOKAAJIGAN, then DNAKIIWINAN, or by visiting https://survey123.arcgis. com/share/95b1f40d391f4eb9ac094a0f543ed8dd

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TIP: Use Zoom in + and out – icon or pinch with fingers to get to location. Once location is visible tap or select the exact location and the pin will drop.


Our Waawiindamaagewin

TRY OUT THE RHW GIS PORTAL Follow stepts 1 through 10 below. Download a copy of the RHW GIS Portal Quick Guide on our website.

Step 1: Connecting to the portal Go to www.waawiindamaagewin.com. Click ANDAWENDAMUN (menu) tab. Look under the ANOKAAJIGAN (initiatives) tab. Select the ‘The RHW GIS Portal’ tab to launch the web application. Step 2: Disclaimer When first entering, there is a disclaimer detailing portal information. The user understands that this web application may not capture all activity or available data, and is a work in progress, therefore functionality may be limited. Note, the portal is live—there is no save option. Check the box to agree then click OK. Step 3: Entering the portal Once in the portal, 21 communities are represented by their logos for spatial representation. When a logo is clicked, information and community websites are displayed. Use the curser to move the map around. Step 4: The basic tools On the left-hand side of the portal are some tools. These tools (top to bottom) are used to zoom in and out, select home (which is the layout the portal originally started in), create a full screen, and move left or right. Click these tools to better understand each of their functions. Step 5: The legend The first icon shown on the top right of the portal is the legend. A legend conveys the meaning of symbols that represents map features. Click on the legend to show what information is turned on within the layers list.

Step 6: The layer list Selecting the layer list icon provides a list of available operational layers, and allows users to turn individual layers on and off. (Select the tabs arrow on left to expand and show symbology.) Some layers also have sub-layers. Select the original layer first then select the sub-layer using the tabs arrow. See the sub-layers and open one at a time. Be patient and give time for the layers to load. Step 7: The basemap gallery By selecting the basemap gallery icon, the imagery can be changed for what best fits the mapping purposes. Select from the gallery for a different view. Step 8: The remaining icons above Swipe: This enables the user to easily compare the content of different layers in a map. Bookmark: This allows the user to create and add spatial bookmarks. Draw: This allows the user to draw simple graphics and add text on the map. Write a note or add an arrow on the map in users preferred area. Search bar: This is used if you cannot find a location on the map, this will zoom to the location that was recently input within the search bar. Step 9: Select tool The first icon on the bottom left of the portal is the select tool. It allows users to select features on the map. The layers that are available are the same layers that are turned on in the layers list (refer to step 6). Step 10: Print The last icon on the bottom left is the print tool, which provides a variety of layout and file format options for printing (i.e. JPG, PDF). Click the advanced button for more print options.

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MIIJIM MIIGWETCHWENDAM Food Security in RHT By Stefanie Recollet

Our Anishinaabe grandmas were self-sufficient badasses; they grew and harvested their own food, cooked over a wood fire, had root cellars, and preserved through canning and drying. Pre-colonization, our ancestors followed the natural harvesting cycles of our homelands. The Rez system, which confined us to a tiny fraction of our territories, seriously restricted access to our traditional food sources. Rations replaced our healthy ancestral foods, so instead of our land providing all the sustenance our Indigenous bodies needed, we were given what is now known as the three white devils of nutrition: flour, sugar, and dairy. These became a staple out of necessity, and it was out of resilience and our grandmother’s ingenuity that our precious frybread was born. Yes, believe it, or not our beloved Indian Tacos and Klik weren’t part of our traditional diet! We may have inherited a taste for canned meat & processed foods, or in more likeliness, they are less expensive options, making them a practical choice for low-income families. But, unfortunately, they are causing a surge of food-related illnesses like lactose intolerance, immune problems, diabetes, stomach cancers and heart disease. Not only is the modern convenience diet wreaking havoc on our bodies, but industrial agriculture is also hurting Shkagamikwe (Mother Earth).

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Globalized systems generate an alarming amount of waste. For example, there are massive amounts of packaging that food is shipped and displayed in. When improperly disposed of, it makes its way to the natural environment causing contamination and other adverse impacts like uptake in plants and polluting animal habitat.

WE CAN INCREASE FOOD SECURITY BY RE-LOCALIZING OUR FOOD SYSTEMS—ACCESS TO FOOD IS MORE STABLE AND SUSTAINABLE WHEN YOU GROW IT YOURSELF. MANY RHT SIGNATORY FIRST NATIONS HAVE ALREADY TAKEN GREAT STRIDES TO EDUCATE AND SUPPORT THEIR COMMUNITIES IN FOOD SECURITY.

Monocropping leads to soil depletion and biodiversity loss. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides contaminate nibi (water). Industrial meat production uses up massive areas of land, water, other feed crops and is one of the most significant contributors to climate change.

The ever-decreasing condition of our ecosystems reduce the quality and quantity of our traditional foods, making availability and access a challenge. Thus, creating a dependency on these industrial food systems.

Our ancestral plant foods and the animals we rely on for sustenance need a healthy environment to thrive.

However, external systems are vulnerable to the growing concern of climate change (droughts, wildfires, extreme

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Our Waawiindamaagewin

heat and heavy storms), transportation network disruptions, worker shortages (COVID-19 prevented farm-workers), contamination (food recalls), and price (market) fluctuations. As a result, the unpredictability in the availability and affordability is increasing, and we need to plan critical advancements to ensure our people will be self-reliant enough to withstand failure in centralized systems. As a strong nation, we need to be able to feed ourselves, our families, and our people. But, unfortunately, colonization and the intentional erasure of Anishinaabe Knowledge have diminished selfsufficiency in our communities. But we can increase food security by re-localizing our food systems—access to food is more stable and sustainable when you grow it yourself. Many RHT Signatory First Nations have already taken great strides to educate and support their communities in food security. Niigaaniin, which services seven North Shore First Nations, created a food security group with their communities as part of their emergency response efforts to COVID-19. It has been a successful forum for them to share their efforts to improve access and availability to healthy foods for their members. Sonya Cloutier was brought onto the COVID-19 Task Team and immediately recognized that food access was an issue for many First Nations when the pandemic hit, with the closing of Reserve borders and not having grocery stores. This led many of the communities to create food box programs to distribute food essential to their households. The communities have been remarkably resilient in their response. Some have constructed greenhouses, planted gardens, hosted hunt camps that provide wiiyaas (meat) for their food banks and other exciting initiatives like beekeeping and aquaponics. These innovative ideas can assist other First Nations to improve food security for their communities as well. Robinson Huron Waawiindaamaagewin is excited to feature these Treaty First Nations and their food security initiatives in upcoming editions. Stay tuned!

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TR ADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE ELDERS GROUP UPDATE By Susan (Sue) Chiblow

The Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) Elders group is from First Nations in the Robinson Huron Waawiindamaaewin (RHW). The TEK Elders, initially from the North Shore, came together to discuss concerns with aerial spraying of glyphosate in the forests in 2013. The TEK Elders have expanded to include Elders from the RHW. They have done several demonstrations, written numerous letters to governments, drafted a position paper, a resolution from the RHW Ogimaak, and presented a submission to United Nations Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes (toxics), Baskut Tuncak in 2019 on the damage of glyphosate use in the RHW territory. The TEK Elders are demanding a moratorium on glyphosate use in the RHW territory. Health Canada approves the use of glyphosate in Canada and the provincial Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry in Ontario issues licenses to forestry companies to apply glyphosate in forestry operations via aerial spraying. In forestry, glyphosate is used in ‘conifer treatments’ to suppress the growth of plants that compete with commercially valuable timber species such as Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana). Glyphosate is sprayed aerially over recent clear cuts and is sold for forestry use under the trade names Vision and VisionMax. The aerial spraying violates First Nations Treaty rights to the waters, to hunt, fish, gather berries, and medicinal plants in the Robinson Huron Treaty areas as glyphosate kills plants, poisons the waters, and wildlife moves from the areas due to the lack of food. 44

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The TEK Elders participated in the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) for APTN investigates series discussing the harms of aerial spraying on wildlife. This discussion featured TEK Elders and trappers about the reduction of wildlife since aerial spraying started. The adverse impacts from glyphosate use are on the entire health of the forest effecting First Nations socially, economically, spiritually, and culturally. The knowledge the TEK Elders possess state the glyphosate disrupts wildlife reproduction systems, causes wildlife to move from the area due to the lack of food, destroys medicines, and poisons waters disrupting the entire ecosystem. The TEK Elders have raised concerns with the biodiversity of the forests being compromised by glyphosate use and the contribution to climate change with the destruction of the forest. The TEK Elders have a vision of seeking to help the lands and all its beings become healthy and stay healthy for future generations. The TEK Elders group mission statement outlines a plan to manage and protect the lands and all its beings in a respectful balanced way, for today and for future generations through Anishinabek original instructions, responsibilities and laws given by the Creator.


Our Waawiindamaagewin

“WE ARE DEPENDENT SOCIALLY, ECONOMICALLY, SPIRITUALLY AND CULTUR ALLY ON THE HEALTH OF THE FOREST, INCLUDING THE WILDLIFE, PLANTS, WATER AND SOIL. IN MANY AREAS, WE CANNOT TRUST THAT THE MEDICINES AND FOODS WE HARVEST ARE CLEAN AND UNCONTAMINATED. THE AERIAL SPR AYING OF GLYPHOSATE VIOLATES OUR TREATY RIGHTS TO THE WATER AND TO HUNT, FISH AND GATHER BERRIES AND PLANT MEDICINES IN OUR TR ADITIONAL TERRITORIES. TREATY RIGHTS ARE RECOGNIZED AND AFFIRMED IN SECTION 35(1) OF THE CONSTITUTION ACT, 1982. WE ARE THE CARETAKERS OF THE LANDS AND WATERS THAT WERE GIVEN TO US BY THE CREATOR SO THAT WE MAY CONTINUE TO LIVE AS ANISHINABEK PEOPLE FOR GENER ATIONS TO COME. WE HAVE NEVER RELINQUISHED THESE SACRED RESPONSIBILITIES.” tekelders.weebly.com

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RHW OGIMAAK ASSEMBLY SPRING 2021 By Jolene Recollet

Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin (RHW) held its Quarterly Ogimaak Assembly on June 10, 2021, via Zoom. The RHW Ogimaak welcomed newly elected Ogimaak from the territory and honoured the contributions of a long-standing member of the RHW Political Working Group, Ogimaa Wayne Pamajewon of Shawanaga First Nation. The quarterly assemblies provide RHW Ogimaak with an opportunity to gather, discuss and provide direction to address current Treaty issues affecting the territory. These assemblies also provide an opportunity for RHW Staff to share updates on current projects and engage leadership to reflect community participation.

Elders Frank and Julie Ozawagosh opened and closed the Assembly in a good way and were in attendance throughout the day. The Ogimaak in attendance at this Spring Assembly discussed current issues regarding territorial boundaries, establishing an Elder’s Advisory Group, the future direction of the RHW organization and governing body, the Political Working Group, and planning for the 2021 Treaty Gathering. The Ogimaak also heard presentations from the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund’s legal team regarding the status of the ongoing Annuities Case, including an update on the recent hearings at the Ontario Court of Appeal where Ontario appealed of Justice Hennessy’s Stage One and Stage Two decisions in Restoule v Canada. RHW Executive Director, Earl Commanda, presented the Ogimaak an update on current projects and the financial position of the RHW organization, as well as how the RHW team is implementing the newly adopted Strategic Plan through work plans for the 2021-22 fiscal year. Finally, the RHW Ogimaak shared parting words to outgoing PWG member Ogimaa Wayne Pamajewon. Ogimaa Pamajewon has served on the Political Working Group from its inception and was instrumental in developing the RHW initiative. Ogimaak from across the territory shared words of appreciation for Ogimaa Pamajewon, including words from Ogimaa Dean Sayers (Batchewana) and Gimaa Scott McLeod (Nipissing). Ogimaa Pamajewon shared a message with the Ogimaak in attendance and reiterated his vision for a Treaty-based governance system with the Treaty as the basis for all future development and negotiations with the Crown.

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Our Celebrations

SILVER COVENANT CHAIN WAMPUM BELT The Silver Covenant Chain Wampum Belt signifies an agreement and a relationship that was established at the 1764 Gathering of Peace at Niagara. This Agreement occurred between First Nation leaders and Sir William Johnson, a representative of the British Crown. On the belt are two white figures holding hands, which represent the Crown and the First Nations entering a peaceful relationship. The two hands are clasped together

through a covenant chain bonded by concepts of peace, friendship and respect. This relationship reaffirms the basic principles of the Royal Proclamation, issued by King George III in 1763, being that only fair and voluntary land dealings will proceed between the British and First Nations peoples. It was due to the agreement made in 1764 at Niagara that Anishinaabe played a large role in repelling an American invasion in the War of 1812.

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OGIMAA PAMAJEWON’S ADDRESS By Erin Kendall

After 48 years at the helm, Ogimaa Pamajewon is leaving politics and the Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin’s Political Working Group. This article is a tribute to his journey and provides the community with his final messages to reflect on as we march onward into the future. In 1973, the world was bustling. Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs faced off in the battle of the sexes tennis match, King Harvest released their hit Dancing in the Moonlight, and the oil price skyrocketed. But along with all these memorable events, one illuminates above the rest. 1973 was the first year that Ogimaa Wayne Pamajewon became the leader of Shawanaga First Nation. Looking backward on his trail of pioneering leadership, we honour Wayne Pamajewon and the time he contributed to Shawanaga. In his time here, he dedicated much of his life to promoting the rights of our land, water, history, and people while reinforcing the Treaty and its importance. Though the work was never easy, and our community faced obstacles at times, as a resilient Ogimaa, he remained stubborn to make a difference, and his ambitious drive enabled us to get to where we currently are. These are his final words. “First of all, I want to say that it’s been a long road to get to where we are, and it hasn’t been easy. I’ve enjoyed the work and it’s been an absolute pleasure to represent the community on many occasions. It’s been a learning process for us all, and I support the folks out there working to help us. On my first day as a leader in my community in 1973, I was taught a lesson I will never forget right from day one. I was given the Treaty and my Elder, my uncle who was on the council, pointed to it, and he said that’s some euphoria here. Then he leaned in and said, very heavily to me, “this is your bible. I don’t want you to forget about this.” And true to his words, I never forgot. What is so important to me is that we get behind our Treaty and push it as hard as 48

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possible. I know the best is yet to come as long as we keep going and uphold its value.” “Back in the day, there was a point where it seemed that nobody was interested in listening to anyone who was talking about the Treaty. I admit that it did get frustrating over those 40 something years because people were more interested in developing their own amenities and doing what they could through programs and grants. In those days, everyone was fighting over money, which created a lot of division. It didn’t allow us to concentrate on the big picture, which I believed was to get the government to know about the Treaty and the implications. The governments never did try to whip us on the Treaty issues, and when I received the Treaty, the Indian act was handed to me simultaneously. My uncle referred to it as what we already knew today—a stumbling block.” “However, despite all of the challenges we have faced and are facing, here we are, persevering and making our voices heard. We have had to fight very hard legally and protest a lot over the years. I watched with pride as our people ran across this country, talking about the Treaty and spreading the word. Looking back on this journey, I can say it’s nice to be where we are, but I believe the fight doesn’t stop here. It’s an ongoing thing, and we can’t move leisurely. We have to continue to push our agenda day after day. There are many things that we have to deal with. The importance of enforcing our Treaty is one of them, but also issues with the use of our lands, our freshwater, the


Our Celebrations

education of our culture, and many more. I want to bring up three agenda issues that I believe need to be prioritized in the future.” “Firstly, we should be very concerned when talking about what’s happening in our land and the surrounding areas. We need to let these people know they have to speak to us to coordinate any land developments because it’s rightfully ours. It belongs to us.” “Secondly, we need to let Ontario, the feds, and the United States know that we never surrendered the water, we never gave up the lake beds, and we never gave up the river bottoms. One of the most important things we should address is the destruction of our freshwater. If something happens to those lakes, it will be devastating. Ships travel from the top end to the bottom, dragging evasive species into our territories, the wrong kind of fish, and algae—it’s concerning. We need to put the government on notice that we never gave up our water, and we’re entitled to it to defend it from being tainted.” “Thirdly, educating the job march out there could arguable be the biggest issue we have to deal with. We have to try and change the education of those people in some way, shape or form. That, to me, is one of the biggest problems we have to address. There never was the correct history of our people being taught in schools, that’s why we have what we have.” “Obviously, we got a big job in front of us. Going forward, it’ll become more critical to organize ourselves to provide our youths something to work with in the

future. The fight will never stop, and no matter the hurdle we must continue to be diligent with our efforts. I know there is a lot of good stuff we’re doing right now like mapping our lands. I don’t think we’ve ever forgotten where our lands were, because it’s our history, but now we’re finally claiming it as ours and that’s what we need to be doing. As long as we continue our fight, we will see the results we want to see. It has been a real pleasure working with all types of folks. One of the things I always thought that we should pursue more is that we make connections with our brothers and sisters on the other side of the border or the other side of the bright lights. I hope we can do this and other things in the future. Overall, it’s been a wonderful experience and I’m appreciative of the support from people who have given me the honour of being Ogimaa and letting me work for our community.” In conclusion, Ogimaa Pamajewon leaves a legacy of a gogetter. During the time he was the Shawanaga First Nation leader, he taught people how to be proud of their culture and rights. We’re equally inspired and impressed by his optimism and confidence, which has helped foster a powerful commitment to address challenges and issues facing First Nations, in Shawanaga’s community and across Canada. A lot has changed since 1973, and throughout all this time, Ogimaa Pamajewon worked tirelessly to make this First Nation stronger and more resilient than ever before. We can only imagine how much that will continue into the future under new leadership. We are sad to see a great leader go, yet we remain excited for what we can trailblaze in the years ahead, thanks to what was achieved in our past.

“I WATCHED WITH PRIDE AS OUR PEOPLE R AN ACROSS THIS COUNTRY, TALKING ABOUT THE TREATY AND SPREADING THE WORD. LOOKING BACK ON THIS JOURNEY, I CAN SAY IT’S NICE TO BE WHERE WE ARE, I BELIEVE THE FIGHT DOESN’T STOP HERE. IT’S AN ONGOING THING, AND WE CAN’T MOVE LEISURELY. WE HAVE TO CONTINUE TO PUSH OUR AGENDA DAY AFTER DAY.”

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ROBINSON HURON 1850TREATY GATHERING By Steven McCoy

When you stand on the shore banks of the St. Mary’s River today, a place known to Anishinaabe people as Bawating, there’s nothing telling the visitor about the significance or the history of this sacred area and what it means to Anishinaabe people. Bawating is an Ojibway term translated into English meaning ‘the place of the rapids’ and Anishinaabe teachings say this is where creation took place; it is the place where life began! Anishinaabe people from all over Turtle Island used to travel for days to gather at Bawating and have continued to do so for millennia. Bawating is also the place where the 21 Lake Huron First Nation Ogimaak came together and entered the Robinson Huron Treaty on September 9, 1850, with the settler governments. This was a very significant moment in time when two nations entered an historic partnership based on a resource sharing agreement, known as the Robinson Huron Treaty, that led to the development of current day Canada. Yet, when you stand on the shore banks of the St. Mary’s River today there are no monuments, there are no plaques, and there are no statues commemorating the historic events that took place here. The true history and stories of Bawating are now being told through the lens of Anishinaabe people and in 2016, the first ever Robinson Huron Treaty Gathering took place in Bawating on the shore banks of the St. Mary’s River. The Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Management Committee wanted to find more effective ways to communicate to the First Nation communities, members, and the public about the importance of the Treaty and what the annuities case means for members and communities within the Treaty area. In response, a Sacred Council Fire was lit, and First Nation leaders, spiritual guides and pipe carriers gathered around and proceeded with a pipe ceremony to ask for guidance and clarity from the ancestral spirits. As the pipes made their way around the sacred fire, those in 50

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attendance called upon their ancestors and asked how to proceed in a good way. From that ceremony, a decision was made to start an annual gathering to commemorate the signing of the Robinson Huron Treaty on the same anniversary date and to hold the first gathering at the same spot where the Treaty was signed.

THE TRUE HISTORY AND STORIES OF BAWATING ARE NOW BEING TOLD THROUGH THE LENS OF

ANISHINAABE PEOPLE AND IN 2016, THE FIRST EVER ROBINSON HURON TREATY GATHERING TOOK PLACE IN BAWATING ON THE SHORE BANKS OF THE ST. MARY’S RIVER.

The first Robinson Huron Treaty Gathering was created as a way for the Litigation Management Committee to unite all 21 Lake Huron First Nation communities who make up the Treaty area and exert their sovereignty while gathering strength and guidance from the ancestors through ceremony


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to help the Litigation Management Committee endure the long court case that lay ahead. The gathering was also part of the communications strategy for the Litigation Committee to help raise awareness among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people about the annuities case and the Robinson Huron Treaty. In addition, the gatherings were meant to be an educational experience by sharing important information such as what agreements are contained in the Treaty and how the relationship between the Government of Canada and First Nations is supposed to look today.

THE FIRST GATHERING WAS A HUGE SUCCESS WHICH IS EVIDENT IN THE BIG TURNOUT OF ATTENDEES, NATIONAL MEDIA COVER AGE AND KNOWLEDGE THAT WAS SHARED.

The first gathering, began in a unique way that was as beautiful as it was powerful for all those in attendance. The day started as the sun rose over the horizon only to be greeted by a misty fog that enveloped everything in sight, reducing visibility so much that one could barely see across the small stretch of the St. Mary’s River that separates Canada from the United States. As the morning sun slowly rose in the eastern sky, a small caravan of vehicles carrying various event organizers, community leaders and First Nation Ogimaak made its way across the International Bridge from the Canadian side and convened on the southern banks of the St. Mary’s River on the soil of the United States of America. After a small pipe ceremony was conducted along the banks of the river in the misty haze, the small group of about two dozen people piled into a 24-foot-long canoe to make the journey across the river. The group pushed off the banks of the river and started their journey into the misty morning fog while U.S. Coast Guard ships floated in the background in an present yet respectful manner. The presence of authorities from various agencies, such as members of the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. and Canadian Border agents and members of the Ontario Provincial Police didn’t damper the spirits of the group; quite the opposite in fact and as they made their way across the river, the group was in good spirits as laughter filled the air while their big canoe led the way, zigging and zagging through the foggy morning mist. 52

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Our Celebrations

The journey across the river kicked off the 2016 gathering as an exertion of Anishinaabe rights to cross the international border unhindered and as the group guided their boats onto the northern shores of the St. Mary’s River on the Canadian side, they were greeted by numerous dancers dressed in full regalia while drummers filled the air with the beats and rhythms of Mother Earth’s heart. As the sun rose higher in the sky and the fog dissipated into the afternoon heat, the grounds of Whitefish Island started to swell with attendees from all over the province and beyond, many more than the organizers anticipated, all of them eager to participate in the gathering. The event also attracted members of the press from major news agencies such as APTN and CBC. In addition, the Assembly of First Nations National Ogimaa at the time, Perry Belgrade, also made an appearance much to the surprise of those in attendance and took to the stage to say some words of support and encouragement. The first gathering was a huge success in the big turnout of attendees, national media coverage and the knowledge that was shared. Not long after the first gatherings’ sacred fire went out, the Litigation

Management Committee, in conjunction with First Nation leaders and spiritual advisors went back into the lodge to begin planning for the 2017 gathering and beyond. Location selection became the topic of discussion surrounding the second gathering as the council of organizers wanted it to be accessible by as many people in the Treaty area as possible, so the Atikameksheng First Nation was chosen as the 2017 host for the gathering. Being close to the City of Sudbury, Atikameksheng First Nation offered the organizers plenty of resources to accommodate all the attendees such as hotel rooms, especially for Elders, who required special care and protection from the elements. Finding enough rooms for all the attendees and dignitaries to stay in became a bit of an issue for the council of organizers as the 2018 gathering was co-hosted by Wasauksing and Shawanaga First Nations and held in Shawanaga. Shawanaga First Nation is on the eastern coast of Lake Huron, farther from the luxuries and resources provided by a major city centre which posed some challenges for event organizers such as finding enough accommodations and being able to feed the hundreds of attendees in an area that just doubled in population size due to the gathering. E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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The same issues presented themselves for the 2019 gathering as it was held on the unceded territory of Wiikwemkoong First Nation, which is also located on Manitoulin Island, but is on the western side. Challenges with accommodations and food put the organizers to the test in their attempts to keep everyone housed and fed for the duration of the 2018 and 2019 gatherings.

AS THE DAY PROGRESSED AND THE CEREMONIES CONTINUED, VARIOUS SPEAKERS, ELDERS AND LEADERS TOOK TURNS SHARING KNOWLEDGE AS THE FIRE KEEPERS KEPT THE SACRED FIRE BURNING, CARRYING THEIR MESSAGES TO THE SPIRITS IN THE WHISPS OF SMOKE THAT EMANATED FROM THE FLAMES.

Despite these challenges, the events continued to gain momentum since the inaugural gathering took place in 2016. The organizers came away feeling successful in achieving their goal of bringing people together to commemorate the signing of the Robinson Huron Treaty while raising awareness amongst attendees and the public about the importance of honouring the Treaties while strengthening our relationships with one another. Then COVID-19 broke out across the globe and the 2020 gathering had to be postponed, much to the dismay of the council of organizers. The absence of the gathering in 2020 was noticeable amongst the communities, members, leaders and organizers which slowed the momentum achieved from the previous gatherings. When the council convened and went back into ceremony to ask those ancestral spirits for guidance and vision, it became clear that the gatherings must continue. The decision was made to go ahead with a 2021 gathering and return to the inaugural host community of Batchewana First Nation and the territory of Bawating. The priority of the 2021 gathering was to share good energies, knowledge, and recharge for the upcoming season, which was especially important after a one-year 54

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hiatus. The council of organizers wanted to include more culture and ceremony for the 2021 gathering so an entire day was dedicated to celebrating and engaging in traditional cultural events and ceremonies. All 21 Lake Huron First Nation Ogimaak were asked to bring one log for the sacred council fire, a log that has been blessed and specifically chosen for the purpose of being used in ceremony throughout the gathering in the Teaching Lodge. The idea of constructing a Teaching Lodge for the 2021 gathering came from ceremony. All of creation was represented in the gathering process and in the construction work that took place in the building of the Teaching Lodge. Volunteers and event organizers spent the day before the 2021 gathering, much of it in the pouring rain, assembling the Teaching Lodge. When finished, the Lodge stretched alongside the Sault Canal at an impressive length of 100 feet with a width of 24 feet while standing at a height of approximately 12 feet at the highest point in the curved roof of the lodge. The saplings used for the construction of the Teaching Lodge were all gathered from the original reserve lands of Batchewana First Nation located about 30 minutes outside of Sault Ste. Marie. All the work was completed by volunteers who participated in ceremonies throughout the area and were ever-present in the planning and organizing of the 2021 gathering. The rains that poured down on the organizers as they constructed the Teaching Lodge did not dampen their spirits as everyone seemed to enjoy the warm September rain as it fell from the skies cleansing the grounds around the site. The work that took place beforehand resulted in a Teaching Lodge that was built from a place of spirituality and anyone who was present throughout the day of ceremony could feel and see the power and presence of those spirits as they appeared in different forms throughout the day. The morning of Thursday, September 9, 2021 started with the sun rising slowly over the city skyline of Sault Ste. Marie, its reflection shimmering off the fast-moving waters of the St. Mary’s River. In the western sky, low to mid lying clouds with fluffy tops stretched high into the heavens as they floated slowly along with the morning breeze. The clouds provided the perfect canvas as a reflective backdrop for the rising sun to paint them with a distinctive pink hue. As the Sunrise Ceremony


Our Celebrations

commenced, a flock of geese flying in a perfect V-shaped formation appeared from the western sky, honking loudly so everyone present had their attention as they flew over the eastern section of the Teaching Lodge, so low that you could almost reach up and touch their tail feathers mid-flight. As the day progressed and the ceremonies continued, various speakers, Elders and leaders took turns sharing knowledge as the fire keepers kept the sacred fire burning, carrying their messages to the spirits in the wisps of smoke that emanated from the flames. In the afternoon, the spirits continued to answer those calls as various birds such as hawks and eagles appeared high in the sky directly above the Teaching Lodge, circling around with their wings spread out catching the afternoon winds, along with the attention of the participants gathered in and around the Teaching Lodge. The day of ceremony was truly a memorable moment for all of those who were present and was a great start to the 2021 Treaty Gathering.

and Sunrise Ceremonies. Due to COVID-19 restrictions many speakers, such as National Chief Roseanne Archibald, gave their remarks on a large screen via Zoom to an audience gathered inside the Machine Shop event hall. The speakers reminded us of the original intent and spirit of the Treaty and encouraged everyone to find their voice and call upon the Governments of Canada to honour the original intent of the Treaty when the Ogimaak and leaders convened on the banks of the St. Mary’s River back in 1850 and entered into a relationship together. In 2021, as attendees, leaders, organizers and community members gathered again on the banks of the St. Mary’s River, there were still no monuments to see, no plaques to read and no statues to admire that celebrate the Anishinaabe history of Bawating or commemorate the signing of the Robinson Huron Treaty. Yet, through sacred ceremony and prayer, we know the spirits of our ancestors will be ever present, guiding our actions that help strengthen our relationships as we move forward together into the future.

On Friday the organizers had virtual live streaming of the gathering available for those who could not attend, except for sacred moments such as Pipe Ceremonies E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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SEASONAL ROUNDS By Sam Manitowabi

The Anishinaabeg lived mobile lives, sometimes as farmers, fishers, hunters, trappers, or artisans doing activities as the seasons dictated. Researchers describe this as Seasonal Rounds. Seasonal Rounds can be described as a cyclical method of activities based on the harvesting times of plants and animals which feed, heal and are helpful to humans living in a specific place. Thus, helping humans live in harmony with the land. This article will explore the Seasonal Rounds that the Anishinaabeg of the Huron 1850 Treaty Territory would have followed. In the early summer after the Feast of the Dead, the Anishinabeg would travel to their summer villages, more than likely nestled along the shores and river mouths of the North Shore, Manitoulin down to Penetanguishene. Once settled into their wigwams, they would begin to organize for their productive season, including planting corn and vegetables and the harvesting of strawberries, cherries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, and cranberries. In between these activities, the youth would engage in ball games, foot races, wrestling, and hunting small game, honing their hunting skills with their bows and arrows. The boys also learned how to set nets and clean fish. As summer draws to a close and the seasons begin to change, the Anishinabek would head inland, where each family had a designated and exclusive hunting and trapping ground, and prepare for the long winter ahead. They will finish processing their foods, smoking fish, deer and moose meat, drying fruits and vegetables and moving to their interior fall and winter camps. At these camps, they will gather firewood and fix any structures and equipment necessary to help them survive the winter. Although deer, elk, moose and bear were hunted for food and trade, fur56

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bearing animals were also trapped for trade. In addition, commercial hunting provided the Anishinaabeg with the ability to purchase firearms and other manufactured items such as cotton and wool, which were highly valued. In the spring, they would decamp for the sugar bush. The isolation of winter was replaced with the friendliness of the sugar camp, where many families would come together for several weeks and cooperate in a festive atmosphere. Sugar was the main product. It was a profitable trade item valued by Anishinaabeg and traders. Once maple sugaring was complete, they loaded their canoes with sugar, furs, deer skins, pemmican, bear’s oil, deer tallow (fat) and sometimes honey and began their journey to meet up with other families at the gathering place. Anishinaabe gathered for 5 or 6 days to feast the dead. It is said that all the Anishinaabe and children would go around among the camps and greet one another, feasting and throwing food into the fire. The feast would take place at a traditional burial ground where family members who had passed on during the winter would be formally laid to rest, and memories of long-departed loved ones would be celebrated. After the Feast of the Dead, all Anishinaabeg who wintered in the area would travel back to the shores of their summer homes and begin their seasonal rounds again.


Our Celebrations

Podcast Spotlight: THE BIRCHBARK SCROLLS By Sam Manitowabi

I click on the link, selected play and began to listen. A young voice, clear, concise and with a sense of certainty, introduces herself and her podcast called The Birchbark Scrolls. “I am Jenelle Manitowabi, I am here with my guest Dr. Keri Cheechoo...” She opens with introductions and provides a brief introduction to the show, The Birchbark Scrolls. “The idea for the podcast is to put the spotlight on First Nation role models and their stories. Personally, these individuals have had a positive influence on me, and what they have shared helped me through difficult times in my journey to date.” Jenelle goes on to say, “I think a lot of these stories may not be heard otherwise, and it was very cool for me to be able to create a space for my guests and my listeners. To draw inspiration and to see that there isn’t just one path to success; or that it’s never too late or too early to chase your dreams. It doesn’t matter what you have endured. You deserve to find success and happiness.” I asked Dr. Keri Cheechoo, the interviewee, what she had experienced as a guest on the podcast. She replied, “The conversation I had with [Jenelle] is amongst the best I have ever had! Good medicine.” I asked Jenelle about the name, and she stated,”When I was younger, the Elders used to tell us how back in the day, when something happened that was worth passing on, birch bark scrolls were used to keep these stories safe. These are the stories of our First Nation people, celebrating their victories and hard work; they deserve to be shared, to be kept. There were a few other names for the podcast, but this one felt right.” Jenelle Manitowabi is a 20-year-old Anishinabekwe from Lac Seul First Nation in Northwestern Ontario and whose grandparents come from Wiikwemkoong, M’Chigeeng and Sagamok. She is a recent graduate of Sault College’s Police Foundations where she was voted the All-Star member of the Women’s Varsity Hockey team as a goaltender and was the Indigenous Student Council President. She has announced that more podcast episodes will be released shortly.

The Birch Bark Scrolls can be found here https://www.listennotes.com/podcasts/ the-birchbark-scrolls-podcast-jenelleAYL-Fb5jwpJ/#

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RENEWING the TREATY RELATIONSHIP By Elizabeth Carlson-Manathara, Professor, Laurentian University

When I moved to Sudbury from Winnipeg in 2017, one of my first priorities was to learn about the Robinson Huron Treaty of 1850. This is because I understood that honouring and upholding the Treaty relationship as a non-Indigenous person is what makes it possible for me to live with these lands. In order to learn more about the Treaty, I attended the Treaty Gathering at Shawanaga First Nation in 2018. I was touched by the kindness and hospitality I experienced there. At this gathering, Ogimaa Wayne Pamajewon explained that all people residing within the Robinson Huron Treaty Territory are Treaty People. Thus, local mayors and reeves were invited to the gathering as representatives of local non-Indigenous people. In Ogimaa Pamajewon’s opening remarks, he asked the invited reeves and mayors to stand and be recognized. Silence followed before he said, “I don’t see any.” Attending the gathering and hearing Ogimaa Pamejewon’s words impressed on me the importance of settlers and our political leaders that reside on these Treaty lands coming together with First Nations Treaty Signatories through Treaty gatherings so that, as Ogimaa Pamejewon says, “we can recognize each other, open communications to positive dialogue on the true history of the Treaty, and to clearly signify to people that there is an agreement in place that is a living document and must be adhered to by everyone.” At the second Treaty Gathering I attended at Wiikwemikong First Nation in 2019, I was incensed to learn that that Ontario planned to appeal Justice Hennessy’s Stage 1 decision of the Restoule Annuities case. It was deeply disturbing that the government that represented my side

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of the Treaty would use my money as a taxpayer to fight against an honourable outcome of the case, and against First Nations people. Because of this, my students at Laurentian University and I initiated a Change.org petition (HonourRHT1850). We hoped to raise awareness among non-Indigenous peoples about what was being done in our name, and to tell Ontario to honour and uphold the Treaty.

(...) ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS THAT NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE CAN DO IS TO RETURN LANDS THAT WERE UNETHICALLY TAKEN FROM INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, AND TO HONOUR AND RESPECT INDIGENOUS JURISDICTION OVER THEIR LANDS.

As a social work professor, my research has focused on the roles of non-Indigenous people in decolonization and on educating the Canadian public about the structures and processes of colonialism that operate in Canada. In my work, I have attended gatherings and have read many writings by Indigenous scholars, Knowledge Holders,


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leaders, and activists and I have come to learn that Indigenous Treaty perspectives often maintain that the land was to be shared, rather than ceded or surrendered. I have learned that the September 9, 2020 Declaration of the 1850 Robinson Huron Treaty Waawiindamaagewin says, “we clearly stated and had written into our Treaty that we shall always have reserved jurisdictions over our full territory, as our rights to harvest within the full extent of the territory, underlying title to the land and to a share of resource revenues were guaranteed.” I have also learned from Indigenous Knowledge Keepers, leaders, and scholars that one of the most important things that nonIndigenous people can do is to return lands that were unethically taken from Indigenous peoples, and to honour and respect Indigenous jurisdiction over their lands. In my experience, it can be very difficult for settlers to return and/or share land, as much fear and confusion can emerge for them. This is why I plan to begin research that will help reduce settler fears and reveal clear ways forward for settlers who wish to learn how to return and share land in good ways. I also understand that this is deeply relational work that involves learning from First Nations perspectives and renewing the Treaty relationship. This is why I have invited Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin to partner with me in developing and carrying out this research. I wish to thank the First Nations of the Robinson Huron Treaty of 1850 Territory for allowing me to live and work on your lands as your Treaty relative, and I plan to continue learning how to become a better relative as I go forward.

References Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin. (2020, September 9). The Anishinaabek of the 1850 Robinson Huron Treaty Waawiindamaagewin Declaration. http://rhw1850treaty.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ RHTC-DECLARATION-FINAL-VERSION-1.pdf Robinson Huron Treaty Gathering: Renewing our Relations. (2018). Robinson Huron Treaty Gathering-Day 1. [video]. Vimeo: FirstTel Communications Corporation. https://livestream.com/accounts/23280637/ rhtg-01/videos/180590706

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HEALING THROUGH TR ADITIONAL CR AFTING: ASH BASKETS By Jolene Recollet

While visiting Art Petahtegoose’s home in Atikameksheng, I found some long strips of wood that intrigued me. I asked Art’s son, Brandon, what they were for, and Brandon excitedly told me they were for Ash Baskets that his dad was working on. I asked Brandon if he could share more about the baskets with me but he indicated that his dad would have to be the one to talk about them since they were his. Art came out for an interview.

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Our Stories

Art shared that these were not being made just for the sake of it, they were a way of reconnecting to Spirit and the Anishinaabe way of life. Something that was taken from us during periods over time such as residential schools, day schools, and the 60’s scoop. Art indicated that the making of an ash basket is a way of returning to the teachings we have engrained in us as Anishinabek. Those teachings, and way of life, were lost when our children were taken from us. Family and cultural bonds became broken; and sometimes, those bonds were destroyed. Art said his parents were able to recognize the change that was happening and spoke to him about how his children didn’t know who they were. We are witnesses to the disruption that has occurred due to the forced change in the Anishinabek’s social fabric of the family. The bonds of family relationship have been disrupted. The attachment mechanisms that have been put into place for and carried for centuries have been disrupted. “The building of these baskets helps us undo that damage because it allows us to work one-to-one with the children. To help them see how they would’ve lived if we didn’t have to go to residential or day schools where they were separated from their families.”

MAKING ASH BASKETS IS A WAY OF RETURNING TO WHO ARE AS ANISHINABEK AND MENDING THE BONDS THAT WERE BROKEN AS A RESULT OF RESIDENTIAL AND DAY SCHOOLS.

When we think about what happened in these schools, we see why the resulting damage occurred: children were exposed to colonization through the policies and laws of the government. The ideas that were brought from these places were designed to cause our extermination as Anishinabek. They were designed so that Anishinabek would lose our sense of being and forced us to become people that did not know our ancestry or who we were. The intent was to change who were as people and this is still prevalent today. Making ash baskets is a way of returning to who are as Anishinabek and mending the bonds that were broken as a result of residential and day schools.

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MAKING AN ASH BASKET By Art Petahtegoose

Recently my granddaughter approached me to teach her how to make black ash baskets for a contest. It felt warming that my granddaughter asked so I quickly said yes. To begin, I asked her to do a few of things. I asked her to gather her cousins together to help and to bring tobacco to follow custom in initiating this activity. We walked out to the land to a wetland where there is a nice grove of Black Ash trees growing. I asked them to think of where they were walking and begin to change their mind in the way they see the world. To help them see from the eyes of an Anishinabek, I asked them take the tobacco and look around and observe the life around them. I asked them to think about taking that tree’s life. They hadn’t thought about that before. I asked them to reflect on that even though they were young.

I WANTED TO HELP THE YOUTH UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE TAKING OF A TREE FROM THE LAND. GOING OUT ON THE LAND YOU BEGIN TO SEE THE LIFE AROUND YOU FROM A DIFFERENT VIEW.

When we think about our way of being, way of seeing, way of being Anishinaabe, it is different than the modern, industrial world. From that perspective, everything is an object. In our world everything is spirit. Everything is alive. We need to learn about this difference and need to learn to appreciate it. 62

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I wanted to help the youth understand and appreciate the taking of a tree from the land. Going out on the land you begin to see the life around you from a different view. You can see the trees and their bark, if you look at the striations on the tree some are long and some are short. Those markings tell you that the trees are related to each other. If you see a tree with short striations, you’ll also see the trees around it also have short striations. There’s a relationship there, the trees are related to one another. You can see that very clearly in the length of the striations. There’s life there that we come to connect with, come to visit with, come to know. We want these youth to understand that there’s a family there and that they will be taking one of their family members. That’s why we put tobacco down, to ask for forgiveness and give thanks for taking a part of their family. We harvest the tree in the spring, generally just after the snow melts, when you see the little buds on the branches. It’s the time where it’s carrying the most moisture content. We are following steps that have been laid down by nature. If you look at the tree rings, we are choosing the outer white layer of the bark. Part of the reason is that when we add color to the wood it takes the color better than the inside dark rings. You can also use the dark rings as well for black ash baskets. It’s up to you to decide what you prefer to use. We’ll cut a small v-shape into the tree to see what the tree rings are like. We’re looking for rings of about 3 mm, less than that and they don’t separate as easily.


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When we look at the tree internally, we can see the history of the climate. In the past, the rings would be of uniform dimension but in the last forty to fifty years you begin to see shifting; cool summers, hot summers, successive hot summers. That history is right in the tree. You avoid cutting those types of trees, you are looking for rings with a uniform dimension. You take a mallet or the blunt side of an axe that has the sharp edges taken off, and you pound the tree for a long time. When you pound it the rings begin to separate and you can peel them off. First you take off the outer bark, then you keep banging the wood as gently as possible to peel off more layers. You are trying to break down the layer of air and water that is between each layer of wood without damaging the wood at all. Once you have your strips of wood you are ready to weave a basket. When we are polishing the wood, or removing the burring or rough layers from the wood, it gives us a time to reflect on the qualities that made the tree a good, healthy one to select and give thanks to Creator for giving this life to the tree to have those qualities, and I am asking for those qualities to be part of who I am since I am harvesting from that tree. It’s giving me its life, it’s giving me its love, it’s giving me those qualities. The ones that are thin and easy to bend we use for holding flowers or other small items. The ones that are wide we use for heavier baskets such as picnic baskets. When we do this work there’s a lot of knowledge there. It takes time to appreciate it, to know it, to become skilled at that work. I was fortunate to do this work under the guidance of grandmothers and my mother. We’ve been doing this in our family for centuries. It’s up to me now to show and share this work. When my granddaughter came to ask me to teach her, she didn’t know I was carrying this kind of knowledge. It was her mother and extended family that told her that I carried this knowledge. I told her it was up to her to show her dedication and commitment and do it over a period of years. It takes times to build skill and for knowledge to accumulate. We’ve been sharing this knowledge now with others who want to know as well.

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Acclaimed filmmaker shooting Indigenous love story on Atikameksheng territory Film explores themes of touch, reconciliation, love, connection, and repercussions By Colleen Romaniuk, The Local Journalism Initiative

“It feels really special to be here, and to be telling this story right now for so many reasons. The film is a metaphor for colonialism and environmental evacuation. I think after the pandemic, everyone can relate to the idea of touch and the interruptions and outside forces that keep us from connecting. With Stellar, the moment was definitely right.” Naponse’s feature film is now shooting on location on Atikameksheng Anishnawbek territory, 20 km southwest of Sudbury. Based on the short story of the same name, Stellar follows two Indigenous characters who meet in a chance encounter. Their touch sets off a cosmic and environmental connection that seeks to restore the past while bringing hope to the future. The stars aligned for Darlene Naponse when she approached two producers about turning one of her short stories into a feature film last year. Just a few days after the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic, Naponse reached out to Canadian film producers Jennifer Weiss of Nice Pictures Inc. and Paula Devonshire of Devonshire Productions Inc. “Do you know that short story I’ve been adapting? Let’s do it,” she said. Weiss, known for her recent work on Last Letter from your Lover and Guest of Honour, said that it was around March 13 when she first reached out. “I’ve been producing for 25 years, and for a film to come together this quickly – financing and all, and during the COVID-19 pandemic on top of everything – is pretty amazing. I think it’s a testament to Darlene’s vision and her unique way of storytelling,” she said.

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Starring Elle-Máijá Tailfeathers (The Body Remembers When the World Broke Open, Night Raiders) in the role of SHE and Braeden Clarke (Outlander, Run Woman Run) as HE, the film explores powerful themes of touch, reconciliation, love, connection, and repercussions with original storytelling and visuals. Tailfeathers, who is from Kainai First Nation (on the Blood Reserve) in southern Alberta, said that Naponse is a visionary and she jumped at the opportunity to work with her. “She writes poetry on screen, and this script is like nothing I have read before. It’s brilliant, poetic, and brave. I love the idea of being a part of an Indigenous love story,” she said. Given the current climate for Indigenous people in Canada, she said, including the missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls and the unearthing of unmarked graves at residential school sites, a film like this one is timely and important.


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“I mean there is so much to be upset about in terms of the systemic violence we face every day, but this story challenges all that in the most beautiful way,” she said.

Her most recent film, Falls Around Her, marked its world premiere at TIFF in 2018 and was the opening night film for imagineNATIVE Film Festival the same year.

Tailfeathers added it’s inspiring to see Naponse embrace desire and desirability.

She has earned numerous accolades for her work including the inaugural Creative Impact North Award, Best Screenplay and Best Direction for Falls Around Her at the Northern Ontario Music and Film Awards in 2019, and the REVEAL Indigenous Art Award in 2017.

“So often, Indigenous women on screen are framed through a fetishized or violent lens, and as an Indigenous woman, it can often feel unsafe to embrace those things given the fact that it’s not safe to be an Indigenous woman in this country,” she said.

“I WANTED TO TELL A LOVE STORY ABOUT TWO INDIGENOUS CHAR ACTERS RESETTING THEIR CONNECTION TO THE SPACE BETWEEN THEM AND THE NATUR AL WORLD, ALLOWING THEMSELVES TO LET GO OF EVERYTHING AND FALL IN LOVE.”

Paula Devonshire, known for her work on Indian Horse and Run Woman Run, said that the interesting thing about Stellar is that everyone she’s spoken to has a different takeaway. Some of the universal themes of the film are clear, but it means something different to everyone. “For me, the theme of touch resonates. So much damage has been done to the Indigenous community through residential schools, children being separated from their parents and not getting that touch and affection that children need or deserve,” said the producer of Mohawk descent. “It’s a valuable exploration to show the world how this damage echoes through our lives. These two people are just meeting and trying to fall in love. It’s harder than it is for those who have had nurturing childhoods.” Naponse is an Anishinaabe from Atikameksheng Anishnawbek and the founder of Baswewe Films Inc. where she is committed to telling stories from a community and Indigenous perspective. Her previous films have screened at festivals such as Sundance, the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF), and Winda.

Turning her short story into a feature film was a good experience, according to Naponse, because she looked forward to collaborating with a talented cast and crew. “I wanted to tell a love story about two Indigenous characters resetting their connection to the space between them and the natural world, allowing themselves to let go of everything and fall in love,” she said. “I just really wanted to look at the idea of love, desire, want, and two people who are just trying to find each other.” Stellar will be filming at several locations on Atikameksheng Anishnawbek territory, including in Val Caron, downtown Sudbury and on reserve. A group of mentees are working with the crew on set to learn the ins and outs of the film industry. “Those mentorships help create sustainable jobs within the Sudbury area, Atikameksheng Anishnawbek, and Northern Ontario,” said Naponse. “It’s about creating opportunities for people who never had those opportunities before and to keep growing our skills and what we have around us as a film industry and community.” Naponse said she hopes that audiences will feel the love and desire, the beauty and the wonder of the film and the story they are creating. “I think it’s really important to talk about love, to understand love, and to appreciate those love stories. We all need a bit of kindness and inspiration. I think it is a great time to be putting something out about love,” she said. The Local Journalism Initiative is made possible through funding from the federal government. Material republished with the express permission of: Sudbury Star, a division of Postmedia Network Inc. Photo credit: Colleen Romaniuk

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Our Language

LANGUAGE RESURGENCE with JESSICA SHONIAS By Jolene Recollet

Jessica Shonias doesn’t like to call herself a fluent Anishinaabemowin speaker. However, when asked, she will tell you that she is a learner with a responsibility to share. Jessica Shonias is a member of Rama First Nation but grew up in Atikameksheng Anishnawbek and has familial ties to Serpent River First Nation and Curve Lave First Nation. Currently, Jessica is the language teacher for Niigaaniin Services and has been tasked with improving fluency amongst staff and promoting Anishinaabemowin. Jessica did not grow up in a fluent household as a child, and her parents didn’t regularly speak Anishnabemowin to her. She thinks her dad was a fluent speaker, but didn’t speak to her growing up. When she asked her mom, she indicated that her first Anishnabemowin class was when she was in daycare in Rama and that she regularly attended ‘Ojibway’ classes throughout her schooling. She always wanted to learn the language and, as a young speaker, recognized that she was able to name objects but couldn’t speak in complete sentences. She was first introduced to a fluent lifestyle after attending an immersion camp in Minnesota called Ojibwem Otaadidaa Gidakiiminaang in 2014. She says that she had learned more in those three weeks of immersion camp than ever had before. By the second immersion camp that she attended, she was starting to learn how to speak fluently. After that, she became a physical education teacher at M’Chigeeng’s immersion program, Mnidoo Mnising Anishinaabe Kinoomaage-Gamik. It was during these times that Jessica felt most over her head, and she felt like it humbled her and pushed her to learn more.

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“IT WASN’T UNTIL I LEARNED MY LANGUAGE THAT I BEGAN TO KNOW HOW AMAZING WE ARE AS A PEOPLE. NOW YOU COULD SAY ANYTHING ABOUT US, AND IT ROLLS OFF ME LIKE WATER OFF A DUCK’S BACK BECAUSE I KNOW THE TRUTH AND AM PROUD TO BE ANISHINA ABE.”

She has returned to her community of Rama First Nation after living down south with few speakers to learn from. Jessica currently teaches Anishinaabemowin at Northshore Tribal Council and has been tasked with promoting the language and teaching staff. Staff have an opportunity to participate in one class per week and several language ‘drop-ins’ during the week. In addition, this past summer staff were given an opportunity to participate in a two-week immersion program facilitated by Jessica and supported by Niigaaniin and North Shore Tribal Council.


Our Language

Why is language revitalization important? For myself personally, I grew up knowing that as an Anishinaabe, I was different, but I wasn’t exactly sure of how I was different, or even if it was a good thing or a bad thing. The mainstream public perception of us was that it was not something to be proud of, being Anishinaabe. I saw the stereotypes of our people and even saw some of that dysfunction growing up on the reserve (substance abuse, poverty, broken families, etc.). Without fully grasping our language and culture, it was easy to believe the bad stuff being said about our people and even be ashamed of my identity. It wasn’t until I learned my language that I began to know how amazing we are as a people. Now you could say anything about us, and it rolls off me like water off a duck’s back because I know the truth and am proud to be Anishinaabe. I want all of our kids to know their language and culture so that they can stand tall and proud in this world. But, more importantly, I want us all to be speaking our language for all of the times it was forbidden in residential schools and so that living survivors can see that the assimilation and genocidal tactics did not work on our people.

If our ancestors saw us today, it would be hard to know how we live as Anishinaabe, but they would be able to recognize us in how we speak and think—in Anishinaabemowin. It’s a beautiful language, and everyone on Anishinaabe territory should be speaking Anishinaabemowin—English is a foreign language. What advice would you give new Anishinaabemowin speakers trying to improve their skills? My advice to those wanting to become new speakers: get comfortable being uncomfortable. Many tend to give up when it gets tough, and that’s the exact moment when the magic happens. After a while of being relentless, you learn that you will make mistakes, and it doesn’t matter. Holding back from wanting to sound perfect also holds you back from putting in the time and effort needed to pick up the language. Finally, share what you know as much as possible. For the language to thrive, we must pass it on. This is how I have found myself with the title ‘teacher’, as uncomfortable as it makes me. But I know I have to share what I know, and that counts for all of us. E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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Dgwaagi-Bboon Word Find T A H T N L U I X G D H B V S N E G V A X I H O A G O O N W

B Q D L X N B R R J U B R I Y P J O V N P Z J A W Y K A N E

A Z C R M S H K I I G M I N A N I I J Z Y F R P G K U I K D

H E F C P C V W T B T A N A U U Q I S V F X X C J Q B T X O

Bboon Biiskawaagan Bnaakwii Dgwaagi

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S E I U T D Y Q N T T T Q T V X F X M B C D S Q A K G S W R

Z E U Y A J B N T A V E K U S T O T X K U W I I K W A A N T

F W K D U H A L V Q L D Y S U U F U R H T A S E N W A N Y V

S Y P R G W T B D I F R P D M U R K D O P I I V C G D Q V K

L B U X E W P N P F P H Z R L W E W E B N A A B I I R V Z C

Dkeyaa Giiwse Giizhoopzin Goon

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S M V E F J E I M I F O U M I I G W E C H W E N D A M B O R

T L P Z C Y K K B X K X B F Z G M O O Z B T X D N I W A O R

M T N R C Y O U A V N T F E M M I Y E Z G A T M D U J X G C

R Q H E V Q E J R A Y H M I K Y M I S H T P I K U V U P P H

D B D G W A A G I Y N L J E I C B J W S G S I N A A W P O A

Q S Z O B M O P B Z L D B B K J F Y O S B S J C C U H X J M

O V Z K A I Z V N J J F E J G Z G L S E E V F D V G N M R X

O M B Z G F N I Y U X D O K W S T Z E Q V U M P V O X K P L

Gsinaa Gwekaande Kosmaan Miigwechwendam

N A Q D G H Z D S T F K N I O U Y E I X E H X D S S X C Q L

N R F E P U M D K E Y A A B C S D R Z G G V I M J E K U W K

M Q Q I E G C G D C Z D X I M P W Y I M Q H X B H K Z B Q Q

E I M D V Z X N Y T S W T I J S E J P E F K G E B V N E W V

N J N U O J R C P W V J R S I M D A W S P H Y Z F U R W U P

Mjikaawnak Mooz Mshkiigminan Mzise

U M W W J I N W Z N C Z V K K R U B F L J U A C S D C E B S

V H Y G O W N C Z P D V O A A B A L O X C L I U F Y D V B J

J I K E G N V D N N L O S W A P A V Y Z I K O S M A A N O S

A R X J Q I H I G U G Z P A W R V G I I Z H O O P Z I N O V

Z X J H D S P J F A N H E A N F C M A N S T Z Y B G I M N S

V M T D W G C V S N Z Y I G A I N A L D B J Y F T G R V E S

Tasenwan Wewebnaabii Wiikwaan Zoogpo

C W V Q B N A A K W I I L A K Y D O P C Z T D Q A V P Z R Y

G D L O J F U D T U K O E N L F F X N C B V D F Q I B O W D


Our Language

More colouring pages at www.urbaniskwew.com

Artwork by Hawlii Pichette E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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BR ANDON PETAHTEGOOSE on CULTUR AL REVITALIZATION By Jolene Recollet

Brandon Petahtegoose was gifted his name by Fred Kelly, an Elder who spoke on behalf of all the communities for the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Annuities Case. Brandon was holding a pipe that Elder Kelly’s family carries during ceremony, and a name came to Fred who then gifted Brandon his Anishnaabemowin name, Gizhe-Naabe. Brandon was told that this name was not just a gift, but a name that he always had and the Spirits that day were talking to share it with him. It was a powerful moment that he will never forget. Brandon is Atikameksheng Anishnawbek’s Oshkaabewis and to him that role holds more responsibility than to simply help during ceremony. In different communities, the name is a little different, but the role is the same. People look to them as being the helpers but the word itself speaks of being the one who receives the messages from the Spirit and brings them forward to the People and similarly brings the messages from the People and brings them to the Spirit. There’s a connection between us and the Spirit World and the Oshkaabewis acts as a translator bringing the knowledge from the Spirit to the People. He has been in this role since childhood, when his father would call him Azhiniwe, or my apprentice, the one who I am training. The Oshkaabewis came a little bit later. He says that you must put yourself forward in ceremonies and ask others if they need help and over time, over years, you can become Oshkaabewis. They help everybody, not just the Elders. It was after many ceremonies, learning, and dancing in Sundance, that he learned to be comfortable in his role as Oshkaabewis.

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Brandon’s parents separated when he was young, and he lived in British Columbia for 13 years. He describes missing his home in Atikameksheng, even holding resentment toward his mother, feeling that she took him away from his home. He also felt resentment towards his father, for he felt abandoned. He blamed other people and began to feel lost over time, struggling as a youth with drugs and alcohol, not knowing how to cope with the everything he was feeling and the stressors of his childhood, including loss of culture and living far from home. He began to come out of his struggles after starting to dream. Bawaajigan. Dreaming about being on the water at home in Atikameksheng. Dreaming of the sound of the drum. Dreaming of Our People. He was experiencing a period of high anxiety in his life. He felt angry and lost. One day, while home alone, he turned on some powwow music and out of nowhere began dancing. It was the first time in his life that he did something positive to release his stress, anxiety and anger. It wiped it all away for that moment. He knew that he had to return home. He took a three-day bus trip home and jumped into ceremony and learning about the culture.


Our People

“REMEMBER THIS: OUR TEACHINGS, OUR CULTURE, OUR TR ADITIONS ARE ALL ENCAPSULATED WITHIN OUR BEAUTIFUL LANGUAGE, ANISHINA ABEMOWIN. EVERY TIME YOU SAY A WORD IN YOUR INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE IT PAINTS A BEAUTIFUL PICTURE AND THE ANCESTORS SMILE.”

E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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EVERY TIME YOU SAY A WORD IN YOUR INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE IT PAINTS A BEAUTIFUL PICTURE AND THE ANCESTORS SMILE

The first ceremony he attended was a pipe ceremony in his community that included many Ogimaak. He sat there all-night listening to each person speak; he didn’t realize he was going to be there all night. He gained a great deal of knowledge that night listening to those Ogimaak. It still has an impact on him today. Brandon’s father, Art Petahtegoose, carries the Spirit name Shawenakeshick, and has played a paramount role in his life in terms of learning who he is as an Anishinaabe. He was a Gimaa, who would bring Brandon to many places. Art has been influential in Brandon reclaiming his identity. Brandon references Alan Corbiere in the five aspects of your being and knowing your identity. These aspects are: your land, your language, your Spirit name, your colours and your clan. He learned all of these things from his father, his family, and other Elders and traditional knowledge keepers. His father took him out on the land and he learned how to work with hides and trees and bark. He learned how to catch fish. When someone is speaking the language, his father would 72

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help translate for him. His father took him to ceremony where he was given his colors and name. He also learned about his clan. He is a member of Omaashkooz, or Elk Clan, a very graceful animal that also likes to gather in big groups. He describes his family in this way, gathering often under his family’s lodge that his father built. They gather chairs under the arbor to come together as a family. He is still learning about his clan and describes elk as graceful animals, walking through the bush with their heads up with others looking up to them. They stand very tall. They walk in a straight path and that is a responsibly he has. They must also carry humility. There are very few of them in our territory and no one hunts them, they are just left to roam because they have much to teach us. What would you tell other youth who may be struggling with identity and loss of culture? Take time to spend with your family. If you don’t know who your family is, then search for that, and search for your clan. Spend time with the Elders and learn the language as best as you can. Even if it’s just one word a day. Remember this: our teachings, our culture, our traditions are all encapsulated within our beautiful language, Anishinaabemowin. Every time you say a word in


Our People

your Indigenous language it paints a beautiful picture and the Ancestors smile. The more you come to understand it, you’ll begin to think about life the same way your Ancestors did.

and offer your tobacco by giving thanks for this beautiful life that’s been given to you. Your sense of self love and identity will grow stronger and stronger. Mii’iyah—that’s it.

Our language flows from one generation to the next. It’s in our blood, our DNA, and it’s even passed on through the Spirit. I don’t care what anybody says, our language will never be lost. Even if there’s no fluent speakers left. We can go to the land, and Mother Earth will teach us once again.

What can you share with us about the Treaty?

If you’re a youth who’s struggling, and you’re trying to find out who you are, it’s time to return home, and home doesn’t always mean your reserve. The land is everything. The land is our home. It’s our education system, it’s our library, it’s our church, it’s our grocery store, it’s even our hospital. To connect to your own identity, you need to connect with Mother Earth. Once you can begin to respect the earth as our Mother, and honour that relationship that you have with her, you’ll regain that identity back that you’ve been missing. One simple way of honouring that relationship is offering your tobacco. Some people think tobacco always has to be burned but that’s not true. You can offer tobacco to the land, to the water, and to the wind as well. Everything in life is connected. Take time out of your day, announce your spirit name,

I have been learning about a distant grandfather, Shawenakeshick, who signed the Treaty on behalf of my community, Atikameksheng. My father carries his name and his teachings. It wasn’t signing our land away; it was an agreement to share resources. It wasn’t our people that needed a Treaty; it was the colonizers, the ones that were coming in and wanted access to the resources. There were miners mining without permission and our people saw that. Our people are said to have had possession of a canon from the War of 1812. They brought the canon by canoe to Micah Bay and evicted the miners from the territory. The miners went to Ottawa and demanded a Treaty be signed with our people and Mr. Robinson was tasked to visit all the communities and present the Treaty for signing, which they did. They came to us; we didn’t come to them. We didn’t need a Treaty. It wasn’t signing our land away—it was an agreement to share resources. We receive an annuity each year but it doesn’t match what is extracted from our territory. When it comes to resources, we should be some of the richest Indigenous Peoples on Turtle Island. E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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Niigaaniin Services Program Spotlight:

AANIISH NAA Aaniish Naa is a service provided by Niigaaniin Services of Mamaweswen, The North Shore Tribal council servicing Wahnapitae First Nation, Atikameksheng Anishnawbek, Sagamok Anishnawbek, Serpent River First Nation, Mississauga First Nation, Thessalon First Nation, Garden River First Nation, and Batchewana First Nation. We can service all members of our eight communities who live within the Treaty area. We address addiction, trauma, grief, and loss counselling sessions in their respective communities. Each of our Genaadmowits is assigned to a specific community because we know that building communal relationships and having a consistent presence is required to gain the trust and respect of our clients. We empower our clients to make a positive lifestyle change by including their families and integrating a biological, psychological, social, cultural, spiritual, client-centered, and holistic approach. Client-Centered Values: Individual needs are different. Services must recognize and respond to the diverse needs of clients—not the reverse. Clients and family engagement must be partners in their recovery and participate in shared decision- making, defining and striving for well-being. Services focus on client, family and community engagement and best practice. Services focus on helping people to build self-esteem and pursue a successful, assertive lifestyle. Services must be dynamic and evolve to utilize new and effective methods of recovery. Services and support are available on a continuum that meets evolving individual client needs. Ensure the quality of care and service delivery to the clients.

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In 2020, through the COVID-19 pandemic, Niigaaniin’s Aaniish Naa team had persevered with an impressive dedication to high-quality client care. Without missing a single appointment or having any downtime, Aaniish Naa converted entirely to a virtual delivery style. Meeting with clients via Zoom and other virtual communication options, Aaniish Naa remained as accessible as always to all clients. Aaniish Naa has expanded the delivery style and programming available to clients. Shki Maajtaadaa is a small group delivery program that addresses barriers to more intensive treatment/care. Focused on self-confidence, emotional awareness, literacy, and basic skills, participants can move forward into Mino Bimaadizidaa after this program or seek employment support depending on their readiness. Our participants have had amazing experiences and would like to share a few words about how their time in this program has affected them. Exciting news! We have more spots open for our fall program intake! Please submit your contact information on our website or send us an email at aaniishnaa@niigaaniin.com.

Aaniish Naa will also be to hosting weekly community fires in each community beginning in spring 2021. Niigaaniin is committed to finding innovative, safe, and culturally healing programming. Community members will have the option to come and speak with a Genaadmowit, express concerns or simply decompress from the stress of daily life. We know our clients are missing the connection that in-person interaction provides. These community fires will allow Genaadmowits to maintain these connections safely while connecting with mother earth through an outdoor fire.


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SHKI MAAJTAADAA PARTICIPANT TESTIMONIALS: “This program has inspired me. It’s been a blessing in my life, and I’ve had the opportunity to get to know myself. I’m moving forward with a big smile.” “For the first time, I feel I can trust myself, believe in myself and be part of something important.” “I am so much stronger from being a part of this group. I have new tools to use in my life to overcome my fears. Being with people who you can trust and who support you is so important. I would recommend this program to anyone who feels alone and needs more support in their life.” “I know that in this program, I’ve developed a life-long, healthy support network. Our Genaadmowit, Lora is the glue that binds us all together.” “I have learned how to be open. I have learned new skills to manage my life and my emotions without need to suppress them. I’ve learned how to live my life with honesty, respect, knowledge, inspiration, and to trust the process of life. Enjoy the process; it’s a great journey.” E-Wiindamaagejig: The Robinson Huron Treaty Times |

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Program Spotlight:

GREAT LAKES CULTUR AL CAMPS—SEASONAL ROUNDS IN REAL LIFE On a beautiful day with the sun shining, birds singing and a cool summer breeze making its way through the trees, we find ourselves sitting in a teepee. The activity is hectic but coordinated, the movement is frantic but no one trips over anyone else or the fire in the centre of the teepee. At the center of the teepee a fire surrounded by medium-sized rocks burns. Sitting on the rocks is a metal grill which holds a pot of corn soup; a frying pan containing a dish of moose meat, blueberries and maple syrup; whitefish fillets with lemon slices and spices cooking on a maple plank; a pot of Labrador tea and a pot of cedar tea; and last but not least the frying pan filled with bannock. This meal is being prepared by Bernadette ‘Small Cook’ or ‘Cookz’ Shawanda, short in stature, big in heart and spirit. The food has been harvested by the family, lead by Maheengun with his sons, Naakwam, Noodin and Meeshin.

I WANTED TO HELP THE YOUTH UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE TAKING OF A TREE FROM THE LAND. GOING OUT ON THE LAND YOU BEGIN TO SEE THE LIFE AROUND YOU FROM A DIFFERENT VIEW.

The family has been practicing and living like this for over two decades. They have operated their business, Great Lakes Cultural Camps (GLCC), and raised their three boys following the natural harvesting cycles gifted to us as Anishinaabe people, following the seasons and

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their bountiful gifts. This meal alone shows the profits of their immense efforts. In the spring they harvested ziizbaakwadaaboo (maple sap) and produced the ziiwaagmide used in the moose meat dish from the moose they harvested in the fall, and the miinan (blueberries) they picked in the summer. The family also practice harvesting ogaa (pickerel) in the spring and atikmeg (whitefish) in the fall. Through the processing and smoking of hides they are able to make clothing, crafts and other items that they can sell to acquire other things they may need, such as rent, a vehicle, flour, gas and other essentials. GLCC’s business tagline is Learn, Play and Explore. For over twenty years they have been building and expanding their skills, and transforming those skills into products for the business such as certified kayaking, canoeing, river rescue, wilderness first aid training/certification and adventures. GLCC boasts a friendly, skilled team that takes pride in their cultural heritage. Maheengun invites you to join them on a journey to explore Anishinaabe traditions and natural wonders in the Robinson Huron Territory through guided walks, hiking trips, winter camping experiences and water adventures. This guided experience focuses on safety and your personal experience as you learn about Anishinaabe and the history in the Robinson Huron Territory. GLCC offers experiences year-round following nature’s seasonal rounds: Mino-kimi (spring) offers the opportunity to experience a goose hunt, maple syrup harvest, foraging and learn Anishinaabemowin; Niibin (summer) provides opportunities to learn birch bark canoe making, fish


Our People

camp, wilderness canoe trips and foraging berries and medicines; Digwaagi (fall) presents a chance to participate in a moose and whitetail deer harvest, learn about the rights of passage ceremonies and spend time with Elders and youth; and, Biboon (winter) challenges you to experience a snowshoe journey, acquire woodland survival skills, participate in winter Ojibway games and make traditional crafts. GLCC is a small, family-owned, mobile business and hosts activities all across Ontario. Focused on the details, their expeditions and adventure learning programs are designed to provide participants with high quality, in-depth instruction through intensive activities geared to the abilities and interests of the participants. Not only does GLCC offer a wide variety of top-of-the line canoes, kayaks, and sup boards, they also provide certifications in Ontario Recreational Canoeing and Kayaking Association (ORCKA), Paddle Canada (PC), Wilderness Medical Associates (WMA), Boreal River Rescue, National GPS, and Leave No Trace (LNT). GLCC meets its responsibilities through land-based experiences and living. Learn more about Great Lakes Cultural Camps at www.culturalcamps.com. Follow GLCC on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

GLCC TESTIMONIAL: “Every effort is made to strengthen traditional knowledge, life skills on the land, cultural revitalization, implementing and acting on the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls To Action, and preserving the area’s incredible natural environment for future generations.”

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Treaty Art: 8th Gen Collective By Jolene Recollet

8th Gen Collective is a new, grassroots youth organization aimed at promoting Indigenous Arts to Youth in the Greater Sudbury area and surrounding First Nation communities, such as Atikemeksheng and Wiikwemkoong. Right now, they are focused on creating murals to inspire Indigenous resilience and pride. Robinson Huron Waawiindamaagewin recently met with organization leaders Paskwawmostosis Lightning and Michelle Kennedy, at the first mural project in Chelmsford, just outside of Sudbury. The mural space was provided to the Collective by Roxanne Langemann of Papaya Pops, and the Collective was able to secure funding from the Ontario Indigenous Youth Partnership Project. They hired an Indigenous artist to conduct the workshop and purchase the necessary paint and supplies. The youth contributed their time, painting the mural almost non-stop for three days. 8th Gen Collective commissioned Mishiikenh Kwe to lead their workshop and guide the development of the mural.

Mishiikenh Kwe is an Anishinaabe (Ojibway/Odawa) artist from the Caribou Clan in Magnetawan First Nation. She grew up listening to stories from her grandmother, aunties and community members and takes most of her inspiration from those stories, thoughts and teachings. The mural is called Gichi apiitendaagoziwag akina abinoonjiiyag, which translates to Every Child Matters and features a young girl in an orange and red jingle dress looking towards the sky and constellations. The piece also prominently features an orange and red-themed Ojibway Woodland Floral design around the young girl. The orange represents the Children lost in residential and day schools and the large number of children in the child welfare system today. The red represents the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in Canada. This is a very meaningful piece and results from the collaboration between the Youth in the Collective and the artist. 8th Gen Collective has been overwhelmed with the support they received from the community and is excited about their next project. After learning about their project, the local business community reached out to the Collective and offered free lunches for the youth artists working on the mural.

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To celebrate the mural’s unveiling, a BYOB (Bring Your Own Blanket) Open Mic night was held at the site. Many people attended and the night featured music from Lisa Naponse of Atikameksheng Anishnawbek. The group hopes to continue their work and has plans to do more murals in the future. Until then, you can visit their completed mural at Papaya Pops in Chelmsford.


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WATER WALKERS By Tasha Beeds

Another matriarch I admire so deeply. Our Water Walker Linda Manitowabi comes from a long line of Anishinaabe Gmaa Kwewag (Ojibway women leaders). She has fully stepped into her Aunties and Mama’s footprints, carrying their legacies forward in such a strong strong way. She is a waterfall of love, kindness, power, strength, and determination. From her gentle love and listening ear to her stern knocks on the door at 4 a.m., she is our core Water Walk aunty and we love her so very much. Linda just completed the Saskatchewan River Water Walk journey. Chi-miigwech Linda. Living Water: ᑭᓯᐢᑳᒋᐊᐧᓂᓭᐱᕀ kisiskâciwani-sîpiy (Saskatchewan River) Water Walk From June to August/September of 2021, Minweyweywigaan Lodge Mide Kwe Water Walker Tasha Beeds will conduct a Ceremonial Water Walk in a COVID-safe manner for the Saskatchewan River. Following the North tributary, it will be the first of 4 Water Walks she must commit to as per the protocols of the Ceremony. Of nêhiyaw, Scottish-Métis, and Bajan ancestry, Tasha will be Walking in her maternal ancestral territories for the Water she grew up alongside. The Water Walk will be approximately 1900 kms and take 2 to 3 months. Mentored under the respected Anishinaabe Grandmother and late Three Fires Lodge Mide Kwe Water Walker, Biidaasige-Ba or Josephine-Ba Mandamin (‘ba’ is a marker of one who is deceased), Tasha also learnt from other Anishinaabe Elders and Knowledge Holders such as Charlie

Nelson and Edna Manitowabi, the Chief Headman and Head Woman of Minweyweywigaan Midewiwin Lodge; Anishinaabe language teacher and Water Walker Dr. Shirley Williams and her niece Liz Osawamick; Anishinaabe Traditional Elders Wilfred and Marie Trudeau in addition to the Anishinaabe men who have supported the Water Walks for many years, Waasekom, Abitoonse Gisis, and Andrew Mandamin. Tasha has Walked for the Water for 10 years and for approximately 7000 km, walking alongside each of the Great Lakes in addition to all of the Kawartha Lakes and the Otonabee River in Southern Ontario. She is currently conducting (taking spiritual responsibility) for the first time, a 4-day Water Walk covering 135 km in the Anishinaabe territories of N’Swakamok (Sudbury) for a body of water known as Junction Creek. The Water Walk will be a bit more challenging for her since a 2018 car accident left her with a permanent disability. Disabilities are rarely described through the lens of Indigenous knowledges, however, and

“WHEN YOU SEE SOMEONE WALKING WITH A PAIL OF WATER, YOU WONDER, ‘WHERE IS SHE GOING WITH THAT WATER?’ SO THE MESSAGE IS, WATER IS VERY PRECIOUS, AND I WILL GO TO ANY LENGTHS TO AND DIRECTION TO CARRY THE WATER TO THE PEOPLE. (...) AS WOMEN, WE ARE CARRIERS OF THE WATER. WE CARRY LIFE FOR THE PEOPLE.” BIIDA ASIGE-BA/JOSEPHINE-BA MANDAMIN SEP 25, 2014

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Our People

it is Tasha’s intention to be a role model and show how Indigenous thought recognizes what is termed in English as ‘disabilities’ as a gift set instead of a barrier. The Saskatchewan River begins in the Rocky Mountains and flows eastward eventually joining Lake Winnipeg and is approximately 1900kms in length. Carrying Josephineba’s legacy forward, and accompanied by an Eagle Water Staff, Tasha and a predetermined group of core Walkers will lift the Water inside a Copper Pail from a location close to the Headwaters of the Saskatchewan River. She, and a core group, will ceremonially carry the Water and the Eagle Water Staff along the highways, staying as close as possible to the River. Other core Water Walk members include Kahtéraks Quinney-Goodleaf, Kanien’kehá:ka (Mohawk) from Kahnawake and nêhiyaw (Plains Cree) from Onion Lake; Michaela Merasty, Woodlands Cree and Scottish and AnishinaabeKwe (Ojibway woman) Linda Manitowabi from Wiikwemkoong, Two Spirit Metis artist Marjorie Beaucage and Waasekom. Under the umbrella of truth and reconciliation, Settler and Unitarian Minister Karen FraserGitlitz is joining the Water Walk as a core Walker. Two other core members are Jorge Virchez from Mexico now living in Sudbury and Anishinaabe Nini (man) Maajiijiwan Petahtegoose from Atikameksheng Nation in Ontario. The movement is, first and foremost, for the Water. Tasha and the other Walkers of Plains Cree ancestry are enacting their sovereign right to move in Ceremony for their Ancestral body of Water. Their presence recognizes and reaffirms kisiskâciwani-sîpiy as a water significant to all the Indigenous Nations who historically have relied upon the River for life and movement. They will retrace their Ancestors steps, expressing gratitude for the Water that has allowed them, as the grandchildren of those Ancestors, to exist today. The movement also generates

the opportunity for active truth and reconciliation not just from non-Indigenous people to Indigenous people, but for all people to reconcile our negligence and improve our relationships with the Waters, Lands, and all of Creation. The ceremonial movement of the Water Walk is in honor of nipiy’s (the Water’s) gift of life for all of Creation. The Water Walkers move to remember how without Water, nothing would survive, including us. They move to remind others of the need to protect the Water for future generations. They move because Water is Life. The Water Walkers are still actively fundraising for the journey for future years. Costs include nourishment, camping fees, maintenance, and walking supplies such as gift cards for shoes, groceries, and gas. Please contact us for in-kind sponsorship or consider making a financial donation through e-transfer; we do have a fiscal sponsor who can provide a charitable tax receipt if needed. Be sure to join Living Water: ᑭᓯᐢᑳᒋᐊᐧᓂᓭᐱᕀ kisiskâciwanisîpiy (Saskatchewan River) Water Walk on our social media pages and visit our linktree https://linktr.ee/ SaskRiverWaterWalk for updates, education, links and how to get involved. We would like to say kinanaskômitinawaw/gchi’miigwech (extend deep gratitude) to our supporters: Indigenous Screen Office; Groundswell Community Justice Trust Fund; Na’ah Illahee Fund; Kent Monkman; Indigenize.ca; Minisinook Canoe Journey; and the Saskatoon Unitarians in addition to all the other donators who have fed us, sponsored hotel rooms for hot showers and meals (we camp rough most of the time) and given us funds to cover other expenses. MEDIA CONTACTS: Tasha Beeds, Lead Water Walker 306-713-2430 or email livingwaterwalk@gmail.com

Chi-miigwech to all of our Water Walkers who have travelled great distances through many Treaty Nations, caring for our waters through ceremony and love.

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Our People

TREATY MUSIC LIFESTYLE

DAVID JAMES By Matt Lachance

“Spreading our culture, and spreading our traditions, and spreading the love.” David James is a groundbreaking rap artist from the Robinson Huron Treaty Territory of Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation. Combining a raw, powerful, and articulate delivery, he reflects on his life and his people through his music. David James’ musical journey started at six years old when he began singing traditional powwow music and drum. Singing traditional music with his family was a significant influence on his development as a musical artist. At fourteen, he started to rap as a pastime with his friends and family. Now, David James is living in Toronto and producing his hiphop music. He uses his artistic platform to spread awareness of the contemporary cultural and political realities of the Anishnaabek people. 82

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Today, his music is still rooted in that big drum beat, much like the heartbeat of the powwow music he grew up around. Combined with modern hip hop drum sounds and synthesizers, acoustic instruments and other sound samples, his traditional vocal singing background is still an unmistakable signature of David James’s music.

Listen to Fake Ones by David James at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nffBVnD-VFY Listen to Trini Nish - OLM (Our Lives Matter), ft. Rosary Spence, David James at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57pt13GbZMc


Our People

TREATY BEADS ANISHINAABE FACEMASK FASHION featuring TAR A KIWENZIE Anishinaabe love beaded bling! Tara Kiwenzie is no stranger to our Nish beadwork industry. Tara is well known for creating exquisite beaded designs with immaculate detail. Inspired by crochet button ear savers, she decided that beadwork having an every day function that can also express a sense of fashion was something she had to try. With COVID-19 pressures increasing, she recognized the need for beaded ear savers. She created beaded hair pieces that can hold your face mask, whichwas so funny because her husband always jokes about her beading everything! Lately, she has made beading her full time at home job to provide for her family and needs the flexibility. She beads mostly jewelry, earrings and medallions with some small pieces of regalia. Tara started beading when she was young and started on small bracelets and barrettes. Coming from a powwow family, she naturally transitioned into creating regalia, Tara wanted to ensure that she could make every piece of regalia so her family could continue to enjoy beautiful powwow life. Tara Kiwenzie grew up on Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory, she is an Ojibway artist that comes from three generations of crafters and has been crafting for over 20 years. She is a mother of two boys. Tara has grown a strong online following and has hopes for a future website to sell her bead work and crafts. For now, social media platforms are where you can find Tara’s pieces. Follow her on Facebook: www.facebook.com/ TaraKiwenzieDesigns.

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Our People

TREATY FOOD

Oak East Eatery diversifies opportunities and creates the Ever Cool Ice Cream trailer Shauna Vazquez started her relationship with Artison Café when she accepted a job at the little downtown North Bay café. She enjoyed working in the restaurant industry and took the opportunity to be mentored as a Red Seal Chef from the amazing Chefs at Artison Café. To Shauna’s surprise, after four years of working at the Café, the owners put the restaurant up for sale. Shauna saw this as the perfect opportunity to dive into entrepreneurship and took over the Café, rebranding and naming it the Oak East Eatery. Together with her mother, Cheryl Pongowish, they create a diversity of delicious foods that are Cuban, Italian, Caribbean, Canadian, and of course, Anishinaabe! Shauna has been the owner of Oak East Eatery for 4.5 years. She acknowledges her friends and family for all their support and recognizes her husband as her number one supporter: “He encourages me, pushes me and motivates me to achieve my dreams.” Shauna also acknowledges the support from our Anishinaabe community in North Bay. Organizations such as the Anishinabek Nation and the Hub have helped contribute to her success. Oak East Eatery is located at 207 Ferguson Street in North Bay, Ontario. Being a new business owner has its challenges and operating a restaurant during a pandemic is no easy feat. So, Shauna had to develop ways to keep her business sustainable; she created Ever Cool Ice Cream, a travelling ice cream trailer. She purchased a cute lil travel trailer and her husband helped her transform and renovate it to the awesome trailer it is! Ever Cool Ice Cream serves up hard ice cream, floats, banana splits, and delicious milkshakes. Ever Cool Ice Cream can be seen at many different events and stores across the Treaty territory. 84

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Keep an eye out for the Ever Cool Ice Cream truck in a community near you!

Based out of North Bay, Ever Cool Ice Cream is often seen at businesses such as Green Medicine in Nipissing and Leon’s Furniture in North Bay. Ever Cool Ice Cream can also be seen on the powwow trail and is available for weddings, community events and much more! For more information, check out the Ever Cool Ice Cream Facebook page.


Our People

TREATY FOOD

Stackburger celebrates six years! Stackburger is the epic burger joint owned by Kevin Syrette of Batchewana First Nation. People come far and wide to enjoy the stacks on stacks of flavour. Anishinaabe cannot come through Sault Ste Marie without stopping for some delicious Treaty famous burgers and fries, not to mention signature Stacksauce. Kevin is well known for his time singing and sharing across powwow trail with Bear Creek. During this time, Kevin had the opportunity to taste test burgers all across Turtle Island and really appreciate what makes a mean burger. On August 11, 2021, Stackburger celebrated their sixth anniversary and their second anniversary during a pandemic. Stackburger posted on their Facebook page: “Although we may not be able to have our usual extravaganza we are still super grateful for everyone’s continued support! We are open our regular hours today but we will be holding off on any celebrations until a later date. Again, thank you to everyone who has made this six year anniversary possible.” The Stackburger experience is just that, stacks! Stacks of glorious beef, piled to your pleasure! Of course, this provides the perfect opportunity to compete in the burger challenge. The record for the most patties stacked is held by Bruno from Tottenham, Ontario with 14 patties! On July 23, 2021, Bryan attempted to beat the record held by Bruno by attempting 15 patties. Stackburgers Facebook page reported: ”Just a little update on the burger challenge attempt today... Despite a valiant effort by Bryan, he was sadly unable to complete the challenge. Therefore, the record of 14 patties stands and Bruno’s aptly named Fat Bastard Burger lives on! Word on the street was that Bryan was going into hiding and will train for the foreseeable future to come back and attempt the challenge again in 2023.” Every fall, after a beautiful summer season on the powwow trail, Bear Creek would have a give-away for the community. They would feast, share stories, and gift

Above: Kevin Syrette,

owner of Stackburger. Left: Stackburger customer Bryan attempting the challenge with 4 stacks.

back things like blankets, jackets, chairs and such that they received during their summer travels. Kevin, through Stackburger, honours this teaching by celebrates and acknowledges community by continuing to give back and support many youth and events such as sponsoring many children in sports, sponsoring sports teams, donating to stag and doe events and weddings, as well as donating to charitable organizations. Chi-miigwech Kev! Stackburger is located at 71 Spring Street in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Stackburger was also won the top level Platinum Award for best burger in Sault Ste. Marie through the Community Votes Campaign, which in 2021 hosted 40,415 nominations and votes cast—an astounding 1,978 businesses and people.

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Our People

TREATY HEALTH LIFESTYLE

Green Medicine Anishinaabe healing and wellness is on everybody’s mind these days, and it can be challenging to find the information and products we may be looking for. Look no further! Green Medicine is a natural health food and wellness store on Nipissing First Nation specializing in an array of natural healing modalities, homeopathic medicine, and foods to help support the body’s vital immune system for longevity and well-being. Owned and operated by two Indigenous entrepreneurs: Mitch Dokis, Nipissing First Nation and Kerry Lynn Peltier, Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory. The homeopathic pair have been in a relationship for over 24 years and clinically practising as holistic life coaches in the fields of holistic health care, healing and wellness. Two years ago, they decided to establish a formal physical retail presence when they opened Green Medicine. Besides specializing in energy-based medicines and practises and using superfoods as medicinal tools to achieve optimal health, Green Medicine shares and educates about the body and mind connection, and the importance of using natural foods and their healing properties for medicine rather than food just being a source of energy. “GREEN MEDICINE IS INNOVATIVE AND SUPPORTS INDEPENDENT SELF-CARE IN THE MOST HOLISTIC WAY POSSIBLE BECAUSE WE ADVOCATE, GUIDE AND SPECIALIZE IN THE ART OF HEALTHY LIVING.”

Kerry, a meditation teacher, says, “Green Medicine is innovative and supports independent self-care in the most holistic way possible because we advocate, guide and specialize in the art of healthy living.” It’s easy to take control of your health with Green Medicine with trusted services and items such as organic foods, 86

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Mitch Dokis, Maximus and Kerry-Lynn Peltier

tonics, tinctures, hemp products, natural skincare products, homeopathic remedy, cold and flu remedies, household items, bath and body products, pet care, and so much more. Products are available online or in-store. Mitch says, “It’s rewarding to help clients live healthier, energetic, and more resilient lifestyles. As a result, empowering individuals mentally, physically and spiritually is close to our hearts, and it’s what keeps our drive alive. When we’re not assisting clients with health remedies, we love to spend quality time with our son Maximus, as family means everything to us.” Also, Green Medicine provides tax-exempt bulk orders for businesses and ships Canadawide. Green Medicine is located at 120 Commanda Crescent, just off of Highway 17B, only five minutes from North Bay. Visit their website at www.shopgreenmedicine.ca


Our People

TREATY HEALTH

Recipe: Immune Booster By Mitch Dokis and Kerry-Lynn Peltier, Green Medicine

Ingredients: 1 tbsp Rootalive Organic Ceylon Cinnamon 3 tbsp organic unpasturized honey 2 cups hot water 1/3 cup Rootalive Organic Black Chia Seeds Directions: Stir cinnamon and honey until it becomes a paste. Add hot water then chia seeds. Stir well and place in fridge over night or until chilled. Enjoy 2 tablespoons a day for an immunity boost. Best when stored in mason jar and will last 1-2 weeks in the fridge. The Immune Booster boasts many nutritional benefits as it is filled with a high source of omega-3 and powerful antioxidants, as well as protein, fibre, calcium and vitamins. This energy-boosting drink also hydrates and makes you feel full longer—great for those who are looking for weight management.

Find Rootalive organic products at Green Medicine.

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Our People

HOLIDAY GIFT GUIDE

GNAAJWI FACIAL SCRUB AND EMERGENCY SKIN SALVE

Available at www.gnaajwi.com

GREEN MEDICINE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

Available at www.shopgreenmedicine.ca

WILD AND GLORIOUS SLIPPERS AND THROW PILLOW

Available at www.wildandglorious.ca

HAND POURED CANDLE BY ONDAREZ

Available at www.ondarez.com POTTERY BY DAVID MIGWANS, FACEMASKS

Available at Lillian’s Crafts M’Chigeeng West Bay, ON

BEADED JEWELRY AND BEAR’S DEN NATIVE CRAFTS SALVES

Available at Bob’s Smoke Shop 11b Reserve Rd, Naughton, ON

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Our People

HOLIDAY GIFT GUIDE JOY SIMON OFFICIAL RHT 1850 MERCHANDISE

Available at www.facebook.com/miigiwewin

Available at www.wearetreaty.com

CUTTING EDGE IMPRESSIONS EVERY CHILD MATTERS HOODIE AND T-SHIRT SWIRLING WIND DESIGNS

Available at tracytoulouse@gmail.com

Available at www.facebook.com/ CuttingEdgeImpressions

BAG BY DAGWAAGI SMITH

Available at www.redbubble.com/people/mishiikenhkwe

BRYDEN GWISS CD

Available at bgkiwenzie@gmail.com

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Our Storytellers

STORYTELLING By Martina Osawamick

Storytelling has been a part of Anishinaabe culture for as long as I can remember. It provides us with many teachings and goes back to the beginning. Storytelling hasn’t always been a part of my life: growing up in residential school, we didn’t get the chance to share our stories. As a little girl I remember some stories, but when I returned home at age 12, that’s when I remembered stories being told in our home. I remember the stories my dad would talk about and how other grandmothers and grandfathers would come to the house and visit and all they would do is storytelling— even if it was about themselves and the lessons learned through storytelling. We’ve heard about stories about Nanabush and Wenebozhoo. Storytelling teaches us many important lessons in life, even the stories that have happen to us. When we tell the younger ones, they can recognize that there is a teaching in there. It could be about bravery or love. There are so many lessons that can be learned from listening to Nokomishsuk and Mishomishsuk.

Are you a storyteller? If you have a story to share for our next issue, please send an email to: Jolene Recollet, Content Coordinator Jolene@waawiindamaagewin.com

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Martina Osawamick is an Anishinaabe Kwe from Wikwemkoong Unceded Territory. She is a member of the Beaver Clan and her Anishinaabemowin name is Rose Woman. She has the wolf and bear as her helpers and follows the good way of life. Martina is the matriarch of her family with 4 children, 12 grandchildren and 3 great grandchildren. She is known as Nokomis Martina, a name she prefers over Elder. We are proud to have Martina supporting our initative and taking an active role in cultural advising and ceremonial support. We look forward to having her share stories with us; you can view her interview and stories on our website, www.waawiindamaagewin.com.


ON THE WINGS OF AN EAGLE SOARING My gift is a Song for Creation The beauty each day unfolds A prayer that life will continue On the wings of an Eagle soaring My gift is a Song for the Water The lifeblood of all living things A prayer for Mide Waabo On the wings of an Eagle soaring My gift is a Song for the Eagle For saving Anishinawbe worldview A prayer that our songs will always be heard On the wings of an Eagle soaring My gift is a Song of unconditional Love Flying across all boundaries and time A prayer that asks for this gift to be shared On the wings of an Eagle soaring My gift is a Song of Honor That recognizes the kindness within A prayer for our Ogichidaw Spirit On the wings of an Eagle soaring My gift is a Song of Healing Life with all its profound meanings A prayer for b’saanibamaadsiwin On the wings of an Eagle soaring My gift is a Song and a Promise That Creator is always there A prayer for believing and knowing On the wings of an Eagle soaring Mide waabe: very sacred water Ogichidaw: a person with a great heart/a brave heart/a warrior B’saanibamaadsiwin: a serene and peaceful life Elder Lila Tabobondung July 9, 2009


Our COMMUNITIES Atikameksheng Anishnawbek

M’Chigeeng First Nation

Serpent River First Nation

Aundeck Omni Kaning

Batchewana First Nation

Mississauga First Nation

Sheshegwaning First Nation

Dokis First Nation

Nipissing First Nation

Sheguiandah First Nation

Whitefish River First Nation

Henvey Inlet First Nation

Ojibways of Garden River

Thessalon First Nation

Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory

Sagamok Anishnawbek

Wahnapitae First Nation

Zhiibaahaasing First Nation

Magnetawan First Nation

Shawanaga First Nation

Wasauksing First Nation