VARIANT Magazine Vol. 2 Issue 1: Decades

Page 1

vrnt V A R I A N T




Letter From The Editor From the daring knee-length dresses worn in the ‘20s to the baseball hats and crop tops sported in the ‘90s, we––Variant––decided to pay homage to the people in the past who have influenced the styles we love today. We payed tribute to artists like Selena Quintanilla and David Bowie (“A Star is Worn,” page 16) to iconic TV show characters like Rachel Green from “Friends” and Ashley Banks from “The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air” (“A Series of Icons,” page 50). In this issue, we took multiple trips to the past. We traveled back to 3,000 years ago when bras were initially created (“Underneath the Fashion,” page 54), and even further back than that to Egypt in 4,000 B.C. to see what they used in their makeup (“Across the Cosmetics,” page 45). We cruised through the last century and picked up the clothing trends of each decade along the way. Variant cares about more than the fashion trends of the past, though. We care about the issues that surround us in this decade. We couldn’t gloss over the number of sexual assaults that have been reported on Ohio University’s campus in this year alone (“Time’s Up, Athens,” page 52). We couldn’t dismiss the ‘me too’ movement that brought more awareness to sexual harassment in the workplace worldwide (“Mothers of the Movement,” page 8). And we couldn’t finish out 2018 without discussing the stigmas that are still placed on mental health and addiction (“Are You Okay?,” page 24). Since the beginning of the semester, our team has dedicated a lot of their time and effort into making this our best issue yet. We’re still learning how to seamlessly run a magazine, but we improve with each issue. Being Variant means to be diverse, creative, and most importantly, hardworking. The Variant team and I believe this issue truly shows what being Variant means. I hope you enjoy the magazine as much as we enjoyed putting it all together. Much love,

Jaida Sterling, Editor-in-Chief








Khanh-Vy Tran Associate Editor

Halle Siegel Head of Public Relations

Haley Rischar Copy Editor

VARIANT EXECUTIVE BOARD Jaida Sterling Editor-in-Chief

Brianna Esparza-Magnone Executive Editor

Rachel Deal Co-Event Coordinator

Michele Weaver Co-Event Coordinator

Courtney Davis Online Editor

Aaron Hart Treasurer

Madison Salyer Creative Director

Sydney Honaker Chief Photographer

Nick da Rosa Digital Tech

Cole Bellinger Videographer

Jette Garcia Co-Head of Makeup

Jem Garcia Co-Head of Makeup

Sophia Daugherty-MuĂąoz Head of Styling




across the cosmetics pg. 45


are you okay? pg. 24


to the future and back underneath the fashion pg. 26; pg. 54

MUSIC & ENTERTAINMENT a star is worn a series of icons pg. 16; pg. 50

HOT TOPICS mother’s of the movement pg. 8


ain’t nuthin but a “90s” thang pg. 38


time’s up, Athens pg. 52


MOTHERS OF THE The “birth” of the influential women’s movements that have shaped the fight for equality still prominent today. Written by Cierra Smith-Carter Photos by madison salyer



n elementary school history classes, many heard about how Susan B. Anthony won women the right to vote through protesting and “sticking it to the man.” Little girls were inspired by the woman who fought for women’s suffrage and made women equal to men. As these bright-eyed and hopeful little girls grew older, they started to see they may not be as equal as they once believed. We have also learned that Susan B. Anthony wasn’t the only one fighting for justice. There has been consecutive movements for women’s rights since the late 1800s, each changing with the issues surrounding their time.

employment, according to Stanton in her book, “A History of Women Suffrage.” This declaration was a stepping stone for women’s suffrage and is commonly overlooked when talking about women’s history. Without these women, the following women’s movements would not have been as successful. Although the convention was an important step towards women’s equality, it only represented a small portion of women––namely upperclass white women––as slavery had only been abolished three years prior and race relations in the country were polarized.

SENECA FALLS CONVENTION To fully understand women’s rights movements, it is important to realize they started before Susan B. Anthony and the Nineteenth Amendment. In 1848, a group of 200 women met and read the Declaration of Sentiments, a document outlining the inequalities and injustices that women endured during that time. The Declaration of Sentiments was drafted at the Seneca Falls Convention by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Throughout Stanton’s career, she addressed various issues, including women’s parental and custody rights, property rights, employment and income rights, divorce and birth control. After the American Civil War, Stanton became an advocate for the ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, strongly opposing the giving of added legal protections and voting rights to African-American men, while both black and white women were denied the same rights. Stanton’s declaration, based on the Declaration of Independence, demanded equality between sexes before the law, in education, and

WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Similar to the convention at Seneca Falls, the Women’s Suffrage Movement worked to establish a public knowledge of the importance of women’s rights. Susan B. Anthony played a vital role in the Women’s Suffrage Movement, helping to consistently protest and lobby for women’s right to vote. Women eventually earned this right in 1920 with the Nineteenth Amendment, sparking women to feel more empowered to continue the fight. The creation of the Nineteenth Amendment proved that with persistence and planning, women could overcome the restrictions once placed on them. Anthony, along with Stanton, created a coalition of strong women who wanted to gain their American right to vote. In 1920, being in a position to vote meant women were finally equal to men, but today we see it as only a portion of the battle. “WE CAN DO IT” Rosie the Riveter, an icon for women’s rights and equality, originated during World War II when many men were drafted into the war. She wasn’t a

real person, but a painting by artist J. Howard Miller, who produced the workincentive poster for the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. Her image was then plastered everywhere to show women also had the ability to work blue-collar jobs, just as well as men. When men were drafted during WWII, women were needed in the workplace and expected to fill the positions that men left behind. And they did, pushing the workforce and driving the American economy upward. During this time, many realized a woman’s place wasn’t purely in the home, which led toward women beginning to push for equal opportunity in the workplace. While many married women stayed housewives after their husbands returned from war, partially because they were forced to give up their positions to returning soldiers, the stigma that women couldn’t do what men could do was crushed. Rosie’s image continues to represent pushing boundaries, and she is still used to show women can do whatever they put their mind to.

widely known, but often overshadows the work women of color did to progress the movements for not only people of color, but all women as well. This was a time when intersectionality was just beginning to be noticed. Although the term would not be coined for another two decades by Kimberlé Crenshaw, an American civil rights advocate, in her 1989 paper covering black feminism. Intersectionality is the complex, cumulative way in which the effects of multiple forms of discrimination–– such as racism, sexism, and classism–– combine, overlap, or intersect especially in the experiences of marginalized individuals or groups, according to Merriam-Webster. Women during the Civil Rights Movement began to notice that black women were treated worse than white women, wealthy women were treated worse than poor women, and so on. The African-American Civil Rights Movement, along with the Chino and Asian-American Civil Rights Movements, pushed for equal education for children of color, including women who were previously often kept from post-secondary institutions. These movements also pushed for workplace equality and female empowerment.

“As these bright-eyed and hopeful little girls grew older, they started to see they may not be as equal as they once believed”.

CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT The Civil Rights Movement is known for the strides taken to combat oppression towards people of color during the 1950s and ‘60s, with its most notable icon being Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. This movement is


THE YEAR OF THE WOMAN 1992 was known as “The Year of the Woman” after the election of multiple female Senators in the U.S. According to the U.S. Senate, the highly contested 1991 Senate confirmation hearings for Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas troubled many American women. Televised images of a committee, composed exclusively of white males, sharply questioning an opposing witness—African-American law professor Anita Hill who accused Thomas, her supervisor at the U.S. Department of Education and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission—caused many to wonder where the women Senators were. Soon the term “feminism,” which according to Merriam-Webster, is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes, started to be more widely understood as its true meaning and not the skewed definition of women’s hatred toward men. American law professor Anita Hill who accused Thomas, her supervisor at the U.S. Department of Education and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission—caused many to wonder where the women Senators were. Soon the term “feminism,” which according to Merriam-Webster, is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes, started to be more widely understood as its true meaning and not the skewed definition of women’s hatred toward men. Women began to stand up against workplace microaggressions and harassment, and the gap between the pay of men and women in the same positions. Focus also shifted to reproductive rights. Even with Roe v. Wade, a case making abortions legal, happening in 1972, women having complete control over their bodies 14

continued to be taboo up until the early 2000s. The ‘90s and 2000s parallel a lot of the issues women have today, from reproductive freedom to workplace sexual harassment, and in those decades, and even now, the common excuse was “boys will be boys.” That is finally beginning to change, but not easily. #METOO In the age of social media and smartphones, information travels faster than ever before. These advances in technology have given women a platform to educate and speak out toward a broader audience. The ‘me too’ movement has shifted its focus to equal representation in media as well as in government while continuing the fight for reproductive rights and creating workplaces safe from sexual harassment. The ‘me too’ movement was founded in 2006 with the original hope to help survivors of sexual violence, particularly black women and girls, and other young women of color from lowincome communities, find pathways to healing, according to their website. Soon the viral #metoo hashtag gained traction online and opened the conversation of sexual assault into the national dialogue. When looking back on all of the various battles toward women’s equality, the same theme takes place. From education, workplace rights, reproductive freedom and equal voting opportunity, women will continue to want a say in what happens to their bodies and their lives. And that’s what these movements have all been about––having the right to speak up without consequences that men wouldn’t have in the same position.



David Bowie Known as the “musical chameleon,” David Bowie, born as David Robert Jones, had his first hit with “Space Oddity” in 1969. As Bowie’s popularity increased, so did his dynamic style. In 1972, Bowie released “The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust from Mars, more well known as Ziggy Stardust,” which is considered his breakthrough album and launched him into stardom. One of Bowie’s most memorable looks was his Aladdin Sane album cover. The red lightning bolt across his eye is now a permanent reminder of his rockstar adaptations. For Bowie, clothes were a tool of self-expression, which soon led him to change his style more than any other musician in history. From “Ziggy,” the “Thin White Duke” and “Aladdin Sane,” Bowie’s transformations embodied his creativity and self-invention. Selena Quintanilla Selena, born as Selena Quintanilla-Pérez, was one of the most celebrated Mexican-American entertainers of the late 20th century. In 1992, Selena released “Entre a Mi Mundo,” which was number one on the U.S. Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart for eight consecutive months. Originally criticized in the male dominated genre of Tejano music, she soon became critically acclaimed for “Amor Prohibido,” one of the best-selling Latin albums in the United States. As Selena’s popularity increased, so did her sex appeal. Known as the “Mexican Madonna,” she infused Spanish styles with modern American trends. 21 years after her death, her bedazzled bralettes and shimmering one-pieces are still affiliated with her lasting legacy.


Dizzy Gillespie John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie was an iconic figure of jazz music. His puffed-out cheeks while playing his trumpet are an easily recognizable attribute to the musical genius. Gillespie strayed from the typical jazz styles of the 1940s with his compositions “Groovin’ High,” “Woody ‘n’ You” and “Salt Peanuts.” This was the beginning of “bebop,” the first modern jazz style. One of Gillespie’s trademarks was his bent trumpet, which was bent upward at a 45-degree angle. The unconventional design was the result of accidental damage, but created a sound Gillespie could never forget, eventually leading to a request for a trumpet to be bent intentionally for him. The music mogul had a very classic image to him, usually performing in his signature beret, suit and thickframed black glasses. His style appeared quite different from his playful personality, but has become synonymous to the influential trumpeter. Amy Winehouse Sometimes known as “the last real individualist around,” Winehouse and her expressive vocals and mix of musical genres continue to extend her legacy past her death. Her debut album “Frank” was a success in the United Kingdom and her second album “Back to Black” awarded her five Grammy Awards in 2008. Winehouse’s style was greatly influenced by 1960s girl groups, and her signature “beehive” hairdo was inspired by them too. Her bold red lipstick, thick brows and heavy eyeliner can be attributed to Latina Women she saw in Miami while working on “Back to Black.” Even seven years after her death, Winehouse’s style is easily recognizable. Working through her rocky reputation, the musician continues to be a memory of raw talent and soulful music.


Are you okay?

ARE YOU OKAY? A R E YO U O K AY? Addressing the stigmas behind mental health and addiction. Written by Yasmeen Muhammad

Addiction has long been stigmatized throughout are responsible for 69 percent of alcohol use, 84 most societies. According to the National Institute percent of cocaine use and 68 percent of cigarette on Drug Abuse (NIDA), addiction is defined as a use. chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by com“While drug addiction and mental illness are both pulsive drug seeking and use, despite negative chronic, treatable health conditions, the American consequences. public is more likely to think of addiction as a morPeople may begin to use al failing than a medical dangerous substances for condition,” says Colleen “Sometimes people use drugs or a multitude of reasons: to Barry, an associate proalcohol to be able to alleviate some feel good, to feel better, to fessor at the School of do better, out of curiosity Public Health, in a 2014 of the mental health symptoms that or because of social presarticle. “In recent years, they are having whether it’s anxiety, sure. Specific drugs are it has become more known to produce intense socially acceptable to depression or stress; sometimes they pleasure and euphoria, talk publicly about one’s use drugs or alcohol to help relieve relieve stress and anxiety, struggles with mental and improve focus. The illness. But with addicthose symptoms and all it does usuproblem with these seemtion, the feeling is that ally is make it worse or delay actual ingly positive outcomes the addict is a bad or is that users may soon weak person, especially treatment.” become reliant on their because most drug use –Rinda Scoggan effects to feel “normal.” is illegal.” Drug addiction is comMany use addictive Ohio University mental health mon in those suffering substances to cope with couseler from untreated mental symptoms that may health problems, such as depression, anxiety and come with their mental illness. So, for example, untreated attention deficit/hyperactivity disorthose with social anxiety may abuse alcohol to der (ADHD). According to the National Bureau of feel more relaxed in social situations, and individEconomic Research (NBER), “There is a definite uals who suffer from panic attacks may abuse connection between mental illness and the use of drugs like Xanax or Valium. They use these subaddictive substances.” stances as a means of self-medication instead of Relative to the overall population, mental health seeking help. disorder patients are responsible for the consumpRinda Scoggan, a mental health counselor at tion of 38 percent of alcohol use, 44 percent of Ohio University, says, “Sometimes people use cocaine use and 40 percent of cigarette use. The drugs or alcohol to be able to alleviate some of NBER also reports that those who have been diag- the mental health symptoms that they are having nosed with a mental health disorder at some point whether it’s anxiety, depression or stress; some-


times they use drugs or alcohol to help relieve those symptoms and all it does usually is make it worse or delay actual treatment.” This form of self-medication is the result of many factors, but a leading cause is the lack of resources and awareness of resources that address addiction and mental health concerns. A growing problem in substance abuse is the glorification of drug and alcohol use in social media and entertainment. According to The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, those who regularly use popular social media outlets were more likely to drink, use drugs and buy tobacco than those who either did not use social media or used it less. These social media platforms act as a form of peer pressure, sending subtle messages that these types of behaviors are okay. In entertainment, the death of Mac Miller, a well-renowned rapper, singer and producer, has hit home for many. Miller recently died from sub-

stance abuse at the age of 26 on September 7. Miller himself admitted to having mental health issues and that he turned to drugs to cope with them. “I had a drug problem for a long time,” Miller said in an interview with Larry King in 2015. “It wasn’t just in music, but I definitely was going through a drug problem and I think it was more my state of mind. I was just pretty depressed.” Part of addressing the reliance on substance abuse is providing a wide range of resources. To address mental health concerns and substance abuse among young adults, Ohio University offers services to all of its students. These include mental health services such as short-term individual counseling, group counseling, psychiatric consultation, drop-ins and a suicide hotline. Ohio University also provides resources to students with drug and alcohol-related addiction through its Recovery Community Committee.

ON-CAMPUS RESOURCES EMERGENCY DROP-IN APPOINTMETS Where: Counseling and Psychological Services When: Monday through Friday from 9:45 a.m. to 3:15 DROP-IN APPOINTMENTS WITH COUNSELERS-IN-RESIDENCE Where: Living Learning Center Room 160 When: Sunday through Thursday from 5 p.m. to 10 p.m. during fall and spring semesters. RECOVERY TO INSPIRE. SHARE, AND EMPOWER R.I.S.E. is the official collegiate recovery community of Ohio University. Meetings are open to all students who are in recovery, seeking recovery or have been affected by the addiction of a loved one or friend. Where: Baker 321 When: Thursdays from 12 p.m. to 1 p.m. and Fridays from 3 p.m. to 4 p.m.


26 18


Popular fashion trends spanning the 1920s to the 1990s make their way into 2018. WRITTEN BY COURTNEY DAVIS PHOTOS BY ALLISON HAAS

too “scandalous” for women to be




ashion trends come and ashion trends come and go all the time, so when go all the time. So when some of the most iconic wefrom see some of themake most trends the past a come back, it does notpast iconic trends from the come as a surprise. In fact, they’re embraced. making a come back it Taking backastoathe 1920s, kneedoes notitcome surprise. In fact, we length dresses became popular as welcome it. women began to gain more basic rights, such as dresses voting and Knee-length havereceiving become higher pay. Pushing boundaries, extremely popular this year. This soonwomen slowly began to shortened to-be iconic trend actually their dresses, which was started an act inofthe defiance wasit considered too 1920s. Infor theit20s, was considered

showing any for sortwomen of leg. When women “scandalous” to show any sorttoofgain leg.more Flappers of thesuch ‘20s began basic rights, were known as the first generation voting and receiving higher pay, they ofas independent American women. They were for their and inch decided to known push boundaries energetic and immoral lifestyles, by inch dresses shortened. Flappers and thanks to them, dresses were able to be a little shorter of the 1920s were known as the and first women had the opportunity to generation independent American have a little of more fun. Their highrisk dresses known for women. Theywere werewell known for their being covered in dazzling sparkles energetic and immoral lifestyles, and and flowing feathers. thanks to them, ouran dresses The 1930s was era ofwere oldtime Hollywood and glamour. able to be a little shorter and we The were early ‘30s were conservative in able to have a little more fun. Their

high-risk dresses were well known for


being covered in dazzling sparkles and

terms fashion and men’s suits flowing of feathers. were closely cut to use less fabric High-waisted, wide leg pants are a new due to the Great Depression. Vibrant trend that’s starting make way so colors were seentoas baditstaste neutral shadeswork were common. The into the women’s environment. later ‘30s brought more economic These pants first appeared in the stability and cuts on suits began 1940s, and up until then most to have fuller sleeves andwomen padded shoulders. An emphasis on formal never wore pants out of the house. As wear made hats, and more popularly, women started to receive more jobs in fedoras, an accessory expected to be factories and hospitals, becameThis clearera worn outside of theithome. also brought pinpractical stripesclothing and flannel they needed more patterns into the spotlight, which still to work in. Women were against the remain popular today. trend at first, until actress High-waisted, wideKatherine leg pants first appeared inseen the wearing 1940s,wide-legged and up until Hepburn was then, most women never wore pants pants in public. This was a huge risk out of the house. As women started since womenmore could jobs be arrested for to receive in factories and hospitals, it became clearbethey wearing pants in public. They would needed more practical clothing to detained for “masquerading as men.” work in. Women were against the Luckily,at daring like GretaKatherine Garbo, trend first,women until actress Hepburn was seen wearing wideMarlene Dietrich, Mozelle Britton and legged pants in public. This was a Fay Wray, who decided to push the huge risk since women could be boundaries,for making thesepants pants an arrested wearing in public, according tothe Vice. iconic trend of 40s,They pavedwould the waybe detained for as men.” for the trend we“masquerading see today. Luckily, daring women like Greta When Marlene women were not fighting for Garbo, Dietrich, Mozelle Britton Faypants Wray, decided our rightsand to wear in the 1940s,to push therocking boundaries by making they were A-line dresses. A-line these pants an iconic trend of the dresses sinch in at the waist andthe flowway ‘40s. These women paved for theattrend we see today. out out the bottom. These dresses were not areWhen perfect women for any occasion and fighting can for our rights to wear pants in give ‘40s, you anthey instant classy look, making the were rocking A-line dresses. cinch this the topA-line reasondresses A-line dresses arein at waist and flare out along a stillthe in style today. straight line to the hem to form a 1960slike fashion was a turning shape a triangle or an point A. These for women. During the 60s, getoccasion dresses are perfect forwe any and cansneak-peak give an instant classy look, our first of mini-dresses making this a top reason A-line as womenare became with their dresses still riskier in style today. fashion choices. Twiggy, being one of point 1950s fashion was a turning 31


for women. Form-fitting dresses spring the rebellious nature of the youth of

theinto world’s mostas popular models in riskierbodies shift brought us the ‘50s women became theanymore. time. TheThis “greaser” subculture

theirhelped fashion choices. Women’s into gained traction during this decade, thewith 1960s, make these striped the world of bodycon dresses. clothing became more fitted, and

mini-dresses an unforgettable trendand as fashion icons Audrey Hepburn

with Marlon Brando and James Dean

Moving into the 1970s, dresses being pop culture leaders of were this “bad

Jackie Kennedy heavily influenced a out and boy”bell look. Leather jackets, denim, she modeled them in every magazine bottom jeans were in. tighter fit. These two women made

cuffed jeans, and Chuck Taylor All-

throughout America andlook England. is alsowere whenallfloral maxi dresses form-fitting dresses classy and ThisStars staple pieces of this

elegant,clothing as women weren’t more afraid to became distinguished style. The ‘60s were a Women’s also became a popular clothing style. Maxi

show off their bodies anymore. This turning point of self-expression after fitted Hepburn and Jackie dresses were extremely popular forin the ‘50s, shiftAudrey brought us into the world of an emphasis on conformity bodycon dresses. leading the to way toward the diverse Onassis heavily influencing a tighter fit.. women to wear music festivals, such The clothing of the 1960s depicted fashion we see today. 32

These two women made form fitting

as the infamous Woodstock. These

dresses look classy and elegant, as

dresses were flowy, making it easier

women weren’t afraid to show off their

for women to dance in. These dresses

1960s In the 1970s, dresses were out and bell bottom werethen, in. This is also were just ajeans fad back fading away when floral maxi dresses became a in the 1980s and 1990s, butdresses resurfaced popular clothing style. Maxi were extremely popular forstuck women to a few years ago and have around wear to music festivals, such as the ever since. infamous Woodstock. These dresses had loose, making Movingflowing into thebottoms, 80s, bright colors,it easier for women to dance in. These shoulder pads and big hair the dresses were just a fad backwere then, fading away in the 1980s and 1990s, staples. Even though 80s fashion is the but resurfaced a few years ago and have continued to stick around. complete opposite of today’s fashion,

Moving into the ‘80s, bright colors, shoulder pads big hair the continued into and the early 90s.were The top staples. Even though ‘80s fashion is the made a comeback earlyfashion, 2000s complete opposite in of the today’s itand still has gave us one of our biggest staple been a go-to wardrobe staple pieces––crop tops. Crop tops were a ever since. big trend towards the end of the ‘80s andAs continued into early ‘90s. The for men in thethe 80s, varsity top made a comeback in the early jacketsand ,or has letterman were 2000s been jackets, a go-to wardrobe staple ever since. extremely popular. The athletic jacket As for men in the ‘80s, varsity jackets, or being letterman were was seen wornjackets, by Michael J.

it still gave us one of our biggest staple

Fox in the Back to the Future series,

pieces–crop tops. Crop tops were a big

Emilio Estevez as Andrew Clark in the





heartthrob frompopular. the 80s, Michael extremely This athletic styled

jacket was worn byinMichael Schoeffling as Jake Ryan Sixteen J. Fox in

the “Back to the Future series,” Emilio Estevez as Andrew Clark in “The It’s not a surprise theeveryone’s 90s are Breakfast Club”that and favorite heartthrob from the Mom ‘80s,jeans Michael making a huge comeback. Schoeffling as Jake Ryan in “Sixteen are back in style and baggy jean jackets Candles.” are everyone’s when getting ready It’s not ago-to surprise that the ‘90s are a huge comeback today. Mom in making the morning. It feels like the 90s are jeans are back in style and baggy jean in full swing again; but some of the jackets are everyone’s go-to when biggest fashions coming back It feels like getting readytrends in the morning. the ‘90s are in long full swing again. this year originated before the 90s. It’s hard to narrow it down to just one, but the As for the 90s, it’s hard to narrow it most iconic trend throughout this past down just one, butvelvet. the most iconic yeartohas been The 1998 movie “My Date with throughout this pastthe yearPresident’s is velvet. TheDaughter” is a great example of velvet’s popularity movie Clueless is a great example of in the ‘90s. The skirts, dresses, tops velvet’s popularity back in the were 1990s.all that eyeand even accessories catching material, andwere it seems that The skirts, dresses and tops all trend has translated to today. that material and it seems that trend As easy as it would be to say today’s has translated to today. trends all came from the ‘90s, it’s simply not true. and men’s fashion As easy asWomen it would be saying has evolved throughout the years, today’s trends all came from the 90s, incorporating new fabrics, styles and it’scuts simply not transcend true. Womenpast and men’s that their initial emergence intofor the decades to fashion has beenand evolving years, its come. Candles.

incorporation of new fabrics, styles and cuts transcending past the origin of the look and into the decades to come.



AIN’T NUTHIN BUT A “90s” THANG photos by sydney honaker



Across the Cosmetics Creating makeup products safe for humans has gotten better, but the process is still not glamorous. Here’s a journey across face and time. WRITTEN BY ROGENE EVANS PHOTOS BY HALLE SIEGEL


The use of makeup dates back to 4000 B.C. in An-

cient Egypt, according to David Scott, founding UCLA professor. Egyptians would use ground minerals to make beauty products, such as face paint, oils and body ointments. Common minerals used for makeup were malachite, kohl and galena. To get the colors they desired, minerals such as calcite and red ochre were commonly used. The price of beauty was high in this era due to the unknown harmfulness of the cosmetics. A lot of the products used to make makeup contained lead and copper, which are known today to cause health-related issues including cancer and liver damage. In extreme cases it can even cause death. According to the Smithsonian, Lash Lure, a mascara product, led to the blindness and death of consumers in 1933. The product claimed to give women permanently madeup eyelashes and included the chemical p-phenylenediamine, which can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Lash Lure caused blisters, abscesses and ulcers on the face, eyelids and eyes of consumers. For one consumer, the damage was severe and led to a bacterial infection that lead to her death. Despite the risk cosmetics still bare today, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not require products to be FDA approved before being introduced to the market–– only that the products be regulated. Current laws include regulating the accuracy of product labels, adherence to import and export guidelines, shelf life quality and the cleanliness of manufacturing. The two most important regulations are the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA). The FD&C Act defines cosmetics and drugs by their intended use; cosmetics’ purpose being for external use only. Anything internal, used to alter or used to treat diseases are considered to be a drug. The FPLA ensures that all the products used to create the cosmetic are included in the list of ingredients. Many times, products have included illegal ingredients known to be harmful to human health and were not properly labeled on cosmetic packaging. The Draize Test The U.S. Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act was signed into law in 1938. The act required cosmetic products to undergo testing to ensure safe use of the product, allowing companies to begin testing their products on animals. In 1944, the Draize test was invented to measure skin and eye irritancy of chemicals and other products. The test involves dropping concentrated amounts of a substance into an animal’s eye (while their lids are clipped open) or placing a chemical onto an area where the animal’s skin has been shaved. The resulting irritation, which could include ulcerations, inflamed or bleeding skin, swollen eyes and blindness, is measured on a numerical scale. The Draize test was considered the gold standard for measuring cosmetic safety in products.


New Testing Technologies According to Allan Mottus, former publisher of the Informationist, the last four decades have had an emphasis placed on animal cruelty, beginning with efforts made by environmental activists. Environmental activists were concerned with the treatment and welfare of animals in all aspects, including within the cosmetic industry. In 2000, the Interagency Coordination Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) Authorization Act was signed. The law established a coordinated effort by U.S. agencies to adopt alternative testing methods. Since 2004, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has approved over a dozen non-animal alternative testing methods for testing chemical effects on the skin and eyes. Donated human tissue and cell cultures have been proven to be more cost effective, time sensitive and more efficient in determining product quality than animal testing. Many countries, including the European Union, Israel, Norway, Brazil and India, have banned testing cosmetics on animals as well as imported goods tested on animals since 2004. The Humane Cosmetics Act (HCA) was introduced in the U.S. in 2014 and the legislation prohibits cosmetic animal testing and the sale of animal tested cosmetics on new products only, not previous ones that have been on the market prior to 2014. Despite the effectiveness of alternative testing methods, testing on animals remains legal in many other countries including the U.S. Which Brands Still Test on Animals? Cruelty-Free Kitty, Bobbi Brown, Estee Lauder, L’Oreal, MAC and Maybelline are brands that conduct product testing on animals. Some companies use product testing by outsourcing a company to test their products for them as a loophole. How to Determine Whether Your Makeup Tests on Animals Beware of products derived from animals, including beeswax (makeup products), keratin (hair products), lactic acid (face masks) and retinol (skincare). Brands that are PETA-approved and animal cruelty-free will have the leaping bunny logo on their packaging or website. Leaping bunny approved products don’t contain any animal products, nor do the brands test on animals. Anastasia Beverly Hills, BECCA Cosmetics, Black Radiance and ColourPop are all PETA-approved and cruelty free.



These TV show characters brought the iconic outfits of their time front and center, creating well-known styles that still influence fashion today.

WRITTEN BY RACHEL MARK Throughout the decades, television has shown audiences countless iconic looks. From Audrey Hepburn’s classic black dress in “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” to Cher’s legendary yellow and plaid outfit in “Clueless,” television has had a huge impact on how people dress and express themselves, influencing the fashion of those who watch it. Television shows popularized many styles throughout the years, starting with the decade of flower power, bell bottom jeans and tie-dye. The 1970s were a time of self expression and being yourself, and a character that expressed these ideas was Mila Kunis’ character, Jackie Burkhart, in “That ‘70s Show,” which aired from 1998 to 2006. Jackie Burkhart was a ‘70s fashion icon because she never stuck to a particular style. One of her most memorable outfits included a green sweater with an ascot tied around her neck. She paired the green sweater with a plaid skirt and a red beret. Jackie Burkhart incorporated many key elements of ‘70s fashion into her wardrobe. In multiple episodes she is seen wearing bell bottoms and long, denim skirts along with shirts tied off above the belly button. Jackie Burkhart made people crave ‘70s fashion, from crochet shirts to suede jackets with fringe. “Saved by the Bell,” which aired from 1989 to 1993, had a character that contributed countless styles and looks to the mainstream population. The fashion icon of the show was Kelly Kapowski, an American sweetheart that made two-piece outfits, floral dresses and crop tops some of the most popular outfits of today. Just googling Kelly Kapowski, images of her glamorous high-waisted jeans paired with a white crop top and black suspenders is posted everywhere. Kelly Kapowski’s famous twopiece outfits are immensely popular and versatile in fashion today. Kelly Kapowski was the epitome of ‘80s fashion, from her leggings, off-the-shoulder sweaters and matching two-piece outfits. The ‘80s were filled with these popular trends and Kelly Kapowski displayed all of them. Another ‘80s TV show that made major waves in the fashion sphere was “The Cosby Show,” airing from 1984 to 1992. According to a Bustle article, the show had a weekly budget of $3,000, partly because the costume designer, Sarah Lemire, wanted to find clothes that people would talk about. A fan favorite character of the show was “Denise Huxtable,” played by Lisa Bonet. Denise was the family’s “wild child” and known for her eccentric and free-spirited clothing. Between her eye-catching makeup looks and love of statement hats, Denise Huxtable took major style risks with her avant-garde aesthetic. Her common wardrobe staples were oversized smocks,


harem pants, jumpsuits, head wraps, denim and vintage tops. Denise Huxtable was an ‘80s “cool girl,” changing her hair and style constantly while maintaining a relaxed, effortless vibe. An iconic and memorable television character of the 1990s was Rachel Green from “Friends.” Throughout the ten seasons of the sitcom, which aired from 1994 to 2004, Rachel Green wore many trendsetting outfits that women still wear to this day. One of Rachel Green’s outfits that are memorable to almost anyone is her red plaid skirt paired with white high socks and a white crop-top turtleneck. Along with the plaid skirt, Rachel Green brought the popular trend of wearing a slip dress over a T-shirt to the small screen. Rachel Green didn’t have the spunky fashion that the Spice Girls and Britney Spears wore, but rather her own preppy and stylish look, representing a classic ‘’‘90s aesthetic” that people still recreate today. For the six years “The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air” aired, from 1990 to 1996, viewers got to see the style evolution of Ashley Banks, the family’s “baby girl,” played by Tatyana Ali. Every ‘90s teen who watched the show most likely envied the style of Ashley Banks and her sister, Hilary Banks, played by Karyn Parsons. Ashley Banks’ wardrobe was representative of the styles of the time and were readily attainable to the show’s female audience. In the sitcoms’ earlier seasons, Ashley Banks showed a more youthful look, with baggy shirts, baseball hats and bright colors. As she matured throughout the show, her style became more edgy and risqué. Her midriff-baring crop tops, sleek bodycon dresses, and multitude of plaid skirts showcased Ashley Banks rebellious era. Although the fashion of these characters differed by decade, they all have one aspect in common: their influence. A key aspect that makes a character so iconic is that people don’t just recreate their look for a month, or even a year, but continue to recreate that look and wear it for years to come. People may not be wearing these characters’ exact outfits, but they are definitely using them for inspiration.


Written by Victoria Kelley Photos by Faith Carlisle

OU students push for a safer campus environment after a rise in sexual assault reports.

Students at Ohio University are concerned about the increasing amount of sexual assault-related crime alerts already sent out by the Ohio University Police Department (OUPD) in the 2017-2018 year. According to the Rape Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN), more than 50 percent of college sexual assaults occur within the first four months of the school year, with first year students being more at risk. The Athens Police Department (APD) and OUPD have received 21 reports of sexual assault since Aug. 25. According to RAINN, only 20 percent of female student survivors aged 18 to 24 report to law enforcement. Survivors may choose not to report for several reasons, including a fear of retaliation, believing the police will not help, thinking it is not important enough to report and not wanting to get the perpetrator in trouble. Perpetrators of sexual violence often know the victim; 45 percent of rapes are being committed by an acquaintance and 25 percent are being committed by a current or former spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend. The current societal environment where rape is prevalent and sexual violence is normalized, or even excused, is often called “rape culture.” A common example of rape culture is victim blaming. Victim blaming is the belief that the survivor is at fault for reasons beyond their control. Phrases, “Well, what were you wearing?” and “She asked for it” are used as a way to distance the unpleasant thought that this could happen to anyone. From Aug. 30 to Sept. 13, an art exhibit sponsored and supported by Ohio University’s Women Center, the Survivor Advocacy Program, the Campus Involvement Center, the College of Fine Arts, Ambassadors to the


Survivor Advocacy Program and the Intersectional Feminist Alliance was displayed in the Trisolini Gallery in Baker University Center. The art installation, called “What were you wearing?”, was designed to share stories of sexual assault and survivors while challenging the victim-blaming behavior that often accompanies these incidents, according to Ohio University Compass. The installation featured descriptions of clothing that were worn by survivors of sexual assault, along with clothing items that closely resembled what the survivor was wearing at the time of assault. For some descriptions, the actual clothing worn was displayed. OU student Semajah Parker tweeted about the exhibit on Aug. 31, followed by photos of a few of the outfits. “Every OU Student and other residents of Athens need to go to the art gallery on the 4th floor of Baker and see the ‘What Were You Wearing Exhibit.’ This exhibit is so powerful, moving and nearly brought me to tears…”

she says in the tweet.

The tweet quickly gained traction, now having over 24,000 retweets and roughly 49,000 likes. Twitter users from Ohio and beyond expressed how the outfits posted were heartbreaking, some even showing an interest in traveling to Athens to see the exhibit for themselves. This is not the only occurrence this year when OU has been in the spotlight for this issue. In September, Sigma Kappa’s Beta Upsilon Chapter at OU hung a banner in front of the sorority reading “Consent is Sexy,” with the word “Sexy” crossed out and replaced with the word “Mandatory.” Other sororities and fraternities showed their support with signs as well, including messages “Our bodies, our rules” and

“Stand with Survivors.” Joe Woods, a junior at OU and member of the Theta Chi chapter at OU says their fraternity felt the need to stand with the survivors. “By showing involvement and concern in what has happened recently is important because that shows we are aware of the wrongdoings that have occurred, and we will be active in preventing such things in the future,” he says. Students are standing together to show sexual assault will not be tolerated. Mary Ryznar, an OU senior, started a group chat on GroupMe where women can use the “buddy system” to reach out for rides or walks home when they feel too unsafe to go alone. Ryznar says that while sexual assaults were always present on campus in her previous years, they were never as frequent as they are now. “It breaks my heart thinking about girls coming [onto] campus feeling unsafe,” Ryznar says. The chat now has over 1,000 members, Ryznar reaching out to GroupMe to expand the number of members allowed in a group. “I thought about how my friends and I have always texted or called one another while walking late at night to make sure each other gets home safe,” Ryznar says. “I thought to myself, ‘Why can’t the whole campus do this if it has been working out so well for us?’” OU is currently attempting to develop a new app to prevent sexual assaults. The university asked students to take a survey on which free app they would want available, each offering different features But OU students are not just satisfied with attempts to prevent sexual assault; many want to create an entirely new and safer environment on campus. On September 27, hundreds of students gathered on College Green for the “It’s on Us, Bobcats” rally to call an end to sexual assault on campus. The rally began on College Green, then forming into a march where students walked down Court Street, East State Street and South College Street. “We need to look out for one another to cultivate a safe and supportive environment,” says Abby Kongos, a sophomore OU student and rally attendee. Several concerned students spoke at the rally, all with the same message that there needs to be a change in the culture. OU announced in late September that the university will spend $1 million on new, high definition cameras after the increase of sexual assault reports. OU officials say they plan to install the 400 new security cameras throughout the campus––each camera costing about $2,000. “It’s not just a police problem, it’s a community problem,” says OU Police Lieutenant Tim Ryan in a WSYX article. “Yes we can do what we can do in patrolling but we need people to be aware and we’re really trying to focus on education to people to know what consent is.” Although OU and other college campuses have made significant strides in addressing sexual assault and the importance of consent, there is still a long way to go.

If you or someone you know may have been a victim of sexual misconduct, these Ohio University resources are available and confidential. Counseling and Psychological Services (CPS) 740-593-1616 Hudson Health Center 3rd Floor Campus Care 740-593-1660 Hudson Health Center 1st Floor Counseling and Psychological Services (CPS) 740-593-1616 Hudson Health Center 3rd Floor Survivor Advocacy Program 740-597-7233 (24/7 crisis line) Lindley Hall 038/038C

Campus Care 740-593-1660 Hudson Health Center 1st Floor Survivor Advocacy Program 740-597-7233 (24/7 crisis line) Lindley Hall 038/038C


WRITTEN BY Eleonor Elias PHOTOS BY Brianna Esparza-Magnone


Women’s undergarments continue to change to fit the needs, body ideals and figures of the women who wear them. The concept of the bra has evolved and devel-

oped since its initial creation 3,000 years ago. Through advancements in women’s fashion and the changing views on the visibility of breasts, bras have had a transformative history, as well as the opinions surrounding them. The earliest bra dates back to the 14th century Bronze Age in the Minoan civilizations of present-day Crete, Greece. In these civilizations, women would cover their breasts for sports-related events with a bandeau-type top made of leather, which was described as a “bikini.” Minoan women were also known to wear a fitted, corset-like device worn outside of their clothing, used to accentuate their breasts and make them more visible. Moving forward to the 15th century, it was expected for women to restrict their breasts. During this time, the ideal form for women was small-breasted and full-figured, a body type thought to symbolize fertility. Cloth binders or fitted dresses were common in attempts to diminish the appearance of breasts. A smaller and firmer chest area was seen as a class symbol, with infants being given to wet nurses, women who breastfed and care for other women’s children, so upper-class women could maintain their shape. In the 16th century, women wanted to achieve a small waist, which was considered the “perfect figure” at the time. This led to the creation of the corset. Early corsets had an emphasis on form, the ideal being a flat torso and breasts pushed upward. The corset appeared in the 1300s, and was initially worn over clothing rather than underneath. The corset was meant to cinch the waist and keep its shape. Eventually, it created the unrealistic body standard for Western women at the time. The modern bra came to be in the 1900s, thanks

to Mary Phelps Jacob, who used two handkerchiefs and some ribbon to hold her breasts in place while also maintaining a flat look. A known socialite from New York, she decided that she was going to create a bra that was comfortable and light, unlike the corset. She wanted the bra to do more than just look nice; she wanted something practical as well. By the time Jacob’s invention peaked popularity, she had sold her patent to the Warner Brothers Corset Company, where her invention would be the most popular bra for the following 30 years.

“In our generation all of our bras are remakes of past styles with modern fabrics and designs. . .”

The modern bra came to be in the 1900s, thanks to Mary Phelps Jacob, who used two handkerchiefs and some ribbon to hold her breasts in place while also maintaining a flat look. A known socialite from New York, she decided that she was going to create a bra that was comfortable and light, unlike the corset. She wanted the bra to do more than just look nice; she wanted something practical as well. By the time Jacob’s invention peaked popularity, she had sold her patent to the Warner Brothers Corset Company, where her invention would be the most popular bra for the following 30 years. In the 1930s, S. H. Camp and Co., an American company based in Michigan, began associating breast size to letters of the alphabet, essentially creating the concept of “cup sizes.” This system matched a specific size of the bust with the letters A, B, C and D––A being the smallest size and D the largest. This new method of measuring the cup size pioneered how breasts would be measured for all companies that sell bras. Fast-forward 10 years to the 1940s, where women were working in factories while the men were away during World War II. Working at a factory could lead to injuries, so the “torpedo style” bra was created to protect the breast while doing work that required the use of machinery. The torpedo style bra was pointed, looking almost like an outward-facing funnel on each breast. This type of bra was also used in the ‘50s to create a “sweater girl” look, a trend of wearing tight, form-fitted sweaters that emphasized the bustline.

Before the 1970s, women did not have bras for all forms of physical activity. In 1977, however, thanks to Jogbra Inc., a company that created the “Jogbra,” women were encouraged to participate in sports. This bra greatly impacted women’s sports to the point where it caused an increase in women athletes in universities by 450 percent. The Jogbra allowed women to participate in physical activities while keeping breasts in place and offering comfort and support. The push-up bra was created by Canadian designer Louise Poirier, who got the idea for a padded bra after noticing that women would stuff them with tissue to create the illusion that they had bigger cup sizes. He created the Wonderbra, which lifted the breasts up to enhance cleavage. The Wonderbra was first released in Great Britain in the early 1900s, but wasn’t introduced in the United States until 1994, where it became a great success. In our generation all of our bras are remakes of past styles with modern fabrics and designs, but one trend in specific that is making a comeback is the “no bra” trend. Even celebrities, such as Rihanna and Kendall Jenner, participate in this trend, proving to the world that being natural is beautiful, too. With hashtags such as “freethenipple,” more and more women are choosing to be bra-free, taking control of their bodies and how they choose to dress.

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