etter from the editor
As another year of Variant comes to a close, so does my time at the magazine. Being a member of Variant for four years has made my OU experience truly amazing, and as I say goodbye to my position, I think about the generation before me and the generations to come after. Variant was created to acknowledge and celebrate our differences as individuals, and I am proud to say we continue to commit to these values. When Variant first started, it focused primarily on fashion. Now, four years later, we’ve expanded to also touch on cultural and social issues, our experiences as college students and more. In “Power of Representation,” (pg. 11) Jordan Schmitt, educates readers on issues that minorities face as they relate to the U.S. political system as well as the positive changes that are currently being made in our nation. In this issue, Variant also shines a light on the individual experiences that impact one’s sense of power. Sophia Daugherty Muñoz, shares her story of finding hope while battling an eating disorder in “Consumed,” (pg. 5). as Variant continues to grow even after I graduate, we won’t forget where it all began. Variant would not be here without the creative community within Athens which inspires and supports us constantly. It is because of people like Phil Berry,
mentioned in “The Heart of Small Towns” (pg. 15) by Jorja Butt, that we feel at home. Overall, this was a difficult year that caused many changes and obstacles, but Variant has come out stronger as a team, and I am pleased to be a part of this diversified group of talented young people. As the world progresses, I am confident that Variant will continue to learn, grow and produce content to empower all people. As our copy chief Ellie Roberto says, “The modern definition of luxury is desire, and it’s not exclusive (pg. 1).
VARIANT MAGAZINE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF MADISON SALYER EXECUTIVE EDITOR JONATHAN PIERRON ASSOCIATE EDITOR GABRIELLA HAYES ˜ CREATIVE DIRECTOR SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUNOZ CHIEF OF PHOTOGRAPHY KATE BENDER PHOTO ASSISTANTS KATE BENDER, ELLIOTT MAGENHEIM, MADISON SALYER, SOPHIA DAUGHERTY
˜ MUNOZ, GARY KIRKSEY, SAM GIRTON, AEDEN GROTHAUS ˜ PHOTOGRAPHERS SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUNOZ, TUNDE NELSON, EVIE SEARS, MADISON SALYER, JULIE GRAHAM PHOTO EDITORS MADISON SALYER,
˜ SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUNOZ WEB EDITOR GRACE DEARING DIGITAL TECH ELLIOTT MAGENHEIM HEAD OF PUBLICATION DESIGN OLIVIA DUTKEWYCH
COPY EDITORS MARGAUX AUGIER, FARAH CHIDIAC
˜ WRITERS SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUNOZ, FARAH CHIDIAC, ELLIE ROBERTO, JORDAN SCHMITT, JORJA BUTT, MARGAUX AUGIER, HALLE DRAY HEAD OF VIDEOGRAPHY AARON BRYAN VIDEOGRAPHERS ELIZABETH RIESER, JONATHAN PIERRON, AARON BRYAN HEAD OF STYLING AEDEN GROTHAUS
˜ STYLISTS SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUNOZ, MATTHEW KUSPER, MARGAUX AUGIER, MARCO OMTA, DESTINY REYNOLDS, AEDEN GROTHAUS, MARAYA BROWN, KAYLA
DESIGNERS MADDIE JAMES, LAUREN PETERS, EMMA
DENGLER, ASHLEIGH BUBLINEC, MACEY ELDER, NAILA
CO-EVENT COORDINATORS CYDNEE
LATHAM, OLIVIA DUTKEWYCH
LIVINGSTON, LILY ROBY
HEAD OF MAKEUP JOHANNA ANTONUCCIO
HEAD OF PUBLIC RELATIONS JORDAN SCHMITT
MAKEUP ARTISTS GABBY BELL, JONAI SPATES, JULIE
PUBLIC RELATIONS LOGAN GRAVES, HALLE DRAY,
MYERS, JOHANNA ANTONUCCIO, CHERI MARSHALL, HANNAH MAZANEC, CYDNEE LIVINGSTON HEAD OF MARKETING ASHLYN ANSEL COPY CHIEF ELLIE ROBERTO
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˜ SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUNOZ, MATTHEW KUSPER, JACOB SCHOELER, CYDNEE LIVINGSTON, MYA WILSON, GRACE DEARING, TALIA POTTER STAY CONNECTED WITH US! VRNTMAGAZINE.COM / @VRNTMAGAZINE
Editor in Chief Madison Salyer
Photo Chief Kate Bender
Digital Tech Elliott Magenheim
Copy Chief Ellie Roberto
Videography Aaron Bryan
Public Relations Jordan Schmitt
Publication Design Olivia Dutkewych
Event Planning Cydnee Livingston
Event Planning Lily Roby
Creative Director Sophia Daugherty Muñoz
Executive Editor Jonathan Pierron
Copy Editor Farah Chidiac
Web Editor Grace Dearing
Copy Editor Margaux Augier
Treasurer Emma Herzig
Styling Aeden Grothaus
Associate Editor Gabriella Hayes
Marketing Ashlyn Ansel
Makeup and Hair Johanna Antonuccio
What Is Luxury? Attempting to Define the Impossible
Power of Representation
The Heart of Small Towns
The Power of Small Moments
A Microcosm of Fame
The Evolution of Makeup
The Power of Trends from Beginning to End
Fact or Fiction: Campus Cliques
PHOTOGRAPHED BY JULIE GRAHAM WRITTEN BY ELLIE ROBERTO DESIGNED BY NAILA LATHAM
What’s the first brand that comes to mind when you think of “luxury?” Louis Vuitton? Chanel? Fendi? If you answered with one of these brands, you’d be correct. However, can a subjective concept such as luxury really be defined? Before the end of the 20th century, luxury fashion houses dictated what consumers wore and the trends they followed. If a woman could afford Chanel in the 1950s, she would most likely wear head-to-toe Chanel almost daily. It’s rare today to see someone walk down the street wearing entirely one brand.
Instead, people tend to express themselves through a variety of brands and often become major influencers for large fashion houses. For years, luxury has been considered to be at the height of fashion, worn by members of high society and seen on the runways in Paris and Milan, but much like the word wealth, luxury can mean many things to different people. Over time, high-end fashion, or luxury fashion, has grown to include OffWhite hoodies, Yeezy t-shirts and Nike sneakers, which in
URY? attempting to define the impossible
previous years, would not have fit into the exclusive definition of luxury. Over forty years ago, a group of European luxury brands created the luxury strategy; a marketing strategy designed to expand luxury brands’ consumer base beyond their few exclusive clientele while maintaining their places in the luxury sector. The luxury strategy contains 24 anti-laws of marketing that cement an exclusive definition of luxury in the eyes of the consumer. The anti-laws include, “Make it difficult for clients to buy,” “Luxury sets the price; price does not set luxury” and “Keep raising the average price of the product range.” In tandem with the messages expressed in these anti-laws, some high-end brands have gone as far as burning their excess inventory to maintain their products’ exclusivity and avoid being sold in outlet stores. One of the luxury brands most known for destroying their products is Burberry; however, in 2018, the company announced it would stop destroying unsold stock. Luxury products are associated with durability, high-prices, craftsmanship, heritage and rarity. Some see luxury as only attainable by the happy few. In a 2011 blog, Vogue Italian editor-in-chief Franca Sozzani echoed some of these attributes in her definition of luxury: “Craftsmanship is luxury. A product is lux when it is handmade, tailored for few. Luxury meaning exclu-
siveness.” Brands with a deep-rooted history, such as Chanel and Hermès, reside in this common definition of luxury; however, those definitions of luxury reflect old world, elitist principles. They lack reference to the bottom-up influence we see in the fashion world today and the representation of variety in human experience, This is why the definition of luxury is shifting; it’s a threat to high-end retailers and brands. The key idea of luxury is exclusivity, but it’s being diversified with mass production as more and more brands offer the quality experience of other high-end items, often at lower prices. To maintain relevance to the modern consumer, traditional luxury brands must find a way to merge streetwear with their already defined historical image that will appeal to the new generation of luxury fashion buyers. Social media and technology have changed the speed at which consumers find and purchase fashionable items. In the digital world, it’s easy to view collections from multiple designers simultaneously, allowing one to pick and choose who they shop from. On Instagram, Tik Tok and Snapchat, users can watch haute couture runway shows virtually and then mimic what they see on the runway in their own ways using other luxury or non-luxury items. This creates diversity in individualized, luxury-like styles that are fresh, rebellious or fun. The old luxury was material things, while the new luxury is more abstract and includes how clothes make people feel. Luxury is a pleasure. With this new inclusive definition in mind, can it be said that eating an extra slice of cheese pizza at midnight is luxe? Or hitting play on another Netflix series episode? Aren’t these considered exclusive experiences too? What can be luxury? Louis Vuitton’s menswear artistic director and CEO of Off-White, Virgil Abloh, has an answer to this question. He says, “If you covet it, it’s luxurious to you. For a 17year old kid, that Supreme t-shirt is their Louis Vuitton. It doesn’t matter if it’s $30.” The modern definition of luxury is desire, and it’s not exclusive.
WRITTEN AND PHOTOGRAPHED BY SOPHIA DAUGHERTY MUÑOZ DESIGNED BY MACEY ELDER
ou are stupid. You are fat. You don’t deserve to eat today. If you eat breakfast, you must do four laps up and down the stairs. NO LUNCH! The voice got louder and louder as the refeeding process began - the one medicine there is for an anorexic - food. Secretly disposing of meals, throwing bites on the floor for the dog, slipping food in a bra or up a sleeve, sandwiches in drawers and other creative places are the ultimate goal of many anorexics. How to outwit the watchful eyes of whoever is charged with monitoring every bite. Every meal – six of them – was a battle between those who supervised and the Eating Disorder. Ed was a name I created to differentiate the anorexic from the disorder. Ed is 6
a terrorist whose distinct voice made every bite anxiety-producing and excruciating. Wounded and terrified, desperately running away from what is in front of me. Running in circles to rid myself of guilt, shame and fear of fat. I could not keep my head up and awake long enough for the doctor to hospitalize my body, but my mind was elsewhere running far away from the truth and consumed by the voice that ruled over me. My body was tired, giving up, slowly dwindling down to nothing. There is nothing wrong with me. That same line was repeated over and over. Dangerously low blood pressure and heart rate combined with low blood counts caused by rapidly decreasing weight tell the story of the beginning of hospitalization. Eighty-eight pounds of skin, bones and unbearable anxiety was diagnosed as a life-threatening mental illness called Anorexia Nervosa. All hours of the day are filled with perfectionism, enduring obsessive thoughts about food, depression, and constant anxiety. This is a mental disorder that permits no awareness of being deathly ill. Everything is fine. Less food and less weight is the goal. It’s never thin enough. The only intervention is some kind person such as a mother, father or friend armed with recipes, pots and pans and the loving patience to withstand
screaming, plates of food being thrown and meltdowns of epic proportions. They sit patiently through meals that would take hours. It is these people who also become consumed but with learning how to help their loved one recover. Similar to the anorexic, the loved one is also consumed with food and recovery but regarding cooking, serving and supervising. Ed resisted every spoonful with the venom of a rattlesnake. One could plot against Ed with heavy whipping cream, olive oil and nuts ground to fine dust added to every dish. Pounds (not ounces) every week are the goal for the anorexic, gaining at a rapid speed so the body and the brain can recover as it is a race against time. The quicker the weight gain, the greater the chances are for a full recovery. Two steps forward, and five steps back. It’s not a linear path. There is no magic number on the scale. There is simply full recovery or living in purgatory. This is a state of being recovered just enough to function but not enough to be strong enough for Ed’s grasp to be released completely. The voice and the behaviors of Ed quieted to a hum. Ed patiently awaits his opportunity to sneak into any crack that emerges. Then, the dreaded relapse. “Do not stop!” I thought when the doctors said I was the “goal weight.” The anorexic later learned
that the “goal weight” was an arbitrary number. Strong and lasting recovery is a healthy relationship with food. It’s the repair of the damage done to the body by malnutrition, and the healing of the brain, which takes the longest. Only food can heal the mental state of the anorexic.
these educational resources. Eating disorders kill and are among the deadliest mental illnesses right behind opioid addiction.
Research proving that extra weight is part of relapse prevention. This is a war battle tactic that fills the cracks with concrete – an impenetrable wall for Ed. What? I have gained enough!
F.E.A.S.T. (Families Empowered and Supporting Treatment of Eating Disorders) https://www.feast-ed.org/
Recovery from anorexia is the goal, and it is possible. However, it is also a process of emotional contemplation and frustration. It requires a commitment to fighting the eating disorder’s voice no matter how painful and challenging it is. Recovery is the power that one can take over the disorder to live a free, happy and healthy life. There is hope, and I am living proof. Recovery is possible. One bite at a time.
For crisis situations: text “NEDA” to 741741
NEDA (National Eating Disorders Association) https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/
My story is the story of hope. My story is not your story nor the story of all who suffer from an eating disorder. It is a truth that exists in various forms. I want to serve as inspiration that recovery is completely 100% possible. If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, please look into
POWER OF REPRESENTATION WRITTEN BY JORDAN SCHMITT DESIGNED BY LAUREN PETERS As society grows more representational of minoritized groups, genders, sexual orientations, and backgrounds, so does its governmental system. The U.S. is currently witnessing an increased amount of people from marginalized communities transitioning to positions of power. According to the Pew Research Center, the 117th Congress is the most diverse so far, with about 23% of the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate members composed of racial and ethnic minorities. Non-white lawmakers are increasing, but there is still a need for more diverse voices in government. It is essential for officials to look, think, talk and act like the citizens that they represent in order for a democracy to truly be “for the people.” The lack of political representation seeps into systemic inequality, which is unfortunately built into every corner of American society. Systemic inequality describes the structured biases that permeate all societal systems, institutions and governments that cause marginalized groups to face unfair disadvantages. Due to the United States’ history of slavery and oppression, systemic inequality is still embedded in modern-day culture, and as a result, disproportionately affects Black Americans. As more instances of brutality and oppression toward the Black community are documented, racial issues in America are becoming increasingly recognized. Although this has been 11
the reality for African Americans for much of history, advancements in technology and social media allow for such events to be recorded, and therefore, gain awareness in seconds. In the summer of 2020, protests in response to the murders of Black Americans, such as George Floyd and Breonna Taylor flooded the nation’s smallest towns and largest cities. Through advanced rhetoric surrounding structural oppression in U.S. institutions, more attention has been placed on the elected officials who acknowledge systemic inequality. Political-heavy issues such as health care, education, minimum wage, immigration, police violence, and criminal justice reform all contribute to further oppression of minorities. By electing more individuals who have firsthand experience of how these issues disproportionately affect specific communities, progress is more often made toward reform. Jamaal Bowman, a Black middle-school principal from New York, was recently elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for New York’s 16th Congressional District. His district covers much of the Bronx and Westchester County. In response to his Nov. 3, 2020 victory over long-term Republican incumbent Patrick McManus, Bowman tweeted: “I’m a Black man raised by a single mother in a housing project. That story doesn’t usually end in Congress.”
Bowman was also recently appointed to Vice Chair of the House Committee of Education and Labor. There is also an increased need for the opinions of Hispanic individuals in legislature. For example, the Latino population makes up 10% of Nebraska’s population, yet, there is not a single Hispanic lawmaker in the Nebraskan legislature. From a national perspective, about 19% of the U.S. population is Hispanic, but only 9% of the House of Representatives’ population represents Hispanic members. Linda Trautman is an associate professor of political science at Ohio University. Teaching at the university since 2005, Trautman specializes in state and national legislative politics, electoral participation and voting behavior, and urban governance and American public policy. “Efforts to increase minority representation is of paramount importance in order to fulfill the vision of an inclusive democracy and to reduce inequities in society. A lack of
minority representation impedes the advocacy of “policy interests” of underrepresented groups. Diverse perspectives are essential to enrich political, social and cultural dialogues that often ignore the realities of minorities,” Trautman said. Gender also comes into play for lack of equal representation and intersects with race in politics. It is no surprise that U.S. politics has been a “boy’s club,” specifically white males, since the country’s founding. America has recently witnessed the historic election of Kamala Harris, as the highest-ranking female official in U.S. history and the first African American and Asian American vice president. However, disparity remains when it comes to women in politics, but this is a significant step for women of color. It was not until 1993, that a Black woman was elected to Senate, Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois. Vice President Harris was only second to Moseley Braun as an African American woman in the Senate.
“I’ve always maintained that Black people and women suffer from a presumption of incompetence. The burdens of proof are different. It just gets so tiresome,” Moseley Braun said. It has been shown that the two-party system highly favorites incumbents, which are typically positions held by men. Therefore, women are generally more likely to be elected to Congress in open-seat elections. American women have also voted higher on average than men for the past four decades – which debunks the myth that men are more politically aware than their female counterparts. Things are gradualy improving. In 2019, the Nevada legislature was constituted by a majority of women, which was the first time in U.S. history that women held the majority of any state legislature. The continued election of
women is necessary to improve political equality among other minoritized populations. There is also an increased need for political figures outside of heteronormative representation among gender identities and sexual orientations. The gender binary involves the system in which all people are classified within two opposing genders, and it is reinforced throughout society. Individuals with identities outside of the gender binary have frequently been neglected from the political landscape. The LGBTQ Victory Fund is a political action committee that aims to increase the amount of openly LGBTQ individuals in U.S. politics. It is imperative for such organizations to support minorities who have received historical discrimination to join in representative positions. Sarah McBride won the Delaware State Senate race last November, and in doing so became the country’s highest-ranking transgender official and first openly transgender senator. On the night McBride was elected, she stated:
“It is my hope that a young LGBTQ kids here in Delaware or really anywhere in this country can look at the results and know that our democracy is big enough for them, too.”
Although these instances of hope for our representative system are growing more comprehensive, there is still much work to be done. It is crucial that all individuals continue to become aware of the disparities within our government, and support minoritized individuals. We must continue holding policy-makers accountable for supporting the lives of people of color, immigrants, the LGBTQ community, disabled persons, and other segments of the population who are the recipients of structural oppression. In doing so, the room for more representation within the political system can only expand.
The Heart of Small Towns
Written by Jorja Butt Designed by Olivia Dutkewych
small business. Her loyal customers and a strong sense of unity keep her business successful and open. Serving the Athens community since t the heart of every 1946, Miller’s Chicken has seen its city is a small, locally-owned business. For the Appalachian area, small small-town home flourish over time. Starting out as just a local butcher, businesses are more than just the it has morphed into a take-out life-source, they create a strong hotspot in the community with its community network that fosters fried chicken and hot side dishes. economic growth. Media coverage Similar to Miller’s Chicken’s growth of the Appalachian area has remained the same for decades. News into a larger business, Athens itself stories depict an impoverished town has grown in size and prosperity. in need of rescuing. However, there “I realize that the Appalachian area is more than meets the eye. Appaoverall is impoverished, but Athens lachia, more specifically the city of has grown a lot over the years,” Athens, is a hidden gem that many Zoulek says. “The good thing is that people call home. The good food, Miller’s has been able to succeed good people, and a good atmothrough all of that. Because of [the sphere are the pictures the media community’s] support we are still should paint of Appalachian life. able to strive.” Owner of Miller’s Chicken Sandra Zoulek can attest to how much the Zoulek recognizes that poverty does exist in the Athens area, Athens community means to her
which the community is working toward improving, but she feels that it is not the only thing that defines the area. Miller’s Chicken exists today because of Athens residents. Their strong sense of supporting one another in the community overpowers any negative preconceived notions of the area. Athens is a high-functioning city filled with local businesses who care about their fellow residents. Zoulek and her fellow local business owners work together to make the township a better place to live. “We do try to give back to the community through donations of certificates for auctions and we also do some food donations,” Zoulek says. “As a community, we can’t end the stereotype of the Appalachian area, all we can do is try to help out however we can.”
“As a community, we can’t end the stereotype of the Appalachian area, all we can do is try to help out however we can.”
As well as Miller’s Chicken, Athensfounded jewelry store, Beads and Things, wouldn’t be standing without the loyal support of the Athens community. Owners Joey Merkle and Phil Berry enjoyed the craft of beading so much that they wanted to share it with those who would also appreciate the beauty of jewelry making. “[Joey] loved beads and beading, liked sales and felt others here would enjoy the craft also. The aim was always to share that enthusiasm and knowledge and to create a job.” Berry says. “One main thing is we like to feel that we provide a creative outlet in the community.” When Merkle opened Beads and Things in 1990, she never could have known that opening a business came with opening arms to the community. People from all walks of life are encouraged to come into the store and take advantage of the creative outlet that beading provided. Beads and Things soared past the stereotype of a povertystricken community and created a place for the residents of Athens
to come together and be more than the convention that the media portrays. “[Athens] is pretty unique, especially in Appalachia, as it has Ohio University with its large influx of students from around the world and its impact economically,” Berry says. “However, another thing about Athens and all of Appalachia, I think, is the long tradition it has of making what one needs with what is close at hand: craftwork. And a strong sense of community; helping one another.” Local businesses are a means of connection. They provide a stomping ground for old friends to run into one another and for strangers to develop new relationships. Appalachia is more than just a community in an impoverished area; it’s made up of a tightknit group whose goal is to see one another succeed. A helping hand is always within reach and means more to the Appalachian community than the media could ever portray.
a microcosm of fame WRITTEN BY HALLE DRAY DESIGNED BY MADDIE JAMES
Cities like New York, Los Angeles and Nashville are exalted for their illustrious, booming music scenes. It seems as though any local artist’s answer to the question: “Where do you want to go to start your career?” is one of these music industry hubs. It’s always out of the question whether or not taking the step to move to the big city is the right move for a musician, but why?
Singer-songwriter and OHIO Scripps School of Media Arts and Studies graduate, “Alexandra,” or Lexi Pritchard, begs to differ with that narrative. After an internship in Los Angeles with Copeland Entertainment, Pritchard found herself confused about all the rush to the West Coast. “I hated the competitive, screw-you mentality… it took the shine out of how rad music is because everyone was trying to act a certain way. It just didn’t align with my values,” Pritchard says. Pritchard explained how she much prefers the intimate feel of a more underrated music city, like Dallas, TX, where she is now. There, she has found her circle of fellow artists and has experienced incredible success as a music teacher and solo artist, releasing two singles in the past two months. “I find it so much easier to meet genuine people in Dallas,” Pritchard explains. “The music feels more special here too.” Pritchard recognizes her bias, though. Coming of age in a town like Athens is bound to impact one’s predisposition. Athens is a music hub for college artists and is a perfect starting point for those hoping to gain traction in the industry. Josh Antonnuccio, industry veteran, OHIO music production professor and Brick City Records director, has devoted his life to just that.
Brick City Records is a Music Production Tier III Capstone course in which students select musicians to sign to the label, and then record and market their music. The students are essentially running the business themselves under the oversight of Antonnuccio. “The goal of Brick City Records is to give students independent recording experience… to amplify young artists’ talent,” Antonnuccio says. “It’s hard for me to think of any Brick City-signed artist that hasn’t done well… the talent here at OU is incredible.” Not only does Brick City provide OHIO artists with valuable studio resources, but the students are taught crucial marketing strategies that allow for their signed artists to grow their audiences as much as possible. The 2020 and 2021 Brick City marketing team member Ally Meyer described how crucial, yet fulfilling the marketing process is. “In a COVID-free world, there would be lots of live shows and parties at cool venues in Athens. It’s usually a huge thing,” Meyer says. The end of the year showcase at bar and music venue The Union is typically the highlight of an artist’s Brick City journey. They perform their new music onstage for the first
time and get a taste of what is hopefully in store for them in the future. Both Meyer and Antonnuccio describe the success that they’ve seen with just live streams and social media. The two agree that social media is more crucial now more than ever, even just to gain a local following. Camille Karavas, professionally known as “Camille Jeanne,” is currently signed with Brick City Records and is releasing an EP in April. Meyer and Karavas are working together to market her work. “My goal with social media is to stay true to myself… I’ve come to realize that it’s easier to reach people if I don’t force it,” Karavas says. “I really want my music to reach people… to touch their hearts… I want to get feedback and to learn from this experience. That’s all I really need to feel successful for now.” What Karavas explained is exactly the beauty of being in a small scene like Athens; artists do not have to pretend to be anyone they’re not. People will see and hear their true selves no matter what. The small, local stage in an artist’s career is just as important as any. Its purpose is to help the artist develop their skills and find their voice. As Antonnuccio put it, “it’s like training wheels.” There doesn’t have to be a rush to “make it” in a big city; success can be found anywhere and on any scale.
The Evolution of Makeup PHOTOGRAPHED BY EVIE SEARS WRITTEN BY GABBY HAYES DESIGNED BY MADDIE JAMES
Wearing makeup is a simple way to build confidence. A dash of concealer and a swipe of mascara are common accessories in today’s society. However, makeup has been around since the beginning of time; from using natural resources to concoctions of all sorts of chemicals, the world of cosmetics has endured many advancements. It’s easy to think of makeup palettes and bronzer as a modern-day invention; on the contrary, it all began in Ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egypt Makeup was so commonly found in Ancient Egypt that even statues of Gods and structures with human motif decorations were adorned with cosmetic paints. These cosmetics were not only used to enhance physical appearance, but they also had practical uses, ritual functions and symbolic meanings. The Egyptians thickly lined their eyes with kohl, a black powdery substance made from galena ore, and used different colored mineral powders as eyeshadow. The look was completed with red ochre mixed with fat or gum resin to color the cheeks and lips. The Egyptians utilized chalk paints and white lead pigment to paint all over the body. These full-body paintings were used by nobles who expressed their power and status through the pale color on their skin. Black and green paints were commonly found on the eyes of the Ancient Egyptians. Heavy application of kohl around the eyes would have helped to reduce glare from the desert sun, while malachite powder was used to make green paint which was applied to make the eyes appear larger. The Egyptians set the stage for makeup and cosmetic use; so much so that many of their practices became staples for centuries. Rosy lips can be seen throughout history and pale skin has been viewed as a high beauty standard for many periods.
Victorian Queen Victoria reigned in Britain from 1819-1901, leading the cosmetic world down a dangerous path. Whereas the Ancient Egyptians utilized makeup for practical reasons, the Victorians valued physical appearance so highly that women often resorted to harming themselves in pursuit of aesthetics. For a look called “The Painted Lady,” women would aim for paper white skin, rosy cheeks and doe eyes. Tuberculosis was rampant in this era, which led to the Victorians romanticizing the effects of a disease that left a path of devastation and death. Ghostly skin with apparent veins, unnatural thinness, bright red cheeks and watery eyes were the beauty standard; and symptoms of tuberculosis. To exude their status and youthfulness, women would dust their faces with zinc oxide, a white mineral compound. Their skincare routine was one of chemicals and danger; an opium face mask was to be applied at night, followed by a chemical ammonia rinse the next day. Although some women dropped citrus juice or perfume into their eyes to achieve a watery look, it was common to use belladonna drops made from the poisonous belladonna plant. Like the Egyptians, the Victorian era put emphasis and value on its beauty standards. While some practices of this time sound like death in a bottle, the backbone of cosmetics stayed the same; showcase class and power while appealing to the male gaze. This goal of cosmetics can be seen throughout decades.
1950’s Following the end of WWII, the 50s were a time of vibrancy and versatility. Rationing and devastation came to an end and the economy prospered. Along with bright-colored kitchen appliances, funky couches and poodle skirts came colorful makeup looks. The end of the war allowed for the luxury cosmetics industry to take off when people had more spending money. The doe-eyed look from the Victorian era was trendy throughout history but the 50s put a new spin on it: cat-winged eyeliner. Women experimented with the cat-eye look, sporting variations from striking and flared to muted and chic. A strong eyebrow arch with a decent
thickness that tapered at the end was also ideal for women during this time. The iconic Marylin Monroe set the stage for a sultry look by making bright red lips a staple of the 50s. A time of experimentation, the 50s allowed the luxury cosmetic industry to flourish. Not only were these looks popping for the time, but they impacted the world of makeup forever. From the cat-eye shape to arched brows, many of the 1950s makeup trends are replicated in the modern-day. 29
Modern For decades makeup has been used as a way to express power and live up to a beauty standard for both men and women. While it still acts as a crutch for beauty ideals to stand on, the world of cosmetics has evolved into a melting pot of self-expression. With an endless number of styles and aesthetics, there’s never a dull moment when it comes to a glamorous look. Today, makeup is an art form, which is a perspective that the people of the past couldn’t dream of. Makeup trends often resemble looks from previous times; Marylin Monroe set the stage for cosmetic empowerment, showing women to own their bodies and express themselves however they see fit. The Egyptians created eyeliner and the Victorians gave us rosy red cheeks. Despite the drastic advancements that have already been made, the evolution of makeup is far from over. 30
WRITTEN BY MARGAUX AUGIER DESIGNED BY NAILA LATHAM
The Power of Trends from
Beginning to End 31
ickies pants are fashion’s ultimate Rorschach test,” said GQ writer Cam Wolf. “You might see a rugged item meant to be worn day in and day out to your blue-collar job. Or maybe you see a pair of pants that, with just a bit of tailoring, fit perfectly into 2018’s weird-pants moment. Which side you land on reveals an awful lot—about the implications of fashion’s workwear fetish, how the line between what’s cool and what’s whack is so often dictated by context and how heritage brands capitalize on fickle trends.” As we witness the rise of so-called heritage brands into America’s trendiest spaces, it’s important to recognize the origins of each brand to determine how exactly they evolved into today’s beloved trends. Dickies originated in 1922 as a durable workwear brand but soon evolved into a popular streetwear brand. Before its evolution, Dickies made nine million button fly pant uniforms for American soldiers during World War II. Decades later, its popularity skyrocketed in the late 1980s and early 90s thanks to coal miners and skateboarders who appreciated the rugged style of the brand’s work pants: 100% cotton made into durable twill fabric. Dickies recognized the skater community’s fervent force in popularizing the brand,
Justin Beiber and A$AP Rocky can be seen rocking Dickies work pants in public. Even American rapper Kanye West wore a $60 Dickies jacket inspired by former president and military General Dwight D. Eisenhower on the Met Gala red carpet in 2019. West accompanied his wife, Kim Kardashian West, who wore a latex corset dress dripping in diamonds that took eight months to make. Accompanied by a pair of black slacks and combat boots, Kanye West’s inexpensive workwear style (in comparison to his $35,000 Met Gala ticket) proved to the world just how easily a trend can shimmy its way into the limelight. Similarly, Carhartt outfitted railroad workers with overalls but soon expanded its clothing line to include canvas jackets and pants. It originated in Michigan in 1889 as Hamilton Carhartt
so the company began producing apparel more tailored to skaters specifically. As the skateboarding fan base moved away from Dickies, the brand adapted, aiming to become more fashionable with a strong American feel on a global scale. Dickies collaborated with clothing brand Opening Ceremony in the late 2010s, consequently increasing the authenticity behind the brand as well as the price tag. Currently, music industry icons like
& Company for the working class. The company produced overalls in a small Detroit loft, crafting the clothing to the needs of the railroad workers. Its motto: “Honest value for an honest dollar.” A century later, Carhartt became popular in the late 1980s among the hip-hop community as a fashionable streetwear brand after its launch of the beanie in 1987. Two years later, Swiss designers Edwin and Salomée Faeh began working with Carhatt to create products more in line with traditional European and Asian streetwear: slimmer fits for skaters, streetwear aesthetics for hip-hop artists, and of course, a heftier price tag. The new line, “Work in Progress,” introduced Carhartt to an entirely fresh customer base. Not only was Carhartt serving farmers and hard laborers thanks to its durable fabrics but the retail company also began to outfit popular streetwear influencers who appreciated the authenticity of Carhartt. Now, still a family-owned business, its square logo is recognized internationally, and in 2019, its revenue stream reached $1 billion. Carhartt not only manufactures its classic overalls and work pants but has also found its way into the realm of t-shirts, sweatshirts, thermals and more. Recently, celebrities like Rihanna and Bella Hadid have been spotted sporting Carhartt apparel, and the brand has quickly found its way into the closets of everyone in New York City and beyond. In recent years, athletic apparel brand Champion has
made a comeback thanks to the emergence of three separate trends: logo apparel’s appearance in Vogue, the return of throwback gear, and the popularity of streetwear. Champion’s original name, Knickerbocker Knitting Company, was founded in 1919 by William and Abraham Feinbloom. After Champion’s revolutionary invention of the hoodie
in the 1930s, the brand’s popularity skyrocketed, selling its products directly to college sports teams that would utilize the hoodie for athletes in colder climates. Future innovations like anti-shrink and heat preventative technology along with Champion’s NCAA and NFL partnerships just about doubled its sales between 1985 and 1988. In the 90s, Champion was
commissioned to design and produce all of the uniforms in the NBA. Its fame, however, didn’t last long. The Sara Lee Corporation, which purchased Champion years prior, began to pay more attention to the food industry, selling portions of the Champion brand along the way. In turn, consumers lost interest in the brand, and Nike and Adidas quickly stole the spotlight, forcing Champion to sell to large department stores like Walmart and Target. In 2006, HanesBrands became the new parent company to Champion, bringing back the traditional Champion sporty style and partnering with skateboarding streetwear brand Supreme in 2010. The partnership, which deemed Champion “cool” again, opened up the doors for successful collaborations with other designer brands, and by 2022, Champion strives to reach $2 billion in sales. Today, celebrities like country singer Kacey Musgraves and makeup mogul Kylie Jenner are repping Champion. All in all, what Dickies, Carhartt and Champion have taught us in their
evolutions is to not doubt the underdog. Though the “coolness” factor is an important influence for consumers’ desire for brands, small businesses should keep in mind the potential for success -- that they too can go from blue-collar to red carpet.
Fact or Fiction: Campus Cliques
Written by Farah Chidiac Photographed by Tunde Nelson Designed by Emma Dengler
ollege is an ideal time for students to reinvent themselves or to truly find out who they wish to become. Fashion-sense, hobbies, values, beliefs and friends, all play into the classification of who each person is as a unique individual. To understand the idea of “popularity” concerning self-identification, we talked to students around Ohio University’s campus about their personal opinions on what popularity means to them.
Q: Do you feel that there is a social hierarchy on campus, similar to high school? Sarah Onega (Senior): To some extent, I feel like there is a social hierarchy on campus. Some people are well known and others aren’t. I feel like people in organizations on campus get more recognition, whether that be in Greek life or other organizations. Though, in my opinion, Greek life definitely has an impact on the social hierarchy. Wil Hoffman (Junior): I haven’t realized any social hierarchy on campus, but I do feel as though I’ve seen instances of certain groups around campus acting ignorantly towards others, particularly minorities and local establishments/ people. Margaux Augier (Sophomore): I don’t think there is necessarily a social hierarchy on campus, but there’s definitely a strong sense of pride in college for who you are and the organizations you’re involved in. If anything, there’s a faux sense of superiority within individual friend groups, but in my opinion, a hierarchy doesn’t exist.
“there’s definitely a strong sense of pride in college”
“[virtual classes] make meeting people much more difficult than when classes were in person.”
Q: Do virtual classes create a social or class divide at all? Gabrielle Wimmers (Freshman): I think that virtual classes most definitely create a social divide because it makes meeting people much more difficult than when classes were in person. It forces students to choose who they surround themselves with based on previously developed friendships and their perception of others based on social media. With online classes, we lose face-to-face interaction and are forced to communicate via Zoom, Snapchat, Instagram, and so on. It brings out a completely different side of people, which can sometimes be misleading because we’re not given the full picture of our classmates and their personalities. Sarah Onega (Senior): I feel like virtual classes have helped diminish the social divide because we know less of what people do, which makes us view them on the same level as us. There will always be popularity by association, and I feel like that gets highlighted in the classroom.
Wil Hoffman (Junior): I think it does, but I’ve observed professors working to counter this divide by implementing ways of bridging the technological gaps. For instance, one of my professors wouldn’t begin his class until 5-10 minutes after the start to give everyone time to log in and discuss a topic which he would sometimes provide. I believe he called it “BS time.”
Q: What does it mean to be “popular” in college? Sam Veronica (Sophomore): Being popular definitely has a different meaning in college. If someone is outgoing or is easily adaptable in making friends, that person would most likely be seen as popular. In high school, one friend group always seems to be at the apex of the hierarchy, which typically consists of people based on their athleticism or conventional attractiveness. Based on my experience, college is different in the way that anyone can be popular because it’s based on personality. Wil Hoffman (Junior): I think to be popular in college is to be involved. Being social is difficult in today’s world, yes, but there are still dozens of student organizations and ways of networking that can build one’s ability to connect. Margaux Augier (Sophomore): I’ve never considered the idea of popularity in college. I think students can be well known for having a lot of friends or being involved with many organizations, but not popular per se. Sometimes I think the word “popular” holds a negative connotation of being stuck up or mean, which can be true in some cases; however, popularity seems to come down to introversion versus extroversion. Extroverts, as inherently social butterflies, might be considered more “popular” by nature.
come down to to s em se ty ri la “Popu on. Extroverts, si er ov tr ex s su er introversion v e tterflies, might b u b l ia c so y tl en as inher by nature.” r’ la u op ‘p e or m considered
Royalty Photographed by Madison Salyer
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