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Contents NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 18 / ISSUE 7

Indonesian Armed Forces: Continued Modernisation Gordon Arthur In mid-August, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono announced the defence budget would undergo a significant 13 percent hike, represents a doubling in defence spending since 2005 and is welcome news for the Indonesian National Armed Forces which have endured severe under funding and neglect for years

Front Cover Photo: The fifteenth of Nexter’s Aravis 4x4 protected patrol vehicle was delivered to launch customer France in April, in an order designed to improve protected mobility capabilities for French troops deployed in Afghanistan. The vehicles, which have high levels of ballistic and mine protection will be used by engineering teams and troops supporting provincial reconstruction teams. © Nexter

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Advanced ISR Technology

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Tom Withington Keeping a sharp eye on the battlefield is vital for helping to dispel the fog-of-war. Nations in the Asia-Pacific have never had so much choice in terms of force protection assets to provide them with an ever-more accurate picture of the tactical situation in their locale

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MRAP Vehicles Chris F Foss One of the major growth areas in recent years has been the design, development and production of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle, developed in response to operations in Iraq where vehicles conceived for conventional operations struggled against the very diverse range of threats, especially mines and improvised explosive devices

Naval Radar & Combat Management Systems Tom Withington Without an advanced surveillance radar, to provide a detailed picture of a ship’s maritime battlespace environment, modern warships are virtually blind. Providing users with information about friendly and enemy combatants, and civilian ships via Combat Management Systems provides a decisive advantage

18 Asian Battlefield C4I Update Adam Baddeley Whether embedded in armored fighting vehicles or integrated as part of a soldier modernisation system, Battle Management Systems are the tip of the spear as far as C4I is concerned, helping commanders fight their units more effectively

“RED ALERT!” – China’s Defence Transformation

Air to Ground Precision Engagement Doug Richardson The ‘smart’ bomb has changed the nature of close-support operations over the battlefield. Instead of releasing large numbers of munitions in the hope of destroying a tactical target, an aircraft can release a single weapon with a high probability of obtaining a ‘kill’

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Gordon Arthur Armoured vehicles and missile launchers, accompanied by a stream of helicopters and fighters rolled along Beijing’s Chang’an Avenue on 1 October 2009. This 60th anniversary parade proclaimed China’s military credentials to the world

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AV INC

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RUSSIAN TECHNOLOGIES THALES

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Advertising Offices Australia Charlton D'Silva, Mass Media Publicitas Tel: (61 2) 9252 3476 E-Mail: cdsilva@publicitas.com France/Spain Stephane de Remusat, REM International Tel: (33) 5 3427 0130 E-Mail: sremusat@aol.com

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t is fair to say that Sri Lanka has been in something of a dark place for some time and for far too long. With the LTTE comprehensively defeated, the country’s strategic hibernation is over and can once again look outwards with numerous options for the future.

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Hitherto, Sri Lanka national strategy was to win its civil war, its foreign policy based around that aim: securing diplomatic and material support to prosecute the war and preventing the LTTE from obtaining similar. Little else really mattered.

Sri Lanka however has much to offer. It abuts key trade routes across the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean with the South China Sea for oil and goods between East Asia and Europe and the Middle East, not to mention being just a short distance away from the massive emerging market of India. That should surely warrant interest and it has, but the number of potential partners are nevertheless dwindling.

The manner in which the Sri Lanka government conducted its final campaign and the reports of how the defeated combatants and their sympathisers have been treated have prompted wagging fingers of criticism from the US, Europe and others whose demands for a ceasefire and negotiation which in hindsight could have robbed Colombo of their victory. They failed to understand Sri Lanka’s difficult reality

Germany/Austria/Switzerland/Italy/UK Sam Baird, Whitehill Media Tel: (44-1883) 715 697 Mobile: (44-7770) 237 646 E-Mail: sam@whitehillmedia.com

Scandinavia/Benelux/South Africa Tony Kingham, KNM Media Tel: (44) 2081 445 934 Mobile : (44) 7827 297 465 E-Mail: tony.kingham@worldsecurity-index.com

Editorial

It seems clear that for these and other reasons that Sri Lanka will not look to the West as a security partner although it began it move away in the latter half of the last decade. Instead, it is flirting with a number of potential partners including India, Saudi Arabia, Iran and others and making more permanent arrangements with others, joining the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation in 2009 as a dialogue partner. The country’s new Hambantota Port was developed by China and the country’s companies are conducting offshore oil exploration to the North East of Sri Lanka, are both significant indicators of a growing partnership.

All this may simplistically portray Sri Lanka as another Burma, friendless and reliant on China to sustain it. That is not the case, there is no reason why Sri Lanka cannot have good relationships with multiple partners and benefit accordingly, but it will require compromise on all sides. Adam Baddeley, Editor

USA (West/South West)/Brazil Diane Obright, Blackrock Media Inc. Tel: +1 (858) 759 3557 Email: blackrockmedia@cox.net

Editor: Adam Baddeley E-mail: adam@baddeley.net

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ADVANCED

ISR TECHNOLOGY

Advanced ISR Technology:

Next Generation

Solutions enter

the Battlefield Keeping a sharp eye on the battlefield is vital for helping to dispel the fog-of-war, both literally and metaphorically. Fortunately for nations in the Asia-Pacific, and throughout the world, there has never before been so much choice in terms of force protection assets such as weapons- and vehicle-locating radar available with which to provide them with an ever-more detailed picture of the tactical situation in their locale. At the same time, such technology also enhances the overall operational-level intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance picture.

by Tom Withington

Saab’s Giraffe air defence radar family has a weapons-locating variant in the form of the Giraffe AMB. This radar is able to detect airborne targets from between zero altitude up to 6,096 m Š Thomas Withington

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ADS Defence Electronics has developed the Tactical Radar Ground Surveillance (TGRS) product, which is known in Germany as BUR (Boden Uberwachungsradar), which makes use of Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology to allow the radar to watch a number of areas simultaneously, rather than having to rely on a mechanical ‘sweep’ from a rotating beam. BUR has been developed to answer a German Army requirement awarded in 2006 for a system which can detect objects moving on the ground and also very low-flying threats such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The lack of a rotating antenna also greatly improves the radar’s reliability in terms of maintenance. BUR has been developed as a mobile system and, to this end, is mounted on the chassis of a KraussMaffei Wegmann Dingo-2 armoured vehicle, allowing the radar to be operated from the safe confines of its interior. The first two BUR ground surveillance radar earmarked for the Heer (German Army) were handed over to the Federal Office of Defence Technology and Procurement for evaluation on 19th July 2009. A further 80 systems are expected to enter service with the force from 2012. Other orders have followed those of Germany. Lothar Betz, a spokesperson for EADS, said that; “a contract for more than 80 TRGSs has been award-

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Along with the AN/TPQ-36, the AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder is also the responsibility of ThalesRaytheonSystems. This radar has a longer range than its sibling, detecting hostile fire at a range of around 50 km (31 miles) © US Army

The Euro-ART consortium produces the COBRA counter-battery radar. This product has been sold to the German, French and British armies and has been used in Lebanon and Iraq to detect and locate mortar and artillery fire © EADS

ed by a non-disclosed, non-European customer for integration in a huge border surveillance system.” It interesting to note that, in addition to the military TRGS radar, EADS Defence Electronics is also working on a civilian version which could be used for protection of key civilian sites such as nuclear power stations. In addition to TRGS, EADS Defence Electronics is responsible, as part of the EuroART consortium including Thales and Lockheed Martin, for the COBRA artillery location radar in service with the British and German armies, which have acquired seven and twelve examples respectively, and the Armée de Terre (French Army) which has purchased ten. Lothar Betz notes that; “COBRA is the first multifunctional counter-battery radar in the world with a fully active phased array antenna, enabling accurate multiple target detection within a short reaction time.” The radar can detect shell, rocket and mortar fire, as well as indicating anticipated impact points. The British and French COBRAs have accumulated combat experience in Iraq and Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates became the most recent customer for COBRA in February 2009 when it ordered three systems. Mr. Betz adds that; “two of these have already been delivered in July 2010 and have successfully passed the site acceptance test.” As well as warning troops on the ground as to the proximity of enemy artillery, this can also provide friendly forces with the locations of such weapons in order to perform counterbattery fire. The elements of the COBRA sys-

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tem, which include the radar, processing architecture, and a command and control system, can be accommodated on a ten-tonne truck. COBRA’s set up time is around ten minutes, and the system can be on the move again in a third of the time. Three personnel operate the device, which locates up to 40 artillery positions at a time. In terms of performance, COBRA can anticipate Circular Error Probable (CEP) statistics within 50m and detect guns firing at a distance of 40Km

The British and French COBRAs have accumulated combat experience in Iraq and Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates became the most recent customer for COBRA in February 2009

from the radar. One of the key enabling technologies of COBRA is the active phased array antenna design which allows the detection of multiple targets simultaneously; a vital capability when artillery is being launched in salvoes at sustained rates of fire. Originally designed and manufactured by Raytheon, and now the responsibility of ThalesRaytheonSystems, the AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder has become one of the standard weapons-locating radar and is in use with the US Army, along with several other forces. Like several of the radar surveyed in this article, Firefinder makes use of a phased array

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ISR TECHNOLOGY

removing the need for the antenna to be mechanically rotated. Using the S-band (24GHz), the AN/TPQ-37 can track around ten munitions simultaneously and can keep watch for missiles, rockets and artillery shells at a maximum range of up to 50Km. The AN/TPQ-37 is the sister product of ThalesRaytheonSystems’ (TRS) AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder, which has been sold to the US Army, US Marine Corps and also the Australian Army. One of the key differences between the two systems is that the AN/TPQ-36 has noticeably shorter ranges compared to the AN/TPQ-37, with the former detecting rocket fire at a range of 24Km, with artillery being detected at around 18Km. Saab, like TRS, shares the accolade of producing one of the best-selling artillery locating radar. Although originally developed by Ericsson Microwave Systems, the Artillery Hunting Radar (ARTHUR) has been in Saab’s product catalogue since the latter was absorbed by the Swedish defence giant in 2006. Sales to Canada, the Czech Republic, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom (where the product is known as the Mobile Artillery Monitoring Battlefield Radar, or

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Raytheon’s Ground Based Operational Surveillance System is in service with both the United States Marine Corps and the US Army. Supplies of the equipment commenced in April 2008 to the US Marine Corps © US DoD

MAMBA, for short) have been forthcoming. ARTHUR can detect hostile artillery fire to a range of around 40Km and is particularly effective against small targets. It can also provide personnel with probable positions regarding the origins of the shot for counterbattery fire, as well as likely points of impact. Crucially, ARTHUR can provide target searches while continuing to track incoming munitions. The entire system is air-portable and can be carried on a BAE Systems/Hägglunds Bv-206 tracked vehicle. A version of ARTHUR, which is accommo-

The AN/TPQ-37 can track around ten munitions simultaneously and can keep watch for missiles, rockets and artillery shells at a maximum range of up to 50Km l

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dated in a standard ISO six-metre container, is also available. Along with ARTHUR, Saab’s Giraffe air defence radar family has a residual artillery location function which is enshrined in the Giraffe AMB version. The three-dimensional Giraffe AMB G-band 5-6GHz radar, which has a range of up to 100Km can detect targets from ground level up to 6,096m. This gives the radar a particularly impressive capability for detecting artillery fire, along with small targets such as helicopters and UAVs. Like the COBRA, Elta Systems’ EL/M2084 Multi-Mission Radar uses phased-array technology for artillery location, and has earned its spurs in combat during Israeli Defence Force operations in the Gaza Strip. The design of the EL/M-2084 makes it highly resilient to jamming and high-clutter environments, enabling it to provide ground forces with information regarding incoming munitions, along with missiles and small, low radar cross section targets like UAVs. The EL/M-


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ADVANCED

ISR TECHNOLOGY

The US Army has been using the Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment (RAID) initiative to provide a watch over its forward operating bases. RAID uses a number an aerostat which carries a number of sensor to watch the surrounding area © US Army

2084 can anticipate impact points and therefore predict likely gun and missile launcher emplacements. The EL/M-2084 offers a CEP of around 125m and can detect hostile artillery at a range of around 50km. In June 2009, Elta Systems was awarded a contract worth “hundreds of millions of dollars” to supply 34 EL/M-2084 radar units. In total, Elta produces three different variants of the radar, with antennae that range in size. This is achieved by altering the number of radar transmitreceive modules located in each antenna. Phased array radar technology has prompted a minor revolution in battlefield intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. US defence contractor Raytheon has embraced this technology to develop its Multi-Function Radio Frequency System (MFRFS) which is designed to detect and track targets ranging in size from Rocket Propelled Grenades to ground vehicles. The MFRFS has been integrated with the US Army’s Raytheon Quick Kill active protection system. Quick Kill uses the radar to detect incoming RPGs and antitank weapons which are then neutralised following the launch of a projectile. Away from the world of radar, Raytheon has developed the Ground Based Operational Surveillance System (GBOSS). GBOSS is essen-

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tially a suite of sensors, including primary and secondary infra-red cameras and a ground radar controlled from a single point. In April 2008, the United States Marine Corps awarded Raytheon a contract worth $60 million to purchase GBOSS products. GBOSS was procured to support the Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment programme which uses sensors mounted on an aerostat to provide an over-watch of Designed by EADS to perform the detection of vehicles and very low-flying objects, the Tactical Radar Ground Surveillance product is equipping the German Army which is purchasing 80 systems. A similar number of TRGSs are also being exported to an undisclosed country © EADS

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forward operating bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. The sensor packages on these aerostats generally include cameras, radar; plus visual and acoustic gunshot detectors. One of the attractions of using a tower-based, as opposed to an aerostat-based, platform is that the logistics burden associated with the latter is markedly reduced. In addition to GBOSS, Raytheon is responsible for the Long Range Advanced Scout Surveillance System, also known as the LRAS3. LRAS3 combines electro-optical equipment including forward-looking infrared equipment and television camera, with a global positioning system, eye-safe laser rangefinder and interferometer. The entire package can be carried on a tracked or wheeled vehicle, or alternatively positioned on a tripod for dismounted use. LRAS3 affords the user a versatile, mobile reconnaissance asset which can detect targets at a range of ten kilometres, with the laser rangefinder being capable of measuring distances with an accuracy of five metres. The LRAS3 has been procured by the United States Army and Marine Corps as a replacement for the legacy Raytheon/Kollsman AN/TAS-6 long-range night observation device used to perform reconnaissance in conditions of thick fog, smoke


ADVANCED ISR TECHNOLOGY

and during the night. Raytheon revealed in July this year that it had succeeded in linking the LRAS3 with the company’s Boomerang acoustic sensor. Boomerang has been developed using passive acoustic detection technology which performs signal processing to position the origin of a gunshot; a particularly important capability when combating sniper fire. The device can be either fitted to a vehicle or used by dismounted troops. Incoming fire is displayed to the user by means of a clock face indicting the direction of origin of the shot, with a recorded voice also announcing the direction of the bullet. A wearable version of Boomerang, known as Boomerang Warrior-X, has been developed by Raytheon to provide troops with indications of hostile fire when they are on foot patrol. To date, around 5,000 Boomerang devices have been delivered along with over 2,600 LRAS3s. Counter-battery radar technology is also available from India in the form of the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) Weapon Locating Radar (WLR), which has been developed with inputs from that country’s Defence Research and Development Organisation, and the LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishment. The development of the WLR was one result of the Kargil War between India and Pakistan in the disputed region of Kashmir in 1999, which saw India sustaining over 80 percent of its casualties from artillery fire. The WLR is designed around

The EL/M-2084 offers a CEP of around 125m and can detect hostile artillery at a range of around 50km a phased-array which used the Rajendra radar developed for the BEL/DRDO Akash surface-to-air missile. The WLR’s performance is sufficient for detection artillery rounds at up to 30Km, with detection of rockets at 40Km and the possibility to track around seven targets simultaneously. Designed to operate in harsh environments, the WLR can function at altitudes of up to

4,900m with the entire system mounted on a Tatra eight-wheel drive truck. Never before have force protection assets such as those discussed above been in such high demand. This is driven by the reality of the disappearance of the linear battlefield as far as counter-insurgency campaigns are concerned. Rear supply depots and forward operating bases are susceptible from attack by rocket or mortar fire and the means to locate the incoming fire, pinpoint its origin and mount a retaliatory strike goes a long way towards saving lives and ensuring that the commanders on the ground have the most comprehensive view of the battlefield C M Y CM MY CY CMY K as possible.

oven allly prsuites n io t a r ly ope ection The oned MWS prot s a IR b

The US Army’s AN/ TPQ-36 Firefinder weapons-locating radar is part of the ThalesRaytheonSystems product portfolio. The radar has a maximum range of 24 km (15 miles) when detecting rocket fire and a range of 18 km (eleven miles) for artillery © US Army

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B A T T L E

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Asian Battlefield C4I Update:

Command Evolution Whether embedded in armoured fighting vehicles or integrated as part of a soldier modernisation system, Battle Management Systems (BMS) are the tip of the spear as far as C4I is concerned, helping commanders fight their units, toe to toe with the enemy. The benefits of such systems are self evident; enabling increased combat effectiveness together with reduced likelihood of fratricide. Now, systems developed and refined over time, often as a result of combat lessons learned throughout the world are now being fielded and assessed throughout the Asia-Pacific.

by Adam Baddeley

The basis for all Saab’s C2 products is the SAFIR-SDK architecture and open source developer kit which can be downloaded, and is used as the basis on which customer specific applications can be built Š Saab

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Nexter is anticipating a contract to supply its FINDERS BMS to Indonesia’s land forces for tactical level vehicle and HQ usage later this year © Nexter

LBIT SYSTEMS has a considerable presence in India and amongst other countries in the Asia Pacific. Earlier this year, Elbit were awarded the contract to supply their BMS system to meet Australia’s Land 75 Phase 3.4 BMS due to field to the first combat team in July 2011 and Land 125 Phase 3A Battle Group and Below Command, Control and Communications programme tasked with providing 1,501 dismounted soldier systems and 164 dismounted command posts which will, equip AFVs and dismounted troops. In Israel, Elbit are the prime contract for the Israel Defence Force’s (IDF) Digital Army

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Programme (DAP) which provides C4I to all aspects of manoeuvre forces from future soldiers and armoured forces to army aviation, with links to other arms. In June, the IDF completed a major exercise in the North of the country, using all aspects of the DAP architecture including the Dominator based

Israeli firm’s Kearfott’s Instant Network –Centric System is a low cost, rapidly installed solution which it is offering in India and other countries l

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future soldier system which began delivery in early 2009. Raytheon, working with Indian firm Precision Engineering Ltd has demonstrated a 2 Mbps tactical network to the Indian military earlier this year in support of the country’s Battlefield Surveillance System and BMS programmes, using its EPLRS-XF-I based radio family. Raytheon has a number of scalable C2 products such as its Tactical Small Unit Situational Awareness system, which runs on Google Android operating systems and Google’s mapping software, both open source solutions. Raytheon have recently delivered their MX4000 airborne radios to support the

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MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DRDO’s work on India’s Indigenous AEW programme. As part of the EPLRS family, Raytheon offer an airborne extension of EPLRS, envisaging a scenario in which army aviation and air force assets could each receive and contribute to the same ground forces common operational picture. Raytheon recently launched its new EMARS systems which provides a turnkey ad hoc networking systems based on the EPLRS-XFI and MicroLight. Another Off The Shelf solution is Israeli firm Kearfott’s Instant Network–Centric System, a low cost, rapidly installed solution

which it is offering in India and other countries. This consist of a ruggedised Tactical Computer designed to accept any third party C2 software and Mobilcom’s 1.7Kg MCU-100, a 4G LTE 2.5GHz broadband wireless solution capable of up to 40Mbps, which can be rapidly attached or any vehicle. The company’s TactiX systems extended the network to airborne platforms operating at speeds of up to 800Kmph. The firm is also seeking to demonstrate a fire control system in Thailand. Extending the BMS network to the Air is also undertaken by EADS Helitacs System. In Spain’s Comfut soldier modernisation,

Earlier this year, Elbit were awarded the contract to supply their BMS system to meet Australia’s Land 75 Phase 3.4 BMS and Land 125 Phase 3A Battle Group and Below Command, Control and Communications programme © Elbit Systems

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led by EADS as prime contractors; it has worked with local BMS supplier GMV whose software is hosted in Cobham’s rugged IDSS computing for the future soldier. Danish firm Terma’s T-Core software provides a core C2 solution that can be adapted for land sea and air applications, designated by the ‘FLEX’ suffix. For Denmark’s deployment in Afghanistan it has equipped its armoured and tactical vehicles with the DKBMS system which is a combination of Systematic’s SITAWARE MIP software and BMS-FLEX. The system underwent its final acceptance test in May. In India, Terma is currently in negotiations to determine a local partner and is active elsewhere in the region. Another Danish firm is Systematic who are pursuing a number of opportunities the Asia Pacific. Their activities include the demonstration of the company’s SitaWare software in Malaysia and Thailand, developing a Thai language solution working with local contractor Yipinsoi. The core to the systems is the SitaWare suite of software products designed cost-effective off-the-shelf C2 based on an open architecture which allow third party application development such as enhancement by local contractors. Slovenia is one of a number of NATO and other countries using its software, in its case the company’s Track Server software real-time overviews of what’s happening in large-scale operational scenarios. Systematic has extended its scope to provide a SitaWare situational awareness system for boarding parties. Cobham Defence Communications BMS software has a similar implementation the marine Interdiction Operations System (MIOS) developed as an extension to the Integrated Digital Soldier System (IDSS). Northrop Grumman’s iBMS solution is scalable from division down to the soldier level. iBMS is a development of the C2PC software with the introduction of a Network Service Gateway. C2PC is widely used across the world amongst diverse users including as a C2 enabler for many NATO special forces, Taiwan’s Po Sheng C4ISR network as well as part of Australia’s coastal surveillance infrastructure. Taiwan is currently planning an extension of the Po Sheng network to extend connectivity and C2 function to tactical echelons of command although just how far that will go is an area for discussion and is expected to be resolved this year with procurement to kick off in 2011. Northrop Grumman has also developed SoldierLink an extension of the system down


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MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

to the individual level. The company has undertaken demonstration and briefing it to the Indian military over the past three years and received a RFI to meet the F-INSAS programme shortly after DEFEXPO. General Dynamics UK has led the UK’s Bowman programme which integrated HF, VHF and UHF radios with a battle management system. The company has integrated similar systems for Romania and is in the process of supplying the ITAR free $75m LTCIS Brigade sized C4I solution for Libya. General Dynamics has recently set up an Indian subsidiary and General Dynamics C4 Systems has set up two plants near Delhi which are integrated into their overall capability offering. GD C4S recently added the DARPA funded Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR) software system to its C2 offerings. A patrol level and above system, it allows low level users to share and access intelligence databases of text and multimedia files. The company recent began a four year contract with DARPA to develop an enhanced version of TIGR known as the Advanced Tactical Information System. Rohde and Schwarz has a significant world wide presence, principally with its M3TR family of tactical radios with variants of the fami-

General Dynamics have a long history of developing BMS solutions such as Canada’s Athene programme © General Dynamics C4S

ly designed to equip naval vessels and aircraft, a R&S radios for example are standard on all Airbus A400M transport aircraft. For situational awareness, the company use TacMan, a licensed version of ESG’s Taranis Light C4I software. Customers include a European Special Forces used to share data within a convoy. Thales have a number of C4I partners and joint ventures in Asia, notably with Sapura in Malaysia with the domestic company and Samsung in South Korea and has recently supplied a vehicle based C4I systems to a customer in Asia and a urgent operational requirement. In India, its partner is Rolta. At DEFEXPO 2010 several key Thales C4I offerings on show at Rolta’s stand included such

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as the FlexNet Software Defined Radio, St@rmille soldier radio and Battlegroup Comm@nder integrated vehicle based C4I system. In additional to specific national partners the company is establishing strategic partners with key supplier one of the first being Barco, the worlds biggest military display supplier. Saab is co-operating with Mahindra in the areas of C4I and has been demonstrating capabilities to the Indian military. The basis for all Saab’s C2 product is the SAFIR-SDK architecture and open source developer kit which can be downloaded, and is used as the basis on which customers’ specific applications can be built. The architecture is already in service as part of Sweden’s SLB battle management system. As part of the technology transfer package with Mahindra, Saab has taken numbers of Indian engineers to Sweden to train them. At the Eurosatory Defence Show in June, Harris announced their Falcon Fighter soldier system, a complete modular soldier system built around the Secure Personal Radio with worn computing and displays and which uses the company’s new Falcon Command C2 software scalable from brigade down to the individual soldier. The Falcon Fighter’s first customer is an Asian special-forces unit

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MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Nexter has been demonstrating its FINDERS BMS to Indonesia’s land forces for two years and is anticipating a contract to supply the system for tactical level vehicle and HQ usage later this year. A recent addition to the company’s product line is its FINDERS C2 BFT solution which provides for the low cost installation of a satellite beacon with geolocation information compliant with the NATO Friendly Forces Information standard back to a central FINDERS C2 terminal. The system was successfully tested by the French Army during the operation Licorne peacekeeping mission in the Ivory Coast in 2009. In Thailand, Nexter is offering to integrate Fire Control and other required C2 solutions to its CAESAR wheeled artillery system. Another French company active in the region is Sagem who provided the tactical C2 systems on Board Malaysia PT-91 MBT fleet

Cobham’s C2 software is designed to be scalable across multiple tactical echelons © Cobham Defence Communications

which will receive the system in March. ITT’s focus in recent years has been the transport layer for BMS such as its SpearNet Team Member Radio which supports real time ad hoc links of up to 6km although it continues to develop its capabilities in this are through the SINCGARS Tactical battlefield Management System which integrates capabilities of the radio in an environment tailored to a number of languages. Many of the Spanish military’s battlefield C2 solutions such as SIMACET and LINCE are provided by Amper Programmas. For export, a complete C4I suite has been developed for Corps to platoon use with the ne.on C4I suite, with the company negotiating with a number of potential partners in India and other in other Asian militaries. Amper’s ne.on system’s capabilities can be built up in a modular fashion with the company seeing the Blue Force Tracking focusing on situational awareness and combat ID version as being a key offering in Asia. The ne.on BFT solution integrates a base Situational Awareness solution and integrated NATO standards on battlefield ID and IFF and in addition to operating over

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CNRs can also integrate feeds from GPRS cell phones, satcom and Tetra and Tetrapol solution. The next step up is ne.on BMS and C4I designed to provide incrementally more advanced functionality to support including a synchronised Common Operational Picture and collaborative working. A further version, NeMesis has been developed for the homeland security and is used in the border surveillance role in Kuwait. With BMS, seeing is believing © AJB

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Thales have a number of C4I partners and joint ventures in Asia, notably with Sapura in Malaysia with the domestic company and Samsung in South Korea

and engineering vehicles. Sagem also provides elements of France SIT BMS network along with Nexter, including the SITEL systems equipping the FELIN soldier systems. The SIT family provides the brigade and below solution while the EADS SICF solution provides the brigade and above. France now believes that the separation of systems at this level is inefficient and is instituting a single scalable system known as SICS. As part of the country’s Scorpion programme it is completely revamping and integrating the battlegroup’s equipment including legacy vehicle and C2 elements although the overall systems architect has yet to be announced. Rheinmetall have a growing BMS presence with Hungary the latest in a list of countries which includes Sweden and Greece to adopt its Iniochos BMS. Rheinmetall Defence is currently developing the IdZ-ES future soldier system and as part of that work for the German military it is integrating the Bundeswehr’s new Battle Management System, FührungsInformations-System des Heeres.


27249_Thales_AsianMiliRev_Battlespace_286x213_v1_battlespace 22/10/2010 09:35 Page 1

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Air to Ground Precision Engagement:

Asymmetric to Peer Competitor

Targets The modern air-to-surface missile (ASM) and ‘smart’ bomb have changed the nature of close-support operations over the battlefield. Instead of releasing large numbers of munitions in the hope of destroying a tactical target, an aircraft can release a single weapon with a high probability of obtaining a ‘kill’.

by Doug Richardson

The Turkish company Roketsan is one of several offering laser-guided 70 mm rockets as a relatively low cost way of engaging ground targets that do not merit the use of an expensive guided missile. Roketsan says that its CIRIT design is the only weapon of this type that is of all-new construction; the other companies are offering upgrade schemes for existing unguided rockets © Doug Richardson

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Rafael Advanced Defense Systems’ Popeye is available in a full-sized Popeye 1 version or in this smaller Have Lite form suitable for use from the F-16 © Rafael Advanced Defense Systems

HEN WE reported on the use of anti-ship missiles in the region, we were able to describe how this class of weapon had been widely adopted, but the situation regarding air-to-surface tactical missiles (ASMs) and guided bombs is less encouraging. Air arms that rely on older types of fighter often have only ‘dumb’ bombs and unguided rockets available for air-tosurface use. This article will focus on weapons designed to engage battlefield targets by homing under imaging electro-optical, semiactive laser or combinations of inertial and GPS guidance. First-generation Western ASMs such as the Martin Marietta/Maxson Bullpup and

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the Aerospatiale AS.30 were simple command-guided weapons that had to be steered towards the target throughout their flight, and were largely ignored by operators in the region. However, the Russian equivalent, the Kh-23 (AS-7 ‘Kerry’) was adopted by several operators, with users reported to include Cambodia, India, North Korea, and Vietnam. Any remaining in service today are likely to have been relegated to the training role. If Cambodian examples are no longer in nominal service on the small MiG-21 force, that country will have joined Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos and Sri Lanka in having no

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ASMs or guided bombs in service. In all cases, these countries have small air forces that operate a small number of relatively old combat aircraft. The seeker-guided AGM-65 Maverick proved more attractive, and is still in service with seven countries in the region. For Indonesia and the Philippines, it remains their only ASM. However, Indonesia’s small fleet of F-16A/B Fighting Falcon and F-5E Tiger II could be compatible with other weapons, should a requirement and funding emerge. Four countries – India, South Korea, Pakistan, and Singapore – operate several types of latest-generation ASM, often supplemented by older-generation weapons. India is thought to be a user of the semiactive laser (SAL) guided Aerospatiale (now MBDA) AS.30L. Officially, the latter has been sold to only three export users since it entered service in the late 1980s, but press reports have cited eight export users, one of

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which is thought to be India. Many of India’s current ASMs are of Russian origin. Once a Kh-23 operator, it now uses the Zvezda-Strela (now the Tactical Missiles Corporation) GPS/INS-guided Kh25MSE (AS-10 ‘Karen’), and the TV-guided Vympel (now the Tactical Missiles Corporation) Kh-29TE (AS-14 'Kedge'). India is understood to have ordered 30 Popeye television (TV) or imagining infrared (IIR) air-to-surface missiles from Rafael (now Rafael Advanced Defense Systems) in 2001. These are thought to arm the Mirage 2000H. In May 2005 that the Indian Air Force was reported to be conducting trials with a Popeye variant designated Crystal Maze. This could be a derivative of the Popeye 2 (Have Lite), a lighter-weight version of the original weapon, perhaps scaled down to suit

More than 30 years after first entering service, Raytheon’s AGM-65 Maverick is still being fielded in improved forms © Raytheon

the Mirage 2000H. It can deliver an 80 kg warhead over a reported range of 80-100 km. Deliveries are thought to have started in 2006 following a series of three trials, the first two of which are reported to have failed. India is a large-scale user of guided bombs, and at least seven types are thought to be in service, one in indigenous development, and negotiations for a further three types are reported to be under way. The Indian Air Force (IAF) has been a Paveway II operator since the 1990s, and used these laser-guided bombs (LGBs) operationally from Jaguar and Mirage 2000H fighters during the Kargil confrontation of

Singapore and India are reported to be users of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems’ SPICE extended-range INS and electro-optically (EO) guided bomb © Doug Richardson

1998. MBDA’s BGL 1000 is reported to be operational on the Mirage 2000H. In February 2003 Griffin LGBs were exhibited by the IAF. This was a new variant based on Indian-manufactured examples of the British 1,000 lb bomb. India is also believed to be one of the three unidentified export customers for Rafael SPICE extended-range INS and electro-optically (EO) guided bomb. It is also reported to be a customer for Elbit’s Opher IR-guided munition and Lizard LGB, but this has never been confirmed. According to GNPP Region, the EO-guided KAB-1500Kr bomb has been supplied to India to equip the IAF’s Su-30MK 'Flanker’ fighters. India is also seen as a possible customer for the smaller FAB500Kr TV-guided bomb. Bazalt is reported to be offering its MPK inertial guidance kit for 500 kg FAB-500 general purpose bombs. In 2008 India submitted a request to the US Government for the supply of 510 CBU-105 Wind Corrected Munitions

When Pakistan displayed two JF-17 Thunder fighters at the 2010 Farnborough International Air Show, one of the weapons displayed nearby was China’s LOEC LS6 winged INS/satnav-bomb

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Meeting every requirement Lock on to MBDA solutions

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Dispensers (WCMDs), but an order has not yet been placed. Negotiations are thought to be under way between SAGEM and India for the supply of AASM ‘smart’ bombs to arm the IAF’s Sukhoi Su-30MKIs, Mirage 2000Hs, upgraded Jaguar IS/Ibs, and the planned Indian Navy MiG-29Ks. During the 2009 Aero India show, MBDA released information on a new 1,000 kg class penetrating warhead for the ASSM. Designated CMP 1000 (Charge Militare de Pénétration), this is thought to have been developed to meet an IAF requirement for a weapon able to destroy hardened targets. With such an extensive range of guided bombs in service or planned, it is surprising to see that India has embarked on what is apparently an indigenous weapon, although foreign participation cannot be ruled out. The ER-PGM (Enhanced Range Precision-Guided Weapon) is being developed by India’s Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) to meet an IAF requirement. ER-PGM seems to be a range-extension and guidance kit that can be fitted to existing 500 lb and 1,000 lb class general-purpose bombs, using pop-out wings to give a range of up to 60 nm. One novel reported feature is that the weapon will jettisoned in wing kit after reaching the target area. Guidance

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options are reported to include GPS/INS and a terminal laser seeker. Pakistan uses the AGM-65 Maverick and like India is reported to have the AS.30L. However most of its air-to-surface precisionattack capability is provided by guided bombs. The Raytheon Paveway II is in service in its GBU-10 and GBU-12 forms. In 2006, 1,600 EGBU-12 and EGBU-24 Enhanced Paveway bombs were ordered to arm the F16 fleet, along with 500 Boeing GBU-31 and

The manually-guided Kh-23 ‘Kerry’ no longer meets modern requirements. Like this sectioned example from a museum exhibit, most have been retired © Wikipedia Commons: Le Deluge

ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

More than 30 years after first entering service, Raytheon’s AGM-65 Maverick is still being fielded in improved forms © Raytheon

–38 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) GPS/INS bomb kits. Pakistan is thought to be the unidentified export customer that Denel announced for its TV-guided Raptor systems. In December 2003, the Pakistan press reported that test launches of a 120 km range stand-off weapon designated H-4 had been conducted. This matched the range of the Raptor II, while a 60Km range H-2 weapon also described in Pakistani press reports could be the Raptor I. When Pakistan displayed two JF-17 Thunder fighters at the 2010 Farnborough International Air Show, one of the weapons displayed nearby was China’s LOEC LS-6 winged INS/satnav-bomb. This ties in with Pakistani press reports in 2006 that the PAF had tested an unidentified type of stand-off weapon. It is possible that Pakistan is a user of the Ordtech Military Industries Seirina INS/GPS guided bomb, a Greek weapon available in SGM 500 (Mk 83 warhead) and SGM 1000 (Mk 84) forms. The manufacturer has stated that the weapon is compatible with the F-16, Mirage III/5, and A-5 'Fantan', all of which are in PAF service. The Lockheed Martin LongShot guided


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China’s LOEC LS-6 winged INS/satnav-bomb was displayed alongside two JF-17 Thunder fighters at the 2010 Farnborough International Air Show © Doug Richardson

bomb seems to have attracted significant interest from Pakistan, which is one of the 15 countries with which the US company is having what it has described as, "discussions on LongShot procurement". For a long time the AGM-65G Maverick was the only guided air-to-surface weapon in Singapore’s inventory, but the last decade has seen large orders being placed for ASMs and guided bombs. In August 2005 Singapore requested Raytheon AGM-154A-1 and -154C Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW) glide bombs as part of a weapons package to arm its Boeing F15SG strike fighters. Subsequently this procurement seems to have been placed on back burner, but was revived in July 2008 by a renewed request for 30 AGM-154A-1 and 30 AGM-154C. A batch of 50 GBU-38 versions of JDAM was requested in July 2009, followed four months later by a request for 670 GBU-38s. Singapore is also understood to be one on the two unidentified countries which signed Foreign Military sales with the US government for the GBU-54 Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition (LJDAM) variant. Singapore is also believed to be one of the three unidentified export customers reported in 2006 for the Rafael SPICE. Deliveries were expected to begin later that year, but have never been confirmed. In 2005 Ukraine's Luch design bureau was reported to be engaged in a joint project with Singapore to develop a 70-mm (2.75 in) guided rocket based on technology from the company’s AR-8L laser-guided ver-

sion of the Soviet-era S-8 80 mm unguided rocket. At the time, Luchs claimed that development would be completed in 2006, but nothing has been heard of the project since its original announcement. South Korea is a Maverick user, and in September 2009 Raytheon announced that it had been contracted by the USAF to supply AGM-65D and AGM-65G2 Mavericks under a Foreign Military sales deal. Although an FMS contract covering the supply 116 Boeing AGM-130 and a similar number of Lockheed Martin AGM-142 (Popeye) missiles to South Korea was announced in 1996, this programme may have been scaled down. An FMS contract announced in 2001 covered only 42 missiles of each type. In 2007 the US and South Korea signed a Memorandum of

The US DoD recently selected Raytheon’s GBU-53/B to meet its Small Diameter Bomb II requirement for a weapon able to engage moving targets in all weathers. The weapon’s tri-mode seeker (millimetre-wave, imaging infrared, and semi-active laser) and projected affordability is likely to make it the weapon of choice for many export users, but the US is unlikely to clear such a sophisticated weapon for export until production in under way © Raytheon

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Understanding (MoU) to co-operate on the development of the LOGIR (Low-cost Guided Imaging Rocket), an infrared-guided version of the standard Hydra 70 rocket. The current status of this programme is unclear. US work now seems to be focussed on the LCITS (Low Cost Imaging Terminal Seeker) programme for a weapon similar in concept to LOGIR, but with the addition of a datalink. In February 2006 an F-15K of the Republic of Korea Air Force conducted drop trials of the GBU-38 version of JDAM at Eglin AFB. Florida. According to the South Korean press, the ROKAF's upgraded Block 52 F16C/Ds are equipped with GBU-31, GBU-32 and GBU-38 variants of JDAM. Under an agreement signed in February 2009, Times Aerospace Korea (TAK) is to become the primary supplier for JDAM-ER wing assemblies. South Korea also has the Paveway II and III LGBs. Six further nations in the region are not major users of ASMs or guided bombs, but rely on a relatively small number of weapon types. Although Taiwan has developed indigenous anti-ship and anti-radiation missiles, the only guided weapons available for use against battlefield targets seem to be the AGM-65 Maverick and the Paveway II LGB. AGM-65D and AGM-65G2 versions of Maverick were covered by a 2009 Foreign


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Military sales deal. Japan developed its GCS-1 LGB kit for use on 500 lb Mk 82 and 750 lb Mk 117 bombs. This arms the Mitsubishi F-1 and F-2 fighter force, and serves alongside the Paveway II. Thailand has only a small air force, but is known to operate the AGM-65 Maverick and the Paveway II LGB. It has held discussions with Lockheed Martin on possible procurement of the LongShot. Vietnam has probably retired its Kh-23 (AS-7 'Kerry') command-guided missiles, but still uses the Kh-25 series, which is available in command, SAL, TV, and active-radar guided variants. The country operates the single-seat Su-

Singapore is also believed to be one of the three unidentified export customers reported in 2006 for the Rafael SPICE

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Singapore selected the Raytheon AGM-158 Joint Stand Off Weapon) as the long-range airto-surface weapon for its Boeing F-15SG strike fighters © Raytheon

22M4 and two-seat Su-22UM3K 'Fitters' and upgraded these starting in 2004, and is a customer for the Su-30MK ‘Flanker’ strike fighter. The Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') would be a suitable future weapon for the upgraded ‘Fitters’, while the KAB-500S-E could be an attractive option for the ‘Flankers’. Malaysia uses the AGM-65 Maverick, and procured the AS-14 'Kedge' (a weapon offered in TV, and SAL forms). The Region KAB-500S-E satnav-guided bomb could be an attractive future armament option for these aircraft. North Korea has an air force made up of ageing Russian and Chinese aircraft. It has probably retired its Kh-23 AS-7 'Kerry' missiles, but still has the AS-10 'Karen' and AS-11 'Kilter'. Procurement of future ASMs and ‘smart’ bombs will probably require the acquisition of more modern fighters.

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Mine Resistant

Ambush Prote One of the major growth areas in recent years has been the design, development and production of a new class of armoured vehicle called the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicle.

by Christopher F Foss

RAP vehicles were originally developed in response to operations in Iraq where vehicles conceived for manoeuvre type, conventional military operations had inadequate protection against the very diverse range of threats, especially mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The name MRAP is however a strictly US term as other countries call these mine protected vehicles (MPV) or protected patrol vehicles (PPV). These are by no means a new class of vehicle as South Africa and the now Zimbabwe developed MPVs to counter the anti-tank mine threat in Africa over 30 years ago. MRAP type vehicles provide their crews with high levels of protection against small arms fire, shell fragments, anti-tank mines and IEDs. They are normally armed with machine guns (MG) or automatic grenade launchers (AGL). Many MRAP type vehicles deployed on operations in Iraq and Afghanistan are fitted with an air conditioning system, remote controlled weapon station (RCWS), cameras for enhanced situational awareness and a suite of electronic devices to counter IEDs.

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Three customers for Australian Bushmaster

The Thales Australia Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle (PMV) was originally developed to meet the requirements of the Australian Army who have now ordered a total of 737 units with final deliveries under current contracts expected in 2011. While

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Thales Australia calls the Bushmaster a PMV, the Australian Army calls this vehicle an Infantry Mobility Vehicle. Bushmaster has seen extensive operational use in Afghanistan, East Timor and Iraq and provides its occupants with a very high level of protection from small arms fire, shell splinters, mine blasts and IEDs. The baseline Bushmaster PMV has a crew of two and carries up to eight dismounts on individual seats with a full harness. Gross vehicle weight (GVW) is 15 tonnes and maximum range is up to 1,000 km. A RCWS is normally mounted on the roof towards the front of the vehicle. The Australian Defence Force currently mounts a 7.62 mm MG but the RCWS is capable of mounting a .50 MG or a 40 mm AGL. The vehicle also has a 5.56 mm or 7.62 mm MG on a pintle mount towards the rear. Australian Army currently deploys six versions of the Bushmaster PMV, troop carrier, ambulance, assault pioneer, command, direct fire and 81 mm mortar. A split air conditioning sysThe latest vehicle to be developed by BAE Systems is the RG41 (8 x 8) wheeled armoured combat vehicle shown here fitted with a turret armed with long range ATGW Š BAE Systems

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In mid-2010 BAE Systems launched their new RG41 8x8 wheeled armoured combat vehicle that enables the company to offer a complete range of wheeled armoured vehicles

tem is standard as is a ten tonne winch which can be used to the front or rear of the vehicle. A wide range of optional equipment is available for the Bushmaster PMV. So far two export customers have placed orders for the Bushmaster with the Netherlands taking delivery of 86 units and the UK taking delivery of 24 units. Both countries have deployed these on operations. As a private venture, Thales Australia has identified a gap in protected logistic mobility and developed two logistics load carrier variants called the Bushmaster Utility vehicles. They are in the single door cab arrangement (Bushmaster Utility Single Cab) and four door cab (Bushmaster Utility Dual Cab) and up to 5 tonnes can be carried on the flat bed at the rear. Thales Australia have completed an engineering assessment to upgrade the Bushmaster PMV with new axles and suspension to increase gross vehicle mass (GVM) to about 18 tonnes. This would enable the vehicle to have a higher payload or

increased levels of protection, or a combination of both.

Nexter Systems ARAVIS deployed by French Army

The ARAVIS MRAP type vehicle was originally developed as a private venture by Nexter Systems and is based on a MercedesBenz UNIMOG U-5000 4x4 cross country chassis. This is fitted with a very well protected crew module that provides protection up to STANAG 4569 Level 4. It addition to its crew of two, commander and driver, it carries another seven dismounts with all of these being provided with suspended seats. The French Army has taken delivery of 15 ARAVIS fitted with a Kongsberg RCWS armed with a .50 MG and most of these have been deployed to Afghanistan for use by French Army engineers as part of a mine clearance system.

Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Dingo wins export orders

The Dingo All Protected Vehicle (APV) was developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann as a private venture and the German Army subsequently took delivery of a total of 147 production vehicles. Further development has resulted in the enhanced Dingo 2 APV that is the current production model and based on the more recent

Ashok Leyland Stallion (4 x 4) mine protected vehicle being put through its paces Š Paramount

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Thales Australia Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle (PMV) family includes the APC version (front), Bushmaster Utility (middle) and ambulance (rear) Š Thales Australia

4x4 UNIMOG U-5000 chassis which has allowed for increased payload and protection. The original Dingo had five seats while the latest Dingo has eight seats and can undertake a wider range of roles. There is also a version with the protected crew compartment extending to the rear of the chassis for more specialist roles such as ambulance. More recent versions include a two door cab version with a flatbed at the rear, damage repair vehicle which is already in service with the German Army and a 6x6 recovery vehicle with a fully protected two door cab. In addition to being used by the German Army, the latest Dingo 2 is also in service with Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic and Luxembourg with the matter being in a highly specialised reconnaissance role with a mast mounted sensor pod.

BAE Systems Land Systems South Africa

The latest version of the KraussMaffei Wegmann Dingo 2 is this 6x6 recovery vehicle shown here with a standard Dingo 2 on suspended tow Š Krauss-Maffei Wegmann

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In addition to supporting older vehicles such as the original Casspir, BAE Systems is now marketing a complete range of mine protected and mine hardened vehicles for the export market. About 2,000 RG31 4x4 MPV have been built with the largest export customer being the US Marine Corps followed by Spain and Canada. The RG31 has been continuously been developed with the latest version being the Mk 6 which has more volume and payload. The smaller RG32M is classed as a mine hardened armoured patrol vehicle and has already been sold to more than five countries with the largest user being Sweden who has taken delivery of 200 production vehicles. Further development has resulted in the RG32M mine protected light tactical vehicle which typically has a four door protected cab and a load area at the rear. Launch customer for this is Ireland who has taken delivery of an initial batch of 27 units. Late last year BAE Systems launched the RG35 mine protected multi-purpose fighting vehicle. This is a 6x6 vehicle with a GVW of up to 33 tonnes and can be fitted with a wide range of weapon stations. In mid-2010 BAE Systems launched their

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new RG41 8x8 wheeled armoured combat vehicle that enables the company to offer a complete range of wheeled armoured vehicles. This can be fitted with a wide range of weapon systems.

IVEMA go for exports

A relative newcomer to the scene is the IVEMA Gila mine and ballistic protected vehicle which was developed from 2005 and has been sold to at lest seven export customers. This has a GVW of about 13 tonnes and typically has a crew of two and carries nine dismounts with a high level of protection being provided against mines and IED.

South African Paramount vehicles in production

The Paramount Group is currently marketing the Matador and slightly smaller Marauder MPV as well as the Maverick internal security vehicle. All of these share many common components such as axles, drive line and power packs. All of these vehicles have been developed by the Paramount Group as a private venture with the first customer being Azerbaijan who is currently assembling 25 Matador and 25 Marauder PMV under a technology transfer deal with the Paramount Group with first vehicles being delivered in 2009.

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The Paramount Group has also been working with the Indian company of Ashkok Leyland with the end result being the Stallion MPV. This is essentially a Matador incorporating sub-systems from the proven Indian Stallion 4x4 cross-country truck.

UK moves on Light Protected Patrol Vehicle

The UK has deployed large numbers of US Force Protection Mastiff 6x 6 Heavy PPV and Ridgback 4x4 Medium PPV with final integration being carried out in the UK by NP Aerospace at Coventry. These are too heavy and large to be deployed in some situations and the Snatch Land Rover is currently used for this role. This was originally developed for use in Northern Ireland and although upgraded a number of times to the Snatch Vixen standard has now reached the end of its development. This will be replaced by the Light Protected Patrol Vehicle (LPPV) with an ini-

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tial requirement for 200 vehicles. The two contenders for this are the Force Protection Europe Ocelot and the Supacat SPV400. Trials of two vehicles of each type commenced in early 2010 and a decision is expected soon. Both of these 4x4 vehicles feature a very well protected crew citadel for the crew of two plus six dismounts with the front and rear wheel stations blowing away in the event of an explosion.

Ranger offers high level of protection

One of the latest MRAP type vehicles to be developed is the Universal Engineering Ranger PPV which was first shown in mid2009 in its 6x6 configuration. This is claimed to have a very high level of protection well above STANAG 4569 Level 4 and consists of an armoured citadel to which the four main sub-systems modules are attached. These comprise MAN diesel power pack, mid axle, inter axle and transmission and rear axle modules. Baseline Ranger has a crew of two and carries eight dismounts in the highly protected citadel that can include explosive reactive armour. The 6x6 Ranger has a GVW of 19 tonnes of which up to six tonnes is payload. In mid-2010 two pre-production Ranger were completed, one in 6x6 and one in 8x8 configuration and these have a number of improvements as a result of customer feedback.


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US fields wide range of MRAP vehicles

As previously stated MRAP is strictly a US programme and under this approach, large quantities of vehicles have been fielded by a variety of contractors. BAE Systems, Global Tactical Systems provided large numbers of Caiman MRAP vehicles based on their Family of Medium Tactical Vehicle (FMTV) with 2,868 being completed by late 2008. Force Protection have provided large quantities of their Cougar 6x6 and 4x4 MRAP vehicles to the US armed forces as well as to some export customers. More specialised Force Protection vehicles include the Buffalo well protected route clearance vehicle which has also been exported. This forms part of the UK Talisman route clearance system. General Dynamics Land Systems have supplied MRAP vehicles through their old connection with the now BAE Systems LSSA including the RG31 and the larger RG33. Until recently Navistar were known for

the civilian vehicles but have secured major contracts for their MaxxPro 4x4 MRAP vehicles of which over 6,000 have now been built. It has also supplied the UK with 262 MXT based units to meet the UK requirement for a Husky Tactical Support Vehicle (Medium) with Plasan supplied armour. Singapore has taken delivery of an initial batch of MaxxPro MRAP vehicles. Operational experience sown that some of the original MRAP type vehicles were too large and heavy to be deployed in some parts of Afghanistan. Following a competition Oshkosh Defense were awarded a huge contract for their M-ATV (MRAP All Terrain Vehicle) with an initial order being placed form

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2,244 vehicles which has since been rapidly increased with production peaking at 1,000 vehicles a month. An increasing number of countries in Asia are now procuring MRAP type vehicles for use within their own borders or for overseas deployment as part on United Nations Forces.

The Supacat SPV400 was one of the contenders for the British Army Light Protected Patrol Vehicle requirement © SUPACAT

M-ATV Courtesy of Oshkosh Defense

When the rules of the game keep on changing, Plasan is always one step ahead. Plasan is a world leader in the design and manufacture of armour and survivability ƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐĨŽƌĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐƚŚƌĞĂƚƐŝŶƚŚĞŵŽƐƚĂƐLJŵŵĞƚƌŝĐďĂƩůĞĮĞůĚƐ͘

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INDONESIAN ARMED Continued In mid-August, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono announced the FY2011 defence budget would undergo a significant 13 percent hike. The budget will rise to IDR45.2 trillion ($5billion), compared to IDR42.3 trillion this year. This will be welcome news for the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI), which has endured severe under funding and neglect for years. The funding increase will be allocated to, “improve the welfare of soldiers and revamp systems to meet the minimum essential force,” stated President Yudhoyono. This latest budget represents a doubling in defence spending since FY2005 when IDR21.97 trillion was allocated. by Gordon Arthur An Indonesian BTR-80A APC painted in white for UN peacekeeping service in Lebanon © Gordon Arthur/Yves Debay

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FORCES: Modernisation fter 32 years of Suharto autocracy, Indonesia has made a rather stunning transition to democracy. In power since October 2004, President Yudhoyono was re-elected on 8 July 2009 with a 60.8 percent majority. Indonesia’s first democratically elected principal has to a large extent been consolidating control over the 432,000-strong military. He has moved carefully to cultivate friends in high military posts, as illustrated by the September 2009 inauguration of Army Chief of Staff, Lt.Gen. George Toisutta. Yudhoyono’s brother-inlaw, Maj.Gen. Pramono Edhi Wibowo, was also promoted to Siliwangi military commander in December 2009. Under the tutelage of President Yudhoyono, the TNI is witnessing greater cohesion and more balanced development. The government is implementing a “Minimal Essential

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Force” (MEF) programme designed to defend the state’s ideology and territorial integrity, protect the nation’s honour and safety, and enforce the law in Indonesian territory. Professionalism of the military was to be enhanced by Law No.34/2004, which decreed all military businesses be surrendered by 16 October 2009. Official data from 2007 (the latest available) disclosed the military as having $350 million in gross business assets reaping an annual profit of $28.5 million. All businesses were to shut down or be handed over to the Indonesian Military Business Management Body (BPBTNI). However, with the 2009 deadline having passed, this had still not fully occurred. On 15 April 2010, a review was announced to ensure all remaining TNI business interests would come under governmental control by the end of this year. It is hoped this divestiture of entrepreneurial activities will result in a more professional military force.

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Since 2000, more people have been killed by terrorists in Indonesia than in any country except the US. The most recent attack was the bombing of Jakarta’s JW Marriott and RitzCarlton hotels on 17 July 2009. However, the nation has enjoyed success in the fight against Islamic extremism. The Malaysian Noordin Top, Southeast Asia’s most-wanted terrorist, was killed in Central Java on 17 September 2009. This success struck Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) a mighty blow, followed three weeks later by the death of his accomplices, Syaifudin Zuhri bin Jaelani and his brother. Dulmatin, another senior JI figure, was killed in March 2010. However, whilst these successes have Indonesian Army troops perform an operation in Lebanon as part of the UNIFIL mission © Gordon Arthur/Yves Debay

put pressure on militant organisations, Islamic extremism is far from banished.

Sea changes

Indonesia would like a more significant regional influence, and with the army essentially an internal security force and the Air Force hampered by high capital costs, perhaps the Navy has the greatest potential to project power. The Indonesian Navy (TNI Angkatan Laut, TNI-AL) has pinpointed three strategies to fulfil its MEF obligation: procure new weapon systems by prioritising domestic industries; increase existing system capabilities; and phase out ineffective systems. “Our main priority now is security in sea border areas and the outer islands of Indonesia,” Navy Chief of Staff, Admiral Agus Suhartono, said, especially the crime-

prone western waters. Regular patrolling with India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia has resulted in dropping maritime crime in the Malacca Strait area. ADM Agus claimed the Navy prevented IDR13.8 trillion in state losses in 2009 by preventing illegal activities such as fishing and logging. The Navy envisions a 274-ship green-water navy divided into: a Striking Force (110 ships), Patrolling Force (66 ships) and Supporting Force (98 ships) located at 59 naval bases. To create such a force, the TNI-AL will be procuring corvettes and fast missile boats, at the same time replacing older vessels. The fourth and final Dutch-built Sigma 9113-class corvette was commissioned in March 2009, armed with MM40 Exocet Block II and MBDA Mistral missiles. Indonesia’s National Corvette programme stalled because of funding issues, but it has been resurrected by a contract on 16 August 2010 to locally build a Sigma 10514-class corvette. Called Guided Missile Escort 105 M (Perusak Kawal Rudal, PKR), it will take four years before the first 2,400-ton corvette is delivered by PT PAL. Local content will be around 35 percent. This is a small but significant step for the navy, especially as

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South Korea’s T-50 Golden Eagle is one of three contenders for an advanced trainer requirement for the Indonesian Air Force © Gordon Arthur

Indonesia needs to standardise weapon platforms; the TNI presently operates 173 main weapon systems from 17 countries! For years the local shipbuilding industry has been ailing, but led by PT PAL there is cause for optimism. PT PAL has previously developed fast patrol boats, and in March 2010 the second of two new 125m-long Landing Platform Dock (LPD) ships was launched in Surabaya. The Makassar-class LPD was developed in conjunction with the Daewoo in South Korea, this company having already built two 7,300-ton LPDs for Indonesia. These four LPDs will be vital assets for domestic missions and disaster relief missions around the disaster-prone archipelago. Growing in confidence, Indonesia’s shipbuilding industry has set its sights on developing a 190m 35,000-ton helicopter carrier. PT PAL has also been enlisted to construct seven tank landing ships (LST) to replace six US-built LSTs that have been serving more than 40 years. However, the resurgence of PT PAL comes at a cost, with the once struggling company undergoing a two-year restructuring programme. The process will be severe, with up to half of the company’s 2,400 employees expected to be dismissed. In March alone, 900 jobs were cut during the rationalisation. The TNI-AL will receive a trio of CN235220 maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) from PT Dirgantara after a $80 million contract was signed on 11 December 2009, bringing to six the number of such aircraft in service. The aircraft sensor suites will allow fishery and marine traffic surveillance, search-and-rescue, anti-smuggling, anti-terrorism, and antisurface and anti-submarine warfare mis-

sions. Indonesia has a huge 7.9 million square-kilometre EEZ to protect, and these new aircraft will allow retirement of the GAF N-22 Nomad aircraft fleet that has been ravaged by accidents. Indonesia fitted Chinese C-802 anti-ship missiles onto PB-57 large patrol craft in 2008, but the Navy announced it will be ordering dozens more C-802s in the future, possibly via local production. They are destined for use on fast patrol boats and Van Speijk-class frigates. Discussions also took place on purchasing the smaller C-705 anti-ship missile for fast patrol boats. Indonesia remains dependent on foreign suppliers for such sophisticated weaponry, although PT PAL is

capable of integrating weapon systems onto existing vessels. As neighbours like Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam develop submarine fleets, Indonesia is seeking to do the same. The country is reactivating plans to acquire two diesel-electric submarines by 2014. The Russian Kilo 636 and South Korean-built Type 209 had been shortlisted, but the programme was curtailed by a lack of funds. According to reports in April, this project is to be re-tendered, with PT PAL to act as local contractor for technology transfer. The 20 Russian BMP-3F infantry fighting vehicles (IFV) ordered previously are now entering service with the Marine Corps.

Up in the air

The Indonesian Air Force (TNI Angkatan Udara, TNI-AU) has down-selected three competing advanced trainer designs to replace its depleted BAE Hawk trainer fleet: the T-50 Golden Eagle from South Korea, L159B from the Czech Republic, and Yak-130 from Russia. This trio was confirmed in early August for this long-standing requirement, and a decision by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is expected before the year’s end. The TNI-AU ordered eight Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano aircraft for use in the light ground attack role. These will replace OV10F Broncos, and another eight could possi-

The Indonesian Navy previously opted for C-802 anti-ship missiles such as that pictured here, and it will be placing further orders © Gordon Arthur

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An Indonesian-built MBB Bo 105 helicopter fitted with rocket pods on display at the Indo Defence 2008 exhibition © Gordon Arthur/Andrei Chang

bly be ordered in the future. The purchase of expensive Su-27 and Su30 fighters has stretched the Air Force budget, and these few fighters, poorly equipped with weapons, provide only marginal modernisation. Three new Su-27SKM fighters were due to arrive around September to join two Su-30MKs already in service. Indonesia’s fleet of ten Sukhoi fighters also consists of three Su-30MK2s and two Su30MKs. Now the TNI-AU is also seeking new F-16C/D fighters to strengthen its fighter squadrons. Talks with the US were held mid-year, with any possible sale being

funded by Foreign Military Financing. Indonesia needs to replace its Northrop F5E/F Tiger II aircraft, and various fighter options are available. The MoD has already turned down Dassault Mirage 2000-5 fighters from Qatar, although the Chinese are aligning the J-10 and Pakistan has proffered the JF-17. Interestingly, PT Dirgantara and AVIC of China are in preliminary talks about forming a partnership to develop a military transport aircraft. The TNI-AU has signed deals to upgrade its C-130 Hercules fleet, as well as pursuing the idea of buying new C-130Js, in an effort to improve weak airlift capabilities. The air force only has four missile types – KS-1 Komet, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AGM-65 Maverick and AA-2 Atoll. It would like more advanced air-

Pictured Kapitan Patimura-class vessels from the former East Germany are well overdue for retirement © Gordon Arthur/Andrei Chang

to-air missiles, with Russian munitions likely to be the best option. Locally, CV Sari Bahari is developing weapons like the P-100 air-toground bomb, which has been successfully tested on the Su-27 and Su-30. There are serious reliability issues with the Air Force, as revealed by a Fokker F-27 crash on 6 April 2009 that killed all 24 occupants. A Lockheed L-100-30 crashed on 20 May 2009, killing 97. As with the shipbuilding industry, the aerospace industry under PT Dirgantara is showing resilience. South Korea recently ordered four more CN-235-110 MPAs, with Indonesia seeing off competition from US, Spanish and Israeli competitors. The Indonesian Army (TNI Angkatan Darat, TNI-AD) has ordered 154 Pindad APS-3 “Anoa” 6x6 armoured personnel carriers (APC). A total of 60 were delivered in 2009 and a further 33 in January 2010. This APC design is based on the French VAB, which was procured urgently for peacekeeping in Lebanon. Malaysia has ordered 32 APS-3 “Anoa” vehicles for its peacekeeping force in Lebanon too. Spurred by this success, there is a chance PT Pindad may attempt to develop a light tank in the future. It is reported Doosan of South Korea signed an Indonesian contract in November 2009 to deliver 22 Black Fox 6x6 vehicles within two years. The vehicles will mount a CSE90 90mm gun from CMI in Belgium.

International connections

South Korea has established itself as a prime partner in Indonesian defence sales. Furthermore, on 11 August the two countries’ defence ministers reached an agree-

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The Pindad APS-3 “Anoa” is a domestically built 6x6 APC now entering Indonesian Army service © Gordon Arthur/Andrei Chang

ment in Jakarta on expanding defence ties, with a key focus being development of South Korea’s next-generation KFX fighter. An existing collaboration framework dating back to 1999 is to be redrawn. To the south, Australia has long been concerned about illegal migration by boat from and through Indonesia. From 16-27 April 2010, the two countries completed an inaugural round of a Coordinated Maritime Security Patrol aimed at improving security on the shared maritime border to the south of West Timor. Commodore David Gwyther of the Royal Australian Navy stated: “It sends a message to those who may contemplate con-

The TNI-AU has signed deals to upgrade its C-130 Hercules fleet, as well as pursuing the idea of buying new C-130Js

ducting illegal activities in our maritime zones, that the Indonesian Armed Forces and Australian Defence Force are working together - so beware.” The exercise incorporated a HQ staff, naval vessels and MPAs, with further patrols planned. On 22 November 2005, the US restored full military ties with Indonesia, ending a six-year ban on arms sales. President Obama’s administration has been making special efforts to reach out to the world’s most muslim populous nation, although the President has thrice cancelled visits to the country of his childhood due to domestic

emergencies. On 22 July 2010, US Defence Secretary Robert Gates announced during an official visit to Jakarta that the USA was resuming ties with Indonesian Special Forces after a twelve-year hiatus. “The United States will begin a gradual, limited

programme of security cooperation activities with Indonesian Army Special Forces,” said Gates. Kopassus had been implicated in atrocities in East Timor and Aceh, but Human Rights Watch asserts the Special Force Command continues to perpetrate abuses in Papua province. Obama considers Indonesia a vital Muslim ally, as well as an important influence in Southeast Asia. However, remembering the recent arms embargo, Indonesia will be coy about relying too heavily on the US. At some stage, too, the TNI will need to relinquish its internal security duties to the police in order to reduce manpower. However, it is not yet ready to do this. Indonesia is still far from being able to project power, but it is making progress in improving its strategic situation and in securing its own archipelagic territory. A greater green-water defensive capability will certainly aid its status as gatekeeper to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, straddling as it does, the Malacca Strait.

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Come to Visit the National Pavilion of the CZECH REPUBLIC with the Latest Products of the Defence and Security Industries SCHEDULE: 10. – 13. November 2010 LOCATION: hall A stand 019, JIExpo Kemayoran, JAKARTA, INDONESIA


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Rosoboronexport, the sole Russian state arms trade company entitled to export the whole range of military and dualpurpose products, technologies and services, is currently marking its tenth anniversary. The Rosoboronexport Corporation was established by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation with the authority to conduct foreign trade operations with the whole export nomenclature of Russian arms and joint research and development works in cooperation with defence enterprises and research institutes both in Russia and abroad. Its status warrants state support for all its export/import operations.The Corporation accounts now for more than an 80 per cent share in Russia's foreign military sales. Rosoboronexport focuses its business development strategy on forming, strengthening and developing long-term partnerships with foreign countries under the motto "Efficiency. Reliability. Quality". We are publishing today an article by Anatoly Isaykin, Director General of the Rosoboronexport Corporation with an overview of its activities.

ussia's military technical cooperation with foreign states has been practised for many a century. Rosoboronexport has inherited the best traditions of its predecessors in establishing lasting relations with foreign partners. Military technical cooperation is not a pure "arms trade". It occupies a specific zone within the Russia's foreign economic activities where long-term mutually beneficial partnerships with foreign countries are built. It is only natural as procured arms will be in service for 20, 30 or even 50 years. When an importing country purchases our arms, it entrusts us with the most precious state issue - its security, and ultimately – its independence and territorial integrity. Such country becomes a long-time reliable ally of Russia in both military-political and economic areas. Every year Rosoboronexport increases its foreign sales value by 500-700 million US dollars. As a result, the amount of foreign military sales carried out by Rosoboronexport has augmented for the last ten years almost by two and a half times. Russian military-purpose products also have been delivered to much wider geographical destinations. At present Rosoboronexport maintains cooperation with some 70 countries. If previously India and China took up the main share of contracts (up to 80 per cent of sales value), they are now joined by other importers which have become major Russian arms recipients, such as Algeria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and some other countries. The Corporation is proactive in developing new markets. Latin American countries are a good example of such markets. In this region there are contracts signed with Peru, Columbia, Brazil, Argentina, Cuba, that are being implemented. Prospects also exist for promotion of Russian arms to Chile, Uruguay, and Ecuador. Military technical cooperation with countries in South East Asia, the Middle East,

and North Africa is continued on a mutually beneficial basis. We maintain military technical cooperation with our close neighbours from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) within the guidelines of the Russia's state policy. Our partners are offered substantial preferences.This is also natural since armed forces of the CIS/CSTO countries are equipped with Soviet and Russian-made weapons.We are developing very dynamic mutually advantageous relations in this area with Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and other member-states. The nomenclature of military-purpose products offered for export increases from year to year. Now it includes several thousand items that are equal in quality with the best world products and even surpass them in some respects. Russian combat systems are actively adapted to meet NATO standards and are in demand among member-states of this military political organisation. Russian weapons and military equipment are favourably distinguished from competing products by their permanent advantage in cost-effectiveness. All the above have allowed Russia to keep for many years the second place in the arms sales value. When supplying weapon systems, Rosoboronexport observes all international conventions, does not violate the established force balance in the regions nor allows illegal proliferation of weapons around the world and their falling in the hands of terrorist organisations and rogue totalitarian states. Rosoboronexport continues to improve its exports business concept in collaboration with foreign partners. If previously military equipment was sold as it was, now it is offered with a set of services intended to support the procured weapons during their life cycle, including: maintenance, upgrading, repairs, and even disposal when the service life has been ended. Many customer states set up their own repair bases and servicing centres, and AMR Marketing Promotion

organise upgrading works and training of combat crews and technical personnel. In India, for example, the joint venture "Rosoboronservice" has been established to provide after-sale servicing of ships, aircraft and helicopters. Preparations are done for opening similar centres in other regions. In India also functions the T-90S main battle tank licence production plant. Rosoboronexport always tries to help its partners expertly and smoothly integrate new Russian-made equipment into existing defence structures, making the whole system operate efficiently, quickly, harmoniously and reliably. Such approach enhances operational effectiveness of systems and sets of equipment and reduces their cost as well as funds required for building and maintaining a corresponding infrastructure for them. Rosoboronexport maintains business connections with more than 700 defence enterprises in 56 regions of Russia. Many of these enterprises have been provided with foreign orders for several years to come. The Rosoboronexport Corporation is actively participating in charitable and sponsor activities. During the last ten years it has taken part in more than 300 such actions. Only this year Rosoboronexport has carried out more than 40 charitable and sponsor actions.They are mainly casework assistance rendered to orphaned children (lodged in boarding schools and orphanages) and disabled children (cured in hospitals) in Russia.We have also rendered assistance in restoring a Russian-language school in Peru.The Corporation provides an active support to veteran organisations, or helps to complete library stocks in leading Moscow colleges which prepare young specialists for Rosoboronexport. These days when we celebrate the anniversary I wish our partners every success in business, prosperity and well-being, constructive and mutually advantageous cooperation with Rosoboronexport for the benefit of our countries and peoples.


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Designed to equip the US Navy’s Zumwalt class destroyers, Raytheon’s AN/SPY-3 X-band radar forms part of the vessel’s Dual Band Radar, along with the S-band volume search system to maximise the ship’s detection capabilities © Raytheon

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HALES IS one of the world’s major suppliers of naval radar and CMS products. The firm produces the Herakles radar used on the Marine Nationale (French Navy) FREMM (Fregate multi-mission) multi-mission frigates. Herakles is a three-dimensional, Sband 3-4 GHz radar which has a range of up to 80Km against surface targets, and 250Km for air threats. The radar provides simulateous air and surface search, detection of missiles and fire control for the vessels’ weapons. Together with its electro-opitcal systems and communications, the radar is linked to the ships’ CMS which is based on DCNS’s SENIT family. A version of SENIT, known as SENIT8, outfits the Franco-Italian Horizon-class frigates which also deploy a G-band 4-6GHz EMPAR multi-function phased array radar, plus an L-band (1-2Ghz), Thales/Selex S1850 air and surface search radar, mounted on the vessels’ aft mast and a Selex RASS S-band radar positioned on the forward mast, along with the EMPAR system. In addition to producing radar, Selex has the responsibility for manufacturing CMS suites, most notably the Italian Navy’s IPN family of systems. Like Selex, Thales also manufactures CMS products such as the firm’s TACTICOS family. Among other vessels, TACTICOS has been selected for the SIGMA (Ship Integrated Geometrical Modularity) frigates of the Royal Moroccan Navy. Using an open systems architecture, TACTICOS is scalable to

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Without advanced surveillance radar, modern warships are virtually blind, depriving them of early warning of incoming aircraft, anti-ship and even ballistic missiles. Surveillance radar also gives a detailed picture of a ship’s maritime environment, providing information on friendly and enemy combatants, and civilian ships. Today’s naval radar can fuse these two pictures together to provide a holistic view of the locale. Information from a ship’s surveillance radar arrives in the Combat Management System (CMS) where it is then displayed to the crew. The CMS has become the brain and nervous systems of modern warships where other sensors such as electro-optical equipment can be commanded, in addition to each vessel’s weapons, communications, and fleet-wide battle management systems.

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vessels of all sizes, from missile boats up to destroyers and frigates. The CMS fuses together information from radar, electro-optical and sonar systems to provide a detailed picture of the immediate environment, handling up to 1,500 tracks simultaneously. Another of Thales’s CMS products is the SEWACO-XI which equips the De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates of the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy). SEWACO is built around the company’s TACTICOS (see above) product. Originally developed for the Royal Netherlands Navy Tromp class frigates

Sea Giraffe has been selected for the ANZACclass frigates operated by the Royal New Zealand Navy which have also seen their Saab 9LV CMS capabilities being upgraded

which were nicknamed ‘Kojak’ because of their large, smooth radome positioned aft of the bridge, SEWACO has been cycled through various versions in Dutch service culminating in the current SEWACO-XI configuration. Thales is also providing radar for the SIGMA vessels in the form of the S-band SMART-S Mk.2 surveillance radar (which also equips the German Navy’s Type123 Brandenburg class frigates where it is linked to an Atlas Elektronick/ Paramax SATIR CMS. Optimized for surface comSaab has leveraged technology developed for the company’s Giraffe landbased air defence radar into its Sea Giraffe naval surveillance radar product. Sea Giraffe is also available as a lightweight radar to equip small-sized verssels © Saab

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Thales’s SMART-S Mk.2 radar is being marketed to American customers via a partnering agreement with ITT Corporation. The radar is being touted as ideal equipment for several US Navy and US Coast Guard vessels © ITT Corporation

batants such as frigates, destroyers and Landing Platform Docks (LPDs), the SMARTS has a range of up to 250Km. In addition, the company builds the SMART-L radar offering up to 400Km of coverage and an elevation angle of up to 70°. In conjunction with ITT Corporation, Thales is marketing the radar in the United States for the US Navy and Coast Guard applications, and also for possible

Foreign Military Sales from that country. The SMART-L is essentially a SMART-S, but with a lighter weight and smaller size. A so-called Extended Long Range module is available for the SMART-L which increases the radar’s ‘already impressive range’ according to official Thales literature. SMART-L has proven to be a popular product, selling to the German, Danish and Korean navies.

BAE Systems Integrated Systems Technologies is responsible for several naval radar products, these include the SAMPSON S-band multifunction radar which is used by the Royal Navy’s Type-45 Daring class destroyers © BAE Systems

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BAE Systems is extensively involved in the naval surveillance radar world via its Insyte (Integrated Systems Technologies) business unit. The company’s SAMPSON Sband multifunction radar equips the Royal Navy’s Type-45 Daring class destroyers (where the radar is connected to a BAE Systems Insyte CMS). Moreover, SAMPSON provides the basis for the ARTISAN (Advanced Radar Target Indication Situational Awareness and Navigation) radar which is earmarked for the Senior Service’s future Queen-Elizabeth class aircraft carriers, and for retrofit onto the HMS Ocean amphibious support ship, the Type-23 Duke class frigates and Albion class assault vessels for use with the latter ships’ BAE Systems ADAWS-2000 CMS. SAMPSON, which has a range of up to 400 km (216 nm), uses Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology which allows it to broadcast across a range of frequencies which can make it comparatively difficult to intercept. Saab, meanwhile, has been very successful at leveraging technology developed for land systems into its naval product line. One example is the company’s Sea Giraffe Agile Multi-Beam radar which is descended from the Giraffe air defence radar, itself a component of the firm’s BAMSE RBS-23 anti-aircraft missile system. The Sea Giraffe is already deployed on the Baynunah class corvettes used by the United Arab Emirates navy, and


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is a two-dimensional system with a compact size and a light weight which sweeps at 60 revolutions-per-minute. Sea Giraffe has been produced in several versions including the Mod.C, which has a 0-70° search angle of elevation, and a particularly good capability against sea-skimming missile targets and small boats. For small vessels performing mine countermeasures work and offshore patrol, Saab’s Sea Giraffe LT version maintains the performance of the Mod.C in a package which can easily equip diminutive vessels, thanks to its low weight of 250Kg (551lb). Sea Giraffe has been selected for the ANZAC-class frigates operated by the Royal New Zealand Navy which have also seen their Saab 9LV CMS capabilities being upgraded. The 9LV can connect a vessel’s sensors, weapons and communications to provide an instant view for the ships’ person-

Terma of Denmark has carved a niche as a provider of specialist naval surveillance radar built around their Scanter family of products

nel of their vessels’ status, using open architecture to provide a plug-and-play capability for these systems. Although arguably not a major part of EADS’ business, the company does, nevertheless, produce a surveillance radar product in the guise of its C-band (4-8 Ghz) TRS-3D multifunction surveillance radar which has a range of 200Km. Envisaged for smaller vessels such as patrol ships and corvettes, EADS has hit upon a winning formula with a product that has secured orders from Denmark, Finland, Germany, Malaysia, Norway, Spain and the United States. Like EADS, Terma of Denmark has carved a niche as a provider of specialist naval surveillance radar built around their Scanter family of products. Both the Scanter-6000 and Scanter-4100 are X-band (8-12GHz) 2D radar which are optimized to detect small targets and have a range of up to 185Km. The

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Used with the Aegis class Combat Management System, Lockheed Martin’s AN/SPY-1 has become a highly successful product for the company being exported to Norway, South Korea, Spain and Japan. It is also used by the US Navy © Lockheed Martin

choice of X-band is important as it allows the use of a relatively small antenna ensuring that the radar remains light weight, while also providing a decent surveillance range. One of the most famous naval CMS and radar combinations in service today is Lockheed Martin’s Aegis product. Built around the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar, Aegis can provide simultaneous surveillance information, fire control for guns and missiles, plus multiple target tracking. Aegis is in extensive use globally, deployed on the Royal Norwegian Navy’s Fridtjof Namsenclass anti-submarine frigates, which use the AN/SPY-1F radar, designed with smaller antennae compared to the AN/SPY-1D radar used by the Armada Española (Spanish Navy) Alvaro de Bazan class multi-purpose frigates; and the US Navy’s Arleigh-Burke class, South Korea’s King Sejong the Great class and Japan’s Atago class destroyers. The AN/SPY-1 has also been selected by the Australian and Turkish Raytheon produces a number of naval radar products including the AN/SPS-49, a 2D system which has over thirty year’s experience, plus the AN/SPY-5 pictured here. This is one of the company’s latest naval radar products and is intended for ships weighing below 1,000 tonnes © Raytheon

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navies, and the company is working on the AN/SPY-1K version designed for smaller vessels such as corvettes. In July last year, Lockheed Martin announced that it had installed the latest version of the Aegis combat system on board the USS Lake Erie Ticonderoga class guided missile cruiser, which includes a ballistic missile defence signal processor under the Aegis 4.0.1 programme. Certification of the Aegis 4.0.1 standard should be concluded in 2011 with the upgrade to be then rolled out across additional Aegis-equipped vessels in the US Navy. In addition to the Aegis CMS, Lockheed Martin produces the AN/UYK-43 Low Boy computer which forms the CMS used by the Royal Thai Navy’s HTMS Chakri Naruebet aircraft carrier, and the SHINPADS command and control system deployed on the Canada’s Halifax class frigates. Along with their involvement vis-à-vis Thales and the SMART-S, ITT Corporation is responsible for the AN/SPS-48 3D S-band radar, which has a detection range of around 470Km and a detection altitude of up to 30Km. This radar is in use on the US Navy’s Wasp class landing helicopter docks, San Antonio class landing platform docks and Nimitz class aircraft carriers. The AN/SPS-48 has a long history with the US Navy, having entered service with the force in the 1960s, and the company’s Radar Obsolescence Availability Recovery programme is addressing issues with the radar which could help to extend its service life beyond 2050 with the addition of an open architecture processing

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Joining BAE Systems Insyte’s SAMPSON product is the company’s ARTISAN (Advanced Radar Target Indication Situational Awareness and Navigation) which is due to be rolled out across a number of Royal Navy combatants © BAE Systems

backbone and solid state transmitter. Like ITT Corporation, Raytheon produces radars which have been in use for a number of years, namely the AN/SPS-49 2D long range air-search system, which entered service in 1975. This D-band product, which is ideal for long-range air surveillance, offers a detection range of up to 460Km. Joining the AN/SPS-49 is the company’s recentlyunveiled SPY-5 which is designed for ships displacing under 1,000 tonnes. The product is strongly expected to equip the G class (exOliver Hazard Perry class) frigates of the Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri (Turkish Navy). Moreover, Raytheon also has the distinction of produicing the first AESA system in service with the US Navy, namely the Dual Band Radar which combines the S-band Volume Search Radar and X-band AN/SPY3 Multifunction Radar, both will be deployed as part of the Zumwalt class destroyer programme for the US Navy. The rationale behind the use of two different frequency ranges is to utilise the X-band radar for horizon search, with the S-band system being used for searches above the horizon. Raytheon is not only tasked with designing and manufacturing radar, the company also provides the Advanced Combat Direction System (ACDS) CMS installed on

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the Nimitz-class aircraft carriers of the US Navy, along with the Wasp-class amphibious support ships and the remaining Tarawa class LPDs. The ACDS is currently being replaced by the Ship Self-Defense System, also produced by Raytheon, which knits a vessel’s existing sensors and weapons together using Linux-based sytems architecture to give the ship’s CMS a similar performance to that found on the Aegis combat management system. Finally, no discussion of naval radar would be complete without mentinoing Israel’s Elta Systems portfolio. The company’s catalogue in this regard includes the Xband EL/M-2228 medium-range surveillance radar designed for small- and mediumsized craft, which can perform air surveillance up to 50Km from the vessel. The Israeli Navy is currently in the process of replacing the EL/M-2228 with Elta’s EL/M-2258 S-

ITT Corporation is responsible for the AN/SPS-48 3D S-band radar, which has a detection range of around 470Km and a detection altitude of up to 30Km ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

band Advanced Lightweight Phased Array product which the company claims is the world’s first fully digital naval radar. The EL.M-2258 is built around a lightweight antenna weighing crica seven tonnes. A second S-band product is manufactured by the company in the form of the EL/M-2258 3D Surveillance and Threat Alert Radar designed for frigates and corvettes for the detection of air and surface threats, while the EL/M-2248 solid state conformal phased array is designed for small-sized ships such as offshore Patrol Vessels. As far as the future of naval radar is concerned, the US Navy is moving ahead with developing the next generation via concept study contracts which have been awarded to Lockheed Martin and Raytheon for the development of tomorrow’s air and missile defence radar. These studies will no doubt work towards further reducing the weight of future naval radar, while at the same time ensuring their capability increases, particularly as far as ballistic and anti-shipping missiles are concerned, and regarding the detection of small targets such as jet skis and inflatable boats which, as the USS Cole attack in Yemen in October 2000 illustrated, are becoming the sea-borne terrorist’s weapon of choice.


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International Investment Forum “Sochi - 2010” took place in the Russian Black Sea region in September, 2010. More than 3,000 politicians, economists and journalists from all regions of Russia and 32 foreign countries took part in that forum. About a thousand investment projects, most of which are aimed at high technologies development, were presented at the event. This forum has literally become a breakthrough for the Russian Technologies State Corporation. In the presence of Chairman of the RF Government, Vladimir Putin, a number of agreements with large scale overseas partners, at the total cost of about four and half billion US dollars, were signed by Director General of the Corporation Sergey Chemezov.If one may call the agreement with Boeing a subsequent one, the agreements with the Arab investors have heralded a new, promising trend of international cooperation with Russian Technologies. A group of investors from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) expressed their readiness to invest a combined total of $800 million in the Russian Technologies projects. At the forum in Sochi, the State Corporation has publicly announced the setting up of direct investment funds for infrastructure ($500 million) and development ($300 million) projects. By the way, it is the first time when Russian Technologies, that previously worked mostly with government assets, will receive foreign investments into their management.The fact of signing such significant agreements with traditionally conservative and cautious investors speaks for itself, proving the high credit rating of the Russian State Corporation. An affiliated company of Russian Technologies State Corporation – JSC “Prominvest” has signed documents on incorporation of managing companies for two direct investment funds with UAE major investors at the forum in Sochi. Gulftainer (a company member of Crescent Petroleum controlled by a highly influential family in the UAE – The Jafars) is a partner of Russian Technologies in one of the funds with $500 million.The agreement with "Prominvest" was signed by the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Gulftainer, Badr Jafar (his father, Hamid Jafar, is Head of the Crescent Petroleum Board of Directors). Damac Group one of the largest developers in the Middle East is ready to provide $300 million for Russian Technologies State Corporation for its property management projects.A respective agreement was signed by Chief Executive Officer of Damac Hussein Sajwani.A few projects offered by Russian Technologies State Corporation to the investor of this fund have already been selected. They are related to a reconstruction project within

The Most

"Mikhail Shelkov, Director General of JSC "Prominvest", and Badr Jafar, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of "Gulftainer", sign investment agreement in the presence of Vladimir Putin, Chairman of the Russian Federation Government" the framework of the Olympic venues construction program of a hotel in Sochi – “Zelenaya Roshcha”, construction of a data processing center at one of Russian Technologies State Corporation plants and sports facilities with the area of 290 thousand square meters in the western part of Moscow. As for infrastructure fund investment projects, they are still being determined, although one may say that the Middle Eastern investors are potentially interested in such industries as telecommunications and metallurgy, including logistics.Russian Technologies State Corporation is also interested in investments into optimization of internal logistics management systems that Gulftainer specializes in. This is more than a topical issue considering the fact that the State Corporation founded in 2007 consists of 562 plants manufacturing about 30% of all domestic engineering products.Most of them are distributed among vertically integrated structures holdings; there are 19 of them in the area of defense industry and 7 in civil industry.More than 600 thousand employees work with the State Corporation’s plants, and together with their family members they total about 2 million.Russian Technologies State Corporation also owns largest stocks of such automotive giant manufacturers as KAMAZ (produces 80% of domestic cargo trucks) and AVTOVAZ (25% of the Russian passenger car market).Within the nearest 10 years, the AVTOVAZ investment program will cost about 183 billion rubles, out of which the borrowed assets will amount to less than a half, whereas 13.5 billion rubles would be used as production development investments made by its partner Renault. One of the most significant of Russian Technologies State Corporation assets – VSMPO AVISMA (it meets 60% of EADS demand and 40% Boeing demand for titanium

products for such a giant company as Dreamliner almost 100% of the demand), supplies titanium pipes for electric power plants to the Republic of Korea via the joint venture UNITI Titanium. Russian Technologies State Corporation also includes Russia’s major developer and mobile services supplier on the basis of the most cutting edge technology of wireless high speed Internet access 4G "Scartel" (operating under theYota brand in the market). "Yota" was the first in Russia and one of the first companies worldwide to implement broadband mobile Internet access in accordance with WiMax standard.Today, this system almost completely covers Moscow and Saint Petersburg and a number of communities in Tatarstan and Bashkiria.The Company is not only successfully developing state of the art telecommunications technologies in Russia, but is also building its own networks abroad.Scartel is involved in strategic partnership with Samsung Electronics (South Korea).AYota network was commissioned in Nicaragua in December, 2009. Next on the list is Peru, Venezuela, India… By the order of the Russian Government, Russian Technologies State Corporation is constructing Federal High Technology Medical Care Centers applying module construction technology in the entire territory of Russia.Module construction has little in common with regular construction, it looks more like mechanical engineering assembly: separate parts with various functional loads are used for assembling an integral unit.The social and economic effect of this project is quite obvious: commissioning of 7 cardiovascular surgery centers and 2 neurological surgery centers will ensure up to 50 thousand high tech cardiovascular surgeries per year.Commissioning of 5 traumatic and orthopedics surgeries will result in the reduction of early physical disability of the


Cautious Investors Choose “RUSSIAN TECHNOLOGIES” population by 25 thousand people.In addition, these federal centers are intended to facilitate promotion of science and practice for such important aspects of the Russian public health service in cross border regions. Another important and promising trend of Russian Technologies State Corporation’s activity includes biotechnologies. It was only 15-20 years ago when the USSR occupied one of the leading positions in the global volume of biotechnological products, but to date Russia has rolled backwards, to the 70th place.This resulted in the current import of the majority of highly important biotechnological products. The State Corporation’s project for development and manufacture of biological products provides for construction of 30 plants with the high level processing of waste containing cellulose, which, in its turn, will make it possible to propose alternative, environmentally safe fuel and protein feed from renewable raw sources. The biological fuel produced at the corporation’s plants may be used in its pure form.This was proven experimentally at the motor rally run on this type of fuel in Lada cars, from Irkutsk to Moscow. This is also important from the environmental viewpoint, since biological fuel is the cleanest type of fuel nowadays. However, the investors from the Middle East are mostly interested in a possibility of investing in the RF port infrastructure.This market is really large scale.As one of the speakers at the Sochi forum, Badr Jafar reminded the audience that 3.6 million containers are now used in Russian ports.This topic was discussed shortly before the forum at the meeting of Hamid Jafar and Russia’s Prime Minister Vladimir Putin who “expressed his concern about attracting investments into this segment of the Russian market.” Meanwhile, Gulftainer representatives met with the RF Minister of Transport, Igor Levitin.According to the experts, some funds may be invested into the acquisition, including those within the framework of privatization procedures, of Russian port assets and their handover for management for the purpose of consolidation and creation of a unified logistic holding company.This prospect is by no means abstract but quite realistic, considering the fact that the Decree of the Russian Government included a large number of port assets in the forecast privatization plan for 2010 year. According to the analysts’, Russian Technologies State Corporation’s vast experience with the government assets and public finances, its active support by President and Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation provide good reasons to expect success of its first experience of attracting foreign (especially such

conservative ones) investors’funds. In general, international cooperation is one of the top priority objectives of Russian Technologies State Corporation.Its specialists are well aware of the fact that transfer of technologies and use of international advanced expertise and know how will help Russia considerably reduce the amount of time required for the integrated development of particular plants and branches of industry. Getting back to the contract signed with Boeing in Sochi, it should be noted that this specific aircraft supply agreement with an overseas manufacturer is regarded as the most large scale in contemporary Russia.This agreement provides for purchase of 50 new narrow bodied Boeing 737 NG planes of three modifications, with an option plan for 35 more aircrafts.The supplies will start in 2013 and end in 2017. According to the catalog price, the contract value may reach USD 3.73 billion. At the same time, according to the sources close to the Corporation, the latter has managed to get considerable discounts.The major amount of funds used for purchasing aircrafts will be borrowed from commercial banks, including Russian banks, with the guarantee from American Eximbank for 80-85% of the amount, which also proves the confidence of large, including US, financial capital in Russian Technologies State Corporation.The loans were approved last year, during the visit of Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, to Moscow. A decision on the deal with a 5 year renewal of the supply agreement for Boeing titanium forged parts manufactured in Russia was taken in due time and on the highest level.In June 2010, US President Barak Obama, in the presence of his Russian colleague, Dmitry Medvedev, called all reached agreements “the victory for Russia that is creating a long term market for its products and finally getting modern aircrafts for Russian passengers.It is also a victory for the United States, as this cooperation helps us add 44 thousand new jobs”.“Our partnership has been established for a long period,” added US President. Russian Technologies State Corporation is planning to lease the purchased planes.This will result in incorporation of an affiliated company. According to a nationally recognized aviation analyst, Oleg Panteleyev, leasing transactions are considered more profitable than air transport services, while aircraft modifications ordered by the State Corporation are highly efficient for the majority of most popular routes, including international flights. The cooperation between Russian Technologies State Corporation and Boeing goes far beyond US aircraft supplies to Russia. If not to the full, but still considerable extent, Boeing

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aircrafts consist of Russian titanium and finished titanium products manufactured by “VSMPO AVISMA” owned by Russian Technologies State Corporation.VSMPO AVISMA products are becoming more and more export version.The volume of industrial investments in the plants made by Russian Technologies State Corporation in the past three years has exceeded USD 750 million, thus creating new workshops, new jobs and new technologies. On the day following the date of signing of the aircraft supply agreement, Head of Russian Technologies State Corporation, Sergey Chemezov, took his agreement partner, President of “Boeing Civil Aircrafts”, James Albau from Sochi to the Urals in order to show him the worldwide leading titanium manufacturer, a plant producing highly important parts for Boeing aircrafts.VSMPO AVISMA is a long term partner and titanium supplier of Boeing. It was 1997 when the first agreement was signed between the corporations, when the American company placed its first order with the Russian titanium manufacturer. In July 2009, Boeing and VSMPO AVISMA founded a joint venture for processing in Verkhnyaya Salda titanium forged products for the largest high technology company worldwide – “Boeing 787”. An agreement was entered into by Boeing and VSMPO AVISMA (with the expiry date in 2015). Under this agreement, the aircraft building company shall undertake to purchase titanium forged parts from the Russian company for the industrial use of civil aircrafts of models 787, 777 and 737. After visiting the plant, James Albau noted, “The quality of work is amazing here.This is my first visit to VSMPO and I am impressed by what I’ve seen. I’m so glad I came here.” The partnership of Russian Technologies State Corporation and Boeing has very good prospects, since Boeing’s titanium consumption rate is much higher than anyone else’s in the world.Each new aircraft designed by Boeing requires 20 tons of titanium.These airplanes will be produced in a large amount.Therefore, the agreement signed in Sochi is another stage of strengthening the strategic partnership of Russian Technologies State Corporation and Boeing. It is quite symbolic that the leading Arab investment companies have followed the American example and, after thorough examination of all risks, decided to invest considerable funds in the State Corporation’s projects. The current events prove that the Russian investment market is already attracting representatives of other countries as well France, in particular.Who’s next?


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“RED ALERT!” China’s Defence Transformation Armoured vehicles and missile launchers rolled along Beijing’s Chang’an Avenue on 1 October 2009. The Chinese leader Hu Jintao presided over this blatant parade of military might involving 500 vehicles. As the final DF-31A intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launchers rolled past, accompanied by a stream of helicopters and fighters, China had announced its coming of age. This 60th anniversary parade proclaimed China’s military credentials to the world and amounted to a deterrent to potential adversaries.

by Gordon Arthur

The new DH-10 LACM poses a serious threat to US and allied naval vessels in the western Pacific © Gordon Arthur

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M I L I T A R Y rmoured vehicles and missile launchers rolled along Beijing’s Chang’an Avenue on 1 October 2009. The Chinese leader Hu Jintao presided over this blatant parade of military might involving 500 vehicles. As the final DF-31A intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launchers rolled past, accompanied by a stream of helicopters and fighters, China had announced its coming of age. This 60th anniversary parade proclaimed China’s military credentials to the world and amounted to a deterrent to potential adversaries. Many countries, not least the US, are vexed by China’s meteoric military rise. Neighbours are on edge, unconvinced by Chinese reassurances of peaceful intentions. According to China, “Defence expenditure has always been kept at a reasonable and appropriate level,” but a look at recent spending gives food for thought. From 1997-2003, expenditure on the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) doubled. The official defence budget was $78.6 billion in 2010, a 7.5 percent yearon-year increase. However, the US estimates actual spending is more like $150+ billion.

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Strategic factors

So why is China spending so much on defence? Key reasons include national and economic security, as China seeks to feed its insatiable appetite for raw materials such as oil and minerals. For example, Saudi Arabia supplied China with 720,000 barrels of oil per day in 2008, a total expected to double by 2015. Around 90 percent of trade is by sea, so China must secure its sea lines of communication, the lifeblood of its economy. The “renegade province” of Taiwan figures perhaps most prominently, with China developing core military capabilities around an ability to attack the island. By December 2009, the PLA was fielding 1,050-1,150 DF15 and DF-11 short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) opposite Taiwan, plus the much more potent DF-21C medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM). Fortunately, relations with Taiwan improved after the 2008 election of President Ma Yingjeou. China also realises the necessity of countering Taiwanese allies like the US, who would likely come to the island’s aid in the event of hostilities. The US is unwavering in its commitment to a $6.5 billion Taiwanese arms package

PLA special forces members leap from a Z-9B helicopter in a counterterrorism drill. China only instituted special operations units in 1988 © Gordon Arthur

announced in 2008, which includes Apache AH-64D helicopters, Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) and Harpoon missiles. This deal enraged China, causing an immediate suspension of military ties with the USA. China pursues a policy of “active defence,” and although not bent on global domination, its rising influence will inevitably increase tensions with the world’s solitary superpower. This jostling was amply illustrated in March 2009 when the USNS Impeccable surveillance ship was harassed in the South China Sea. China also keeps a wary eye on Japan’s powerful military, as well as the blossoming South Korea. Relations with nuclearequipped India are also frigid, fuelled by unresolved border tensions. Vietnam is also growing in strength, developing modest deterrents in the shape of 16 Su-30MK2V fighters and six Kilo-class submarines. Interestingly, the US has finally become more assertive on the South China Sea issue, waters that China claims as its sovereign ter-

Operating so far from home will require China to establish a command-andcontrol node in the Middle East, with Djibouti mooted as a possibility l

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ritory. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated the resolution of rival claims as a matter of American “national interest” during July’s ASEAN Regional Forum in Hanoi. The US now appears prepared to tackle this intractable problem and is willing to confront China’s claims. The PLA maintains around 2.255 million active personnel, many of whom are based across the strait from Taiwan. “Informalisation” and “mechanisation” are key drivers, with new precision weapons and networked equipment entering service. The military announced it will shed up to 700,000 troops within the next few years, this downsizing permitting further military modernisation. The expeditionary capability of China is also improving, with three airborne divisions, two amphibious infantry divisions, two marine brigades and seven special operations groups available.

Extending international reach

The multinational counter-piracy mission in the Gulf of Aden presented China a golden opportunity to establish a foothold in the Indian Ocean. The first PLA Navy (PLAN) task force left Hainan in December 2008, and a regional naval presence remains. Rear Admiral Xiao Xinnian, PLAN Deputy Chief of Staff, stated the decision to despatch vessels “showcased China’s positive attitude in fulfilling its international obligations and the coun-

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Missile trajectories

The newest main battle tank is the third-generational Type 99A1, an example of which is seen here parading on 1 October 2009 © Gordon Arthur

try’s image as a responsible power.” This deployment is a natural trajectory in China’s goal of forging a greater military reach. In January 2010, China joined Shared Awareness and Deconfliction (SHADE), which runs antipiracy patrols near the Horn of Africa. Operating so far from home will require China to establish a command-and-control node in the Middle East, with Djibouti mooted as a possibility. This mission furthers China’s bluewater navy aspirations, and piracy has fortuitously provided legitimacy for China in positioning an enduring flotilla in the Indian Ocean. Despite this, China is still many years from effectively projecting global naval power. Beijing has been accused of creating a “string of pearls,” port facilities in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar to host naval vessels. There is no compelling evidence to support this theory, as these are clearly commercial ventures. However, it would not

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be impossible for China to begin using these ports as naval stopovers in the future to support a permanent Indian Ocean presence. Approximately 2,100 Chinese soldiers serve on UN peacekeeping missions, a contribution surpassing any other permanent UN Security Council member. The nation is also prosecuting an international charm offensive, of which military cooperation is an important element. In August, Fiji announced it was spurning Australia and New Zealand in favour of a new Sino alliance. China actively markets its defence products, with 53 percent of arms exports going to the Asia-Pacific region. For example, the Indonesian Navy opted for C-802 antiship missiles for locally built patrol boats, and Thailand is upgrading four frigates with C-802A anti-ship missiles. Pakistan is a vital export market for China, one of the more significant exports being JF-17 fighters.

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Increasingly accurate area denial/anti-access weapons, and missiles able to target assets such as aircraft carriers in the Pacific, are worrying the USA. China is developing its strategic missile inventory more rapidly than any other country. Credible reports state China is currently deploying or developing five different ICBM types. While China advocates a policy of no-first-use of nuclear weapons, its 11,000Km-range DF-31A is capable of targeting Washington DC. This three-stage solidpropellant ICBM can carry a single 1,000ktyield nuclear warhead, and it has become a harder target now that it is truck-and-trailer mounted. Smaller in size is the 1,700Kmrange DF-21C MRBM launched from a 10x10 transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) vehicle. The DF-15C SRBM mounted on an 8x8 TEL has a 600km range. It is difficult to comment on the performance of Chinese tactical and strategic missiles as they have not been subjected to complex combat conditions, but it is patently clear that their sophistication and quantity is swiftly growing. A major revelation at the 60th anniversary parade was the DH-10 land attack cruise missile (LACM). The USA estimates China had deployed 200-500 of this Tomahawk-like weapon by the end of 2009. Warheads include nuclear and conventional HE, with electromagnetic pulse (EMP) a future possibility. The USA believes China is poised to field the world’s first anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM), which will pose a huge threat to the US Navy’s Pacific Fleet with its range exceeding 1,500km. Identified by US naval intelligence as the DF-21D (reflecting its DF21 MRBM lineage), it can be fired from mobile land-based launchers. The truck-mounted DF-31A ICBM featured prominently at the climax of China’s 60th anniversary parade in 2009 © Gordon Arthur


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This Type 054A frigate was seen in Hong Kong on its way home after completing a counter-piracy mission in the Gulf of Aden © Gordon Arthur

Above and below water

The South Sea Fleet is the jewel in the PLAN crown, with new above- and below-ground facilities being constructed at Yulin Naval Base on Hainan Island. Illustrating the Navy’s growing confidence, an unprecedented exercise took place in April when a PLAN flotilla transited the Miyako Strait between Okinawa and Taiwan. This kind of coordinated action involving ships, submarines and long-range aircraft had never been witnessed before. Furthermore, the Chinese fleet of 60 submarines nearly doubled its major patrols from the previous year, rising to twelve in 2008. Development of the JL-2 submarinelaunched ballistic missile (SLBM) continues despite setbacks, with it due to be fitted to Type 094 Jin-class submarines. Each vessel is expected to carry twelve three-stage solidpropellant JL-2 missiles with a maximum range of 7,200km. When eventually fielded, the JL-2 will offer far superior performance to the two-stage JL-1 fitted on Type 092 Xiaclass submarines. The expansion of China’s SLBM inventory provides greater mobility and survivability, with JL-2 missiles able to reach Guam, India and most of Russia. Perhaps the most newsworthy item for the PLAN is development of an aircraft carrier, a matter of national pride for the military. China has been exhaustively studying the ex-

While China advocates a policy of no-first-use of nuclear weapons, its 11,000Km-range DF-31A is capable of targeting Washington DC Soviet Varyag carrier in Dalian, and seeking out associated technologies. Shanghai is the most likely place for construction, which the US estimates could begin before the end of 2010. China’s first carrier will probably serve in the South Sea Fleet, but certainly not before 2015. Multiple aircraft carriers could well be a reality by 2020, greatly enhancing China’s power projection capability. Sourcing aircraft for use with a carrier is an equally pressing matter. A navalised J-10 has been experimented with, while another option is acquiring Su-33 fighters from Russia. However, with the Su-33 production line closed and Russia suspicious of China’s reverse engineering tendencies (the J-11B is a direct copy of the Su-27SK, for example), the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation is developing the J-15 carrier-borne fighter. Development of the J-15 began after China obtained an early Su-33 prototype from Ukraine and was able to copy it.

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Beyond the skies

Like the PLAN, the PLA Air Force (PLAAF) is also receiving new equipment. The upgraded H-6K bomber entered service in October 2009, with Russian turbofan engines giving a range of 3,500km. The H-6K’s most notable capability is under-wing carriage of six 2,000km-range DH-10A cruise missiles, giving China its first truly strategic bomber capable of carrying nuclear weapons. However, at a more basic level the PLAAF’s strategic transport aircraft and tactical helicopter capacity remains under-strength, as revealed most poignantly during relief efforts after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. China now has more capable surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems such as the HQ-9 used by the PLAN and PLAAF. However, the HQ9 cannot match the performance of the most recently acquired S-300PMU2 delivered in 2007 and onwards by Russia. China has developed two Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C) aircraft designs. The larger KJ-2000 is based on an Il76MD airframe. Four aircraft were commissioned in 2006-07, each equipped with indigenous Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar mounted in a non-rotating radome. Further production is stalled because of insufficient airframes, though the future Y-20 transport aircraft could eventual-

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The Chinese fleet of 60 submarines nearly doubled its major patrols from the previous year, rising to twelve in 2008

ly be used. Because this new platform is still years away, China produced a back-up design in the form of the smaller Shaanxi Y8-based KJ-200. The KJ-200 is still in development, with a 2006 crash that killed 40 crewmen and technicians substantially setting back the programme. Even if China gets its AEW&C assets operating efficiently, only modern J-10 and J-11 fighters have appropriate digital data-links. Thus, China faces a steep learning curve and multiple challenges in gaining the greatest benefit from its AEW&C assets. China’s aspirations extend far beyond the sky. China proclaims it “has all along advocated the peaceful use of outer space, and opposed the introduction of weapons and an arms race in outer space.” Yet, simultaneously, one of China’s highest priorities is developing an anti-satellite capability - in January 2007 it used a direct-ascent antisatellite (ASAT) weapon against a redundant weather satellite. An ability to attack satellites in low-earth orbit would be essen-

The J-10 is China’s most modern fighter. This example had its public debut at the 2008 China Air Show in Zhuhai © Gordon Arthur

tial in any conflict with adversaries like the USA. China launched its first navigation satellite in April 2009, and it could have a full GPS network running by 2015-20, which will have obvious military applications. China’s space-based ambitions were underscored yet again on 11 January with the successful testing of “ground-based, midcourse missile interception technology.” This test heralds the advent of a Chinese ballistic missile defence (BMD) capability.

Due to insufficient numbers of airframes, the KJ-2000 AEW&C aircraft is yet to have a major impact on PLAAF strategy © Gordon Arthur

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The future is red

Despite indigenous technological advances, China still relies on foreign expertise. Military embargoes were instituted by Western countries after the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, so China relies heavily on Russia as a key equipment supplier. However, mutually mistrustful relations are not helped by China’s habit of flagrantly copying Russian military technology. China is regularly accused of resorting to illegal technology transfer, espionage and cyber-warfare. China’s military is not just projecting its power outwardly. The country is riddled with internal divisions caused by corruption and social inequality - economic success has benefited 300 million Chinese but one billion remain in poverty. Tibet and Xinjiang Provinces have experienced recent ethnic violence, and the PLA must be ready to conduct internal security operations in support of the People’s Armed Police (PAP). China’s leadership is particularly anxious about extremist Uyghurs, with constant references to the dangers of Islamic-inspired terrorism and separatism. Stung by recent US actions on its doorstep, China’s Defence Minister Liang Guanglie boldly stated at a PLA anniversary speech on 1 August: “We should strengthen our capability to deal with multiple tasks in today’s modern battlefields and be determined to safeguard our national sovereignty, security and interests in development…And we should enhance our preparations for bigscale and complicated military struggles.” Indeed, China is doing exactly that!


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RAAF A330 MRTT with F-18 © Airbus Military

Asia Pacific Procurement Update AUSTRALIA Australia moves closer to electronic attack capability

The first Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18F Super Hornet to receive a potential electronic attack capability has been completed by Boeing at the company’s facilities in St. Louis in the US. The Australian government ordered 24 Block II versions of the Super Hornet in 2007, eleven of which have been delivered and are operating from the RAAF Base Amberley in Queensland. The second batch of aircraft are being prewired to give them the potential to be updated with an electronic attack capability easily in the future, should the government wish to add this capability. Pre-wiring the aircraft during production will enable to aircraft to be upgraded at reduced cost, in comparison to a complete retrofit, giving the RAAF maximum operational flexibility. The Australian Super Hornets are all fitted with the Raytheon APG-79 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar, and are amongst the most advanced multirole jets in operation. They are able to perform virtually every mission in the tactical spectrum including air superiority and day/night strike with precision guided ammunitions. They are also able to carry out fighter escort, close air support, suppression of enemy defences, maritime strike, reconnaissance, for-

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ward air control and tanker missions. The full 24 Super Hornets are on schedule for delivery to be complete by 2011.

A330 MRTT tanker gets green light for RAAF delivery

Airbus Military’s A330 Multi-Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft has obtained certification from Spanish military certification authority Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Aerospacial (INTA), which will allow the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) delivery to go ahead in the near future. The A330 MRTT is on order with four armed forces, including the Australian Defence Force (ADF), which has ordered five aircraft as part of its KC-30A programme. Two of these aircraft will now be delivered to the RAAF before the end of 2010, where they will be operated by 33 Squadron at RAAF Base Amberley in Queensland. The RAAF will use the aircraft for air-toair refuelling via the Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS) that comprises a fly-by-wire boom refuel system and all-electric probe and drogue system. The aircraft will be capable of refuelling the RAAF’s F/A-18 Hornets, F-111s, Airborne Early Warning and Control Wedgetails and Joint Strike Fighters. They will also be used for personnel transport, including transporting troops domestically or internationally, with a maximum capacity of 270 passengers. Under floor cargo comASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

partments will also be able to transport up to 34,000 kgs of military and civilian cargo pallets and containers. The RAAF KC-30A will also be fitted with advanced mission systems including Link 16 real-time data-link, military communications and navigation suites, as well as an electronic warfare self-protection system. More than 280 flights and over 450 tonnes of fuel were successfully transferred during testing, and all design, operation and military systems on board have now been accepted and certified. The A330 MRTT is now the only certified next-generation tanker and transport aircraft available to the world’s militaries.

ADF MRH deliveries ‘on track’

Australian Aerospace has announced that it is on track to meet the Australian Defence Force’s (ADF’s) delivery schedule for the NH90 Multi-role helicopters (MRH) before the end of 2010. As part of a programme to replace the Army and Navy’s Black Hawk and Sea King helicopter fleets a total of 46 MRH90s have been ordered by the ADF, 13 of which have been delivered so far, with the most recent delivered early September. This first batch of helicopters has been assembled to Product Base Line (PBL) 01 and 02 standard, which will be upgraded to PBL 03 at a later stage. Three more units are due for delivery this year. They will be the first aircraft to have


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been assembled to PBL 03 standard, and will incorporate advanced avionics and other systems designed to ease crew workload. A new strengthened floor and additional equipment tie-down points will also be incorporated in the PBL 03 aircraft. The Australian MRH90 programme experienced a significant setback earlier in the year when an incident forced the grounding of the entire fleet. One of the engines of an MRH90 shut down during flight. The aircraft was able to safely return to base but the fleet was grounded until the cause of the incident was determined and the updated start-up procedures were issued as a result. The MRH90 was selected by the ADF as part of a modernisation and rationalisation of

INDIA Hawker Beechcraft to demonstrate T-6C for India

The Indian Air Force is to evaluate the Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (HBC) T-6C military trainer during field trails beginning later this month at the Air Force Station Jamnagar in India. The evaluation is scheduled to begin on October 11 and run for five days, and will demonstrate the abilities and cost-effectiveness of the T-6C as a replacement for the Indian Air Force’s (IAF’s) HPT-32 Deepak 2 trainer. Trials will be conducted by IAF test and instructor pilots. The IAF is seeking a replacement for its HPT-32 Deepak 2 trainer and is seeking the acquisition of an initial 75 aircraft. The contract includes options for follow-on orders that could total over 100 aircraft. The T-6C accommodates instruction in instrument flight procedures and basic aerial manoeuvres. The aircraft features integrated glass cockpit and advanced avionics suite for enhanced training opportunities, including a head-up display; up front control panel, three multifunction displays and hands-on throttle and stick. It also features hard point wing that can accommodate external fuel tanks and the systems and capabilities of today’s front-line strike fighter aircraft. The T-6C has been in use since 2000 and has been selected to train pilots from approximately 20 nations, including the US Air Force. The IAF is expected to make

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its military helicopter fleet. The aircraft is able to carry two pilots, 2 loadmasters and 18 combat troops, and is claimed by Australian Aerospace to be the world’s most advanced helicopter in the ten-tonne class with fly-bywire, all-composite construction and the highest crash-worthiness standards.

Australia requests purchase of MK 54 Lightweight Torpedoes

US Congress has been notified by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) of the possible Foreign Military Sale (FMS) of MK 54 Lightweight Torpedoes to the Government of Australia. Australia has requested the sale of up to 200 MK 54 All-Up-Round Torpedoes, 179 an official contract offer to the winning bid in the coming months.

India’s C-130J takes flight

The Indian Air Force’s (IAF’S) first C-130J Super Hercules came a step closer to delivery this month with the first aircraft undertaking its maiden flight this month. The aircraft was fired up for the first time on September 21, and carried out its first flight on October 4 ahead of a series of Lockheed Martin and IAF flight tests that will be carried out before the scheduled delivery of the first aircraft in December. The second and third aircraft will also carry out flight testing in the coming weeks. A total of six C-130Js have been ordered by the IAF, along with three years of support, aircrew and maintenance technician training, spare parts, ground support and test equipment. The aircraft will provide modern and capable airlift support to the IAF, and has been fitted with India-specific equipment according to requirements, including unique configuration. The IAF’s C-130J will be able to perform precision low-level flying, airdrops, and landing in blackout conditions, and has been fitted with air-to-air refuelling equipment for extended range operations. It also features a new digital avionics architecture and propulsion system, twin head-up pilot displays, and dual mission computers that automate many functions, enabling reduced crew, allowing the aircraft to be operated by only two pilots and a loadmaster.

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MK 54 Flight in Air Material Kits, 10 MK 54 Exercise Sections, 10 MK 54 Exercise Fuel Tanks, 10 MK 54 Dummy Torpedoes and 6 MK 54 Ground Handling Torpedoes at a total estimated cost of USD $169 million. The deal would also include support and test equipment to upgrade Intermediate Maintenance Activity to MK 54 capability, spare and repair parts, technical data and publications, personnel training and training equipment, as well as US government and contractor engineering, technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics support. Congress was notified that Australia intends the torpedoes to be used on the Lockheed/Sikorsky MH-60R helicopter.

F414 GE engines selected for Indian Tejas LCA

The Mk II Tejas Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) being developed for the Indian Air Force (IAF) is to be powered by the F414GE-INS6 fighter jet engine following its selection by the Indian Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA). Ninety-nine engines will be delivered under the contract. The first batch will be supplied by GE Aviation, and the remainder will be manufactured in country under a transfer of technology agreement. The F404 GE engine is already in use within both the IAF and the Indian Navy, following orders in 2004 and 2007. The F404 was also used during development trials for the Tejas LCA. The F414-GE-INS6 engine is the highestthrust F414 model and features advanced technology including a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) and single engine safety features.The engine was selected following a lengthy effort by indigenous industry to develop an advanced jet engine. Bids were finally sought in 2009 from General Electric and Eurojet Turbo. The Tejas LCA is India’s first light combat aircraft, and is being manufactured by state-owned aircraft company Hindustan Aeronautics ltd (HAL). The F414 is a proven fighter engine, in use with the US Navy on its Boeing F/A18E/F Super Hornets as the F414-GE-400. It delivers 35 percent more thrust than the original F404 and provides superior range, payload and survivability.


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Thailand is seeking an $700m upgrade for their F-16A.B fleet from the US © DoD

THAILAND Thailand to upgrade F-16A/B Block 15 aircraft

Thailand has requested the upgrade of its ageing F-16 fleet under a three-phased programme Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) as part of a possible Foreign Military Sale (FMS) from the US Government. US Congress was notified of the possible sale by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) on September 29. As well as the upgrade, Thailand has requested associated parts, equipment and logistical support for the aircraft, in a possible deal worth an estimated $700 million. The proposed MLU would be a threephased programme to upgrade six aircraft at a time in each three-year phase. Under the upgrade each aircraft would receive Modular Mission Computer, APG-68(V)9

Radar, APX-113 Combined Interrogator and Transponder, ALQ-213 Electronic Warfare Management System, ALE-47 Countermeasures Dispenser System, spare and repair parts, tools and support equipment, publications and technical data, personnel training and training equipment; as well as US Government and contractor engineering and technical support services, and other related elements of logistics support. The upgrade will bring the Royal Thailand Air Force’s (RTAF) F-16 fleet up to modern standards, and enhance its ability to conduct day, night and adverse weather operations, as well as increase air sovereignty and interoperation with the US armed forces.

Saab unveils RTAF air defence system

Saab has unveiled the integrated air defence system for the Royal Thai Air Force

(RTAF) at a ceremony in Sweden attended by the Commander in Chief of the RTAF, General Director for the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), and the Saab CEO. The air defence system for Thailand includes six Gripen C/D multirole fighter aircraft, one Erieye Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system fitted into a Saab 340, an additional Saab 340 and three ground based radio sites. The contract will give Thailand a strong framework for an advanced networked defence system, and will enhance the RTAF’s aerial surveillance, early warning, interception and airborne command and control capabilities. The Gripen will replace the RTAF’s F-5 fighters, and was selected for its advanced multi-role/swing capability, new generation flight control systems and advanced avionics, weapons and communication systems. The delivery schedule will see the Gripens delivered early next year, following the delivery of the AEW system in December 2010. A second phase of the programme is expected to run from 2012 to 2016 which is likely to see a further batch of Gripens ordered, along with an additional Saab aircraft AEW and associated equipment, spare parts and training, although this phase of the programme is yet to be finalised.

INDONESIA Indonesia receives final Su-30MK jets

The Indonesian Air Force has taken delivery of the last three Su-30MK fighter aircraft at a handover ceremony at an air base in South Sulawesi in southern Indonesia attended by the Russian Ambassador to Indonesia, Alexander Ivanov. Indonesia signed a contract for six of the Russian Sukhoi aircraft in August 2007, with three of the fighter jets delivered in 2009. According to regional reports the Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff has revealed plans to purchase another six Sukhoi aircraft, but no official outline of a possible procurement schedule has been given at this stage.

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Indonesia signed a contract for six of the Russian Sukhoi aircraft in August 2007, with three of the fighter jets delivered in 2009, the remainder in September © Sukhoi

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reduce crew workload and operational fatigue. The first aircraft to be delivered ST Aerospace signs has also been fitted with an RSAF Advanced Auxiliary Power Unit and Jet Trainer contract Environmental Control System ST Engineering has announced they (APU / ECS) that will bring the older will be supporting the Republic of aircraft up to the standard of the Singapore Air Force’s (RSAF’s) fightnewer C130H aircraft, while also er pilot training programme with the introducing commonality across the acquisition of 12 Alenia Aermacchi fleet between the older C130B and M346 aircraft and ground based trainyounger C130H aircraft. ing system. Work on the second aircraft is now The contract has been issued to ST underway and both aircraft are schedST Engineering will support the RSAF’s twelve strong Engineering’s aerospace arm, ST M346 fleet © AJB uled to complete ground testing Aerospace, and is worth an estimatbefore the end of 2010. The entire fleet ed contract, also including associated has taken delivery of the first of ten mod- is expected to be upgraded by 2014. spares, is S$543 million. The first of the 12 ernised C130 Hercules transport aircraft aircraft are scheduled for delivery in 2012. that are being upgraded under programme Singapore requests US pilot ST Aerospace is the prime contractor for to bring the older fleet up to modern stan- training programme the agreement, who will complete require- dards, improve operational efficiency, and The Defence Security Cooperation Agency ments with its consortium partners, Alenia reduce maintenance requirements. (DSCA) has notified US congress that the Aermacchi and Boeing. The three compaThe C130 Hercules aircraft are being government of Singapore has requested the nies formed a consortium in 2008 for the upgraded by ST Aerospace as part of a purchase of defined order training for a RSAF Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) replace- contract awarded in 2007 that is expected three year pilot training programme for its ment programme. The M346 aircraft will to extend the fleet’s service life by another F-16 fighter jet fleet. be supplied by Alenia Aermacchi, the 20 years. The training programme, which would ground based training system by Boeing, The aircraft will be modernised to meet take place as a Foreign Military Sale (FMS), and ST Aerospace will oversee the AJT evolving Global Air Traffic Management will take place at the Tucson Air National programme management. (GTAM) requirements. Work will include Guard Base in Arizona, US, and includes FThe M346 is tailor made to train pilots modernised avionics suite to improve oper- 16 basic, transition, conversion/international to fly new generation combat aircraft and ational readiness, despatch reliability and advanced weapons, and instructor pilot is specifically designed to cover every increase the overall fleet mission availabili- upgrade courses, at a total estimated cost of phase of advanced and pre-operational ty. According to ST Aerospace, the GTAM $150 million. training in order to keep flight hours on compliant avionics suite enables the aircraft The Republic of Singapore Air Force more expensive aircraft as low as possible. to navigate safely, efficiently and accurately (RSAF) has been operating F-16s since the It has already been selected by the Italian through CNS/ATM (communication, late 1980s, and has fielded the F-16C/D Air Force and the United Arab Emirates for navigation, surveillance often associated aircraft since 2000. The training air fleet training. with air traffic management) regulated air- programme requested from the US will space worldwide. enable the RSAF to better develop RSAF receives Work will also include modernisation mission-ready and experienced pilots to first modernised C130 of the cockpit to an indigenously- support its current and future F-16 The Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) designed glass cockpit that is designed to aircraft fleet.

SINGAPORE

PAKISTAN Pakistan starts ball rolling on Bell 412EP acquisition

US Congress was notified by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) on 14 September of a possible Foreign Military Sale (FMS) of Bell 412EP helicopters to Pakistan. Pakistan has requested the sale of up to thirty aircraft, including spare and repair parts, support equipment, ferry services, air worthiness certification, publications and technical data, training and equipment, as well as US Government and contractor

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logistics, engineering and technical and logistical support, totalling a possible $397 million if all options are exercised. Pakistan’s air defence capabilities will be greatly enhanced by the Bell 412EP fleet if the deal goes ahead. The aircraft is already fielded by Pakistan’s armed forces for counterinsurgency, border security, search and rescue and disaster management operations. Pakistan received two Bell 412EP aircraft in May 2010 at a value of $24 million, along with $20 million in spare parts and associated support.

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The Bell 412EP is a medium twinengine helicopter that features advanced operation in extreme conditions and is designed with rupture-resistant fuel cells, energy absorbing crew seats, and a resilient fuselage. According to Bell the aircraft has the highest dispatch reliability of any twin engine aircraft available, and its dual digital automatic flight control system provides flexibility for future growth, including easy integration of automatic approach to hover and automatic hover capabilities.


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