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F-35 Lightning II

F-16 with Sniper Targeting Pod




Basic Wings Course


G l o b a l Pa r t n e r s B uil d in g G l o b a l S e c u r i t y.

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Contents FEBRUARY 2010 VOLUME 18 / ISSUE 1


Front Cover Photo: A contemporary of the now retiring MiG-29 in the Royal Malaysian Air Force procurement plans, the eight F/A-18D will remain on the RMAF’s frontline for many years to come. With a combat range of up to 575 nautical miles, the twin engined aircraft in Malaysian service are designed to engage surface targets on land and sea as well as conducting air superiority missions. The F/A-18E/F is one of a number of aircraft being considered to replace the MiG-29 © AJB


Asian Air Force Modernisation AMR Regional Air Force Directory 2010 Adam Baddeley AMR’s definitive update of air power in the Asia-Pacific, listing each country’s air force assets as well naval and army aviation platforms, with guides to the procurement issues and aspirations for the year ahead


Richard Gardner The quantity and quality of a nation’s Air Force inventory is a major indicator of success in regional, inter-state conflict and also provides a key military contribution to conducting operations other than war supporting troops on the ground. Countries in the region are rapidly transitioning to new forms of airborne warfare, closing the now outdated gap between those countries hitherto considered advanced and in some cases, pushing toward radically shifting the strategic balance


52 Regional Infantry Fighting Vehicles Chris Foss Across the region, militaries are ensuring that troops have the means to arrive at the close battle under armour, dismount then receive fire support from that platform to defeat enemy armour, fortifications and infantry. To provide that capability, militaries are both adapting legacy and acquiring new platforms

Port & Maritime Security Gordon Arthur Ensuring that Sea Lines of Control remain open and economic access to the sea is maintained has until recently largely been a police or paramilitary role. The use of the maritime environment by terrorist organisations has seen maritime security become central to national security

18 India and ASEAN Helicopters Ian Kemp Transport of troops and supplies, direct attack against battlefield targets, rotary wing aviation does it all. India and ASEAN nations are renewing their capabilities for new platforms to conduct existing roles while adding new roles. Both local industry and international partners are active participants in these markets

Radio Communications Adam Baddeley Growing the tactical internet is a continuing challenge for the military, whether it is expanding the range or throughput for the ‘First Mile’ communications. Identifying the right mix of handheld and manpack radios in HF, VHF and UHF is increasingly central to success both on and off the battlefield



Urban ISTAR John Mulberry Both conventional and irregular forces have long recognised that towns and cities provide the ideal physical and human geography from which to blunt and defeat the forces of larger, conventionally ascendant enemies. Defeating such asymmetric enemies within such complex terrain first requires them to be detected and then successfully identified





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The UK has significant capabilities in both the defence and security sectors. Along with a strong commitment to building relationships with industry and overseas governments.

UK companies are keen to enhance their strong defence relationships by offering joint ventures and long-term partnership arrangements. These solutions could suit the forthcoming requirements of the Australian naval forces as well as others in the region.



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Advertising Offices Australia Charlton D'Silva, Mass Media Publicitas Tel: (61 2) 9252 3476 E-Mail: France/Spain Stephane de Remusat, REM International Tel: (33) 5 3427 0130 E-Mail: Germany/Austria/Switzerland/Italy/UK Sam Baird, Whitehill Media Tel: (44-1883) 715 697 Mobile: (44-7770) 237 646 E-Mail: India Xavier Collaco, Media Transasia India Limited Tel: (91) 124 4759500 E-Mail: Israel/Turkey Liat Heiblum, Oreet - International Media Tel: (97 2) 3 570 6527 E-Mail: Russia Alla Butova, NOVO-Media Ltd, Tel/Fax : (7 3832) 180 885 Mobile : (7 960) 783 6653 Email, Scandinavia/Benelux/South Africa Karen Norris, T K Associates Tel: (44) 1435 884 027 E-Mail: Singapore/Malaysia/Brunei/Indonesia/China Dr. Rosalind Lui, TSEA International Tel: (65) 6458 7885 Mobile : (65) 9886 3762 E-Mail: South Korea Young Seoh Chinn, Jes Media Inc. Tel: (82-2) 481 3411/13 E-Mail: USA (East/South East)/Canada Margie Brown, Margie Brown & Associates. Tel : (+1 540) 341 7581 Email USA (West/South West)/Brazil Diane Obright, Blackrock Media Inc. Tel: +1 (858) 759 3557 Email:


hen the military talk about the power of the ‘network’, they address the undoubted capabilities that can be provided by modern communications. It is a strategic oversight on the part of many militaries that the network is actually already here, is already in almost universal use and is already being skilfully harnessed by their enemies.


The network I’m talking about is the network created by individuals on street corners with cheap, off the shelf cell phones almost always equipped with increasingly powerful cameras, camcorders and other devices and ably supported by the use of Photoshop or any other editing software installed on any home computer. That capability is already being used to great effect by insurgents and terrorists in across the globe today, who then record front line events using these new media tools and then disseminate them using the power of the Internet. An image or better still a video, can decisively shape perceptions of a conflict. That’s nothing new. Previously, however combat footage was only available from military cameramen or professional media, accompanying combatants. Today the professional media is almost as much as a target for insurgents and terrorists in conflicts around the world as the combatants themselves and rightly limit their exposure to such threats rather than relatively freely roaming the combat zone.

The consequence of this has been a dearth of combat footage. Nature and the media abhor a vacuum and seek imagery to fill that void. In the absence of their own coverage, they take what they can get. In the context of many conflicts today, that means downloading imagery of an IED attack, hostage or prisoner making a statement, from jihadist websites. That imagery is not raw, but selected, edited and increasingly professionally crafted by the originator to manipulate the perceptions of the viewer – in short propaganda – not as footage to illustrate a news item, which all too often is how it is used by news organisations.

Prevailing in conflict today is as much about winning arguments as it is winning battles. Militaries must become more agile when it comes to negating or even anticipating their enemy’s propaganda, not an easy task but the only way to counter accusations which have no basis in fact but which may still stick in the public consciousness if they are not effective countered.

Adam Baddeley, Editor

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Asian A I R


Air Power Modernises Airpower is not just a statement of national prestige. While it still a consideration, air forces in the Asia pacific region are beginning to look beyond such perceptions and to develop force structures of new and modernised aircraft, backed by force multipliers and increased professionalism and skills amongst their personnel that are enabling them to stand as equals with traditionally more advanced air forces.

by Richard Gardner

he biggest problem in modernising air arms is the huge burden of replacing aircraft with their current equivalents, which invariably cost many times more. Although today’s technology can now deliver so much more capability, in order to fully exploit it, air forces must invest in the command and control infrastructure and up-to-date training, to give the operational gains commanders are seeking. Many nations still regard maintaining large numbers of supersonic combat aircraft as essential statements, confirming national status as well as providing a deterrent. This is changing and more attention is being given to making better use of existing assets through upgrades and modernised infrastructure. For decades, the powerful, combat experienced, Indian Air Force (IAF) has maintained a large modern fleet of military aircraft, comprising a mix of indigenous designs and licencebuilt and imported aircraft. Most front line aircraft have been of Russian origin, from the MiG-21, through the MiG-23, -27 and -29, to the current Su-30MK. The Sukhoi Su30MK family represents the best of the current multi-role combat aircraft, and undoubtedly


The Chinese PLAAF is developing even more capable versions of the J-10 multi-role combat aircraft, seen here in air superiority role Š Aerospace International





gives the IAF a platform that can probably outperform almost anything else in the region that it is likely to have to face. Supplementing this Eastern-supplied fighter in the IAF front line is a large fleet of Dassault Mirage 2000H aircraft. India also retains around 100 licencebuilt and European-built Jaguar (Shamsher) fighter-bombers, which have recently been upgraded with modernised communications and avionics systems. For more than two decades India has been developing and producing its own homegrown family of military jet aircraft, including trainers and an indigenous lightweight fighter, the LCA Tejas. This was supposed to be followed by a more advanced medium size combat aircraft, but to date, the programme remains largely an aspiration and the replacement of the IAF’s MiG-21 fleet is

now going to be met through the selection of a foreign design. Known as the Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft, this will be chosen after an intensive evaluation and competition, which is now taking place. Russia is offering the latest MiG-29 variant, known as the MiG-35, the US is offering both the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet and the latest F-16C/D Fighting Falcon, while Europe has been offering the Rafale, Typhoon and Gripen. India’s naval Sea Harriers have been upgraded with new Israeli radars and are being supplemented by new navalised Mig-29Ks. Perhaps the biggest breakthrough for Western aircraft suppliers in the Indian military market has been the selection of the Boeing P-8A Poseidon as a maritime patrol platform, to replace Russian-supplied Il-38s and Tu-142s. This is Boeing’s first export for the new P-8A aircraft, which will considerably extend India’s capability for surveillance and ISTAR well over the whole Indian Ocean. It is believed that the contract covers eight aircraft. India’s Dhruv utility helicopter has become a widely used type, and the nation’s home aero-

space industry continues to grow, though some projects, such as a new jet military transport, seem unlikely to make it to production, in the face of strong global competition. Pakistan is a nation that has suffered more than its fair share of internal strife in recent times. With the government under pressure to take firm action against terrorists using the lawless and rugged North West Frontier region as a safe haven for operating into Afghanistan and in Pakistan itself, the Pakistan armed forces have been actively working to destroy the terror training camps and to cut supply routes. The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) has been making maximum use of its helicopter and troop transport aircraft, including AH-1F Cobra attack helicopters and Eurocopter Pumas and Mi-8 Hips and Mi-17s. C-130 Hercules of different variants provide paratroop-dropping capability as well as the ability to supply-drop from the air. The PAF has long been seeking the latest F-16 C/Ds from the USA, to supplement its Mirage aircraft, and has now ordered 24 to fly alongside Chinese-supplied and jointly produced combat aircraft including the A5C Fantan, the F-7P Skybolt, the JF-17 and the latest J-10. Working closely in cooperation with US forces along the border with Afghanistan, the Pakistan government has sought to exploit US-supplied target intelligence, much of it coming from unmanned air systems and satellites, to take out suspected terrorist cells and camps. Additional air assets


are also being acquired, including a fleet of SAAB 2000 AEW & C surveillance platforms, equipped with the Erieye radar and former US Navy P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft. EADS CN-235s are replacing older military transports, and can use short airstrips for forward support. Pakistan is obviously following a difficult defence balancing act keeping close to its traditional Chinese allies and industrial aerospace partners, while expanding its procurement of US aircraft and systems. Bangladesh has a small air force equipped with MiG-29s and F-7s. The operational status of the MiG-29s is somewhat questionable

For more than two decades India has been developing and producing its own home-grown family of military jet aircraft

at present, but with little scope for a major new combat aircraft purchase, recent procurement has concentrated on helicopters, which are in much use, especially on humanitarian missions following regular flooding emergencies. The main Russian-built helicopters are Mi-172s, Mi-171s and Mi-17s, with Bell 212s and 206Ls from the West. Myanmar’s defiance of world opinion on human rights matters has isolated it from Western influence, which has resulted in China remaining its main source of military

The Royal Australian Navy is one of the growing regional users of the Eurocopter NH-90 helicopter © Richard Gardner






equipment, and political support. Combat strength has been boosted with the delivery of 10 MiG-29Bs. These supplement a fleet of Chinese supplied F-7Es and FT-7s, plus A5M Fantans. Pilatus PC-7s and 9s provide pilot training, with G-7 Galebs, and it is believed that these can also act in the light attack role, supplemented with Russiandesigned helicopters. The Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) will start replacing its F-5Bs and Es with SAAB JAS-39 Gripens, next year, and the first ex-Swedish Air Force example flew late in 2009. This represents an important leap in capability over the 1960s F-5E/F Tiger IIs. At present the RTAF front line operates 36 F-16 A/B Block 15s. The RTAF has ordered two SAAB 340 Erieye AEW & C patrol aircraft and also operates a large fleet of transport aircraft, including the C-130H Hercules and CN-235 (10 exam-

The Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) will start replacing its F-5Bs and Es with SAAB JAS-39 Gripens

ples). It has recently added the first of four ATR 72-500s to its transport fleet, including one VIP aircraft. With the modernisation of the F-16s and purchase of Gripens, Thai air power is a well balanced force, and not overstretched in terms of training and support capacity. After a decade in which the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) suffered problems maintaining availability rates in its MiG29 and Hawk 208 fleets, it is now modernising again. The front-line fleet leader is the Su30MKM, with 18 aircraft. A mixed fighter fleet also includes eight C/D model F/A-18 Hornets. The RMAF was expecting to extend its Su-30MKM fleet but continuing problems

The Japanese Self Defence Air Force has despatched two P-3C Orions to Djibouti to assist in a multinational force of warships and aircraft patrolling the Western Indian Ocean to protect commercial shipping from pirate attacks Š JSDAF

have opened up a possible opportunity for Boeing to sell the latest F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet. Malaysia has a long coastline, with growing pirate and smuggling activities to counter and is introducing six new CN-235 Maritime Patrol Aircraft and four King Air 200s. Perhaps the most important new aircraft are four Airbus Military A400Ms. These will provide a huge increase in regional air mobility, carrying more than twice the payload of the existing C-130 Hercules transports. Malaysia as an industrial partner has been anxiously waiting to see if the programme will survive, which now looks much more likely. Due to its island location at a key Asia Pacific trade crossroads, the Singapore government has recognised the importance of equipping its air force with an effective modern air fleet. Priority modernising the front line has started with the selection of the Boeing F-15 SG as the main multi-role air platform. With advanced multi-tracking AESA radar and a swing-role capability, the F-15SG is the latest version of the Strike Eagle, and is seen as a counter to the potential regional threat from Mig-29s and Su-30s. The RSAF also operates a large fleet of F-16 C/D Block 52 Fighting Falcons and still retains F5E Tiger IIs. Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye AEW aircraft provide both early warning and airborne command and control.

SAAB has recently flown the first JAS39 Gripen destined for the Royal Thai Air Force. This was one of a large number of Gripens prepared from stored aircraft formerly ordered by the Swedish Air Force and subsequently made available for export Š Saab



Singapore is also sensitive to the local threat of piracy and uses Fokker F50 turboprop maritime patrol aircraft, along with smaller twin engine types and a large number of helicopters, including Eurocopter Cougars and Super Pumas. The RSAF now has a 12-strong fleet of Boeing AH-64D Apaches and a similar number of Chinook transport helicopters. With nine older C-130B and H model Hercules in its fleet, Singapore will need to replace these aircraft soon. Likely solutions include the C-130J or the A400M. Indonesia remains somewhat unstable politically, which has worried neighbours as its air force has small numbers of Su-30s and Su-27s as well as F-16As, F-5E Tiger IIs and Hawk 209 light attack aircraft. Indonesia has a large number of transport and maritime patrol aircraft, including C-130s and home assembled and imported CN-235s and C212s. More Su-30MKs will be required, though an upgrade and extension to the F-16 fleet may be favoured, even though funding any major upgrade to the front line may prove a challenge. Large numbers of Hawk trainers may need replacing with more advanced types, featuring glass cockpits, though once again upgrades may be more affordable and more likely. The Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) is one of the best equipped in the region, and is increasingly self-supporting as its home aerospace industry grows, with US help and support. Like Singapore, the ROKAF chose the latest version of the F-15E Strike Eagle for its main air superiority role. The 60 F-15Ks will replace most of the 100+ fleet of ageing F-4D and E fighters, but it has not yet been decided which aircraft will replace the rest. The ROKAF was one of largest users of the Phantom II, though the locally assembled 210 F-16C/D Block 52 Fighting Falcons provide a highly effective air defence and close support capability. From its experience building F-16s, KAI developed the all-new Mach 1.5 T-50 in conjunction with Lockheed



Martin as an advanced trainer, but the light F/A combat version is also due to enter ROKAF service replacing the F-5Es. The service has a mixed fleet of reconnaissance and intelligence gathering aircraft, including Hawker 800s and has selected the Boeing 737-based Wedgtail AEW&C aircraft. The fleet of transport aircraft comprises mostly C-130Hs and CN-235s, but Hercules replacements will be needed over the coming years. Japan has always maintained an inwardlooking, strictly self-defence posture, and so while its own aerospace industry has continued to develop new aircraft, they have made no impact in export markets. Very little has been heard of progress with new Kawasaki jet replacements for its C-1 and C-130 transports and P-3C MR aircraft. With the rise in piracy on the high seas, Japan has deployed two P-3C Orions to Djibouti to help protect its tankers and container ships. After trying unsuccessfully for a decade to lobby the USA to be able to procure F-22 Raptors, interest is now focussing on the F-35 JSF, but a totally new indigenous


The A400M has been ordered by Malaysia and will be an attractive airlifter if the C-17 ends production © Airbus Military

design mock-up for an advanced stealthy fighter was revealed, but is unlikely to reach production. Japan’s current major front line combat aircraft remains the F-15J Eagle, alongside the co-produced Mitsubishi-Lockheed Martin F-2 (based on the F-16). It also has a large fleet of E-2C Hawkeyes providing AEW,

with Japan’s 4 unique Boeing 767-based AWACS. Soon to enter full service will be two KC-767J air-to-air refuelling tankers. China’s vast Peoples’ Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) requires more descriptive space than is available in this regional overview, however it must be mentioned that

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The C-295 from EADS in MPA format, equipped with surveillance radar and electrooptical turrets, with Forward Looking Irfra-Red, is becoming a popular affordable maritime patrol aircraft and can be armed with torpedoes and missiles © Richard Gardner

it is now entering an expansion phase that looks likely to see both greatly increased production of Chinese-developed combat aircraft, such as the J-10 family, and imported and licence-produced Russian designs, such as the Su-30MKK and Su-27SK, also known as the Jian-11. China is developing its own multi-role version with a new engine, avionics and weapons system. An enhanced version of the Su-30, the MKK2, has a much greater potential ISTAR capability and the ability to carry long range Kh-31 anti-ship cruise missiles. The closer relationship with Russia on defence matters has resulted in newer aircraft being offered to replace some of China’s oldest operational aircraft, including transports and tankers, as well as fighters. The J-10 was designed to provide an agile air defence platform, able to counter the latest Western combat jets, but it too is also being developed into a multi-role combat platform, with the latest B variant having a more advanced defensive aids suite. China is known to be working on a fifth-generation “stealthy” fighter, but it remains to be seen if this will reach production status. New Zealand remains committed to maritime patrol, with a fleet of P-3K Orions, and air mobility for its Army, though a transport fleet centred on the C-130H Hercules and Boeing 757. When the time comes to replace

A difficult act to follow- The RAAF F-111C is about to be phased out and replaced by F/A -18E/F Super Hornets, and later, F-35 JSFs © Richard Gardner

its C-130Hs, the new J model, widely used by Australian and US forces in the region, must be a likely contender. The RNZAF is currently introducing the NH-90 as its new tactical utility helicopter. The Australian Defence Forces are undertaking a very substantial modernisation programme. While there remains some doubt over just how affordable this will be, the triservice upgrades will certainly restore many capabilities that will strengthen the nation’s defence posture in the region, and will extend the expeditionary mission across a wider area,

The J-10 was designed to provide an agile air defence platform, able to counter the latest Western combat jets

when two 27,000 helicopter carriers are completed. The two LHD amphibious warfare ships will introduce large decks, docking facilities and a formidable capability for acting as a command and control centre. This may prove to be an invaluable new regional asset where emergency relief operations are required. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF)

The KAI T-50 Golden Eagle is currently providing South Korea with a new generation supersonic advanced trainer, and the light combat fighter variant could become an affordable replacement for Asia Pacific operators using elderly F-5s, Mig-21s and A-4 Skyhawks © KAI



has recently committed to the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter programme, with an initial order for fourteen aircraft, for delivery in 2014. Up to 100 aircraft may be needed, but in the meantime the RAAF has ordered 24 of the latest Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornets to replace the long-serving GD F-111K strategic strike and reconnaissance aircraft. The last 12 Super Hornets will be wired to accept additional electronic systems and power supplies so that, if required, they could be delivered as Growler electronic warfare variants. In any event this will remain an option for future retrofitting, perhaps when the F-35 takes over as the main combat air platform. The Super Hornets will fly alongside earlier F/A-18 A/Bs and will retain an operational edge in the Southern Hemisphere, especially combined with the new fleets of Boeing Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft and the Airbus A330 air-to-air tanker-transports. Four Boeing C-17 transports have given Australia a boost in strategic air-lift, supplementing the C-130J transports used for long distance as well as tactical transport. Replacing the retired DHC Caribou transports has proved to be difficult, and a mix of Hercules and Beech King Airs are filling the gap. The Alenia C-27 is probably the favoured replacement, but may be too expensive for the time being.

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dust set se

Whether the mission is ferrying cargo, troop transport or destroyin enemy targets, procurement plans in both India and ASEAN are looking to helicopters to achieve it.

by Ian Kemp





n mid-September 2009 an Indian Army Aviation Corps (AAC) Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), along with three elderly Cheetah helicopters, participated in the rescue of 19 members of an Indian Army mountaineering expedition stranded at an altitude of 14,600 feet in the Pin Parbati Pass due to incessant rains and heavy snowfall. In the new helicopter’s first recorded rescue mission the Dhruv extracted 12 personnel in three sorties while the other seven were rescued by the Cheetahs. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), a state owned company managed by the Ministry of Defence, announced the launch of



The Dhruv made its first flight with the new engine on 12 January 2009

the ALH programme in November 1984 and the first civil prototype ALH made its initial flight on 23 August 1992. The objective of the project was to develop a twin-engine multirole five tonne helicopter which could be used by the AAC, Indian Air Force (IAF), Indian Navy (IN), Indian Coast Guard and the Border Security Force as well as civilian operators. The ALH was designed with assistance from Germany’s MesserschmittBölkow-Blohm (now part of EADS). The origC







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US Army soldiers exit an Indian Army Aviation Corps HAL Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter during the bilateral Exercise ‘Yudh Abyas 09’ © US Army

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A Royal Thai Navy S-70B helicopter prepares to take off from the US Navy guided-missile frigate USS Ford (FFG54) during a joint training exercise © USN

inal design featured twin 1,000 shp Turbomeca TM 333 2B2 turboshafts mounted above the cabin, driving a four-blade composite main rotor. Recent versions of the Dhruv are fitted with the more powerful Turbomeca Ardiden, which will be know locally as the Shakti; the Dhruv made its first flight with the new engine on 12 January 2009. Whereas the TM 333 2B2 is rated at 1,100 shp the Ardiden 1H1 is rated at 1,200 shp and features improved high altitude performance in both hot and cold conditions. With a maximum takeoff weight of 5.5 tonnes the helicopter can carry a 2,580 kg payload including 1,075 kg of

fuel and 1,500 kg underslung. In standard configuration the Dhruv carries two pilots and twelve passengers while two additional passengers can be carried in the high density configuration. The high tail boom allows stretchers and cargo to be loaded via the rear clamshell doors. The Army and Air Force versions are fitted with skids while the naval and civilian variants feature a wheeled undercarriage. The Dhruv has a maximum cruise speed of 255 km/hr and a range of 640 km. In high altitude trials, the Dhruv achieved an altitude of 8,400 metres in October 2007 in Siachen; this is an important requirement for the army to support its operations in Kashmir and the Siachen Glacier. The Indian Coast Guard became the first service to field the Dhruv in 2002. Under the

An Indian Navy Sea King Mk 42B lands aboard the US Navy cruiser USS Cowpens. India is seeking the direct purchase of 16 multirole helicopters to replace its 40-year old Sea Kings © USN



The new LUH must be able to operate at altitudes of up to 6,000-7,000 metres.

terms of a December 2007 contract HAL is to deliver 105 ALHs to the Army and another 54 to the air force through 2016; more than 60 aircraft had been delivered by the end of 2009 with one-third going to the IAF and the bulk to the AAC. The 2007 contract includes 66 aircraft in the new Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) configuration, also referred to the Weapons Systems Integrated (WSI) model. The LCH, which was approved for development in October 2006, will be used in the antitank and anti-personnel roles. The LCH features a glass cockpit with multifunction displays, a target acquisition and designation system with forward-looking infrared, a laser rangefinder and a laser designator; weapons will be aimed by a helmet-mounted sight. The helicopter’s 700 kg weapons load includes: a Nexter M621 20mm cannon mounted in Nexter THL 20 turret; and a mixture of up to eight anti-armour missiles, four air-to-air missiles or four rocket pods for 70mm and 68mm rockets mounted on two stub wings. The MBDA Mistral has been selected for the air-toair role and the Helina airborne version of the Nag fire-and-forget anti-tank missile developed locally by the Defence Research and Development Organisation will be used in the anti-armour role. Lockheed Martin has been discussing the sale of the Hellfire II missile system to India, possibly produced locally by state-owned Bharat Electronics and Bharat Dynamics, and has suggested the combatproven missile could arm the LCH. The heli-

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An Indian Air Force Mi-17 medium support helicopter lands to pick up US Army soldiers during the bilateral Exercise ‘Yudh Abyas 09’ in October 2009. India has purchased another 80 Mi-17 in the V5 configuration © US Army

copter’s first flight, originally scheduled for August, was postponed to enable engineers to reduce the weight by about 20 percent to 5.5 tonnes. Company officials said in late November that the prototype would make its first flight in December or January. Weapons will be integrated into a second prototype

before its test flight and a third prototype will be delivered to the IAF for user trials. If the flight test programme proceeds to plan the type will receive initial operational clearance by December 2010 and final operational clearance (FOC) in 2011 leading to introduction into service in 2012 or 2013. Further MoD

orders for both the ALH and the LCH are anticipated. Israel Aircraft Industries, which supplies the glass cockpit, for the ALH has an agreement with HAL to market the helicopter to export customers. In the first sale of indigenously developed military aircraft HAL exported five Dhruvs to Ecuador; two have since been sold to Nepal, one to Israel and an additional aircraft to Mauritius. The sale of two Dhruvs configured as air ambulances to Peru marked the first export sale of an Indianbuilt helicopter to a civilian customer. In early 2008, Admiral Sureesh Mehta announced that the Dhruv did not meet the Navy’s requirement for a shipboard helicopter which could be used in the anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare roles and was instead seeking about 60 10-12 tonne helicopters. The Navy has received seven Dhruvs and may order more for various utility tasks. Since 2003 the Navy has operated nine Kamov Ka-31 Helix helicopters in the airborne early warning and control role and in August 2009 the government approved the purchase of another five with the contract expected to be signed shortly. The backbone of the Fleet Air Arm is the Westland Sea King Mk 42 which

Helicopters that can


first entered service in 1970 with about 35 of 42 Mk 42A/Bs delivered still operational. The MoD has released a tender for 16, nine tonne multi-role helicopters, value at Rs23.5 billion, with an option for an additional eight aircraft to AgustaWestland (AW101), Eurocopter (EC 725), NHIndustries (NH 90), Rosoboronexport and the US government. In the longer term, the MoD is seeking overseas partners to assist HAL with the design and development of a nine to eleven tonne Indian Multi-Role Helicopter (IMRH) for use by the three Services and the Coast Guard. The IAF is the largest operator of helicopters among the services with a fleet of 20 Mi24 and Mi-35 attack helicopters acquired between 1984 and 1990 equipping two squadrons; 102 Mi-8 and 72 Mi-17 support helicopters; three Mi-26 heavy lift helicopters; and, 60 Cheetah, 48 Chetak and 20 Dhruv utility helicopters in late 2009. A contract to supply 80 Mi-17V-5 helicopters to the IAF was signed during the visit of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to India on 5 December 2009. The air force is seeking 22 twin-engine attack helicopters to replace the Mi-24s and Mi-35s and 15 heavy lift helicopters. In May 2009, the MoD issued a request for

An exercise casualty is loaded onto a Royal Thai Navy SH-60 Seahawk helicopter during the joint Thai-US Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 2009 exercise in July 2009 © USN

proposals (RfP) for the attack helicopters, worth an estimated Rs28 billion, to AgustaWestland (AW129 Mangusta), Bell (AH-1Z Super Cobra), Boeing (AH-64 Apache), Eurocopter (EC665 Tiger) and Mil (Mi-28N). A earlier tender, issued in 2008, which specified a 50 percent offset requirement was withdrawn after the two US compa-

nies refused to bid; the new tender reduces the offset requirement to 30 percent. The need to reissue the tender has forced the IAF to slip the in service date to 2012 at the earliest; the 2008 RfP stipulated that the first pair of helicopters should be delivered within 24 months of contract signature and the last within 36 months. The heavy lift tender has been

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A Republic of Singapore Air Force Boeing CH-47SD Chinook medium support helicopter lifts off from the deck of the amphibious dock landing ship USS Harpers Ferry. Boeing is hoping to sell 15 CH-47F Chinooks to the Indian Air Force © USMC

released to Boeing (CH-47F Chinook), Mil (Mi-26) and Sikorsky (CH-53 Sea Stallion). The MoD is also seeking 384 2 to 2.7 tonne class Light Utility Helicopters (LUHs) with 259 allocated for the AAC and for 125 to the Indian Air Force. The new helicopters would replace the HAL Chetak, a single engine seven seat aircraft designed by Aérospatiale as the SA 316 Alouette III in the 1950s, and the HAL Cheetah, designed by Aérospatiale as the single engine five seat SA 315 Lama to meet an Indian requirement for a helicopter which could operate in hot and high conditions. The new LUH must be able to operate at altitudes of up to 6,000-7,000 metres. The majority of the AAC’s 12 squadrons are equipped with 50 Chetaks and 130 Cheetahs. It also operates 12 Lancers, an armed version of the Cheetah, and 10 of its Cheetahs are being fitted with the Turbomeca TM 333 2M2 engines to boost their performance. The MoD’s procurement strategy calls for 197 LUHs, worth Rs31-34 billion, to be imported with the remaining 187 to be manufactured by HAL at new facilities to be built at Bangalore over the next several years. The LUH project was originally launched in the 2003 with a request for proposal for 197 aircraft; the Eurocopter AS550 C3 Fennec and the Bell 407 were selected for extensive trials in 2004 and 2005. The Fennec was declared the winner of the competition but this decision was later cancelled, following accusations of irregularities in the testing, leading the MoD to relaunch the tender in July 2008. By early December 2009 three


of the six firms which very invited to bid for the project had responded positively – AgustaWestland (believed to be bidding the AW119 Koala), Eurocopter (AS550 C3 Fennec) and Rosoboronexport (Kamov Ka226). The ministry’s insistence on a 50 percent offset obligation instead of the usual 30 per cent required for contracts of this size resulted in Bell Helicopter’s decision in November 2008 not to enter the competition. Flight testing of rival designs is expected to take place this year although it now seems that Winter trials will not take place until 2010-11. In a subsequent phase of the LUH project the AAC, and possibly some IAF, helicopters may be armed. This phase is expected to be decided during the 2012-17 five-year defence plan, HAL plans to invest more than Rs 25,000 crore (about $5 billion) over the next ten years to develop its research and development capabilities, and production base for both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as it seeks to boost its annual turnover from the present $2 billion to $6 billion. With India planning such major invest-

The Republic of Singapore Air Force’s 20 Boeing AH-64D Apaches give it a capability not matched by any other force within ASEAN ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

ment it is no surprise that that the major helicopter manufacturers are seeking local partners for both military and civil projects. Last February, AgustaWestland and Tata Sons signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the formation of a joint venture company which will establish a final assembly line in India for the AW119 helicopter. In June, India’s Mistral Solutions and Eurocopter signed an MoU to collaborate and in the aerospace and defence sectors. Mistral will offer engineering services covering hardware design, firmware/embedded software development, systems integration, testing and qualification. Eurocopter highlights its longstanding relationship with HAL in the development and production of the Chetak, Cheetah and the Dhruv to support its bids for the various MoD projects. The two major US helicopter manufacturers are seeking to extend their success amongst the ASEAN and other Asia-Pacific nations to India. In November 2009 Sikorsky Aircraft and Tata Advanced Systems announced the creation of a joint venture that will manufacture aerospace components for Sikorsky in India, including cabin components for its S-92 medium helicopter. India’s Sea Kings, although built in the UK, are of course based on the Sikorsky design. Sikorsky’s Black Hawk family has sold well in the region: Brunei has bought four S-70A and two S-70C; the Philippine Air Force operates two S-70s in the VIP role; and, the Royal Thai Army has seven UH-60L Black Hawks while the Royal Thai Navy has ordered six MH-60S Seahawks to supplement six S-70B-7 Seahawks. The Black Hawk family is also in service in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Following the selection of the H-92 Superhawk in July 2004 for the Canadian Forces Maritime Helicopter Project, Sikorsky is seeking another large order for its latest military helicopter. The Republic of Singapore Air Force’s 20 Boeing AH-64D Apaches give it a capability not matched by any other force within ASEAN as does its 10 CH-47SD Chinooks. Through its offer of Apaches and Chinooks to India Boeing is hoping to repeat the success of its $2.1 billon sale of eight P-8 maritime patrol aircraft, the largest defence contract awarded by the Indian government to a US contractor to date. Despite Indian’s protracted, and sometimes tortuous, procurement process there is much to tempt the world’s helicopter manufacturers to the region as they seek both direct military sales and the local production of both military and civil models.




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Communications for the

for the Soldier and

Marine Expanding the range and capacity of the tactical internet is a key goal for the dismounted infantryman or marine. Identifying the right mix of handheld and manpack radios in HF, VHF and UHF is increasingly central to success both on and off the battlefield and has become a major focus for procurement in the region.

by Adam Baddeley

Elbit’s PNR-710MB provides an ultra-lightweight V/UHF capability Š Elbit



he tactical internet of today, operated by dismounted soldiers and installed in the fighting vehicles directly supporting them, relies largely on Very High Frequency (VHF) Combat Net Radios (CNR) which have been proven by decades of reliable service on battlefields across the world in all environments. This battlefield role is being ‘squeezed’ - or complemented depending on your perspective - by the advent of smaller hand held and embedded UHF radios equipping the individual and larger, higher power wideband data radios providing a multimegabit data backbone, supplemented of course by patrol High Frequency (HF) manpack radios for Beyond Line of Sight communications. That said, the enduring voice and data capabilities that VHF radios provide will ensure that they will remain in military inventories for decades to come. While CNR designs may differ, the VHF frequency they operate in imposes certain common criteria that are defined by physics and can’t be evaded. Limited to line of sight communications, a dismounted soldier can quite achieve ranges of over 8Km using VHF links. VHF is also imbued with a significant block of frequency; 30 to roughly 300Mhz


The Philippines have acquired a significant package of Harris Falcon II radios including the RF5800V-HH used during LIMA in December to link naval personnel on shore with their ships © AJB


which enables generous, 25 kHz channel spacing which ensures high signal quality and more efficient coding and encryption as well as reasonable data qualities. Furthermore, VHF is unattractive to commercial entities such as mobile phone companies, unlike UHF, ensuring its availability in a congested electronic environment. Ergonomically both the antenna and selective tuning components on VHF radios are small and low in volume, further lending themselves to applications in the tactical arena. Solutions have variable power outputs, a low battery saving mode of typically 2W, rising to five for hand held radios in roles such as squad radios, with the power output in manpack form factors rising to 10W and in some configurations higher. When mounted in vehicles, weight and power become functionally irrelevant, 50W can be used. Higher power ensures more reliable communications, particularly in cluttered urban terrain by increases the signal-to-noise and boosting the quality of the signal. The Asia Pacific has seen major investments in radio communications reflecting a greater understanding that the potential of extremely capable platforms and weapon systems already in service can be enhanced by their implementation in a network. Malaysian firm Sapura has teamed with Thales to produce the F@stnet for the Malaysian forces since 2007. The company also produce its own radio, the hand held PRC-5100 which is the standard hand held radio at the squad level. Since fielding the radio to the Malaysian armed forces, the radio has been acquired by a further six countries. F@stnet has a number of international customers in addition to Malaysia with the radio being produced for Poland under license by Radmor with a similar relationship with Amper Programas for the Spanish armed forces. The Netherlands acquired the radio in 2008 as a its requirement for high capacity communications to support a new Battle Management System capability being brought into service. The radio is in French service where it is known as the PR4G VS4IP. The 3kg IP radio operates from 30-88MHz

F@stnet has a number of international customers in addition to Malaysia FEBRUARY 2010









Malaysia operates the Thales PR4G F@stnet, produced under license by Sapura © AJB

and is capable of frequency hopping at speeds greater than 300hops per second and supports simultaneous voice and data, the latter using a 64Kbps waveform. In North East Asian, Japan produces its own indigenous radios and neither imports nor exports any CNR capability. In Taiwan, the military’s long delayed acquisition of its 37A voice and data tactical radio is now recently underway, offering both a voice and data capability. In addition to this indigenously developed radio, as part of the Po Sheng C4ISR network, Taiwan is acquiring the ARC-201 airborne Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) for use with the Apache and UH-60M, along with ground based variants to provide a downlink for the aircraft with SINCGARS also being used in the networks supporting Patriot PAC-2 and Avenger. South Korea’s produces the PRC-999K VHF CNR frequency hopping data capable radio for its armed forces. The radio has also been exported to Indonesia with the radio becoming one of many types that Indonesia operates, leading to acknowledged problems with encryption interoperability. Turkey, largely via Aselsan, has strong associations with Indonesia. In Turkey, two













ITT’s SINCGARS radios are used by Australia and New Zealand as key elements for their Tactical Internets © DoD

radios will replace the current the current 3088MHz 9600 VHF radio in service with the Turkish Armed Forces, which is a local licensed-copy of the GEC-Marconi ScimitarV. The 9600 has been successfully exported to Uruguay, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh with 4000 sold to Pakistan where it is made under licence. The 9600 operates from 30-108 MHz in both frequency hopping and fixed frequency. The 9600 are to be placed by the manpack PRC-9661 SDR and the hand held PRC-9651. The 9661 operates over 1.6-512MHz, covering HF, VHF and UHF. The 9661 has been sold to Uruguay, Azerbaijan, Algeria and Egypt and has been proposed to Pakistan as a follow on to the 9600. Aselsan and the Turkish Armed Forces have avoided the need for US Software Communications Architecture (SCA)-compliance because of the implications for national control. Thailand, like Singapore has historically


looked to Israeli firm Elbit C4I SystemsTadiran for its CNRs. Elbit latest offering is the CNR9000 HDR CNR which is capable of 115Kbps throughput on a 25khz channel. New features have been developed for this waveform, including ad hoc networking and a new communications controller. The waveform is shared by the company’s vehicle mounted new SCA 2.2 compliant SDR-7200 SDR due for imminent launch with the platform ultimately providing the basis for a family of radios. The company also offer the PRC710 and ultra light fully-featured handheld VHF radio.

Australia acquired a number of SINCGARS as part of its acquisition of the M1A1 Abrams


Thailand is acquiring HIMARS and may acquire SINCGARS radio as part of that FMS acquisition. New Zealand and Australia both use the Advanced Systems Improvement Program (SINCGARS). Australia acquired a number of SINCGARS as part of its acquisition of the M1A1 Abrams with the same waveform also being operated by Thales AN/PRC-148 MBITR radios which has been in Australian service for some time. As part of its Land 125/75 or Land ‘200’ requirement Australia is acquiring a combined dismounted and mounted BMS. For the dismounted element, Australia has selected a combination of the Raytheon’s EPLRS MicroLight to link down to the platoon develop and then using the VHF Harris RF Communications AN/PRC152 to connect sections using the SINCGARS waveform with US Type 1 encryption. Australia and New Zealand are the only countries in the region to have access to Type 1 SINCGARS, the latter country initially acquiring the radio to equip Piranha vehicles.



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Outside the US, the biggest operator of the SINCGARS in Asia is Iraq who has been acquiring the radio under contracts date from November 2007 buy both the manpack, and vehicle mounted versions as well as the hand held iteration of the radio known as the Spearhead which has also been acquired by Saudi Arabia. In total, over 40,000 radios have been fielded or ordered with a cumulative order value which exceeds $200m. In June, ITT won a US contract to supply 58,000 new SINCGARS radios and ancillaries valued at $363 million with provision to buy as many as 174,000 further radios. Currently, the US Army’s Acquisition Objective for SINCGARS is 581,000 with 430,000 already fielded. ITT is in the process of switching production to the ‘G’ SINCGARS model SINCGARS. This noteworthy for the inclusion of technology from the Thales JTRS Enhanced MBITR (JEM), related to security and the SCA. Over 300,000 of the Army’s current SINCGARS were acquired since 9/11 ensuring that this radio will be in frontline US inventories for years to come. Harris is a major supplier of CNRs to the region. Australia and New Zealand are two of a small number of countries in the Asia Pacific operating the firm’s AN/PRC-117 multi-band multi-mode radio. The latest version of the radio the AN/PRC-117G, which has already been field with US forces in Afghanistan and Iraq and chosen as the sole Single Channel JTRS manpack solution in an October 2009 award valued at up to $419m. The export version of the AN/PRC-117G


is the AN/PRC-7800M manpack, which offers similar wideband capabilities using the Advanced Networking Wideband Waveform (ANW2) to provide high capacity ad hoc links protected by a exportable commercial encryption. In conjunction with Boeing, Harris recently conducted simulated C4ISR trials in Australia using the RF7800M-MP Falcon III, the export variant of the radio to link ground troops, UAVs and a Chinook. In April 2008, Harris announced a $60m deal with the Philippines which included the Falcon II RF5800V VHF handheld radios. At the LIMA show held in Malaysia in December, Philippines naval personnel used the RF5800V2 establish a link between personnel ashore although communications were undertaken in clear, again reflecting the communication disconnect between different radio types. Brunei also signaled its intention to equip its armed forces with Harris radios The AN/PRC-148 family provides a capability used by a number of countries in the region © Thales


with a $25m award in February 2008 which also included the RF5800V-HH and order which is now completed with a local support and maintenance facility quickly established. Though not in Asia, Romania has implemented an advance communication system based around the Falcon II and Falcon III families. The lowest level is the RF-7800S Secure Personal Radio, which links to a suite of vehicle mounted radios using the ANW2 UHF waveform. Inside each vehicle are RF-5800V-MP VHF and RF-5800H-M HF Falcon II radios for voice and simple situational awareness messaging, the latter for Beyond Line of Sight communication. In addition for high data rate communications are handled by the RF-7800M-MP. This solution equips two mountain and a single mechanised battalion and command post. It is noteworthy that these radios operate using the proprietary Citadel or other non US Type 1 encryption already widely exported around the world making this tactical network easily realisable by most nations of the world. A recent addition to the Harris product line is the RF310H which is similar in appearance to and interoperable with AN/PRC-152 and interoperabil-


ity but without the full Type 1 security requirements that increase costs and other procedural burdens. While exportable, the radios are still governed by US ITAR regulations. A number of countries require an entirely ITAR free solution. General Dynamics UK have provided a brigade sized solution for Libya and are beginning to offer the solution to a wider market. Rohde and Schwarz’s M3TR range has been providing an ITAR free solution for some time using the SECOS and SECOM waveforms. The radio comes in two versions covering the HF, VHF and UHF freuqncy domain with the main CNR solution offering VHF and UHF range (25 MHz up to 512 MHz). Malaysia uses the Rohde and Schwarz M3SR to link its fleet of Offshore Patrol Vessels to shore based systems although it doesn’t operate the manpack version. Radmor’s have widely exported their product line to a number of countries. Its R3501 VHF radios have been sold to a number of customer including Algeria, the Czech



Republic, Iraq, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and the Slovak Republic. The company has also developed the new R3505, a 20-520 MHz hand held software defined radio. Kongsberg’s Multi Role Radio VHF has been sold to a number of countries including Kuwait and Hungary. Barrett, better known for HF in the region also offer the PRC-2080 Tactical VHF which is backwards compatible

Harris is a major supplier of CNRs to the region

with the ubiquitous but ageing PRC-77. High Frequency radios have rationally been less compact and weigh more than squad and section level VHF radios. This is now changing to meet the requirements of foot patrols, where the ability to lighten the load provides greater operational flexibility. Codan’s 25W 1.6-30MHz, 2110M HF Manpack transceiver is one of the lightest feature-rich HF radios available today, coupled









with a highly capable weight-to-performance ratio. The 2110M transceiver weighs just 2.9Kg, at least a quarter less than its competitors and its 8Ah 2.1Kg battery has a life of over 30 hours with a 1:9 TX: RX ratio. Users can opt to use an alternate 13Ah solution, boosting the radio’s battery life by over 50 hours. This life has been achieved by working with customers to pare down those features they deemed unnecessary to a core set. Additional features can then be added via software according to customer needs both at the time of purchase and throughout the radio’s service life. Standard features include FED-STD-1045 ALE/CALM, Selcall, SMS and an internal speaker with ease of training enabled via the use of a ‘Nokia-look’ menu structure. Recently, Codan released the DV 256 AES Encryptor supporting both 256-bit AES encryption and MELPe digital voice. Codan is also the only HF radio manufacturer to offer an internal GPS and its antenna, eliminating the need for an external box, cables or antenna.


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Prepared by Adam Baddeley FEBRUARY 2010




fter a sojourn of four years, we return with the ‘AMR Regional Air Force Directory’, providing a baseline framework of current inventories and future plans providing quantitative detail of the shifting sands of the two extremes of declining serviceability and newly delivered aircraft. The Directory is designed to complement this issue’s feature on air power trends in the Asia Pacific region, immediately preceding the Directory, with quantitative detail to enable comprehensive analysis in a dynamic environment. This is the tenth edition of the annual reference guide to the various air forces, naval air arms and army aviation forces across the Asia Pacific Region, encompassing an arc of air power from Pakistan to Japan and down to New Zealand, taking in the modernising behemoths of China and India and addressing the needs of those struggling to maintain the status of current fleets such as Laos and Bangladesh. The Directory has been compiled from a range of open sources from around the world, AMR’s correspondents and discussions with industry and military personnel. AMR would like to thank those who have scratched their heads and provided answers to our questions. To claim absolute accuracy in this endeavour when for example trying to gauge serviceability levels on North Korea’s F-7 squadrons would invite hubris on our part. We would therefore like to encourage readers over the next twelve months who can add information to either contact us in person at the year’s shows and exhibitions or by e-mail.



Afghanistan National Army Air Corps 1 An-26 5 AN-32 2+18 Ordered G222 27 Mi-8/17DV/V5 12 Mi24/35 2 L-39C

NOTES: The ANAAC has a steep learning curve is to meet previously outlined goals of 120+ aircraft by 2012. The advent of initial delivery of G222s and armed helicopters provide a significantly more coherent force structure. In October, the USAF announced


The now 71 F/A-18A/B aircraft acquired by the RAAF are nearing the end of their lives, with the first aircraft having been delivered in 1984. They will be joined from 2010 by the first of 24 F/A18Fs, half of which could be upgraded to the ‘G’ variant from 2012 © DoD

an RFI for an ANAAC requirement for 6-20 fixed-wing single-engine turboprops in the roles of advanced flight trainer and lightattack aircraft.


Royal Australian Air Force 54/17 F/A-18A/B nearing end of service life 17/4 F-111C/RF-111C due to be retired in 2010 24 Ordered F/A-18F half A/C capable of conversion to EA-18G, decision in 2012 14 Ordered F-35A requirement for 58 more A/C plus 28 to replace F-18F’s post 2020 33 Hawk 127 64 PC-9 8+5 Ordered B350 Trainer 3 B350 Transport interim for Project Air 8000 Phase 2 2+4 Ordered 737 Wedgetail AEW&C. First 2 A/C delivered in Nov. 2009. Remainder to be delivered 2010-11 with FOC in 2012 18 AP-3C 3 P-3C 2 737-700BBJ 4 C-17 3 Challenger CL 604 VIP 10 C-130H retiring in favour of the ‘J’ 12+2 Ordered C-130J-30 ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

5 8

KC-30A also capable of 270 passengers or 34 tons cargo P-8A not yet committed to acquisition

Royal Australian Navy 16 S-70B-2 Seahawk 4 Sea King Mk50A 2+4 MRH 90 based at HMAS Albatross with new 808 Squadron 13 AS350BA Lead in helicopter training 3 Agusta AW109E

Australian Army Aviation Corps 27 OH-58 6 CH-47D 7 Ordered CH-47F estimated cost is $560 million 11+11 Ordered Tiger ARH with 1st Aviation Regiment 34 S-70A-9 Blackhawk 1 AS350BA 2+38 Ordered MRH 90 3 B300

NOTES: Orders for 14 F-35As kicks off JSF buys in the region. Decision on compensation for three year Wedgetail delay, resolved in late 2009. Retirement of 13 DHC-4 Caribou provides impetus for their replacement under Air 8000 Phase 2 for 10 A/C with King Air 350s taking the strain until then. RAN looking for 24 new A/C to



replace its S-70B-2, under Project Air 9000 in 20014-16.


Bangladesh Air Force 8 A-5C 24 F-7M/BG 8 MiG-29SE/UB 8 L-39ZA 3 An-32 4 C-130B 14 Bell 212 14 Mi-17/172 6 Mi-171 attach role 16 UH-1N/Bell 212 4 Bell 206L 6 FT-6 11 T-37B Bangladesh Army 3 Bell 206L4 4 Cessna 152 1 Grand Caravan

NOTES: The Bangladesh Air Force is planning the replacement of its F-7, A-5 and FT-6 fleets with an emphasis on low maintenance costs reflecting lessons learned from the expensive MiG-29 purchase and is expected to look first to China for answers.


Royal Brunei Air Force 3 Ordered CN-235 MPA

1 2 11 4 6 4

CN-235-110M Bell 206B Bell 212/214ST BO105CB S-70A/L PC-7Mk II

NOTES: The biggest news for the RBAF is the discussion of a requirement for single large transport aircraft to support the self deployment of company sized unit for peacekeeping missions. Brunei long standing Light Fighter requirement still not progressed.


Royal Cambodian Air Force 6 Mi-8/17 doubts over Mi-17s operational status 2 Mi-26T 5 L-39C 2 Y-12-II operated by Ai Cambodia 3 An-24RV* operated by Ai Cambodia

Notes: Much of the fleet is non operational including approximately 6 Mig-21s and number of F-7s. Significant rises in defence spending; following clashes along its border with Thailand are unlikely to be focus on new air platforms.


People’s Liberation Army Air Force

The PLAAF has benefitted immensely from the influx of Sukhoi fighters and accompanying technology although the J-11 fighter programme is causing friction with Russia over technology transfer and its implications for export markets Š DoD

120 300 60 180 170 95+135 Ordered 99 76 4 230 8 Ordered 1

H-6 inc. 10 H-6U Tankers J-7 JH-7 J-8II J-10 J-11A/B Su 30MKK/MK2 Su-76SK/UBK JF-17 Q-5A IL-78 A-50I prototype along with KJ-2000 radar/mission system 2 Y-8 AEW prototypes with different radar configurations 2 737 80 Y-7 50 Y-8 14+30 Ordered IL-76MD 4 Tu-154 ELINT 3 Mi-6 260 Mi8/17/171 35 Z-8 100 Z-9 20 Z-11 22+134 Ordered HC-120 2 L-15 120 JJ6 40 JJ7 180 JL-8/K-8 20 Z-11 People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force 50 H-5 phasing out quickly 26 H-6D 6 Y-8 MPA 2 Y-8 ELINT 120 J-6 in reserve 30 J-7D/E 54 JH-7A 124 J-8 40 Q-5 23 Su-30MKK2 50 Ordered Su-33 3 AS565N 11 Ka-28 8 Mi-8 3 SH-5 7 Z-8 25 Z-9C

NOTES: Continued development of the J-11, particularly for the J-11C carrier variant, coupled with J-10 procurement, provide a





bedrock on which the introduction J-XX ‘fifth generation’ fighter from around 2020 will build. Little news on WZ-10 attack helicopter representing a big gap in the PLAAF’s capabilities. Another shortcoming is tactical airlift with no clear view apparent on how this will be rectified.

80 16 Ordered 20 Ordered


Indian Naval Air Arm 4+12 Ordered MiG-29K/KUB, interest in 29 further A/C 8/3 Sea Harrier FRS51/Harrier T4/60 8 Tu-142M 8 Ordered P-8I MPA focused on Tu-142 replacement 20 Do-228 MPA 4 IL-38 MPA 12 BN-2, replacement competition recently postponed 7 Dhruv ALH no further Navy Dhruv’s planned 7 Ka-25 16 Ka-28

Indian Air Force 62 MiG-29S/UB, SMT upgrade due 2011-2014 63 Mirage-2000H/TH 104+125 Ordered Su-30MK/MKI, options for a further 50 by 2016 180+ MiG-21Bison/bis/M, 120 MiG-21 Bison will continue on to 2020, others retired from 2011 130 Jaguar IM/IS, plans to down size Jaguar fleet to 63 with DARIN III upgrade by 2014 11 MiG-23UM 106 MiG-27UPG, plans to extend recent avionics upgrade across further AC/C out of service date 2020 3 Ordered EMB-145 AEW, DRDO led project 1+2 Ordered IL-76TD AEW, first A/C operational in 2009 plans to increase fleet to six 6 IL-78 MKI ‘MARS’ 6 Pending A330 MRTT 104 An-32 6 order C-130J, SF platform 38 Do-228-201 55 HS 748, some in ELINT role, to be replaced by MRTT 17 Il-76, in early stages of upgrade 22+54 Ordered Dhruv 210+80 Ordered Mi-8/17 17 Mi-25 3 Mi-26, replacement programme to deliver A/C from 2014-15 15 Mi-35 28 SA315 Cheetah 48 SA316 Chetak 23+42 Ordered Hawk 132 requirement for 57 new trainers inc. for Navy but not necessarily for the 132

HJT-16 HJT-36 Tejas LCA delivery from 2011 further 140 planned

Indian Army 40+ 105 Ordered Dhruv ALH 20 +10 Ordered SA315


40 29 10


Ka-31 AEW further 5 A/C planned SA316/319 Sea King 42/A/b/c HJT-16

NOTES: The MMRCA’s126 strong requirement plus options for 63 make the MMRCA programme’s outcome, key for 2010. Weight problems for HAL’s Light Combat Helicopter for which 179 are required have emerged. In May, the MoD began a competition for 22 attack helicopters from the AH-1Z Super Cobra, AH-64 Apache, Tiger Mi-28N. India has also mooted interest in up to ten C-17s.


Indonesian Air Force 7/3 F-16A/B 29 Hawk 209 10 Hawk 53/109 2 +3 Ordered Su-27SK/SKM 5 Su-30MK/MK2 4 F-5E/F, due to be replaced from 2013



26 16 2 5 15 37 13 206 49

Indian Su-30s performed well, going head to head with against other nations’ aircraft during Exercise Red Flag. Further Sukhoi’s have been ordered and will be joined by the 126 planned MMRCA on India’s future front line © DoD

3 1+2 Ordered 2 1 14 12 5+2 4 5 11 2 Ordered 10 11 12 15 14 28

737 MPA CN-235 MPA KC-130B 737 C-130B/H/ H-30/L-100 C-212 CN-235110/220M F27-400M F-28 1000/3000 NAS330J EC725 NAS330J EC120B KT-1B SF-260M/W T-34C AS/SA-202

Indonesian Army 1 BN-2A 3 C-212 11 Bell 205A-1 18 Ordered Bell 210 28 Bell 412 10 Ordered Bell 412EP 17 NBO-105 16 Mi-17-V5 8 Mi-35 Indonesian Navy 3 NC-212-200 MPA 9 NC-212-200 3+3 Ordered NCN-235-220 MPA 6 Ordered NCN-235 3 Nomad 22 MPA


17 1 Ordered 3 2 3 2

Nomad 22/24 NB 412SP NAS.332 NBO-105 EC-120B Mi-2

NOTES: Aspiration for Flanker squadron of 12-18 aircraft with a total Sukhoi requirement for approx 40. Indonesia turned down offer of ten Qatari Mirage 2000s in March. In May, Indonesia US offered 6 C130 by US along with additional used F-16 and upgrades to existing platforms. Australia, Norway and the UK also said to have offered Hercules for sale. August deal inked by PT Dirgantara to license build Bell 214EPs reported. Reported to be looking at FTC-2000 and Yak-130 to replace Mk.53s and F-5E/Fs.


Japan Air Self Defence Force 77+17 Ordered F-2A/B 102 F-4EJ/EF-4EJ/RF-4EJ, 91A/C will continue in service after F-X delays 154/45 F-15J/DJ 4 E-767 1 EC-1 13 E-2C 13 YS-11P/FC/NT/EA/EB 3+1 KC-767 29 U-125/A ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

C-1A/FTB C-130H 747-400 Gulfstream IV CH-47J UH-60J Beechcraft T-400 T/XT-4 T-7

Japanese Ground Self Defence Force 5 King Air 350/LR-2 9 MU-2 74 AH-1S, suggestions of AH-Z type upgrade instead of more Apaches 8+5 Ordered AH-64DJP, original requirement for 55 A/C dropped 54 CH-47J/JA 27 OH-1 111 OH-6D/J 146 UH-1H/J 29 UH-60JA 3 EC225LP

Japan Maritime Self Defence Force 94 EP-3C/UP-3D 4 Ordered P-1 MPA 94 P-3C, small portion stored 7 US-12/-2 10 YS-11T-A/M/M-A 4 Learjet 36 1 UP-3C 4+10 Ordered MCH/CH101, replacing MH-53E 10 MH-53E 91 SH/UH-60J/K 31 King Air 90 9 OH-6D/J 35 T-5 2 EC135T2i, 15 Required

NOTES: C-1A's, and older C-130H aircraft nearing the end of their service lives while. prototype twin-turbofan C-X which rolled out in 2007 and with 30-50 required. F-X is still suffering severe problems apparently stymied by F-22 export ban.


Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force 5 MiG-21PFM/U 1 An-26 10 An-2


6 1 7 9 4


Ka-32 An-74K-100 Mi-8 Mi-17 Z-9

NOTES: Declining serviceability across the board


Royal Malaysian Air Force

9 8 13/5 10

18 4 Ordered 10 6 1 1 10 1 4 28

2 10 8 2+6 Ordered 42 1 1 4 Ordered 2

F/RF-5E/F-5F F/A-18D Hawk 208/108 MiG-29N/UB, reduced to six in January 2010 Su-30MKM A400M C-130H/H-30/T CN-235-220M Falcon 900B F28-1000 Cessna 402 Global Express BD700 Mi-171Sh S-61A-4, 48 strong replacement delayed until 201314. Recent Airod offer of structural upgrade adding 10-15 years of life AS61N-1, VIP Transport SA316 MB339AM MB339CM PC-7/MkII B737 A319 A400M `S-70 VIP

Malaysia Army Air Corps 11 AW109H

Royal Malaysian Navy 6 AS.555SN 6 Super Lynx 300 4 King Air T200 MPA

NOTES: MiG-29Ns scheduled to be retired in 2010, citing high cost of maintenance with a requirement for 18 new multi-mission aircraft. AEW requirement key, although not expected to be pursued until after 2012. Recent Eurocopter EC-725 buy put on hold.

The last of JASDF’s F-15s was delivered by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1999. The aircraft will remain the premier air superiority for the Service until the delayed F-X programme delivers © DoD


Myanmar Air Force 20 A-5C 1 F-6 25 F-7M 4 G4 12 MiG-29B/UB, reports of further ten MiG-29SMT aircraft ordered in 2009 4 F27 2 C-212 6 Cessna 180 2 BN2 MPA 5 PC-6A/B 6 Bell 206 9 Mi-2 11 Mi-17V 9 SA316B 6 W-3/UT 6 FT-7 12 K-8 10 PC-7 7 PC-9

NOTES: Low levels of serviceability and funding undermine fleet capabilites.


Royal New Zealand Air Force 6 P-3K 2 757-200 5 C-130H 5 King Air 200 9 NH-90, operational from 2010 14 UH-1H, replaced by FEBRUARY 2010

5 Ordered

NH90s AW109, to replace B47Gs

Royal New Zealand Navy 5 SH-2G(NZ)

NOTES: No return to fast jet operations has been planned although the option has been mooted


Korean People's Air Force 100 F-5 98 F-6 180 F-7 80 H-5 30 MiG-21 50 MiG-23 40 MiG-29/UB 30 Su-7/22 34 Su-25 70 MD500D 70 Mi-2 30 Mi-8/17 15 Mi-24 30 FT-2 135 FT-5

NOTES: Dire levels of serviceability due to a variety of reasons, notably Russian arms embargo since 2006 suggest serviceability of less than 50 percent for most types.


Pakistan Air Force 39 A-5




144 42 18 Ordered 36 Ordered 10+140

92 60 1+3 Ordered 1

1+3 Ordered 16


F-7P/PG, due to be replaced by JF-17 from 2015 F/16AB, upgrade to Block 40 standard by TAI from October 2010 F-16C/D Block 52+, deliveries conclude in December 2010 FC-20/J-10B, to deliver in 2012 total requirement for up to 150 JF-17, speculation numbers could rise to over 250 Mirage IIIEL/EP/OF/RP Mirage 5EF/F/PA/DPA Saab 2000 AEW remainder due in 2010 Saab 2000 VIP, AEW training Il-78MK, refueling, remainder to be operational in in 2010 C-130B/E/L-100

A Pakistani F-7 over the Middle East during a multinational exercise in December Š DoD

3 4 1 3 3

1 5 3 3 10 20 9 7

707 Transport/VIP CN-235-220 Transport/VIP F27 Embraer Phenom Falcon 20/DA-20, ELINT/ ECM role King Air 200 AB205 IAR316 Mi-171 Mi-35 FT-5 FT-6 FT-7

30+3 Ordered 11 18

Pakistan Army 38 3 Ordered 15 22 15 50 16 30 10 2


K-8 SA316/319 T-37B/C

AH-1F/S AW139 Bell 206 Bell 412 UH-1/AB-205 Mi-17/172 SA316 SA330 AS550 Fennec Citation Bravo/V



2 2

3 1 2 12 6 2 24 10 52 13 25+18 Ordered 11 2 29

Turbo Commander 840 Y-12

Pakistan Navy 2 4+6 Ordered 4 2 4 8 6 3+3 Ordered

ATL-1 Atlantique P-3C Orion F27 MPA F27 P-3C SA319B Sea King Mk.45 Z-9C

NOTE S: Focusing on Il-78 operations in 2010. Renewed access to US technology bearing fruit with new F-16s although continued defence alignment with China is providing the bulk of future aircraft with the JF-17 and FC-20.

Philippines Army 1 UH-60A

Philippine Navy 7 BN-2 MPA 4 BO105


Philippines Air Force 11 OV-10A/C 1 F27 MPA

NOTES: Concentrating on renewal oflight attack and utility helicopters in next few







F27-200 F28-3000 C-130H Nomad 22B/C Bell 205A-1 Bell 212/214 MD-520MG S-76 UH-1H AS.211 SF260TP/MP/WP S-76 S-70A-5 VIP T.41




Republic of Singapore Air Force

4+20 Ordered

60 26/9 5 4 1+3 Ordered 4

5 4 5 20 32 20 10 18

F-15SG, delivery complete in 2012 F-16C/D Block 52 F-5S/T F50ME2 MPA F50 UTL G550 AEW E-2C, to be replaced by G550s KC-130B/H KC-135R C-130H AH-64D AS332M/532 CH-47D/SD AS.550A2/C2 TA-4SU, RSAF's training in Cazaux, France replace in 2011/12


19 5


PC-21 EC-120

Republic of Singapore Navy 6 S-70B NOTE S: The RSAF further added to their regional AEW dominance with deliveries of the G550 AEW. The Navy’s new S-70B gives an advanced ASW capability for their growing Navy.


Republic of Korea Air Force 145 F-4D/E/RF-4C 174 F-5E/F 39+21 Ordered F-15K 118/51 K/F-16C/D, KF-X delays may prompt AESA radar upgrade 4 Ordered 737 AEW 1 737 12 C-130H/H-30 20 CN-235-100/-220 2 AS332 12 BO105 18 HH-47D 7 Ka-32T 42 S-70A/V/HH-60P 12 UH-1H 16 Hawk 67 90 KT/KO-1 15 T-38A 25 T-50, of which 4 will be upgraded to F/A-50 by2012 with a requirement for 60-150 further A/C 3 S-92 VIP Republic of Korea Army 60 AH-1JF/J 23 CH-47D/DLR 257 MD500E/MD 88 UH-1H/N 113 UH-60P

Republic of Korea Navy 8 +7 Ordered P-3C 3 F406 24 Lynx Mk.99/A 5 SA319B 2 UH-1H 7+8 Ordered UH-60P/MH60S

NOTES: Requirement for 36 Korean Attack Helicopter planned for 2011 with deliveries


Singapore’s AH-64D fleet comprises the most capable attack helicopter in the region © AJB

from 2012-13. Mulling options for KF-X Phase 3 with the F-35 and F-15SE both options. Postponing mine counter measure helicopter programme. The 200+ KUH programme between Eurocopter and KAI still ongoing.


Sri Lankan Air Force 12 F-7/GS/BS 10 Kfir C2/7/(T)C2 1 MiG-23UB 7 MiG-27D 1 King Air 1300 7 An-32 2 C-130K C.1 1 Ce421 1 King Air 200T MPA 5 Bell 206A/B 9 Y-12 14 Bell 212/412EP 8+4 Ordered Mi-17/171/V-5 5/4 Mi-24V/P/N/-35P, one Mi-24 crashed in November 6+1 K-8

NOTES: Legacy aircraft are optimised for COIN and are aging. Priorities for the future include long range MPAs and a new fighter interceptor with the MiG-29 apparently favoured.


Republic of China Air Force 33 F-5E/F, being phased out 116/28 F-16A/B Block 20, requirement for 66 F-16C/Ds still outstanding 101/25 F-CK-1A/B 46/10 Mirage 2000-5EI/5DI, serviceability issues reported 11 Beech 1900C 6 E-2T/C Hawkeye 2000 20 C-130H, one A/C tasked with Elint with HE nomenclature 3 F.50 VIP 16 S-70C-1/1A/S-70C-6 ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

3 Ordered 51 40

S-92 AT-3A/B T-34C, known locally as US-1A

Republic of China Army 61 AH-1W 30 Ordered AH-64D Block III 8 CH-47SD 38 OH-58D 40 UH-1B/H 60 Pending UH-60

Republic of China Navy 13 S-2T ASW rapidly declining serviceability 8 MD500MD/ASW 18 S-70CM1/CM2 12 Ordered P-3T

NOTES: F-CK-1C/D upgrade is one future option while the upgrade of its four E-2T offers nearer term gains.


Royal Thai Air Force 28 F-5A/E/B/F serviceability dropping 57 F-16A/B, Falcon Up completed in February and Falcon Star begain in 2009, but planned MLU postponed 2+4 Ordered Gripen C/D, training begins in Sweden in 2010. Follow on order for six more A/C planned 1 Ordered Saab 340 AEW 1 Ordered Saab 340 2 Arava 201 7 BT-67/C-47TP 12 C-130H/H-30 6 Ordered CN-235 3 G222 4 HS748-208 2 737 1 A310 1 A319 4 ATR72-500



1 1 2 16 6 28 3 Ordered 19 36 18 18

King Air 90 Learjet 35A Merlin IV Nomad 22B DA42 Bell 212ST/412HP/SP/EP S-92 VIP Alpha Jet L-39ZA/ART PC-9M AU-23A armed PC-6 on COIN duty

Royal Thai Army 3 AH-1F operational status unclear 3 Bell 206/B-3 20 Bell 212 6 Ordered Mi-17 7+3 Ordered S-70A/UH-60L 80 UH-1H 3 CH-47D 10 U-17B 40 TH-300C

1+1 Ordered 2 2 2

ERJ135R C-212 VIP Beechcraft 1900C King Air 200

Royal Thai Navy 1 F27-200ME MPA 2 F27-200/400M 2 CL-215 1 ERJ135LR 2 P-3T/VP-3T 4 Nomad 24 7 Do 228-212 MPA 7 Bell 212/214ST 8+4 Ordered S-70B-7/MH-60S 6 S-76B 2+2 Super Lynx 110/300

NOTES: Reduced budgets are squeezing near term procurements notably in combat aircraft acquisition and upgrades.


Vietnamese People’s Air Force

120 22 4 +12 Ordered 11 4 12 1+6 Ordered 3

5 7 2 8 32 30 26


MiG-21L/N/UM Su-22J/K Su-30MK2V Su-27SK/UBK Be-12 An-26 PZL M-28, Polish version of STOL An-28 C-2121-400 MPA, under Police control Ka-25 Ka-28 Ka-32S W-3S/RM Mi-8/17Sh/172 Mi-24A/D L-39C

NOTES: A further Su-30MK2Vs are scheduled for delivery in 2010 giving Vietnam an anti-shipping capability. MiG-21 serviceability continues to decline with latest fatal MiG21UM crash in November. Requirement for C-130H/Js as VNAF-era Es unserviceable.

Integrated Airborne Weapon Systems

Firearms Tradition & Technological Innovation



Regional Infantry Fighting Vehicles:

From Battle

Taxi to Combat Partner The ongoing mechanisation of armed forces in the Asian Pacific region is seeing the acquisition of well armed wheeled and tracked Infantry Fighting Vehicles, frequently domestically designed and produced, to meet the evolving needs of the region, which also often emphasise amphibious operations, reflecting the complex terrain and diverse threats these vehicles are expected to overcome

by Christopher F Foss

FNSS Armoured Combat Vehicle 300 (ACV300) in service with Malaysia and armed with roof mounted Baktar Shikan ATGW from Pakistan Š FNSS





or many years armies in the region have deployed large numbers of fully tracked armoured personnel carriers (APC) such as the BAE Systems US Combat Systems M113 or the NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation) Type 63/Type 85. These APCs are well suited for the transport of infantry to as close to their objective as possible where they dismount and fight on foot. By today’s standards however, these APCs have limited firepower as they are normally only armed with a 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine gun (MG) with the gunner provided with little or no protection. In addition, the armour of the vehicle only provides protection against small arms fire and shell splinters. These basic APCs have now been supplemented in some countries in Asia by fully tracked, infantry fighting vehicles (IFV) that not only have higher levels of both ballistic protection and mobility but also feature significant increases in firepower.


These IFVs can keep up with Main Battle Tanks (MBT) and are normally fitted with a one or two person turret armed with a 20 to 30 mm cannon and a co-axial 7.62 mm MG. They are also often fitted with advanced day/night computerised fire control systems that enable a variety of battlefield targets to be successfully engaged under almost all

The new generation ZBD-04 IFV provides the PLA with a step change in its fighting capability

weather conditions when the IFV is stationary or moving. Some are also fitted with anti-tank guided weapons (ATGW) which enable MBTs and other battlefield targets to be engaged well beyond the range of the cannon. In the past, many of these APCs were fully amphibious being propelled in the

water by their tracks. However, many of the more recent IFVs now lack this amphibious capability due to the increased weight of the vehicle. In addition to being normally much heavier than earlier generation APC’s, these IFVs are more expensive to operate and maintain. For this reason, some countries are upgrading some of their older APC’s in the key areas of protection and firepower. Funding constraints mean that many of these older tracked APCs will soldier on in key support roles for many years to come and are typically used as troop carriers, ambulances, cargo carriers, command posts and mortar vehicles. For many years, China has been self-sufficient in the design, development and production of full tracked APCs and more recently IFVs, for both the home and export markets. The NORINCO WZ501 was the first IFV to be introduced into service with the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) and is also



Visit us at: Singapore Airshow, 2-7 Feb, Singapore Booth No. p57 w w w. p l a s a n . c o m



The Chinese WZ501 IFV is a direct copy of the Russian BMP-1 although China has developed a number of more specialised versions Š NORINCO

referred to as the Type 86 with about 1,000 believed to be in service. This is essentially a reverse engineered Russian BMP-1 IFV and is fitted with a one person turret armed with 73 mm low velocity gun, 7.62 mm co-axial MG and a Red Arrow 73 (an improved Russian Sagger) ATGW launcher rail mounted over the 73 mm gun. Some WZ501 IFV have been upgraded with a new turret armed with a 30

mm cannon, 7.62 mm co-axial MG and roof mounted Red Arrow 73 ATGW while others have been modified for an enhanced amphibious capability. Shown for the first time in Beijing in October was the new generation ZBD-04 IFV that provides the PLA with a step change in its fighting capability. This is a brand new tracked chassis fitted with a turret that is based on that fitted to the Russian BMP-3 IFV.

This is armed with a 100 mm gun, 30 mm co-axial cannon and a 7.62 mm co-axial MG and like the Russian BMP-3, is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by two water jets positioned one either side at the rear of the hull. China has also recently fielded an airborne assault vehicle called the ZBD-03 that is fitted with a one person turret armed with a 30 cannon, 7.62 mm co-axial MG and a ATGW launcher. The Indian Army purchased a significant quantity of Russian BMP-1 IFVs and these remain in service and this was followed by local production of the more advanced Russian BMP-2 IFV under the local name of Sarath. This was manufactured under licence by the Government owned Ordnance Factory Medak and it is estimated that about 1,500 vehicles were built. In addition to the baseline BMP-2 IFV, India developed and placed in production a number of specialised variants of the Sarath IFV such as ambulance, command post vehicle, engineer vehicle and mortar carrier. Much modified Sarath chassis has also been developed for more specialised roles such as missile launch platforms. The Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has The standard IFV of the Indian Army is the Russian BMP-2 which has been manufactured under licence as the Sarath Š Indian MoD






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developed the Abhay IFV with two prototypes being built and tested but it is understood that there are no immediate plans for this to enter production. For many years the US supplied M113 was the standard APC of the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army but this has now been supplemented by the Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle (KIFV) which has been developed under the leadership of the now Doosan Infracore Defense Products. It is estimated that about 2,000 have been supplied to the ROK Army in various configurations with export sales having been made to Malaysia who took delivery of 111 units. Late in 2009, the first production Doosan Infracore Defense Products’ Next Infantry Fighting Vehicle (NIFV), or K21 as it is also referred to, rolled off the production line. This represents a step change for the ROK due to its significant increase in armour, mobility and firepower. The K21 has a combat weight of about 26 tonnes and is fitted with a two person turret armed with a 40 mm cannon, 7.62 mm coaxial MG and a twin launcher for ATGW on left side of turret. Unlike many other vehicles of this weight class, it can be amphibious with preparation. The ROK also operates about 60 Russian BMP-3 IFV which were supplied as part of debt repayment. Pakistan manufactured the BAE Systems, US Combat Systems M113A2 series APC for

The Chinese YW309 is essentially a locally developed chassis fitted with the complete turret of the WZ501 IFV armed with 73 mm gun. 7.62 mm coaxial MG and launch rail over 73 mm gun for an ATGW Š NORINCO

many years at the Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) facility and has developed an increasing number of more specialised versions to meet the specific requirements of the Pakistan Army. Further development at the HIT has resulted in Talha APC which is similar is some respects to the US Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) and is already in service with Pakistan with a batch also pro-

Republic of Korea operates a fleet of US supplied AAV7A1 amphibious assault vehicles with this photo showing the specialised command version



vided to Iraq. A more recent version is the Saad which is essentially a stretched version with six road wheel stations either side for more volume and payload. To meet an urgent operational requirement Malaysia purchased 111 Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicles for deployment to the Balkans and these remain in service. More recently Malaysia has started to acquire significant quantities of the Turkish FNSS Savunma Sistemleri Armoured Combat Vehicle (ACV). The first order was for 211 units in ten versions that were delivered from 2002 with a follow on order placed in 2008 for another 48 units which are now being delivered. Within the original batch of 211, are some IFVs fitted with a one person Sharpshooter turret armed with a 25 mm cannon and 7.62 mm co-axial MG as well as some anti-tank vehicles fitted with the Pakistani Baktar Shikan ATGW which is a further development of the Chinese Red Arrow 8 system. In addition to the second batch of 48 units, Malaysia is also taking delivery of eight ACV Stretched (ACV-S) which are armed with the French TDA 120mm 120R 2M recoiling mortar system. For many years the standard full tracked APC of the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) was the BAE Systems, US Combat Systems



M113 series APC and most of this fleet has been upgraded under the leadership of Singapore Technologies Kinetics (STK). This major upgrade covered armour, mobility and firepower with all vehicles now returned to front line service. Firepower enhancements include installation of a locally developed cupola armed with a .50 MG and a 40mm automatic grenade launchers (AGL) with another version fitted with a RAFAEL Advanced Defense Systems Overhead Weapon Station (OWS) armed with an ATK 25mm cannon and 7.62mm co-axial MG. The upgraded M113A2 of the SAF has now been supplemented by the locally developed STK Bionix IFV that has a crew of three and can carry seven fully equipped troops. It has a typical combat weight of 23 tonnes, depending on the version, and with some preparation is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by its tracks. One version of Bionix has the same cupola as fitted to the upgraded M113 of the SAF

and is armed with a .50 MG and 40mm AGL while the second version has a two person turret armed with an ATK 25mm M242 cannon and 7.62mm co-axial MG. In addition, both versions can be fitted with two 7.62mm MGs over the rear troop compartment. The latest version is the Bionix II which features a two person turret armed with an 30 mm MK44 cannon and 7.62 mm co-axial

The upgraded M113A2 of the SAF has now been supplemented by the locally developed STK Bionix IFV

MG. The SAF has also fielded a number of specialised versions of the Bionix including an armoured vehicle launched bridge, a repair and recovery vehicle and more recently the Trailblazer mine clearing system.

Amphibious vehicles

While most countries in Asia have a coast-

line, many of the countries often have a large number of islands and for this reason an increasing number of countries in the region are deploying specialised amphibious vehicles of various types and capability. For many years the PLA has deployed the Type 63 light amphibious tank and the Type 77 amphibious APC. The Type 63 light tank has also been upgraded with improved firepower (105 mm gun) and enhanced amphibious capabilities. Chinese amphibious capabilities have recently taken a major leap forward with the introduction of the new generation ZBD-05 amphibious assault vehicle that made it first public appearance in Beijing on 1st October 2009. In many respects this is very similar in concept to the much delayed US Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) and features a high water speed that allows it to be launched by landing craft some distance off shore. The baseline version is fitted with a two man turret armed with a 30 mm cannon and

Better Stronger Nexter





7.62 mm co-axial MG and a latest generation Red Arrow 73 ATGW being mounted either side. There are also a number of other versions including a fire support model fitted with a turret armed with a 105 mm gun and 7.62 mm co-axial MG which is designated the ZTD-05 which is already operational. Indonesia was the first customer for the French Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marine which is a further development of the AMX10P tracked IFV originally developed to meet the requirements of the French Army. This has been modified for use in the harsher marine involvement with much enhanced amphibious capabilities. Indonesia took delivery of a total of 34 AMX-10P Marine in two versions. The first 24 were fitted with a one person Nexter turret armed with a .50 MG with the remaining ten fitted with a Nexter Systems TS90 two person turret armed with a long barrelled 90mm gun and 7.62mm co-axial MG. The Indonesian Marines also operate a fleet of about 150 PT-76 light amphibious tanks and BTR-50P APCs which share many common automotive components. Some of these vehicles have already been upgraded in a number of key areas to extend their operational lives. Indonesia has recently taken delivery of a small batch of Amphibious Assault Vehicle 7A1 (AAV7A1) vehicles from the ROK. It is estimated that the Republic of Korea (ROK) Marines operate a fleet of over 150 now BAE Systems US Combat Systems, Landing Vehicle Tracked Personnel 7, or AAV7 as they are now

Indonesian Marines operates a number of these French Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marine fitted with a one person turret armed with a .50 MG Š Nexter Systems

officially referred to today. First vehicles came from the US production line but subsequently, production was undertaken in South Korea by Samsung Techwin and these have been upgraded with the Enhanced Applique Armour Kit (EAAK). The Philippines also have a marine force and in addition to 24 US supplied LAV-300 (6 x 6) vehicles they also operate some old US supplied Land Vehicle Tracked Personnel 5 (LVTP5) amphibious assault vehicles which are now some 50 years old. The Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) has

Indonesia has recently taken delivery of a small batch of Amphibious Assault Vehicle 7A1 (AAV7A1) vehicles from the ROK

Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marine with two person 90 mm turret is only deployed by Indonesia and Singapore and shown here with trim vane erected Š Nexter Systems



had an amphibious capability for some years and deploys a fleet of 44 Nexter Systems AMX-10P marine vehicles that were delivered between 1993 and 1994. Of the 44 AMX-10P marines, 22 are fitted with the Nexter TS90 turret and the 22 vehicles fitted with a Dragar one person turret armed with a 25 mm cannon and 7.62 mm MG. Taiwan still operates the remains of about 150 US supplied LVTP-5 family of tracked amphibious which have been upgraded as well as about 54 of the more recent and more capable AAV7A1 which came from US Marine stocks and upgraded prior to delivery. Finally Thailand has a significant marine force who equipment includes LAV-150 (4 x 4) Commando vehicles as well as one amphibious assault battalion equipped with 33 US supplied AAV7A1 amphibious assault vehicles.

In association with

15th - 16th April, Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi


For Speaking, Sponsorship and Exhibiting Opportunities, Contact: Manish Chhetri, email : Vijo Mathew, email : Mobile : 9871234381


ROSOBORONEXPORT Indispensable in training, effective in the battle

EFEXPO INDIA, the international land and naval systems exhibition held biennially in Delhi, India, is one of the most representative arms shows in the Asia-Pacific region. Russia's companies have constantly participated in this show since its first edition in 2000. At Defexpo India 2010 Rosoboronexport will present the best products from the domestic defense-industrial complex. Particularly, S-400 Triumph SAM system, Mangust, Svetlyak and Mirazh patrol boats, and the upgraded BMP-3M infantry fighting vehicle. Besides land and naval systems Indian military have a strong interest in the latest combat training aircraft – Yak-130. The aircraft has been selected as a main vehicle for basic and advanced Russian Air Force pilot training. Various nations Russia's traditional partners in militarytechnical cooperation - have already stressed their strong interest in this aircraft. The reason is obvious, as according to a lot of specialists the aircraft has no match in its class. In fact the Yak-130 is a modern aircraft suitable for pilot training for modern and future Russian and non-Russian aircraft, including high speed maneuverable combat training under heavy loading and large angles of attack, and in any weather conditions. The air-intake screens and chassis design, as well as take-off and landing characteristics, allow the use of the aircraft from non-paved airstrips. The aircraft life-cycle is over 10,000 flying hours with an airframe life-cycle over of 30 years without overhaul. The Yak-130 has excellent flight safety provision, with two reliable engines as well as the duplication of all the main systems. This is a crucial factor for the young trainee pilots, to reassure them with an aircraft of ultimate reliability.The Yak-130 has been also equipped with a fly-by-wire control system to provide the variation in stability and controllability parameters appropriate to different aircraft. The specialized onboard imitation system provides air combat simulation of a wide range of scenarios including maneuverable and jamming air targets interception, as well as cooperation with other friendly aircraft, and aerial and ground command posts. Apart

Yak-130 ADVANCED COMBAT TRAINER from providing high-efficient combat training, the Yak-130 can be also used as a light combat aircraft (against armed groups for example).To fulfill various combat missions the Yak-130 has 9 suspension points to carry up to a 3,000 kg payload of weaponry including highly-efficient guided missiles, unguided rockets, guided and conventional air bombs. The aircraft has been also equipped with a gun mount. Apart from the weaponry the suspension points are intended for additional fuel tanks as well as for various targeting, reconnaissance and jamming devices. The glass cockpit concept has been fully implemented in the Yak-130. Each cockpit possesses liquid crystal multifunctional color displays without electromechanical instruments, while the front cockpit also features an additional head-up display. The aircraft is also equipped with a helmetmounted aiming system. The clear design and improved reliability of the airframe, power plant and onboard systems provide longer service life and total aircraft efficiency. High operational and technological effectiveness, teamed with low life-cycle cost and outstanding flight performance, ensure top-class flight training in the shortest possible time. According to the international experts, the Russian-made Yak-130 has brilliant capabilities for a variety of pilot training. The AMR Marketing Promotion

aircraft can be equipped with any system according to the specific customers' requirements. Successful airframe design, high aerodynamic characteristics and modern onboard equipment allow the Yak130 to be used as a basis for an aircraft family, including light attack, reconnaissance and jamming, as well as a shipborne combat trainer. Not an insignificant argument, one could admit. The Yak-130 combat trainer is exported by the Russian State Corporation Rosoboronexport. Rosoboronexport is the sole state company in Russia authorized to export the full range of defense-related and dual-use products, technologies and services. The official status of Rosoboronexport secures the guaranteed state support in all export operations. Rosoboronexport is ranked among the major companies on the global arms market and accounts for over 80% of Russia's annual arms sales. Russia maintains military-technical cooperation with over 70 countries worldwide. Rosoboronexport aims to develop new lines and forms of military-technical cooperation and invites its current and future customers to establish long-term, mutually beneficial relations that will guarantee successful solutions to defense and security problems.


Urban ISTAR:

Keeping a

Wary Eye

on Complex

Environments The face of modern warfare is changing rapidly, and technology is developing apace as armed forces demand greater capabilities in order to undertake more effective operations in complex environments at low risk to themselves.

by John Mulberry

Honeywell’s T-Hawk is a small VTOL UAV designed for urban operations Š DoD




ne of the biggest growth areas in defence technology in recent years has been the rapid modernisation of intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (ISTAR) technology. ISTAR systems have become increasingly central to modern warfare. By linking several battlefield functions together, ISTAR technology provides a massive increase in information on enemy targets, giving combat forces greater situational awareness and understanding of enemy intent. The ability to gather information on enemy targets while remaining physically removed from the battlefield itself has proved a significant advantage to forces operating in both Iraq and Afghanistan. However, armed forces are increasingly finding that combat is moving away from the wide open battlefields that ISTAR technology was originally developed for, and into urban environments. It is projected that by the middle of this century around two-thirds of the world’s population will live in towns and cities. As a result engagements in urban terrain are likely to increase in number and frequency. Developing the ability to engage effective combat against armed forces that are prepared to use heavily populated civilian urban areas as a means of ‘force protection’ and tool of propaganda is the biggest challenge facing modern armed forces. A small scale demonstration of the difficulties in accurate targeting in urban territory where hostile forces are intermingled with the civilian population can be seen in the Lebanon War in 2006 and the more recent Operation Cast Lead in Gaza. Such requirements are spurring rapid development of ISTAR tech-


Elbit Systems Hermes 450 is seeing much use in Afghanistan. © Elbit Systems

nology in to these complex environments. Acknowledging this change in potential operating environments the industrial armies of Asia are looking to develop better ISTAR capabilities. Learning the lessons of the various Israel Defence Force operations and those of the coalitions in Afghanistan and Iraq is central to that. An examination of those operations shows several clear ISTAR gaps that must be narrowed.

Aerial ISTAR systems

For armed forces, the urban area is a highly unstable and dangerous battlefield. In the effort to undertake surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance so that battle commanders can speed up and enhance their decision making processes, aerial ISTAR technologies are becoming pivotal as network enabled capabilities are fielded within the battlespace. The past decade has seen a boom in unmanned air vehicle (UAV) technology as armed forces around the world recognise

General Atomics Predator B has been used to observe both urban and rural environments © DoD


their potential to enhance ISTAR capabilities. Regionally, almost every armed force is either already fielding this technology, or has earmarked it as a focus of future networkenabled capabilities. The three UAV platforms most in demand are the Israeli Aerospace Industries (IAI) Heron system; the General Atomics Reaper MQ-9 (also known as Predator B); and the Elbit Systems Hermes 450; all of which are currently deployed in ISTAR capacities for armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Heron, a long-endurance mediumaltitude (MALE) UAV has an endurance of up to 52 hours at an altitude of 35,000ft. It is

It is projected that by the middle of this century around two-thirds of the world’s population will live in towns and cities

used for land surveillance, maritime patrol missions, and wide-area real-time intelligence. The updated Heron TP (or ‘Eitan’) provides enhanced capabilities, including the ability to fly at 45,000ft on ISTAR missions spanning several days. It is able to carry over 1,000kg of sensors, and is equipped with multiple datalinks, supporting line-of-sight (LOS) and beyond line-ofsight (BLOS) links via satellite communications. The Heron in its various guises is used by several countries in Asia including Australia and Singapore. The Reaper MQ-9 MALE can carry out surveillance at an altitude of 50,000ft, and is superior to the Heron in its sensor payload. The air-



craft is a medium-to-high altitude hunterkiller system, providing real-time data to commanders and intelligence specialists via a sophisticated sensor suite. Imagery is provided by an infrared sensor, a colour / monochrome daylight TV and an image-intensified TV, viewable individually or as a fused stream via the IR sensor. The laser rangefinder/designator provides the capability to precisely designate targets for laser-guided munitions, and synthetic aperture radar enables Joint Direct Attack Munitions targeting. The Reaper is being extensively used by US forces in Afghanistan and Central Intelligence Agency-operated aircraft are also believed to be in operation in Pakistan’s border areas. The performance of the system has led to enquiries by several Asian nations about its potential availability. However, General Atomics has yet to find any Asian customer that the US government is willing to release the sensitive technology to. India, South Korea and Singapore are all believed to have expressed some interest in the UAV. The Elbit Systems Hermes 450 is a versatile long-endurance UAV, and is widely accepted as the leading long-endurance tactical UAV in its class. With a multi-payload capability of up to 150kg and endurance of up to 20 hours, the Hermes 450 is a sophisticated ISTAR platform, designed to be integrated with existing and future capabilities.

Armed forces are increasingly looking for technology that can be deployed quickly by company-level or below ground forces

Onboard sensors are comprised of EO/IR, synthetic aperture radar and electronic surveillance and communications equipment. Information is transmitted via line-of-sight datalink to the ground station and rapidly processed, providing intelligence for armed forces in a range of environments. The UAV is being offered to fulfil an outstanding Australian requirement, while several other nations in Asia have procured the aircraft.

Next-generation capabilities

These systems, among others, have contributed greatly to the changing nature of modern warfare in traditional battle zones. However, the difficulties of effective operation in urban environments are forcing ISTAR technology to advance in new directions. Armed forces are increasingly looking for technology that can be deployed quickly by company-level or below ground forces within urban areas to tackle the evolving threats faced there, such as identifying marksmen,

The CamCopter S-100 VTOL UAV has had procurement success in a number of countries Š Schiebel



roadside bombs, and armed militia. However, while these systems remain the safest way for armed forces to gain intelligence on enemy targets, their large size, and associated equipment required for operation (such as launch and recovery systems) mean that they are not as well suited for use within urban areas as various other systems currently being developed. One area which is being explored by defence companies is vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAVs. As a result of the relatively low technology levels required in order to enter the UAV market, there are numerous technologies being developed and marketed to armed forces in the region. These UAVs are designed to be light and small enough to be deployed by ground troops to establish situational awareness in dense urban environments. Within a range of hostile situations these systems provide intelligence and reconnaissance information gathering, target detection and surveillance, battle damage assessment, sending real-time video of target to command and control via satellite, giving battle commanders real-time knowledge of the battle ground. A major leader in the VTOL field is the Schiebel CamCopter. The CamCopter S-100 medium-range, medium-endurance VTOL UAV is a highly versatile and autonomous compact helicopter aerial vehicle, designed to be fitted with a variety of payloads in accordance with diverse user requirements.


It can fly both autonomously, via a pointand-click graphical user interface; and can also be directed manually at any time during the mission to inspect unknown objects or in reaction to opportunity targets. The system is automatically stabilised during flight via redundant Inertial Navigation Systems (INS); and navigates via redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. The other advanced autonomous VTOL system available for military use is the SAAB Skeldar. Adaptable for different payloads and able to be integrated into operators’ existing systems, the Skeldar’s avionics include redundant computers, GPS receivers, air-data system and magnetic heading indicator, allowing fully autonomous operation. Communication is achieved via highly secure direct links containing sensor and command and control data; and the vehicle is designed to carry a range of COTS payloads, such as EO/IR, SAR and EW sensors, as well as being designed for ready integration of future sensors and upgrading.

Perch and stare

However, even these systems are relatively large and can only be operated with higher echelon support. There are many challenges in developing VTOLs that provide a balance between advanced capabilities and operation in tactical environments. Ideally, armed forces require technology with ‘perch and stare’ capabilities limiting the need for overhead dwell time by allowing systems to land on buildings and still provide accurate sensor data; the major challenge in this area is the high level of autonomy required by the vehicles to maximise their abilities within the battlefield. Perch and stare VTOLs require the ability The Heron UAV is one of the most successful UAVs in the region © IAI

Skeldar is one of a new tranche of VTOL UAVs suitable for urban environments © Saab

to take off and fly autonomously to the destination with collision avoidance capabilities to prevent crashes with buildings, trees, and other aircraft; as well as deal with factors that might disturb flight such as strong gusts of wind. It will require the intelligence to land safely in suitable observational areas, power down; relay intelligence, then power up, return to base and land; in other words, it will have to virtually ‘think for itself’. On the smaller end of the scale is the Honeywell Tarantula (T)-Hawk VTOL micro air vehicle. The T-Hawk is designed to be carried in a backpack and deployed by ground troops for a range of surveillance operations, mainly for the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). By flying ahead and using its tilting camera allow its remote operator to watch for signs of disturbed earth that signifies roadside bombs – work that is currently carried out by troops with metal detectors. Although a US system T-Hawk is believed to be on offer on the international market. Within Asia it has a number of competitors. Singapore Technologies in particular has a continuing development path for small VTOL UAVs and other companies in the region such as CyberTechnologies are also developing a number of innovative quad-rotor based systems – the largest difficulty with such systems is ensuring that the control laws for such complex flight work perfectly.

Unmanned ground vehicles

IEDs, or roadside bombs, are one of the biggest threats to troop survivability within hostile urban environments, as the use of unconventional warfare tactics become more prolific, as is the case currently in Iraq and Afghanistan. While the deployment of VTOL systems is increasing, the use of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) is also becoming more prevalent. One of the most advanced UGV systems in operation with combat troops in urban areas is the iRobot Packbot. The Packbot is a 44lb robot that moves on heavy, treaded wheels



and ‘flipper’ appendages, capable of climbing and descending staircases thanks to its internal gyroscopic system that reads pitch control and roll coordinates and shifts the units weight and centre of gravity as required. The system can be deployed in any situation where reconnaissance cannot be safely carried out by ground troops, for example, to scout buildings, uncertain terrain, or to approach, assess, and if possible disarm, explosives. Packbots are controlled by remote console which receives data from the cameras and sensors fitted to the Packbot via a radio or fibre optic connection. The Packbot has been purchased by a number of countries in Asia. The Australian Army is set to deploy the system and the Singapore Armed Forces are also examining the use of the UGV for Third Generation Armed Forces. Another recent development has been the

One of the most advanced UGV systems in operation with combat troops in urban areas is the iRobot Packbot

increased use of stationary sensors for small units. The US is in the process of developing its Unattended Ground Sensor system — basic ruggedised day and night cameras. Other such systems being developed include spherical rugged cameras that can be thrown in to buildings to give better situational awareness. The large variety of urban ISTAR systems under development means that such systems are likely to proliferate in Asian armed forces. UAVs have already become an important ISTAR capability for countries in the region with the focus now turning to smaller VTOL systems for urban deployment. In addition, armed forces in the region are likely to also look at procuring UGVs and other sensors.

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Port & Maritime Security:

Challenges and Approaches in

Ensuring ports and sea lanes are secure and free from interference is a key objective of policy makers in the region. A growing proportion of national resources are being focussed on this objective, using both military and other means, coupled with an increased awareness of the benefits of international co-operation in achieving their goals.

by Gordon Arthur

The US Navy has an extensive presence in the Western Pacific. Here the guided missile frigate USS Ford arrives in Brunei for the annual CARAT exercise Š Gordon Arthur



he Asia-Pacific region is ocean-centric, and the importance of the sea will grow as economies expand and global trade continues apace. For example, it is predicted the combined Gross Domestic Product of China, India and Japan will surpass that of the US and Europe by 2015. Equipped with complex vessels and technologies, navies have traditionally focused on military roles, but policing the sea has become more challenging under a post-Cold War security regime. Maritime threats like terrorism, gunrunning, piracy, environmental degradation, natural disasters, and human and narcotics smuggling have spawned a range of new tasks for navies and paramilitary groups like coast guards. In an examination of Asia-Pacific maritime security, this article looks at three potential sea-based flashpoints. These three sources of regional tension are interspersed with two case studies looking at what security measures ports are taking.










Flashpoint 1 – Malacca Strait

Southeast Asian sea lanes of communication (SLOC) converge on the Malacca and Singapore Straits. The 900km-long Malacca Strait is the world’s second busiest waterway, with China now surpassing Japan as its biggest user. More than 40 percent of global shipping tonnage passes through it, amounting to approximately 63,000 vessels per year. Meanwhile, oil transits at a rate triple that of the Suez Canal and Sumed pipeline. Nowadays, many countries find their naval forces are performing more of a constabulary role. Subscribing to this trend, Malaysia set up a de facto coast guard in the guise of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) in November 2005. The Malacca Strait falls under the jurisdiction of the littoral states of Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, though the latter is the weak link. Indonesia has a 5,000,000km_ land and maritime area to protect, but its military lacks equipment and resources to police it - a mere 30 percent of Indonesia’s naval fleet is estimated to be fully operational at any one time. A spokesman from the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) stated, “Regional cooperation is crucial for ensuring maritime security in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore.” Indeed, the greatest example of Asian multilateral security cooperation is probably witnessed here. Malacca Strait Sea Patrols (MSSP) by Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore began in mid-2004, with Thailand signing up for these patrols from 2009. In September 2005, these same countries commenced Eyes in the Sky (EiS) combined maritime air patrols. Until today, the issue of “hot pursuit” remains sensitive, with naval vessels not permitted to enter a neighbour’s territory when interdicting suspects. Such obsessions about national sovereignty offer criminals

Helicopters are an extremely versatile asset for maritime security. This is an SH-2G Super Seasprite of the Royal New Zealand Navy © Gordon Arthur

loopholes. Because of their reliance on the Malacca Strait, regional countries have a vested interest in the security of this strategic lifeline. While the three littoral states agree the international community has a role to play, they are also adamant security measures should respect their national sovereignty. Although various countries have offered to conduct security patrols, these requests are all swiftly rebuffed. India has a “Look East” policy, and since September 2004 it has been conducting joint patrols with Indonesia of the Six Degree Channel, a waterway between India’s Nicobar Islands and Aceh. While Somali pirates grab current head-

Many countries find their naval forces are performing more of a constabulary role


lines, piracy has been a traditional vocation in Southeast Asia. From 1991-2001, 66 percent of the 2,357 pirate attacks worldwide occurred in Southeast Asia. Piracy reached a peak of 220 attacks in 2000. However, the Malacca Strait is an example of what security cooperation can do, with the incidence of regional pirate attacks dropping steadily to just 70 in 2008. Typical pirate suspects are small-scale criminals or crime syndicates based mostly in Indonesia. Asian concern about shipping threats is demonstrated in the unprecedented number of nations sending naval contingents across the Indian Ocean to protect national interests. The USA fears a linkup between piracy and international terrorism, but thus far no hard evidence has connected the two phenomena. Maritime terrorism is a threat, but it represents a low-proba-











bility high-impact scenario. Threats include hijacking of an LPG carrier for use as a floating bomb, or the detonation of a dirty bomb. Perhaps the biggest fear is the hijacking of a cruise liner. A vessel sunk in the narrow Singapore Strait would have a dire effect on passage flows. These fears are not just academic, for Singapore authorities arrested Jemaah Islamiyah members with a Phillips Channel “strategic kill zone” mapped out. Asian maritime terrorism has so far been limited to ferry bombings or bomb-laden smallboat attacks, such as have occurred in the Philippines.

Port Case Study 1 – Singapore

Singapore is the world’s second busiest port, handling 29,918,200 containerised Twentyfoot Equivalent Units (TEU) in 2008. Around 132,000 vessels visit Singapore annually, with approximately 1,000 ships in port simultaneously. In an interview, an MPA spokesman stated, “As a shipping nation and major hub port, Singapore takes a serious view of all potential threats to shipping, and implements the necessary measures to ensure maritime and port security.” Such steps include creating prohibited areas around sensitive oil installations or naval bases. Another is redesignating shipping routes to minimise large and small craft convergence. Singapore has also formed what it calls Accompanying Sea Security Teams (ASSeT), the marine equivalent of air marshals. ASSeT detachments board selected ships such as cruise liners to safeguard their passage.

A JMSDF P-3C maritime patrol aircraft releases flares. Such surveillance aircraft are extremely valuable in protecting territorial waters © Gordon Arthur

Singapore also legislated beyond the minimum International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) and Automatic Identification System (AIS) codes by introducing the Harbour Craft Transponder System (HARTS). HARTS tracks vessels smaller than 300 tons (for example, ferries and pleasure craft) within port limits. This is logical, since smaller vessels are most likely to be employed by terrorists. All 2,800 Singapore-licensed harbour craft have transponders, the system being operational since January 2007. Underscoring the notion that maritime security is a joint responsibility for a wide variety of agencies, the MPA spokesman revealed, “Interagency coordination is a critical factor for the effective implementation of maritime security. Our security measures are thoroughly discussed at one or more of the interagency committees set up to oversee maritime security at a national level. On the ground, there is also close cooperation among all the agencies concerned, mainly the Police

This kind of Swedish-designed CB 90 HEX fast patrol boat of the Royal Malaysian Navy is suitable for coastal patrol and interdiction © Gordon Arthur



Coast Guard, Republic of Singapore Navy, Immigration and Checkpoints Authority, Singapore Customs, and MPA.”

Flashpoint 2 – Spratly Islands and South China Sea

A significant Asian security challenge stems from longstanding territorial disputes over mineral-rich waters in the South China Sea. Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam contest ownership of the Spratly Islands. Based on what it calls a “historical right”, China claims virtually all the South China Sea as its EEZ, although such a claim is unsupportable under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Introduced in February 1992, the Law of the PRC on the Territorial Waters and Contiguous Areas stipulates China has the right to use force to protect its Spratly Islands claims. China has previously used force in the South China Sea, grabbing the Paracel Islands in 1974 during the dying days of the South Vietnam government, while in 1988 it briefly confronted Vietnam. China is investing heavily in its military, including establishing a major People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) base on Hainan Island for its South Sea Fleet. The PLAN does not have the necessary power projection capability to gain regional hegemony, but it is still considerably stronger than other Southeast Asian navies. Vietnam is modernising its military and recent purchases should deter presumptive Chinese actions. The acquisition of six Kilo-class submarines was announced in April 2009, with the first two to be delivered in 2010. In May 2009 Vietnam announced a contract for twelve Su30MK2V fighters in addition to four already in service. This shows Vietnam is serious about maintaining a presence in the South China Sea in the face of Chinese expansionism.


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) tends to be an ineffectual body, and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) dedicated to security matters is also toothless. The ARF even acceded to Chinese requests that the Spratly Islands issue not be discussed! Since mineral resources are the reason these countries are interested in the Spratlys, resolution probably rests in negotiating agreements based on shared resource extraction. At the present time, no country is willing to compromise its territorial claim and so an uneasy status quo exists. For now, the Spratly Islands fortunately remain a political rather than a military issue.

Flashpoint 3 – East Asia

The greatest Southeast Asian threats may be from non-state actors, but naval confrontations loom larger in East Asia. Japan faces a range of maritime security threats, including South Korean and Chinese island territorial disputes. In December 2001, a North Korean

India has a “Look East” policy, and since September 2004 it has been conducting joint patrols with Indonesia

spy ship entered Japan’s EEZ, and was sunk after it put up armed resistance. In 2004, the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) tracked a PLAN Han-class nuclearpowered submarine trespassing in Japanese waters. There is mistrust between Japan and China, although Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama is making extraordinary diplomatic efforts to reshape this relationship. Japan also illustrates another challenge, the spectre of jurisdictional or professional competition. Japan operates both the JMSDF and the Coast Guard (JCG), with the former consuming the lion’s share of the budget. In FY2009, the JMSDF budget was JPY1,069.9







billion, compared to just JPY182.422 for the JCG. This marked disparity has led to JCG dissatisfaction. Other international tensions exist between China and Taiwan, centred on the former’s threat to take Taiwan by force. Although friction diminished after Ma Ying-jeou was elected Taiwanese president, China regularly rattles its sabre to encourage reunification of this “renegade” island, backing its demands with significant East Sea Fleet naval assets. A further source of tension is a bellicose nucleararmed North Korea. On 10th November 2009, there was a clash in the Yellow Sea when a North Korean patrol boat strayed across the Northern Limit Line. This was the first confrontation between North and South Korean vessels in seven years, and under modified rules of engagement the South Korean vessel fired first without having to consult Seoul politicians. Although an isolated naval incident, this gunfight highlights that the Korean Peninsular is a tinderbox.

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Port Case Study 2 –Hong Kong

Like Singapore, Hong Kong is a megaport, with 31 port facilities that handled 24,494,000 TEUs in 2008. Although the PLAN has a small HK-based contingent, the Hong Kong Police Force’s (HKPF) Marine Region is the territory’s primary maritime law enforcement agency. Marine Region is tasked with ensuring the security and integrity of HK waters with a fleet of 137 craft and 2,914 personnel, making this police unit larger than some smaller AsiaPacific navies! An important function of the Marine Police is performing anti-smuggling, anti-illegal immigration and port control operations. HK waters are continually monitored by infrared cameras and radar systems. An HKPF spokesman revealed, “Each year, Marine Region stops and searches around 100,000 vessels and conducts approximately 7,0008,000 operations.” Smuggling is a major concern in Asia, whether in drugs, weapons, people or goods. In HK, smuggling is generally confined to profiteering. In terms of antiterrorism efforts, Marine Region audits security plans to “ensure a coordinated and robust response for the prevention and protection of port facilities against terrorist attacks.”

The role of the US

The US is undisputed champion of the world’s oceans. Boasting around 60 vessels

and 350 aircraft, the Seventh Fleet is the US Navy’s largest forward-deployed group. Regularly crisscrossing the Western Pacific, the Seventh Fleet’s core is based in Japan. The USA announced its Regional Maritime Security Initiative (RMSI) in 2004, introducing a sea-based strategy revolving around partnerships that monitor and act against maritime threats. However, Admiral Thomas Fargo’s RMSI created a lot of regional resentment at the time, as many countries felt it impinged upon national sovereignty.

China has previously used force in the South China Sea, grabbing the Paracel Islands in 1974

Perhaps the key maritime security relationship to watch in the future is that between China and the US. It remains to be seen whether it will be defined by rivalry or cooperation. The US bemoans China’s lack of transparency regarding its military build-up, and several incidents have occurred that signal an inherent level of suspicion. The most recent occurred in March 2009 when five Chinese vessels aggressively hounded the American surveillance ship Impeccable in international waters south of Hainan.

Another patrol boat, this time from the Philippine Navy. The southern Philippines is extremely porous, a weakness terrorist groups regularly exploit © Gordon Arthur




Container security currently consumes 10.6 percent of Asian homeland security expenditure, compared to 13.4 percent for seaport security. It is expected maritime security expenditure will grow approximately nine percent per annum in Asia-Pacific from 200915. Maritime terrorism, whether conducted on the high seas or in high-value ports, is an attractive option for terrorists. A spectacular attack could easily create the fear and shock that 9/11 did. In the meantime, military and police forces have their work cut out implementing measures to prevent and deter such maritime strikes. Navies are no longer simply preparing for war, but need to be geared towards ensuring peace. Countering contemporary maritime threats will require consistent and hitherto unseen levels of cooperation. Asia does not have an overarching security framework such as NATO. Instead, security in Asia is considered primarily a domestic issue that permits no national-sovereignty concessions. Occasionally security might be viewed in bilateral terms, but rarely is it ever seen multilaterally. Asian countries resent outside interference in domestic affairs, so with such mistrust and a lack of multilateral cooperation, Asia-Pacific maritime security is condemned to continue relying on bilateral defence alliances.



Asia Pacific Procurement Update AUSTRALIA

Aegis Weapon System ready for RAN Air Warfare Destroyer

Lockheed Martin has successfully completed a full range of acceptance tests to verify the system performance of the first Aegis Weapon System being built for the Australian Navy’s Air Warfare Destroyer (AWD-1) programme. Lockheed Martin celebrated with a ‘pull the plug’ ceremony at its Morestown facility after several months of testing. The Royal Australian Navy’s (RAN’s) Hobart Class AWDs will now be fitted with the completed system at the Australian Submarine Corporation Shipyard in Adelaide. HMAS Hobart is the first of three destroyers to be fitted with the Aegis System. The Aegis system is quickly becoming the maritime weapon system of choice for armed forces around the world, with 92 Aegisequipped ships currently in service with the US, Japan, Norway, South Korea and Spain. The advanced system allows destroyers to engage multiple threats simultaneously from the air, surface and under-sea. Rear Admiral Terry Benedict, Program Executive Officer for Integrated Warfare Systems, US Navy, said, ‘This ceremony represents the culmination of an exceptional effort to deliver a tested Aegis Weapon System for the Australia Air Warfare Destroyer. I want to congratulate the AWD Team, both in Australia and in the United States, on this significant achievement.’

RAN Guided Missile Frigate fires SM 2

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) has fired its first Standard Missile 2 (SM 2) during an exercise in the East Australian Exercise Area off Jervis Bay. The missile was fired from HMAS Melbourne, an Adelaide Class guided missile frigate (FFG) that has recently completed


BAE Systems will maintain the Blackhawk until it leaves service © Australian DoD

the multi-million dollar FFG Upgrade Programme and undergone additional SM2 related alterations to its combat system. It is the first time an Adelaide class frigate has fired an SM 2, and shows the strengthening air defence capability of the RAN. Greg Combet, Minister for Defence Personnel, Materiel and Science, said of the exercise, ‘The launch of the SM 2 demonstrates an updated Naval Air Defence capability for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), which will be further enhanced over the next year. The missile was prepared, launched and supported in flight before engaging a target. ‘HMAS Melbourne is now equipped with two modern missile systems to combat antiship missiles and aircraft. The missile was fired from the Missile Launching System that has recently been modified as part of the project to replace the SM 1 in the Upgraded FFG. This firing is a significant achievement and provides confidence in the ship’s updated weapon control system.’ The FFG upgrade project, headed by Thales, has seen the RAN’s four Adelaide Class Guided Missile Frigates (HMAS Sydney, HMAS Darwin, HMAS Melbourne and HMAS Newcastle) undergo complete upgrades in order to regain a capable regional maritime presence for the RAN, and to extend their lifespan until 2021, when they will be replaced by the new Hobart Class air defence destroyers. Upgrades to the vessels, which as used for air defence, anti-submarine warfare, surveillance, interdiction and reconnaissance, included improved anti-ship missile defence, improved on-board training systems and electronic support systems, and enhanced tactical data link capability, underwater warfare system, ship service diesel generators, and other systems. ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

BAE Systems wins Australian Black Hawk support contract

The Australian Department of Defence has awarded BAE Systems a contract worth $35 million to support the Australian Army Black Hawk helicopter fleet for the remainder of their service life. The contract will run for three years with five one year options, and will ensure the Black Hawk helicopter fleet remains a viable asset for the Australian army. The contract will begin in February, and will replace the current Black Hawk Deeper Maintenance contract that has been held between BAE Systems and Australia since 1995. The contract will cover both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, including deeper maintenance and special servicing, structural repairs, and a wide range of other modifications, to 34 Black Hawk aircraft at the new BAE Systems hangar facility located in the Northern Australian Aerospace Centre of Excellence (NAACEX) at Townsville Airport. Announcing the contract, Greg Combet, Minister for Defence Personnel, Materiel and Science, said, ‘The Black Hawk is a critical asset supporting Australian soldiers. This new contract ensures the continued employment of nearly 100 local maintenance technicians and support personnel in Townsville. ‘This new contract offers increased value for money and a more balanced approach to risk when compared to the previous arrangements. This is in line with the principles that have been outlined in the Government’s Strategic Reform Program for Defence’. The Black Hawk helicopter has been operated by the Australian Army since 1986, and has seen service in numerous theatres and humanitarian efforts. The Black Hawk will remain the primary troop lift capability for the Army until it is replaced by the MRH 90 and then withdrawn from service.



INDONESIA Indonesian Navy orders three CN235-220 aircraft

The Indonesian Defence Ministry has signed a contract to acquire three Dirgantara Maritime Patrol CN235-220 aircraft for the Indonesian Navy. The contract for the three aircraft is worth $80 million, and will bring the total units ordered by the Indonesian Navy as part of the 2010 – 2014 Strategic Planning programme, to six. The Navy is currently carrying out the programme to fulfil its concept of ‘Minimal Essential Force’. The contract was signed by Budi Santoso, Dirgantara Indonesia CEO, and General Director of Indonesia Defence Facility, Marshall Eris Herryanto, on 11 December at the closing of the National Workshop on Defence Industry Revitalisation. The Indonesian Navy currently operates Maritime Patrol NC212-200, another Digantara product. The new aircraft will replace the old Nomad fleet, and is expected to strengthen the national fleet in order to meet the Navy’s operational requirements and protect the Indonesian oceanic zone and littoral waters. The aircraft’s sophisticated suite of sensors for surveillance and targeting will allow the fleet to carry out a range of missions, including fisheries protection, marine traffic control, search and rescue, anti-surface and anti-warfare, as well as providing defence against smuggling, terrorism, and smuggling. The aircraft is also prepared for future modification according to the Indonesian

JAPAN Japan takes delivery of first EC135 T2i

The Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF) has taken delivery of the first of two Eurocopter EC135T2i training helicopters in a ceremony at Tokyo heliport. The contract between the JMSDF and Eurocopter was signed in February, with the second helicopter due for delivery in February 2010. A second contract for a further three units is expected to follow within months, to meet the JMSDF’s requirement of a total of 15 training aircraft. The aircraft will be instrumented and evaluated by the JMSDF Test & Evaluation


The deal for CN235-220 aircraft for the Indonesian Navy is valued at $80 million © Gordon Arthur

Navy’s Operational Requirement and Technical Specifications. Dozens of Chinese-built anti-ship missiles (ASMs) may soon be acquired by the Indonesian Navy following trials if continuing negotiations with China prove successful. The Indonesian Navy is believed to be considering placing an order for C-802 AntiShip Missiles (ASMs) for the navy’s fleet of fast patrol boats and Van Speijk Class frigates if testing gives positive results. Discussions with China to also purchase the smaller and cheaper C-705 ASMs are ongoing. If successful, these will also be carried by the Navy’s fast patrol boats and Van

Speijk frigates. Indonesia’s inability to develop its own domestic missiles continues to make the country reliant on foreign technology; however state-owned naval shipbuilder PT Pal does have the technology to integrate weapons systems imported from foreign manufacturers onto existing TNI-AL vessels. PT Pal acquired the integration technology as part of an original deal with China’s National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation when two YJ-2/C-802 ASMs were fitted onto one of the Navy’s PB-57 large patrol craft in 2008. The size of the order is unknown, however industry sources believe it will be sizable if sufficient funding can be raised by Indonesia for the deal.

air squadron prior to Naval pilot training commencing; which is expected to begin in the second half of 2010. JMSDF’s instructor pilots and technicians undertook training at Eurocopter Deutschland’s training academy in Donauwörth and Manching between September and November 2009. The EC135 will fulfil an advanced training mission role with the MSDF. The aircraft is well adapted for air crews from defence forces that operate new generation multi-role or combat helicopters, as is the case in Japan. Eurocopter Vice President for the EC135 programme, Xavier Poupardin, commented at the ceremony, ‘We are extremely proud

that our helicopters have been chosen by JMSDF. This clearly shows the customer’s confidence in our products. We have worked hard to deliver the first helicopter to JMSDF on time, only 9 months after the contract signature in February. We will continue to serve our customer for a successful start of operation and for the future helicopter deliveries’. According to Eurocopter, The main advantages of the light twin-engine EC135 is its superior manoeuvrability, high visibility and low vibration level. With a glass cockpit and advanced technologies, the aircraft allows instructors to perform training missions in optimal safety conditions.

Indonesia eyes Chinese ASMs




Command and Control systems, simulators, training, mission support systems, electronic warfare systems, and upgrade programmes and logistics support. Thai company Avia Satcom has joined with ‘The joint venture will offer locally Saab in a partnership to jointly develop and developed products for the Thai Armed produce high technology aviation and Forces and the export market. It will also defence products as ‘Avia Saab bring investments and leading edge techTechnologies’ in Bankgkok, Thailand. nology to Thailand, and create highly The venture will initially focus on the advanced job opportunities The establishment of ‘Avia Saab Technologies’ will support Thailand’s most advanced combat capabilities © Saab for Thai professionals,” says Kaj Rosander, Saab’s Campaign Director for Gripen in Thailand. Kajohnsak Watanangura, Avia Satcom’s manager responsible for the joint venture programme, said, ‘This is really special for Thailand. Firstly, the technology transferred must be developed further before it can be incorporated into the product. This definitely calls for employees who are highly technologically competent, which Thailand has and over time the skill levels will rise even further.’


Saab and Avia Satcom in joint venture

development of a National Tactical Datalink in the Gripen fighter, six of which were ordered by the Royal Thai Air Force from the Swedish government in 2008, along with one Saab 340 Erieye Airborne Early Warning unit. Delivery of the aircraft are due to begin in 2011, and following technology transfers, Avia Saab Technologies will also focus on



India considers US howitzers

Taiwan to receive new Patriot Air and Missile Defence System

New Delhi is considering purchasing 140 BAE Land Systems M-777A1 ultra-light howitzers for the Indian Army in a $612 million deal as part of a foreign military sale with the US. India is currently seeking a range of new weapons for the Army as part of its artillery modernisation programme, including the 145 howitzers, and 160 towed and wheeled guns. Part of the Army’s requirement is weapons that are light enough to be transported in the mountainous region of the Himalayas, for fast deployment via helicopter against possible Chinese threats. India’s weapons are in urgent need of upgrading, with no new artillery guns having been purchased since 1986. In 2009 the Singapore Technology Kinetic’s Pegasus light howitzer underwent 10 months of evaluation, but the process was abandoned before field trials due to allegations of corruption in the bidding process. It is believed New Delhi may fast-track the howitzer acquisition in order to quick start its Rs20,000 crore artillery modernisation programme into motion after lengthy delays.


Raytheon has been awarded a $1.1 billion contract to produce a new Patriot Air and Missile Defence System for Taiwan. The contract was issued through a Foreign Military Sale by the US Army Aviation and Missile Command in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The contract will see the new production of the Patriot fire units that will include new advances in technology, improved manmachine interface, and reduced life-cycle costs. Included is ground-system hardware in an initial contract valued at $965.6 million and an initial spares contract valued at $134.4 million.


The Patriot system is a longrange, all-altitude, all-weather air defence system used to counter tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and advanced aircraft. The system is fielded by US NATO allies in Germany, The Netherlands, Space, Greece, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Japan, and South Korea. Daniel L. Smith, president of Raytheon Integrated Defence Systems (IDS), said of the contract, ‘The Patriot system is a vital element to providing superior integrated air and missile defence capabilities for the protection of Taiwan. Raytheon has provided advanced technology, innovation and support in Taiwan for more than 40 years, and we are honoured to continue that partnership today and in the future.’



SOUTH KOREA South Korea rethinks light attack helicopter programme

South Korea’s long running Korea Attack Helicopter (KAH) programme is under pressure from the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA) to refocus its plans on a light 4 tonne platform, to be developed in partnership with a foreign manufacturer. The Defence Acquisition Programme Administration (DAPA) has been considering the construction of the KAH since 2007, as its current fleet of Boeing MD 500MD and Bell AH-1 attack helicopters are in urgent need of replacement, having been in service for almost 30 years. The biggest difficulty faced by the indigenous KAH development programme has been budget constraints. By partnering with a foreign manufacturer Seoul will keep costs down, while stimulating South Korea’s helicopter industry with the construction of 270 units locally by 2020. As part of a compromise to move towards a lighter platform, Seoul is believed to be considering the purchase of 35 heavy attack helicopters from overseas for delivery from 2013, with Boeing’s AH64 Apache a likely favourite. Korean Aersospace Industries (KAI) is also working on a light version of its Korean Utility Helicopter (KUH) as a replacement for the Boeing and Bell fleets. The project has long been in doubt, with industry sources claiming the KUH platform does not lend itself to becoming effectively a

MALAYSIA Malaysian Eurocopter deal remains a question of affordability

Malaysia’s plan to acquire a Eurocopter EC725 Cougar medium multi-mission helicopter fleet as a replacement for their ageing Sikorsky S-61 Nuri fleet remains a question of affordability following last month’s Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace exhibition. The EC725 has been confirmed by the government as the aircraft of choice, with budget issues the only delay in the process at this stage. Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun


Korea ordered its first three KSS-II/Type 214 boats in 2000, now it plans six more © ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems/HDW

light attack helicopter. DAPA is expected to reissue operational requirements for the KAH in 2010.

The South Korean Defence Acquisition Programme Administration (DAPA) has ordered six new U-214 Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) submarines in a deal that will double the number of modern submarines in South Korea’s fleet. The German Type 214 was selected over the French/Spanish Scorpene Class so far ordered by Chile, India and Malaysia. Korea ordered its first three KSS-II/Type 214 boats in 2000, which were assembled by Hyundai heavy industries. The first of the

second batch is to be assembled by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering, with a set of tenders expected to be issued by DAPA for the construction of the fifth boat. The new submarines will reportedly include improvements to the original, namely the AIP system. The existing boats’ AIP system uses Siemens PEM fuel cells, producing 120 kW per module, and giving the boat a 2 week underwater endurance limit. The new contract is in addition to South Korea’s plans to develop self-reliance in the area of defence technology. In 2006 the Defence Ministry outlined plans to develop three 3,500-ton class next-generation submarines, KSS-III, featuring indigenous technology. At the time, the development plan was scheduled to run between 2010 and 2020.

Razak, told a news conference that the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) had ‘cleared the whole inquiry process’ regarding the proposed purchase of Eurocopter Cougar helicopters. When asked when the deal would be complete the Prime Minister said, ‘There's no doubt that the Defence Ministry and the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) want that particular aircraft and the government is satisfied. The integrity of the whole process cannot be questioned, so now, it is a question of affordability,’ The Government announced its intention to purchase Eurocopter’s EC 725 Cougar medium multi-mission helicopter

in 2008, as a replacement for their Sikorsky S-61 Nuri fleet. The Nuri fleet, in service for nearly 50 years, requires replacing due to various capability constraints, including the ability to carry out search-and-rescue operations in low light. At an estimated cost of US$650 million, the project has been uncertain for some time due to lack of funds. Najib said the government would work out in terms of financing capability and affordability. ‘We will have to work out in terms of the financing capability and affordability. It is a very high performance helicopter’.

South Korea to get six more U-214 AIP Submarines