The Dream of “TOD” in Shanghai Periphery Area Pan Haixiao, Professor E-mail: email@example.com
Xu Mingcai, Research Assistant, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Urban Planning, Tongji University 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China
Abstract The concept of transit oriented development has been widely accepted in China, that is to encourage high density development around metro station with business, commercial and culture activities, especially in the newly developed periphery area along the metro line extension, so that people will be more inclined to take public transport to eliminate car strong dependence. But it involves many stakeholders with various objectives making the process more complicated. Firstly the urban planning process in Shanghai region was presented in this paper to understand the functions of each stakeholder. Then we select several station areas in Shanghai periphery for this study to compare the land use around the stations through field survey and analyze the difference in planning and real situation, trying to explain the reasons behind. We selected four typical regional metro stations, which are Xinzhuang, Jiuting, Songjiang New City and Jiading New City station for the analysis. Jiading New City and Songjiang New City stations are located 40km away from Shanghai city center in the secondary central city of Shanghai region. Those cities were planned to accommodate one million populations to realize decentralized Shanghai regional spatial structure. While around Xinzhuang and Jiuting station, there are many property developments for the new comers from other province working in Shanghai central area or people relocated from central city to the areas with a large apartments using the advantage of transport conveniences. After around seventeen years of development, the characteristics of transit oriented development are getting more evident, even though at that time many years ago the concept of “TOD” had not been introduced. While during the planning of metro line 9 to link Shanghai city center with Songjiang New city, there is a strong intention to follow the “TOD” principal but the results are not so positives due to the location choice of alignment metro line 9 which is far away from the planned activity center and no connection with existing activity centre in the old parts of Songjiang new city. Located on the same metro line, Jiuting revised its comprehensive plan as the metro plan confirmed with relatively high density development around Jiuting Station. But a big part of the
land around the station had been occupied by industry, warehouse etc. The redevelopment cost is very high, most of the newly developed property located some distance away from metro station, so the land use intensity is lower around the metro station and connecting transport to Jiuting station is not so satisfied, but the people still use metro quite often if they have the intention to use metro before moving into the area and without a car. The newly constructed Jiading station area has most characteristics of transit oriented development, this largely due to the investment responsibility shared by the Jiading government. Local government wants to maximize the property value to support the construction metro line to Jiading. But the time is too short to observe the correspondent land use development around the station in the newly developed area. How to put the dream of TOD from a dream into reality? We still need empirical study and capacity building to coordinate various stakeholders for consistent land use and transport development strategy.
Metro TOD Land use
Up to year 2010, the length of Shanghaiâ€™s rail transit line is 410 kilometer. As Shanghai developing fast, and the population increasing, rail transit become more and more important. As the population are more located to suburb, not only urban area needs rail transit, but also suburb. The concept of transit oriented development(TOD) has been widely accepted in China now, that is to encourage high density development around metro station with business, commercial and culture activities, especially in the newly developed periphery area along the metro line extension, so that people will be more inclined to take public transport to eliminate strong car dependence while car will be mass available soon. But it involves many stakeholders with various objectives making the process more complicated. Firstly the urban planning process in Shanghai region was presented in this paper to understand the functions of each stakeholder.
1. Background, decision-making system of urban planning in Shanghai 1.1 The establishment and implementation of planning In the market economy, as an important measure in macro control, city planning plays a more and more important role, integrative balance, and supervision and guiding to urban construction. In the process of city planning and construction, different interest groups try to play their impact on the planning and construction process. The present
city planning system is faced with many difficulties in harmonize the relationship between the national government, local government, developers, and citizens in the distribution of city resources and benefits, and in the process of city planning and construction. Shanghai is directly under the jurisdiction of the central government like Beijing, Tianjin and Chongqing. Thus the administration structure is different from that of other provinces. Shanghai has two levels of governments and three administrative levels. In the process of administration, the decision-making, authorization and implementation of planning are separated, and supervised by the two levels of city and district governments respectively. In the administrative level, the municipal Department of Planning and Land Resources is in charge of the city planning in general, planning of sub regional districts and the detailed planning of key area for the long-term strategic, overall planning and supervision ; the district and county Department of Planning and Land Resources is in charge of the authorization of projects, and there are three administrative levels. . According to the law, the city must make two kinds of planning in the development: Master plan and detailed plan. The master plan determines the population and urbanized land use area, layout arrangement and the strategy in city transport development in the strategic level. It mainly includes the following aspects. The planning of city and town system, including establish the comprehensive development strategy of urban and rural areas, determine the objective and protecting requirements in the environment, land and water resources, energy, natural and historical cultural heritages etc, establish the space control principles, predict the total population and urbanization level of the city, determine the population scale, functions, spatial structure and construction standards, determine the city transportation development strategy in principle, establish the city planning control etc.. The detailed plan includes regulatory detailed plan and constructive detailed plan. The regulatory detailed plan is established by departments in charge of city planning according to the master plan or sub regional district plan that have been authorized. The regulatory detailed plan mainly include: determine the boundary of the land parcel , determine the land use that are suitable or not for construction or conditionally, determine the height, density, FAR, and green space ratio in each land parcel, determine the correspond public establishments, the location of entrances and exits, parking lots, road rightway setback etc, establish the guideline principles on the dimension, form, color and other factors in city design. Constitute relative regulations about the use of land and construction management. The constructive detailed plan should include: analysis of construction conditions and comprehensive technical and economic demonstration, arrangement of roads and greening and the design of each building, design of road traffic plan, and project pipes plan, vertical plan design, estimate the total cost, and analyze the investment benefit roughly.
1.2 The urban system planning of Shanghai During the tenth “five-year plan” period, Shanghai proposed to place the top priority on “one city and nine towns” (namely Songjiang New City, Anting, Luodian, Zhujiajiao, Fengjing, Pujiang, Gaoqiao, Zhoupu, Fengcheng and Baozhen) strategy, and to enhance the attraction of suburban towns against downtown attraction. During the 11th “five-year plan” period, Shanghai tried to alleviate the gap between town and country, break the contradiction between rural and urban areas in urban life quality, decentralize the urban population and realize the migration of
the population to the suburbs. The planned spatial structure is as follows: one central city: within the outer ring of Shanghai, with an area of about 600 Km2; nine new cities: Baoshan, Jiading, Qingpu, Songjiang, Minhang, Fengxian South Bridge, Jinshan, Lingang New City and Chongming Chengqiao; 60 new towns: establish 60 independent and distinctive new towns whose total population is about 50 thousand for the purposes of centralized development of the for population and the industry concentration, intensive use of land and rational allocation of infrastructures; as for new towns with abundant resources and great potentials, their population will reach 100-150 thousand; 600 central villages: central villages are basic residential units in the countryside, decentralized natural villages will be merged together in a suitable way and public facilities will be built rationally. Songjiang new city and Jiading new city are two of the 9 new cities, Xinzhuang and Jiuting are two of the 60 new towns1.
2. Case selection In Shanghai, construction around the region metro station went through less planned to stronger planned phase when TOD was selected as model around mentro station. We select several station areas in Shanghai periphery for this study to compare the land use around the stations through field survey and analyze the difference in planning and construction practice, trying to explain the reasons behind. The four typical regional metro stations, which are Xinzhuang, Jiuting, Songjiang New City and Jiading New City stations, were selected for the study. Jiading New City and Songjiang New City stations are located about 35km away from Shanghai city center in the secondary central city of Shanghai region. Those new cities were planned to accommodate one million populations to realize decentralized Shanghai regional spatial structure. But according to the survey made in 2008, among the 737 samples 3km around Songjiang new city station, 84.3% of them came relocated from Songjiang old city, 8.3% were from the towns around, including Jiuting, Sijing, Dongjing etc, and people from Shanghai central area only took 2%2. While around Xinzhuang and Jiuting station, there are many property developments for people relocated from Shanghai central city to the areas with a large apartments using the advantage of transport conveniences or the new comers from other province working in Shanghai central area, such as in Jiuting, according to the survey in 2009, among the 1150 sample households 3km around Jiuting station, 53% of them relocated from Shanghai central city, 31% of them came from Shanghai suburb, and 14% of them were from other province3. The development of land use around the four typical region metro stations can be divided into three types. Xinzhuang station is not planned to be TOD, but has developed for more than fifteen years, and has some characters of TOD; Jiuting and Songjiang New City are mixed, Jiuting station has a TOD model plan, but the construction practice is not satisfying, the industry and warehouse around the station havenâ€™t been replaced. During the establishment of Songjiang new city comprehensive plan, people had known that metro station can promote areaâ€™s development, but viewed the station as an long distance intercity station, so Songjiang new city station was far
Department of Planning and Land Resources, 2012
from the old and new public active center of Songjiang. And at that time the understanding of TOD concept was only limited with good public active space, green space and environment. So even the construction practice was follow the plan, but the result was different from TOD model; The land use around Jiading New City station is planned to be TOD, and the construction was follow the plan strictly with relatively high density around station by it is too new to review the result.
Table1 General information of the four selected station Distance from the Station
center station Songjiang Jiuting
Area Jiading New
35 Jiading Area
City Songjiang New City
松江新城站(line 9) Songjiang New Ctiy Station
九亭站(line 9) Jiuting Station
莘庄站(line 1, 5) Xinzhuang Station
嘉定新城站(line 11) Jiading new city Station
The location of the four selected station in Shanghai’s rail transit network
Transportation facilities around metro station connect the rail and city, which are very important elements, so at this survey we also pay close attention to transportation connection around the metro station.
3. Xinzhuang station Xinzhuang station was put in operation in 1996. It is the transit interchange of metro line 1 and line5, it is located in Xinzhuang town, Minhang area, Shanghai, which is about 18km away from the center of Shanghai. At that time, TOD concept had not been widely known in China, so Xinzhuang station hadn’t been planned to be TOD model. It was the terminus of metro line 1, and it linked up public transit as well to service new developed area. After more than 15 years, it has developed with some characters of TOD. But the land along the rail belongs to railway department, it is railroad land, and it is the land allocation of administration, according to “The land administration law of the People's Republic of China”, it can’t be developed to other use only if railways bureau and land management department approve. So it has been vacant for long time. Minhang is typical suburb of Shanghai, it is located at the southernmost of metro line 1. And it is also the earliest suburb with massive construction of residence. Metro line 1 is the first rail transit of Shanghai, and its function at concentrating residence is very obvious. The area around metro line 1 from Jinjiang Park station to Xinzhuang station had a big increase on residence from 1989 to 2003, the residence area increased from 1.64 square kilometers to 17.94 square kilometers4.
The location of Xinzhuang
3.1 Land use characters
Land use 200 or 1000 meters around Xinzhuang station
Land use 1000 meters around Xinzhuang station Other
Commercial, Industry, Xinzhuang Resident Office
vacant retail Water
Other Hotel public
81.83 38.86 5.01
26.06% 12.38% 1.60% 1.37%
0.23% 3.11% 1.25% 100.00%
It shows that, the land use 1000 meters around Xinzhuang station is mainly for residence, which takes the part of 37%, then office, 7.58%, other commercial housing 5.48%. Since there are
two rails, Huhang railway, and Xinzhuang overpass here, road area takes the part of 26.06%. In year 2011, â€œmetro project xinzhuang cover constructive detailed planâ€? was approved by Minhang government. According to the plan, 90 thousand square meters residential building, 85 thousand square meters service apartment, 47 thousand square meters office building, 18 thousand square meters hotel, 138 thousand square meters commercial and other public facilities would built during the next eight years. The land is the comprehensive use, including commercial, office, public facilities and so on. And Xinzhuang station area is planned to be the center of Minhang, even a sub-center of Shanghai. Then Xinzhuang metro station will be a really TOD model.
Metro project xinzhuang cover constructive detailed plan
3.2 Land use intensity
Land use intensity of the area 1000 around Xinzhuang station
Land use intensity of the area 1000 around Xinzhuang station
It shows that, 1000 meters around Xinzhuang station, multi-story buildings take the biggest part, is 38.65%. In the the area 200 meters around the station, it is vacant area except some low-rise or multi-story houses. And 200 meters away from the station, it is high-rise buildings, multi-story on the north side, and it is multi-story houses and high-rise buildings respectively. It is perhaps because the multi-story houses were built in 1990s, and high-rise buildings were built in15 years recently. It shows that as Xinzhuang station came to use, the land use around the station begun to have some characters of TOD. “Metro project xinzhuang cover constructive detailed plan” confirms that the plot ratio of this site is 3.44. This site area (the land that can be used, land belongs to railway department hasn’t been included) is 118 thousand square meters, and area of structures on the surface is 405 square meters, area of structures under the ground is more than 100 thousand square meters.
3.3 Transportation facilities around Xinzhuang station area
Public transport system
There are three bus stations, two junction center stations around Xinzhuang station. Transfer is convenient. There are also several taxi stands.
The bus stations and taxi stands around Xinzhuang station
There are 11 bus routes going through bus station A, 1 bus routes and 3 bus routes going through bus station B and C respectively. There are 7 and 9 bus routes going through bus junction center station A and B respectively. These bus routes connect Xinzhuang station with large area of Minhang.
The parking space for motor vehicles is on street, there are appointed people managing parking, but the occupation rate is low. The parking space for non-motor vehicles is smaller, but is always over occupied . There are four motor vehicles parking lots, three bicycle parking lots, and three rented bike parking lots. The rented bike is offered by Yongjiu Company, the Minhang government buying the service, in order to solve “last 1 kilometer transport” problem and construct good transfer environment. And citizens use the rented bike with very low cost.
Parking space around Xinzhuang station
3.4 Conclusion Xinzhuang station was taken to use in 1996, the area around the station was mostly vacant area at that time. Then real property development concentrated around the station, and developed fastly. Now it has some characters of TOD, but not total, and the land use intensity is also much higher. So we can conclude that region metro stations have the abilities to influence the area around it to develop to TOD. But inherent development of market needs long time to realize the function of TOD, it is not efficient. City managers were convinced of the function of rail transit in promoting area development. So in the last years, Jiuting and Songjiang were selected to follow Xinzhuangâ€™s track.
4. Jiuting station and Songjiang New City station 4.1 The situation of metro line 9, Jiuting station and Songjiang new city station For long time, the population decentralization from the city center to suburb hadnâ€™t realized. It was because the problem of long distance transportation, people hoped that rail transit can solve the problem. The big success of Xinzhuang and the area along metro line 1, inspired the Shanghai government and property developers. Rail line 9 was constructed with the intention of promoting development of the area along the metro line. Rail line 9 is the first regional urban rail in Shanghai east-west. Now the operation length is 43km, which is from Songjiang new city station to Yanggao Middle Rd station, including 23 stations. The whole line is planned from Songjiang new city station to Chongming Island with a
length of 62.19km.
The whole line of rail line 9
The first phase of the line is from Songjiang new city station to Guilin road station, it is 29.14km, including 12 stations. It was opened to service on December 29th, 2007, but Yishan road station went into service on December 28th, 2008, and thence the first phase had 13 stations, with 30.69km line, then the second phase was finished on December 31th, 2009, it was from Xujiahui station to Middle Yanggao Rd station, including 10 stations, with 12km line. And the alignments of line 9â€™s third phase has been confirmed, it is 19.19km, including 12 stations, and will be in operation in about year 2014.
The part in operation of rail line 9
The first phase of rail line 9
The alignments of rail line 9 had been confirmed for more than ten years, and it was planned to lead Shanghai to develop to multicenter structure, and promote development of Dongxiang new city and area along the line. It is constructed for leading the land along the rail line developing to be TOD model. The construction along it begins to take shape, and has some changes of the land use along it, so can be used as a case study for research. Songjiang New City is located in the southwest of Shanghai. According to â€œRevised Master plan of Songjiang new city(2010-2020)â€? , till year 2020, its main urban area will reach 60 square kilometers, with 600 thousand people.
The location of Songjiang new city in Shanghai
Jiuting station is in Jiuting town, Songjiang area. Jiuting station almost lies in the middle between Shanghai downtown area and the center of Songjiang New City. It is in the northeast of Songjiang Area.
The location of Jiuting in Songjiang
People’s Inner ring
Middle Yanggao Rd
17km Jiuting station
Jiuting town 15km Songjiang new city Songjiang new city
Distance between Jiuting station and Shanghai’s center
According to the urban system planning of Shanghai, Jiuting is one of the 60 new towns, which was planned to be an important commercial residential area. Its development has strong connection with rail line 9.
4.2. The characters of land use around region metro station 4.2.1 The research area The following takes the area of 3000 meters around the station as the range of research, which is referred as station area. The area 1000 meters around the station is inner area, 1000-1500 meters is middle ring, and 1500-3000 is outer ring. Land use intensity can be divided to three categories, the building height lower than 10 meters is low intensity; 10-24 meters is middle intensity; higher than 24 meters is high intensity.
4.2.2 Jiuting station
The relationship between rail line construction and land use plan in Jiuting In year 1999, “Jiuting comprehensive plan(1999-2020)” was finished, it divided Jiuting into three parts, the center, south agriculture part and north industrial part. In year 2001, the alignment of rail line 9 was confirmed, and was in operation in year 2007. In 2007, “Jiuting town comprehensive plan” was finished. It confirmed that the center of Jiuting town is near the area around Jiuting station. In 2009, “Jiuting town comprehensive plan(2009-2020)” was finished, it confirmed Jiuting would have 250 thousand people in 2020, and the center of Jiuting is near the area around Jiuting station, with good contact with Husong Rd and Minjia elevated road. Husong Rd connects Songjiang Area with Shanghai center, Minjia evlevate road connects Minhang Area and Jiading Area.
Line 9 Line 9
The location changes of Jiuting townâ€™s center since 1999
From the pictures above, it shows that as the alignment of rail line 9 and the site of Jiuting station confirmed, Jiuting comprehensive plan moves the activity center of Jiuting to the area near the station. ď Ž
Land use around Jiuting station
Jiuting station was opened to operation in December, 2007. And 73% of the station area is in Jiuting town, 18% in Qibao town, 5% in Sijing town, 4% in Xujing town. The Huhang railway and elevated highway between Zhongqun Rd and Jiuting station serves as a clear boundary line, with few roads cut cross them. The area on west of Huhang railway is an isolated area, and is compared with other parts. Huhang railway connects Shanghai and Hangzhou. Husong Rd and rail line 9 connect Jiuting with Shanghai downtown.
Zhongqun Rd station
1000 meters Huhang Railway Jiuting station
Jiuting station and Zhongqun Rd station
Picture 17 (1)
The main road around Jiuting station
Land use plan
3000meters Xujing town 1500meters
Plan(2009-2020) Picture 18
The planned and present land use of Jiuting station area
Jiuting comprehensive plan (2009-2020)
Jiuting station is in the west of the center of Jiuting town. Under the comprehensive plan(2009-2010), which is made by Songjiang Bureau of Land and Resources, commercial and residence takes great part of the station areaâ€™s land use. The northeast part of the inner ring is mostly public facilities (such as commercial, school, administration, hospital, and so on), the southwest is mostly resident; the middle ring is mostly for residential use, and the outer ring is primarily for residential, industrial, warehouse, the rural uses. (2)
Existing land use
Public facilities Resident The rural area and vacant land Green area and square Industry and storehouse Municipal facilitiesand Water transport
The present land use around Jiuting station(2010)
Table 4 The land use of Jiuting station area The area west of Huhang Inner ring
Outer ring railway
The rural area and vacant land
Green area and square
Industry and warehouse
Municipal facilities and transport
The land use of inner ring is mostly for industry and warehouse (33.8%), resident (30.5%); middle ring is mostly resident (49.1%), industry and warehouse (18.7%); outer ring is resident (35.2%), industry and warehouse (31.5%) , roads (10.9%). The land use in the area west of Huhang railway is similar to that in the outer ring. Residential, industrial, warehouse, roads use account for more than 70% in all three rings. The rural area and vacant land in the west of Huhang railway also take some part, in the inner ring is 16.8%, the outer ring west of Huhang railway is 12.4%, middle ring is 8.8%, the inner ring has the highest rate of rural area and vacant land. The urbanization rate of land use (it means the part land besides rural and vacant area takes in all the land) is middle ring higher, outer ring is middle, and inner ring low. It is because the industry area in the inner ring hasn’t be changed as the land use plan, and the middle ring has the advantage that near the station, so new constructions are more than the outer ring. (3)
Comparison between planned and existing land use
The resident construction is rapid, and some planned rural area or industry, warehouse area has also been constructed as resident. However, public facilities (such as commercial, school, administration, hospital, and so on) construction often lacks behind. The planned public facilities area in the inner ring and middle ring is still occupied mostly by industry, warehouse, and rural area at present. It shows the communication between rail construction and real estate development is not efficient. Because in the inner ring, there are many constructions present, it is hard to move them out. But it makes many new constructions far away from the station, with low efficiency. The rapid construction of residential units shows that commercial residential market has high expectation on the rail’s effect on attracting human settlement.
The land use intensity of the area around Jiuting station area
Higher than 24 meters 10-24 meters Lower than 10 meters
Picture 21 Table 5 Building height
Lower than 10 meters 10-24 meters Higher than 24 meters
The land use intensity of the area around Jiuting station area The land use intensity of every inner in Jiuting station Inner ring
The area west of Huhang railway
Beyond water, road, vacant land, in the inner ring, the low use intensity land take the biggest part, than is high intensity, and the middle intensity is the least. And in the middle ring, outer ring, and the area west of Huhang railway have similar characters. If we compare the rate that middle intensity has taken, the middle ring is highest, then inner ring, the outer ring last. The industry, warehouse, the rural area has low land use intensity, the area with middle or high intensity is mostly resident. And the low intensity area is older, and middle or high intensity is newer. This shows that the rail transit has the function of pushing ahead the price of land around its stations.
Transportation facilities of Jiuting station area
(1) Parking space
Parking space for motor vehicles
There isn’t public parking space for motor vehicles Motor vehicles stop along the roads or on the pedestrian lanes, and it is for free. So the motor vehicles occupy the pedestrian environment.
Parking space for non-motor vehicles
Both sides of Husong Rd around Jiuting station have self-serve parking space for non-motor vehicles for free. In the south, both exits have temporary parking space, each is about 100 square meters. And in the north, it is vacant for a junction center station, about 500 square meters.
(2) Public transport system There are two types of bus lines, regional lines which connect Jiuting with other area of Shanghai and area lines. ďƒ˜
The public transport network of station area The public transport network of Jiuting station area is arranged along the main roads.
Public transport network
Picture 22 Table 6
Public transport network of Jiuting station area
The main indexes of public transport network of Jiuting station area
Public transport network density(km/km2)
Outer ring(west of Huhang railway)
Total(west of Huhang railway)
The public transport network density is inner ring higher, outer ring low. The level of transport service in the inner ring and middle ring is much higher than that of outer ring. The public transport network density is 1.5km/km2, which is much lower than the standard 2-2.5km/km2 of suburbs. ďƒ˜
The public transport lines connected with Jiuting station
There are 5 public transport lines 50 meters around Jiuting stationâ€™s exits. In the area around the north exit, there is a junction center station for Songjiang line 40, 41, 42.
The exits and bus stations around Jiuting station
There are isolation strips between two bus stations, it lacks traffic management, pedestrians and non-motor vehicles cross the isolation strips, motor vehicles occupy the roads to wait passengers.
Picture 24 Table 7
Public transport service coverage around Jiuting station
Public transport service coverage rate around Jiuting station
Public transport service coverage rate around Jiuting station
Outer ring(west of Huhang railway)
Total(west of Huhang railway)
300 meters radius
500 meters radius
The standard public transport service coverage rate (300 meters radius) is 50%, the inner ring and middle ring come to the standard, and the outer ring is lower. The standard public transport service coverage rate (500 meters radius) is 90%, the inner ring come to the standard, the middle ring a little lower. But 500 meters radius public transport service coverage 84% of the residential area, so most residents can take bus to Jiuting station. The headway of the bus lines around Jiuting station is 8 minutes at peak hours, 15-25 minutes at off peak hours, it is longer compared to 5 minutes (peak hours), 10 minutes (off hours) in the downtown.
Picture 25 The evaluation of public transport service from residence to Jiuting station Satisfaction of public transport service is inner ring high, then middle ring ,and outer ring last. But generally, the satisfaction is very low. In inner ring and middle ring, the rate of “satisfied” and ”less satisfied” is close, but obviously decreases much in outer ring. This data matches the public transport service coverage rate.
The social characters
(1) Family income If we suppose the influence extent of the region metro station is 1.5km, then 0-1.5km around the station is in the influence circle, and 1.5-3.0km around the station is out the influence circle. We compare the family income between these two areas. The family income of people in the station influence circle concentrates on 20-40 thousand RMB per year, and that of people out the station influence circle concentrates on 40-60 thousand RMB per year. But if comparing people with family income more than 80 thousand per year, the rate is bigger in the station influence circle than out it, and these people make up the main part of using private motor vehicles.
Residents family income of each circle(data source: survey)
(2) Possession of private vehicles 32% residents of the area around the station have cars, and 93.8% are private cars. The rate of private car possession is higher in the station influence circle than out it. Thatâ€™s the problem, people near the region metro station use rail less than people out it. It is because the rail plan and land use plan communicating badly.
Picture 27 ď Ž
Possession of private vehicles at each circle(data source: survey)5
Jiuting revised its comprehensive plan as the metro plan confirmed with relatively high density development around Jiuting Station. And the land use around Jiuting station planned to follow TOD model. But a big part of the land around the station had been occupied by industry,
Weiwei liu, 2010.
warehouse etc. The redevelopment cost is very high, most of the newly developed property located some distance away from metro station, so the land use intensity is lower around the metro station and connecting transport to Jiuting station is not so satisfied. So land use replacement around the stations is very important during rail transit construction. Otherwise, when rail construction finished, the price of land along the rail will rise, and land use replacement will be even harder. 4.2.3 Songjiang New City station Songjiang was confirmed as a satellite city of Shanghai in each comprehensive plan of Shanghai since year 1949. Then in 2000, large-scale construction started, in 2001, the alignment of rail line 9 was confirmed, and in 2005 “Songjiang new city comprehensive plan” was finished. So far, Songjiang new city constructed strictly followed the comprehensive plan, and construction land area had achieved 60% of the plan goal.
Songjiang university town station
Songjiang new city station
Songjiang new city comprehensive plan(2005-2020)6
Since Songjiang university town station is 2.7km away from the Songjiang New City station, it is in the outer ring of Songjiang New City station’s outer ring. Therefore below only compares the land use of inner ring and middle ring. During the planning of metro line 9 to link Shanghai city center with Songjiang New city, there is a strong intention to follow the “TOD” principal but the results are not so positives due to the location choice of alignment of metro line 9 which is far away from the planned activity center and no connection with existing activity centre in the old parts of Songjiang new city. And the a big part of land around Songjiang new city station is occupied by administration institution and green space, so the density around the station is very low. That’s due to the one-sided comprehending of TOD, TOD was viewed as good site design, big square and green space. 6
Department of Planning and Natural Resources of Songjiang Area.
The characters of land use
Planned(2005-2020) Picture 29
The land use of Songjiang New City’s inner and middle ring
From the picture above, we can see that in the inner and middle ring, more than 95% land use complies with the comprehensive plan. The east part of the inner ring is mostly for residential use, the west part is administration and green area. The east part of the middle ring is mostly for residential use, while public facilities concentrate in the west part. In the inner and middle ring of Songjiang New City station area, resident, green area, road take the largest part. In the inner ring, not all public facilities have been constructed. In the middle ring, industry, warehouse hasn’t been changed to other uses as planned. Table 8
Comparison of land use between Jiuting station and Songjiang New City station Inner ring（%）
Songjiang New City
The rural area and vacant land
Green area and square
Industry and warehouse
Municipal facilities and transport
In Songjiang New City station area, the green area takes a big part, but in Jiuting station area, there is little green area. Public facilities area takes much more rate than in Jiuting station.
Land use intensity
Higher than 24 meters 10-24 meters Lower than 10 meters
Picture 30 Table 9
Land use intensity in the inner and middle ring of Songjiang New City station Comparison between Jiuting station and Songjiang New City land use intensity Inner ring
Songjiang New City station
Lower than 10 meters
Higher than 24 meters
Around Songjiang new city station, it is the executive center of Songjiang area, with big square. It makes the land use intensity around the station low, but in TOD model, commercial and business are arranged around the station, and land use intensity is usually high. In the inner ring of Songjiang New City station, the low land use intensity is green area and administrative area, and resident area’s land use intensity is middle or low. In the middle ring, the rate low and middle land use intensity are both higher than inner ring, the public facilities area’s land use intensity is middle or high, and resident area’s is middle or low. In Songjiang New City station area, the low and high land use intensity rate in the inner and middle ring are both lower than the same ring in Jiuting station area, but middle land use intensity rate is higher.
Transportation facilities of Songjiang new city station area
Songjiang new city area has regulated parking space for motor vehicles and non-motor vehicles, and has underground parking lot. 50 meters away from the Songjiang new city exit there is a bus station,people can change to 2 bus lines. And more than 200 meters away, there are other bus stations. The headway is 8 minutes at peak hours, 15-25 minutes at off hours, which is the same as Jiuting station. The inner ring Songjiang new city station area has higher rate on road space, better parking space, but worse transfer environment than the inner ring of Jiuting station area.
The exits and bus stations around Songjiang new city station
The construction of rail line 9 would promote Songjiang new city’s development, but as the survey by Zhaoting, most resident (84.3%) came from Songjiang old city, their commuting traffic needn’t rail transit. traffic. What’s more, people who needed rail line 9 as commuting tool weren’t satisfied to it, according to a survey in 2010, many people don’t like go to Shanghai downtown by line 9. The most obvious problems are bad connection between region metro station and residence and transfer. In the respondents, nearly 40% have to transfer to go to the down town, 71.5% have to transfer more than once, some people even have to transfer to 4-5 times. So the dream ”live in Songjiang new city, work in Shanghai center ” failed so far.
Songjiang new city had integrated comprehensive physical plan before construction, and the plan was implemented strictly. But the land use plan around Songjiang new city station was planned to be low intensity, and rail route alignment didn’t match up the new or old center of Songjiang well. So it made TOD development difficult. And there is big contrast between plan
between plan goal and reality, since the plan is a design without consideration of employment location. So rail transit plan divorced from people social characters is hard to promote development along the line.
4.2.4. Comparing between Jiuting station and Songjiang new city station Jiuting station has a TOD model plan, but the land use replacement is lag, and it will be difficult to realize the plan, need long time and high cost. Songjiang new city has an integrated plan, and the implementation follows the plan. But the goal of plan is not clear, and without consideration of some social factor. The result is not satisfying. So not only a TOD model plan, but also well prepared implementation strategies are needed.
5. Jiading New City station Jiading New City is in the northwest of Shanghai, According to the “Jiading New City planning”, it has the area of 200 square km, with 0.8-1 million population. It is about 35km away from Shanghai’s center, people’s square. It is made up by the main city of Jiading New City, Anting town and Nanxiang town.
The location of Jiading New City in Shanghai
5.1 The situation of Jiading new city and rail line 11 Jiading new city is one of the three major secodary cities of Shanghai. “Jiading new city main urban area comprehensive plan(2006-2020)” was approved officially, and in 2010 some revision has been made. And in this revised plan, the Jiading area government decided to rely public transport promoting the development of the area around region metro station. But the construction funds were limited, and Jiading Area government burdened two-thirds of the construction cost of rail line 11 within Jiading Area. Rail 11 crossed Jiading new city, the whole line is 120km long, connecting Jiading new city and Lingang new city. In December, 2009 rail line 11 went to service. Rail line 11 is a regional line, Jiading new city station is the important gateway of Jading. And an extension starts from Jiading
new city station to Anting, so Jiading new city station is the junction of rail 11 and its extension.
The north part of rail 11 in Shanghai
The land use plan of Jiading new city(2009-2020)
The bird eye view of South Jiading new city
With Hongkongâ€™s experience in metro construction and property development, Jiading Area government founded a special fund. Jiading rail company occupied 1.28 sq.km land around the station, the taxes collected from the land will be put into a special fund for the metro construction or operation Such as in 2009, it was 20.48 million RMB, in 2010 it was 150 million RMB, and in October 2011, it was 384 million RMB. But the 1920 mu land Jiading rail company occupied is limited, so its land use intensity is very high, in order to support railâ€™s operation. In Jiading New City, the development model of the land around the station is rail property joint development. Rail and property are constructed simultaneously. It was taken to use on December 2009. Around the station there will be integrated transport hub, office, hotel, residence, and other facilities as planned.
5.2 The land use and transportation facilities
Jiading new city centre constructive detailed plan.
As the â€œJiading new city centre constructive detailed planâ€?, the area is 1723.4 ha, and floor space area will be 9.7 square million meters, including 6.2 square million meters residence, so the plot ratio is 0.56. And the area around Jiading new city station is planned to be the comprehensive center of Jiading new city. According to the plan, there will be about 155 thousand people in this area in 2020. It is constructed according to the approved master plan, following the TOD model in physical design. Around the station, the buildings are mostly 20-30 stories with high density
Parking space, taxis and bus stop all are around metro station.
Jiading new city centre road Traffic Infrastructures plan
Since metro 11 had been put to use in 2010, property market in Jiading became to liven up, the supply of commercial housing increased by 25% averagely, and the real estate price increased
quickly. The rail property joint development model gets great success. But because the land Jiading rail company occupied is limited, the effect is still limited to capture the value added.
6. Conclusion of the research After around seventeen years of development, the characteristics of transit oriented development are getting more evident, even though at that time many years ago the concept of “TOD” had not been introduced in some metro station of Shanghai. From the four cases above, for example,Xinzhuang station hadn’t been planned to be TOD model, but had some characters of TOD after more than fifteen years development. So rail transit has the ability to make land around its stations develop to TOD model, but it needs long time generally. Jiuting revised its comprehensive plan as the rail plan confirmed. But a big part of the land around the station had been occupied by industry, warehouse, and rural area. Replacing this low intensity land use needed expensive cost and long time if only relying on the market. So perhaps government should do something during the land use plan and replacement.. We tried to promote the development of Songjiang New City. But the site selection of Songjiang new city station and the land use around the station hadn’t been planned so reasonable. The land use around Songjiang new station was even the opposite concept of TOD. The newly constructed Jiading station area has most characteristics of transit oriented development, this largely due to the investment responsibility shared by the Jiading government. Local government wants to maximize the property value to support the construction metro line to Jiading. But the time is too short to observe the correspondent land use development around the station in the newly developed area. According to the general principles of the interaction between land use and transport, rail transit station and cities’ activity center have close relationship. Rail transit station can promote city’s center developing, and rail transit can also get more passenger flow. After the rail transit construction, the development of the area along the rail transit should be promoted, or the rail transit is null. The function of rail transit is not only satisfying the increasing passenger needs, but also guiding urban spatial structure. The time scheduling of rail transit construction is very important, for suburban area,for example in Jiading new city station, land use and the construction of the station has be developed simultaneously. To coordinate the development of urban rail and land use around metro station, first of all, city plan and rail network plan should be simultaneous. Rail transit can guide city’s shape evolution and changes land use, A detailed survey of residents’ social and commercial characters is very important to understand the possible utility for the potential passenger How to put the dream of TOD from a dream into reality? We still need empirical study and capacity building to coordinate various stakeholders for consistent land use and transport development strategy.
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