PART THREE: SUGGESTIONS FOR EACH CHAPTER Unit
I SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Unit I consists of two chapters: How Does S&T Affect Our Daily Lives? (Chapter 1) and How Do Scientists Help Us? (Chapter 2). The main thrust of Unit I is exposure to the scientific method, research, laboratory work, and the benefits of science.
1 How Does S&T Affect Our Daily Lives?
Chapter 1 illustrates the role of science and technology in our daily lives. It consists of only one module: Making Sense of S&T (Module 1).
I. CONTENT Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU) 1. Science and technology are very much part of our daily life. 2. Applying the science principles we learn when we make our decisions and solve problems in life will help build a science culture among Filipinos. 3. Having a science culture includes having scientific attitudes such as open-mindedness, having a critical outlook, and truthfulness or honesty.
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Questions (EQ) 1. EQ: How do we apply S&T at home? Ten examples are found on page 4 of VPHI’s Dynamic Science, Second Edition. 2. Music and art are deeply ingrained in the Filipino culture. In contrast, we have yet to develop a science culture. EQ: How does the presence of superstitious beliefs support the statement above? However, make the students realize that some beliefs and practices in our local communities may have a scientific basis. Section 1.2, page 5 of Dynamic Science, Second Edition cites examples. 3. Below is one problematic situation that a science student in high school might find himself/herself in. Student: “Since I had no time to write the research proposal my teacher assigned, should I download a similar paper from the internet and submit it verbatim to my teacher, claiming that it is mine? Or should I not?”
EQ: How would a person possessing scientific attitudes decide in the situation described above? Dynamic Science
II. STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING Example: Give the students the following instruction. Look at the list of natural phenomena below. Use library and internet resources to help you choose one topic. Read about the topic, and find out how scientists used science to explain the phenomenon. 1. Topic: boiling point of water Why does water on top of a mountain boil at a lower temperature than at sea level? 2. Topic: freezing point of water Why is precipitation in the Philippines usually in the form of rain instead of snow? 3. Topic: buoyant force of water Why does a needle sink in water while a huge ship floats? 4. Topic: Earth’s rotation Why does the sun appear to ‘rise’ from the east and ‘set’ in the west? 5. Topic: meteors Why do meteors ‘burn’ as they fall to Earth? Write about the topic you have chosen. In around 150 words, discuss how the phenomenon is explained by science. Grade the students’ paper on the basis of: (a) accuracy of information, (b) originality in organization of ideas, (c) proper documentation of sources, and (d) neatness. (Note: See Appendix A.)
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS (Strategies, etc.) 1. Exploring Students’ Prior Knowledge a. Administer a diagnostic test to find out students’ ideas about science, technology, science culture and scientific attitudes. Find out what they know about these topics and what misconceptions (if any) they might have. b. At the beginning of the high school science curriculum, it is important that we present to the students a correct picture of science. Two points must be emphasized: • Science is NOT a panacea that can solve all problems of people, cure all diseases or explain all phenomena of nature. • Science is NOT evil as some people claim. In fact, scientific discoveries and inventions have made people’s lives more pleasant. Science is like a very sharp knife which can be deadly in the Teacher’s Manual
hands of an evil person but which can save lives in the hands of a skillful surgeon. c. Explain to your students that ‘applying science principles/concepts learned’ means: • using them to invent (a) gadgets or devices, (b) products and (c) processes/techniques • using them to explain natural phenomena • using them to solve problematic situations in daily life • using them in support of scientific attitudes
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS Examples of daily-life situations that show the role of S&T in our lives: a. To distinguish between fresh and old chicken eggs, put them in water. Fresh eggs sinks; old eggs float. b. To distinguish between boiled and unboiled eggs, try to spin the eggs upright. Unboiled eggs will not spin in an upright manner; the fluid egg white will throw them off to their side. Boiled eggs, because the content is solid, will spin upright. c. Food that has been chewed very well is easier to digest because digestive enzymes can mix well with the material. d. Sugar added to a glass of kalamansi juice increases the density of the solution. The kalamansi seeds float and are easily removed from the solution with either a tiny sieve or spoon only. e. Water from a tank higher than our house would readily become available to users in the house because of the pull of gravity on the flowing water. f. If one end of a plastic tube that is completely filled with gasoline (i.e., no gaps or big bubbles of air) is dipped into the gasoline tank of the car and the other end into an empty container below, cohesion among the gasoline molecules will cause a continuous flow of the liquid, aided by gravity, into the empty container. g. Burying fruits in the rice bin increases the temperature inside, thereby promoting faster enzyme action and hastening the ripening process. (See also the role of ethylene gas in h.) h. Placing a newly harvested bunch of bananas inside a sack and keeping it in a storage room allows ethylene gas (released by the fruit cells) to accumulate, thereby hastening the ripening process. i. Using slender pieces of wood and arranging them loosely on a stove allow greater contact of the wood with oxygen during burning and promote faster burning. j. Yeast cells initiate fermentation, which releases carbon dioxide, the gaseous product that makes the dough rise.
The application of scientific principles to our daily activities is the essence of technology, the goal of which is to benefit humankind.
V. CONCEPT MAP Example 1:
SCIENce includes natural science
consists of biological sciences
such as • • • • • • • •
Anatomy Bacteriology Botany Ecology Taxonomy Virology Zoology etc.
• • • • • • • •
Astronomy Chemistry Geology Meteorology Oceanography Paleontology Physics etc.
technology (application of scientific knowledge)
brings benefits in
may be classified into
agriculture medicine nutrition etc. Teacher’s Manual
2 How Do Scientists Help Us?
Chapter 2 is all about the scientist—his/her work, some personal and professional traits, and contributions to the advancement of science and the betterment of society. It consists of two modules: How a Scientist Works (Module 2) and Contributions of Scientists (Module 3).
I. CONTENT Underlying Science Principles, or Essential Understanding (EU) 1. Scientists conduct research for various reasons such as: (a) to explain a certain phenomenon, (b) to solve a problem, (c) to find ways of improving people’s lives through new products, gadgets and processes, and (d) to discover new concepts and theories. 2. In doing investigatory studies, the steps of a scientific method include the following: a. observing a natural occurrence b. defining the problem c. gathering baseline data/information d. formulating a hypothesis e. testing the hypothesis and gathering experimental data f. analyzing and interpreting the data g. drawing a generalization or conclusion h. applying the generalization to a similar situation
Major Areas of Inquiry, or Essential Questions (EQ) 1. EQ: Why do scientists conduct research? 2. EQ: In conducting research, what steps of the scientific method are involved?
II. STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE TASK AS EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING Example: Give the students the following instruction. a. Propose a title of an investigatory project that you can undertake either alone or with classmates. If the title is approved by your teacher, you may proceed to b. b. Identify the problem you want to work on. (It is good to practice to state the problem in the form of a question.) Give your reason for deciding to work on that problem.
c. Know more about the problem from library and internet resources. Have proper documentation of your information sources. d. Describe how you plan to answer the problem statement. (This is your proposed methodology.) e. Write your research proposal clearly and neatly. Submit it to your teacher for review; he/she will probably ask you to present your proposal to the class. Grade the students’ proposal and defense on the basis of: (a) clarity of problem statement, (b) appropriateness of methodology, (c) familiarity with scientific literature and proper documentation of sources, and (d) clarity of presentation/defense of proposal. (Note: See Appendix A.)
III. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS (Strategies, etc.) 1. Characteristics of scientists 1.1 They are presented in Chapter 2 with the idea of using scientists as role models only for those traits enumerated in the textbook, Dynamic Science, Second Edition. Remember that scientists are just like other human beings. While they possess such helpful traits as creativity (imagination in the textbook), curiosity, critical outlook, thoroughness and accuracy, willingness to study and work hard, strong power of concentration, keen power of observation, etc., some of them also possess other traits a few of which may not be in accord with our moral standards. It is therefore strongly recommended that we clarify this point with our students. Like all other people, scientists have their own personal strengths and weaknesses. Let us teach the students to emulate those strengths and detest those weaknesses; in doing the latter, let us teach them to, as the saying goes, “despise the sin and not the sinner” (meaning, condemn the bad act but pray for the soul of the person who commits it, that he/she may realize his/her error and reform). 1.2 Five traits deserve special attention: HUMILITY, PATIENCE, PERSEVERANCE, TRUTHFULNESS (or HONESTY) and SUSPENDING JUDGMENT. These traits are good for all people, not only scientists. 2. Scientific method of solving a problem 2.1 The ‘problem-solving skill’ is a complex or integrated SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL which involves numerous basic skills as those involved in: a. identifying a problem b. identifying relevant data c. distinguishing between a fact and an assumption Teacher’s Manual
d. e. f. g. h. i. j.
determining sufficiency of data formulating a hypothesis designing an experiment to test a hypothesis analyzing and interpreting data making an inference drawing a conclusion or generalization predicting
2.2 To familiarize the class with these basic skills, the case below may be given as an exercise. A teacher wanted to plant santan along the long driveway of the school. A gardener told him that santan is propagated better using the upper end of the stem, rather than the mature stem. Before following the gardener’s advice, the teacher planted 25 upper stem cuttings and 25 mature stem cuttings in two seed beds. Answer the following questions: Question: What hypothesis was the teacher testing when he planted two sets of 25 stem cuttings? a. Santan is propagated by means of stem cuttings. b. If santan is propagated by stem cuttings, about the same number of upper stem cuttings and mature stem cuttings will surive. c. If the gardener’s advice is correct, then more upper stem cuttings will survive and grow than mature stem cuttings. d. If the gardener’s advice is correct, then no mature stem cutting will survive. Question: What must have been the reason why the teacher conducted his small experiment instead of following the gardener’s advice immediately? a. Because the gardener did not finish a college degree b. To show the gardener how to conduct an experiment c. To demonstrate to students the steps of a scientific method of solving a problem d. So as not to waste effort, time and stem cuttings 3. Point out to the class that some but not all ‘problems’ are solved with the use of an EXPERIMENT, which may be described as an activity which is carefully designed such that there is an experimental setup and a control setup. While some are experimental, others are descriptive such as case studies and surveys.
4. In connection with performing experiments and doing field studies, discuss thoroughly the safety precautions in Module 2 of Dynamic Science, Second Edition as well as Appendix A of this Teacher’s Manual.
IV. ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
c d a b b
B. Answers will vary according to the interests of the students, availability of resources, facilities and financial support, etc.
V. CONCEPT MAP SCIENTIST
applies science principles to invent needed technologies explain natural phenomena solve problems in daily life discover new concept and theories
uses scientific method by • observing a natural occurrence • defining the problem • gathering baseline data/ information • formulating a hypothesis • testing the hypothesis/ gathering experimental data • analyzing and interpreting the data • drawing a generalization or conclusion • applying the generalization to a similar situation Teacher’s Manual