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V English Series Across Borders Through Reading 5 Teacher’s Manual Second Edition ISBN 978-971-07-2554-0 Copyright 2009 by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. and Lourdes M. Ribo, Concepcion I. Noche, and Pacita M. Gahol All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher and the author. Artwork belongs solely to Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Published and printed by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Main Office: Cebu Office: Davao Office: Iloilo Office: Cagayan Office:

1253 Gregorio Araneta Avenue cor. Maria Clara Street, Quezon City, Philippines Unit 202 Cebu Holdings Center, Cebu Business Park, Cardinal Rosales Avenue, Cebu City, Philippines Kalamansi St. cor. 1st Avenue, Juna Subdivision, Matina, Davao City, Philippines Unit 6, 144 M. H del Pilar St., Molo, Iloilo, Philippines Bldg. A, Unit 4, Pride Rock Business Park, Gusa, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Member: Philippine Educational Publishers’ Association; Book Development Association; Association of South East Asian Publishers; Graphic Arts Technical Foundation

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Preface The VP English Series is a language and reading program that: • reflects current trends and developments in language and reading instruction; • recognizes the interrelationships of the four components of the English program: listening, speaking, reading, and writing; • implements changes in English instruction as called for in the New Elementary Learning Competencies; • focuses on definite language and reading learning competencies attainable within specified and appropriate conditions and time; • develops language and reading skills in hierarchical and spiral fashion; • provides for learning and practice of specific language in meaningful and realistic communication situations; • relates language and reading to other subject areas in the curriculum; • promotes desirable Filipino values and cultivates in the learner a deep sense of nationalism; and • recognizes individual differences in terms of motivation, interests, and learning style and provides varied activities to meet these differences.

Features of the Teacher’s Manual The Teacher’s Manual for the VP Reading Series, Across Borders Through Reading 1-6, Second Edition, provides the classroom teacher with: (1) guidelines on how to use the worktext efficiently and (2) procedures and strategies that will result in more effective teaching. It offers: •

Integration of CD-ROM activities and web content enrichments A special feature of the series is the inclusion of Interactive Reading CD-ROMs. Two lessons in every unit incorporate animated presentations of the selection and post reading vocabulary exercises for grades three to six. The CD-ROM is easy to use. It will automatically run on Windows 98 PC with 256 MB RAM, 35 MB video card and 4X speed of CD-ROM or higher. The PC must have a compatible sound card and a working speaker. The CD-ROM will self-start a few moments after loading. Then, do the following instructions to access the specific features of the CD-ROM: 1. Select the unit title of the ABRE textbook.

The Teacher’s Manual which accompanies the worktext, Across Borders Through Reading 5, Second Edition, has been prepared primarily to provide the classroom teacher guidelines on how to use the worktext efficiently. The material is divided into units which are in turn fleshed out into lessons with labels corresponding to the unit and lesson titles in the worktext. Each lesson in the Teacher’s Manual consists of the following: Objectives, Subject Matter, Materials, and Procedure. The activities under Procedure, arranged in the sequence they are taken up in the teaching process, come under the headings: Start with What You Know, Add to What You Know, Search for Correct Meaning, Set a Goal for Reading, Read, Share Your Ideas, Sharpen Your Reading Skills, Do What’s Right, Make Connections, and Spin Off. The Procedure suggests ways of carrying out the day’s activity to attain the lesson objectives effectively.

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2. Select the lesson.

3. Select an activity.

4. Read the instruction and do the activity.

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There are also embedded web links in the Teacher’s Manual. Activities for one of the two computer-assisted lessons of each unit are published online at www.vibalpublishing.com, including all the web links. On the Internet, one may directly access these through the i-teach.vibalpublishing.com portal. To further help the teacher integrate educational technology in the teaching of Reading, a teaching exemplar is provided and can be accessed through the i-teach.vibalpublishing.com portal. A teaching exemplar is an expanded lesson plan or a teaching guide for a lesson that is treated special because of its many possibilities for technology integration. In this grade level, the teaching exemplar is Lesson 5 (Needless Fear) in Unit I. The instructions in this manual are given under the assumption that the English classroom is provided with multimedia equipment which the teacher operates. Alternatively, the English lesson can be conducted in a school facility where there are a number of personal computers which have CD-ROM drives or are Internet-capable. In the event that the pupils have access to computers, in their homes or elsewhere, all they have to do is carry out the instructions in the CDROM box found on the first page of the lesson where there is e-learning integration. Pupils should be encouraged to run the CD-ROMs that go with their textbooks as a self-learning activity.The pupils can access the lessons through the i-learn.vibalpublishing.com. Once logged on at i-learn.vibalpublishing.com, click ENGLISH on the MYSUBJECTS panel, then, do the following instructions to access the activities.


4. Read the instruction and do the activity.

1. Select grade of ABRE textbook.

•

Clearly defined lesson objectives The lesson objectives are stated in behavioral and communicative terms identifying what the learners are expected to display after the learning experiences. Every lesson also provides for an objective focusing on the development of a desirable value or attitude. These values are identified in the accompanying Scope and Sequence Chart.

•

Explicit subject matter The lessons present a wide range of interesting reading materials in various genre: short stories, poems and verses, informational articles, legends and tales, plays, and many others which are rich in human and Christian values. In addition, each unit of lessons includes two or three skill lessons on specific target skills over other minor skills. This is to ensure concentration and mastery on the part of every learner.

•

Well-organized procedures for the day-to-day activities The procedure in each lesson suggests ways on how the activities should be carried out to attain the objectives set. It includes specific steps/instructions on strategies and techniques to employ, background information about the selections, and sample questions to start off discussion, or elicit responses to some questions or exercises. However, the teacher is free to make modifications, revisions, or adaptations of the procedures as may be deemed necessary.

2. Select the unit and lesson.

3. Click activity.

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The lesson parts in the Teacher’s Manual correspond to the lesson parts in the pupils’ worktext. The parts are as follows: A. Start with What You Know This is the first part of the lesson. It aims to activate the pupils’ prior knowledge or schema in different ways. The manual gives suggestions on how the schema is to be activated. B. Add to What You Know This part aims to provide the pupils with additional information that can assist them in better understanding the selection. The manual provides other information that the teacher can share with the pupils. C. Search for Correct Meaning In this section, various meaning-getting strategies which pupils can use in working on the lexical items in their texts are suggested. D. Set a Goal for Reading In this section, suggestions are given on how the motive question found in the pupils’ text is to be taken up.

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G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills Various reading skills are taken up in this part of the lesson – vocabulary, comprehension, literary and/or study skills. This is a very important part of the lesson as it is here where the teacher teaches a particular skill through explicit direct instruction. Several exercises are provided where the teacher requires the pupils to apply the skill taught. H. Do What’s Right This is the values inculcation part of the lesson. Various strategies are suggested such as group discussions, role playing, interviewing resource persons, and doing library research. I. Make Connections Integration with the other areas in the curriculum is done in this section. Activities which can enhance the pupils’ cognitive, socio-affective, and affective competencies are suggested. J. Spin Off This section suggests various enrichment activities the pupils can engage in.

E. Read Different techniques in taking up the reading selection are suggested in this section. In most lessons, the pupils silently read the selection. The teacher is free to determine how the selection is to be dealt with, that is, to be read orally or silently, at home or in school. In two lessons in every unit, animated presentations of the selections may be used through the Reading Interactive CD-ROM.

Each unit ends with: • Linking Reading with Writing. This section provides opportunities for making the reading-writing connection. In grades three to six, the Genre-Process approach to teaching writing is used. The following are the steps in the approach: (1) Preparation, (2) Modeling and Reinforcing, (3) Planning, (4) Joint Constructing, (5) Independent Constructing, and (6) Revising.

F. Share Your Ideas In this section, a number of questions are listed for the purpose of checking the pupils’ general comprehension of the selection. Other questions are included as prompts for the pupils to demonstrate their higher order thinking skills. The questions also serve as springboards for large and small group discussions of topics of interest to pupils of a particular level.

The Authors


Content and Objectives Outline Unit I Everyday Life Lessons

Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives)

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities)

Lesson 1 To Reach the Unreachable

Dreams (Poem)

• Deduce the meanings of words and phrases through context clues • Identify words with similar meanings • Differentiate facts from opinions • Interpret the underlying meaning of each stanza in the poem • Interpret metaphors and similes

• Illustrate perseverance and hard work in pursuing a goal • Demonstrate courage, strength, and determination in facing the challenges of life

• Researching on people who dreamed

• Knowing the lyrics, melody, and story behind the song Impossible Dream

Lesson 2 To Save a Life

Five Thousand Pesos (Story)

• Apply techniques for getting the meanings of words • Use context clues to get the meanings of words • Recall the meanings of words in one’s readings

• Show kindness and generosity to the sick • Display concern and right attitude to people in need

• Researching on cancer

• Interviewing resource persons on what the government is doing to prevent cancer

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• Scan a story for details • State cause-effect relationship

• Show sincere intention to help and inspire others to give help to those who are hopeless

Lesson 3 A Swamp Adventure

Swamp Lights (Story)

• Deduce the meanings of unfamiliar words through context clues • Use vivid words or expressions to describe a person, a thing, or an action • Summarize a story • Evaluate statements as to their truth value • Note details of a story • Predict outcomes

• Demonstrate calmness during fearsome situations • Realize that fear is often caused by one’s wild imagination

• Reading biographies of individuals who overcame fear

• Conducting a survey of things children are afraid of

Lesson 4 A Memorable Event

My First Assembly (Story)

• Identify verbs that collocate with adverbs • Use synonyms for unfamiliar but vivid words • Sequence events in a story • Make inferences

• Show selfconfidence and the determination to perform well • Show the best of oneself • Strive hard in order to succeed • Show appreciation for Philippine music

• Recognizing and naming different musical instruments

• Gathering information on Jonathan Rosenbaum

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Lesson 5 Needless Fear

The Challenge (Story)

• Use context clues to determine the meanings of words • Infer the meanings of idiomatic expressions through context • Evaluate statements and express agreement or disagreement • Recall important details in the story read • Identify phrases using similes

• Be aware of the importance and proper care of the eyes • Show selfconfidence • Demonstrate perseverance, tolerance, and hard work in setting over obstacles

• Evaluating performance in different subject areas

• Listing down situations that are challenges

Lesson 6 Widen Your Horizon

Your World (Poem)

• Infer meanings of words through context • Evaluate opinions • Identify rhyming words • Recall details of a poem read • Interpret lines of poetry • Assess ideas expressed in poetry and compare them with one’s own experiences

• Illustrate selfconfidence and determination • Show strength and strengthen one’s spirituality • Show optimism and look at the brighter side of life

• Showing optimism in the midst of trying situations

• Locating poems with messages similar to Your World

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Lesson 7 Greening the World

Mother Earth Is Grieving (Poem)

Skill Focus • Using words and affixes • Identifying the elements of a short story • Using library resources

• Infer meanings of words through context • Use the right words in sentences • Identify words that complete analogies • Interpret and understand the details in a poem

• Show commitment in taking care of the environment

• Listing ways of solving environmental problems

• Reporting on the different kinds of pollution • Having a Save Our Environment parade

Linking Reading with Writing • Writing a personal narrative

Unit II Footprints Lesson Number and Title Lesson 1 Give the Best in You

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Reading Selection/ Text Be the Best of Whatever You Are (Poem)

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives) • Identify words with multiple meanings • Get meanings of words through context • Interpret lines of poetry • Understand the connotative and denotative meanings of words in a poem

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

• Show selfconfidence, determination, and perseverance • Show the best of whatever one does

• Researching on outstanding Asians

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities) • Gathering stories about ordinary folk who became the best of whatever they were • Writing a biography of an outstanding alumnus


• Interpret ideas expressed in a poem Lesson 2 Moving Forward

Bencab: Artist with a Heart (Biography)

• Get the meanings of words through context • Identify terms used in painting • Identify synonyms • Scan for details in a story

• Show selfdiscipline, perseverance, hard work, and the value of integrity • Demonstrate love for art • Show concern for the poor

• Identifying terms used in painting

• Doing research on Bencab’s other paintings • Doing research on works of other painters

Lesson 3 Humility Makes for Greatness

An Outstanding Young Man in Sports (Biography)

• Determine the meanings of words by associating them with their synonyms or antonyms • Infer the meanings of terms related to tennis • Get the meanings of words through context • Identify true or false statements and give one’s own judgment • Evaluate ideas that support or contradict one another • Infer the character traits of a person

• Demonstrate sportsmanship and perform action that demonstrate this value • Show humility in victory and graciousness in defeat

• Familiarizing oneself with tennis

• Describing how one’s favorite sport is played

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Lesson 4 It Pays to Be Creative

The Toothpaste Millionaire (Biography)

• Deduce the meanings of words and phrases through context • Define terms related to business • Evaluate ideas based on the selection • Recall important details in a story

• Show perseverance in order to succeed • Appreciate the value of industry and initiative

• Defining terms related to business

• Doing research on successful people in business

Lesson 5 To Be Special

Albert, the Seagull (Story)

• Deduce the meanings of words and phrases through context • Associate words with thoughts and feelings • Arrange sentences in the proper order • Recall important details in a story

• Show confidence in oneself • Show kindness to those with inferior abilities or with physical disabilities • Be thoughtful to those who are sick and disabled

• Doing research on birds

• Describing the habits of seagulls

Lesson 6 Courage to Tell the Truth

Rococo Skates (Story)

• Get the meanings of words through context • Recall details of a story • Make inferences based on the information given

• Show quick thinking in an unexpected situation • Demonstrate courage to tell the truth

• Visiting an art gallery

• Writing about a picture in an art gallery

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Lesson 7 How I Want to Be Remembered

A Psalm of Life (Poem)

Skill Focus • Using synonyms and antonyms • Getting information from newspaper • Making on outline

• Deduce the meanings of words and phrases through context • Identify words with similar meanings • Infer meanings of figurative language • Interpret the message of a poem

• Reflect on one’s good deeds • Decide to live a life characterized by good deeds

• Writing about a leader who has impressed one most

• Making a list of persons who have left “footprints on the sands of time”

Linking Reading with Writing • Writing an essay expressing an impression

Unit III Crossing Borders Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Lesson 1 All for One, One for All

The Global Village Finally Arrives (Informative article)

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives) • Identify the meanings of words • Deduce the meanings of words by using context

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

• Display concern and right attitudes towards people of different races, creeds, and culture

• Recognizing the diversity of cultures that has influenced Filipino culture

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities) • Writing a composition on “What Is a Global Village for Me”

• Identify true and false statements • Answer whquestions

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Lesson 2 What Time Is It?

It’s About Time • Deduce the (Informative article) meanings of words through context • Infer the meanings of some “time” expressions

• Observe punctuality • Respect each other’s attitude towards time

• Explaining time zones

• Writing a letter to an imaginary friend

Lesson 3 Traveling Through Reading

Five Days in Bali • Infer the meanings (Informative article) of words through context • Recall important details • Evaluate statements • Take down notes to remember details

• Display concern and right attitude towards people of different races and culture • Demonstrate admiration for the scenic beauties of the Philippines

• Computing expenses in visiting a tourist spot

• Comparing tourist spots

Lesson 4 Innovate for a Cleaner World

The Most Innovative City (Informative article)

• Use various strategies in meaning-getting • Use context to identify appropriate meanings of words with multiple meanings • Recall important details in the story read

• Show concern for cleanliness in one’s environment • Recognize the value of recycling

• Classifying disposable and nondisposable garbage

• Suggesting projects making use of recyclable materials

Lesson 5 A Cool Country in a Hot Continent

Kenya (Informative article)

• Use various strategies for meaning-getting • Distinguish facts from opinion

• Appreciate the true worth of a person based on his or her character

• Researching about Philippine ethnic groups

• Doing research on an important African

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• Recall details in a story read Lesson 6 A Heroic Attempt

Feed the World • Use various (Informative article) strategies for meaning-getting • Determine the truth or falsity of statements • Sequence events

• Show sympathy and care for the poor and the needy • Show concern for poor neighbors in need

• Identifying organizations that help the needy

• Writing a comment on what Bob Geldof did

Lesson 7 Another Racing Style

Racing Alaska Style (Short Story)

• Show kindness to animals

• Doing research on other countries

• Gathering information about Alaska and Eskimos

Skill Focus • Making definitions • Using appositives • Identifying main ideas

• Use various strategies to get the meanings of words • Recall important details

Linking Reading with Writing • Writing a description of a place

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Unit IV Fact or Fantasy Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives)

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities)

Lesson 1 A Wish Is Just a Wish

The Little Mermaid (Story)

• Determine the meanings of words used in a selection • Use similes in making comparisons • Sequence sentences to form a coherent paragraph • Recall incidents in a story read

• Show love as an inspiration

• Conducting research on works of art

• Writing about the inspiration of an artist’s masterpiece

Lesson 2 A Wonder of the Sky

Song for a Child Watching Clouds (Poem)

• Identify synonyms • Use metaphors in comparisons • Interpret the message of a poem • Use appositives

• Show appreciation for the beauty of nature

• Recalling facts about clouds

• Writing a poem on a thing in nature

Lesson 3 Progress in Unity

The Discontented Pendulum (Play)

• Use words with the same spelling but different meanings • Use appropriate idiomatic expressions

• Illustrate unity to develop strength • Show togetherness in order to achieve progress

• Computing numbers correctly

• Acting out a playlet

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• Distinguish between reality and fantasy • Recall details in a playlet read Lesson 4 Look Before You Leap

Why the Owl Behaves as It Does (Legend)

• Use words with multiple meanings • Deduce meanings of words through context • Recall details in a selection read • Recognize statements based on a story

• Demonstrate honesty and truthfulness in any situation

• Conducting a research on owls

• Writing an essay on the importance of honesty

Lesson 5 Keeping Promises

Mang Beloy’s Promise (A Radio Interview)

• Form negative words by using prefixes • Identify synonyms • Recall details of a story read

• Show discreetness by not hurting the feelings of others

• Writing one’s favorite fairy tale

• Explaining why one believes or does not believe in fairies

Lesson 6 Kindness Is Universal

The Creature (Story)

• Deduce meanings of phrases through context. • Familiarize oneself with words related to space exploration • Recall details of a story read

• Create an environment with love and compassion for others

• Conducting research on space exploration

• Drawing one’s concept of a space creature

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Lesson 7 It’s All in the Mind

The Tinker of Toledo (Play)

Skill Focus • Using figurative language • Evaluating a literary piece • Skimming and note-taking

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• Conduct a research on space exploration • Deduce the meanings of idiomatic expressions through context • Identify synonymous words through their meanings • Sequence the events in a story • Recall important details in a playlet read

• Demonstrate courage and bravery

Linking Reading with Writing • Writing a legend

• Conducting research on Toledo, Spain

• Sharing ghost stories


Table of Specifications (Pretest, Posttest) No. of Items

6

43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48

43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48

1. State cause-effect relationship

3

34, 35, 36

34, 35, 36

2. Summarize a story

1

62

62

3. classify details

5

57, 58, 59, 60, 61

57, 58, 59, 60, 61

4. Sequence events in a story

3

63, 64, 65

63, 64, 65

5. Get the main idea of a paragraph

5

49, 50, 51, 52, 53

49, 50, 51, 52, 53

Total

65

65

65

13. Use library resources Item Placement

Pretest

Posttest

Part I: Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Deduce the meanings of words and phrases through context clues

4

2. Identify synonyms and antonyms

4

5, 6, 7, 8

5, 6, 7, 8

3. Differentiate facts from opinions

2

9, 10

9, 10

4. Interpret metaphors and similes

4

5. Use vivid words or expressions to describe a person, a thing, or an action

4

11, 12, 13, 14 39, 40, 41, 42

11, 12, 13, 14 39, 40, 41, 42

6. Infer meanings of idiomatic expressions through context

4

22, 23, 24, 25

22, 23, 24, 25

7. Identify true and false statements

4

35, 36, 37, 38

35, 36, 37, 38

8. Identify words that complete analogies

3

26, 27, 28

26, 27, 28

9. Identify words with multiple meanings

3

19, 20, 21

19, 20, 21

10. Use appositives

3

32, 33, 34

32, 33, 34

11. Use words and affixes

3

29, 30, 31

29, 30, 31

12. Use homonyms

4

15, 16, 17, 18

15, 16, 17, 18

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3, 4

Part II. Comprehension

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Pretest/Posttest I. Vocabulary and Study Skills Fill in each blank with the correct word from the box. skyscrapers

pendulum

nomad

stroll

1. The __________ is a wandering group of people. 2. A __________ is a device serving to regulate the rate of a clock. 3. The __________ are very high buildings. 4. __________ is a slow unhurried way of walking. Write the letter of the word that has the same meaning as the italicized word. 5. A big portrait is hung on the wall. a. decoration c. picture of a person b. flower vase 6. We should exemplify the values our forefathers stood for. a. to listen b. to behave c. to show or illustrate by example Write the letter of the word that has the opposite meaning with the italicized word. 7. She is a thoughtless girl doing such a thing. a. considerate c. easy going b. without care 8. I don’t like to stay in a dim room. a. dark b. bright c. close Write F if the statement is a fact and O if it is an opinion. _____ 9. A big part of the earth is covered with oceans and other bodies of water. _____ 10. I think so many different animals make bodies of water their home.

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Write S if the sentence is a simile and M if it is a metaphor. _____ 11. Her skin was as clear as a rose petal. _____ 12. Life is not always a bed of roses. _____ 13. The water is clear like the clearest crystal. _____ 14. Books are ships that take us to foreign lands. Write the letter of the correct homonym of the first word. _____ 15. tale a. tail b. tell c. till _____ 16. pair a. per b. pare c. pear Complete each sentence with the correct word. blew – blue 17. The _______ sky was covered with dark clouds. 18. A strong wind _______ the clouds away. Complete each sentence with the correct meaning of the italicized word. a. use as a decor b. a celestial body visible as a small point of light in the sky c. an actor or a leading performer 19. He pasted a cut-out star on the cover of his album. 20. A very bright star could be seen in the night sky. 21. The beautiful singer becomes a star and plays a lead role in a movie. Fill in the blank with the correct idiomatic expression. Write only the letter. a. against time c. kill time b. no time d. from time to time 22. My father abroad use to communicate with us _______. 23. The workers _______ by working slowly before going home. 24. The teacher reminded us to work _______ in order to finish the project. 25. The boy scouts put up their tents in _______ at all.


Identify the word that completes the analogy. Choose your answers from the words in parentheses. 26. shield: protect:: harm: ________ (destroy, preserve, useful) 27. barren: desert:: fertile: ________ (ocean, valley, summit) 28. mammal: whale:: reptile: ________ (frog, crocodile, shark) Change the italicized phrase to another word which has an affix. Write only the letter of the correct word. 29. The brass vase is very expensive. I think we paid much more than what it really costs. a. overdo b. oversize c. overcharge 30. The farmer drove the pigs in the direction of the pigpen. a. backward b. toward c. sideward 31. The former president of the school PTCA came to visit us. a. ex-president b. ex-secretary c. ex-treasurer

_____ 39. We heard something and looked through a window and saw that it was very dark. _____ 40. The object that we see seems very large. _____ 41. The flock of birds flew quickly over the trees. _____ 42. A feeling of joy is felt by someone who has achieved something in life. Fill in the blank with the correct word from the box. editorial card catalog

guide words atlas

classified ads part of speech

43. An _______ is a book of maps. 44. The _______ is the part of a newspaper that gives the opinion of the editor about an issue.

Combine each pair of sentences into one by using an appositive. Use the correct punctuation mark. 32. The Zamboanga City Park is in Zamboanga City. This is one of the most popular parks in Mindanao. 33. The tamaraw is a rare animal. It is found in the island of Mindoro. 34. The Taal Volcano is in Batangas. It is known as a volcano within a volcano.

45. The _______ section of a newspaper helps you find jobs, goods to buy, and services offered.

Write True or False on the blank before the number. _____ 35. A stab of fear is a feeling of being afraid. _____ 36. When one is in a perilous situation, he or she may shout with joy. _____ 37. When something vanished, we could see it. _____ 38. If you were startled, you were frightened with a sudden shock.

II. Comprehension Read the paragraphs and write the sentences that carry the main idea. 49. Plants are also used in manufacturing different products. The cellulose in plants is used as base for plastics and other man-made substitutes for natural fibers. Sentence: ________________________________________

Replace the italicized expression with a more vivid expression from the box. Write the letter of the correct answer before the number.

50. Plants make our surroundings look pleasant. They are also used as ornaments in most homes. Parks and gardens with colorful plants and scented flowers provide people with places to relax. Sentence: ________________________________________

a. swiftly b. enormous

c. pitch-dark d. rapture

46. The two words written on top of a page of a dictionary are the ________. 47. The _______ serves as index of the books in the library. 48. The n., adj., v., and adv., before the given meaning of a word tell the _______ where the word belongs.

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51. Coral reefs are like colorful gardens. They are admired for their beauty. Many fishes find shelter among the cracks and spaces in the reef. They feed on plants and animals found there. Coral reefs provide breeding places for fish. Sentence: ________________________________________ 52. The atmosphere is being choked with poisonous gases. Waterways are being poisoned by various chemicals. The soil is being deprived of important nutrients. Earth’s environment is really slowly dying. Sentence: ________________________________________ 53. Sometimes, you feel a shock after sliding across a seat and getting out of a car. There are times when you take off a woolen sweater and get a shock or hear a crackling sound. These effects are caused by static electricity. It is produced when two different substances are rubbed together. Sentence: ________________________________________ Read the short selection. Answer the exercises that follow. A little boy once found a jar of nuts on the table. “I would like some of these nuts,” he thought. “I’m sure Mother would give them to me if she were here. I’ll take a big handful,” so he reached into the jar and grabbed as many as he could hold. But when he tried to pull his hand out, he found the neck of the jar too small. His hand was held fast, but he did not want to drop any of the nuts. He tried again and again, but he couldn’t get the whole handful out. At last, he began to cry. Just then, his mother came into the room. “What’s the matter?” “I can’t take this handful of nuts out of the jar,” sobbed the boy. “Well, don’t be so greedy,” his mother replied. “Just take two or three, and you’ll have no trouble getting your hand out.” “How easy that was,” said the boy as he left the table. “I might have thought of that myself.”

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Each sentence is cut into two parts. Write C before the part that is the cause, and E before the part that is the effect. 54. ______ A little boy found a jar of nuts on the table. ______ He liked to eat some of these nuts. 55. ______ He grabbed as many nuts as he could hold. ______ He grabbed the jar. 56. ______ He tried to pull his hand out. ______ But the neck of the jar was too small. Which is the correct summary of the story? Write the letter before the number. 57. a. A little boy found a jar of nuts on the table. He liked to eat some nuts, so he took a big handful, but he couldn’t pull out his hand. The neck of the jar was too small. Then, his mother came and told him to get just two or three nuts. He found out that he had no trouble getting his hand out. b. A little boy found a jar of nuts on the table. He reached for the jar and grabbed as many as he could. He couldn’t pull his hand out, so he kept on crying. Sequence the events below as they happened in the story. Write the letter only. a. His mother told him to get two or three nuts at a time. b. He couldn’t pull out his hand, so he cried. c. A little boy got a big handful of nuts from a jar. 58. _____ 59. _____ 60. _____


Study the wheel of words. Under what heading would you classify the details inside each? Choose your answer from the box and write it under the wheel. transportation animals

fruits nuts

flowers

peanut

pili nut

horse

cow

chestnut

cashew nut

sheep

goat

61. __________________

62.

__________________

car

jeep

dahlia

rose

train

airplane

sampaguita

sunflower

63. __________________

apple

guava

jackfruit

papaya

65. __________________

64.

__________________

Pretest/Posttest Part I 1. nomad 2. pendulum 3. skyscrapers 4. stroll 5. c 6. c 7. a 8. b 9. F 10. O 11. S 12. M 13. S 14. M 15. a 16. b 17. blue 18. blew 19. a 20. b 21. c 22. d 23. c 24. a 25. b 26. destroy 27. valley 28. crocodile 29. c 30. b 31. a

32. The Zamboanga City Park, one of the most popular parks in Mindanao is in Zamboanga City. 33. The tamaraw, a rare animal is found in the island of Mindoro. 34. The Taal Volcano, known as a volcano within a volcano is in Batangas. 35. True 36. False 37. False 38. True 39. b 40. enormous 41. swiftly 42. rapture 43. Atlas 44. editorial 45. classified ads 46. guide words 47. card catalog 48. part of speech 49. 1 50. 1 51. 1 59. b 52. 4 60. a 53. 3 61. nuts 54. C 62. animals 55. E 63. transportation 56. C 64. flowers 57. a 65. fruits 58. c

xxiii


Table of Contents Unit

I

Everyday Life Lessons.........................................................2

Lesson 1 To Reach the Unreacheable ............................................. 2 Dreams (poem) Lesson 2 To Save a Life .................................................................. 4 Five Thousand Pesos (short story) Lesson 3 A Swamp Adventure ......................................................... 7 Swamp Lights (short story) Lesson 4 A Memorable Event ....................................................... 10 My First Assembly (short story) Lesson 5 Needless Fear ................................................................ 12 The Challenge (short story) Lesson 6 Widen Your Horizon ....................................................... 16 Your World (poem) Lesson 7 Greening the World ....................................................... 18 Mother Earth Is Grieving (poem)

Unit

II

Footprints ..........................................................................25

Lesson 1 Give the Best in You ....................................................... 25 Be the Best of Whatever You Are (poem) Lesson 2 Moving Forward ............................................................. 28 Bencab: Artist with a Heart (biography) Lesson 3 Humility Makes for Greatness ....................................... 31 An Outstanding Young Man in Sports (biography) Lesson 4 It Pays to Be Creative..................................................... 33 The Toothpaste Millionaire (biography) Lesson 5 To Be Special ................................................................. 36 Albert, the Seagull (short story) Lesson 6 Courage to Tell the Truth ............................................... 39 Rococo Skates (short story) Lesson 7 How I Want to Be Remembered..................................... 42 A Psalm of Life (poem)

Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 21

Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 44

Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 24

Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 48

xxiv


Unit

III

Crossing Borders ..............................................................50

Lesson 1 All for One, One for All .................................................. 50 The Global Village Finally Arrives (informative article) Lesson 2 What Time Is It? ............................................................ 52 It’s About Time (informative article) Lesson 3 Traveling Through Reading ............................................ 55 Five Days in Bali (informative article) Lesson 4 Innovate for a Cleaner World ......................................... 57

Unit

IV Flights of Fancy .................................................................71

Lesson 1 A Wish Is Just a Wish..................................................... 73 The Little Mermaid (fairy tale) Lesson 2 A Wonder of the Sky ...................................................... 74 Song for a Child Watching Clouds (poem) Lesson 3 Progress in Unity ........................................................... 77 The Discontented Pendulum (play) Lesson 4 Look Before You Leap .................................................... 79 Why the Owl Behaves as It Does (legend)

The Most Innovative City (informative article) Lesson 5 A Cool Country in a Hot Continent ............................... 60 Kenya (informative article) Lesson 6 A Heroic Attempt ........................................................... 62 Feed the World (informative article) Lesson 7 Another Racing Style ..................................................... 64 Racing Alaska Style (short story) Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 67 Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 69

Lesson 5 Keeping Promises .......................................................... 81 Mang Beloy’s Promise (radio interview) Lesson 6 Kindness Is Universal .................................................... 83 Rizal Day (informative article) Lesson 7 It’s All in the Mind ......................................................... 41 The Tinker of Toledo (play) Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 88 Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 91 VPHI Feedback Form for Evaluating Textbooks and Teacher’s Manual................................................................ 93

xxv 1


UNIT

I Meeting Challenges

Ask the pupils what they know about the word freedom. Have them say something about this word. Ask them to enumerate their rights as children living in a free country. Ask them also if they feel that they are free. Have them explain their answers. Have those who answered in the negative cite situations such as poverty, crimes, diseases, calamities, etc. that may stop them from enjoying their freedom. Have the pupils read the verse on page 2. Tell them that each one of them is like a little bird—as shown in the illustration—that is just learning to fly. Help them explain the analogy by asking such questions as: “What are the ‘factors’ that bind you? How could you ‘test your wings?’ How can a pupil like you go out into the world with enough courage and strength?” Tell them that a new world where they have to face new challenges and responsibilities (adolescence, high school life, etc.) await them. Let them be aware that the stories in this unit will present ideas on how to meet new challenges in their young lives.

LESSON

1 To Reach the Unreachable No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 3-9 Picture of a little bird with a broken wing and cannot fly Picture of a field covered with snow IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils what their dreams are as they grow older. Have some pupils write their dreams on the board under the heading “My Dream.” Have them say something about their dreams. Ask a pupil to read the questions under this section and have a short class discussion on the subject. B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils that every person has a dream of being someone someday. Inform them that one must have a goal and must have a good plan in order to achieve that goal. Encourage the pupils to discuss in class their plans in order to reach their goals.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Deduce the meaning of words and phrases through context clues 2. Identify words with similar meanings 3. Differentiate facts from opinions B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Interpret the underlying meaning of each stanza in the poem 2. Interpret metaphors and similes C. Values 1. Illustrate perseverance and hard work in pursuing a goal 2. Demonstrate courage, strength, and determination in facing the challenges in life

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II. Subject Matter Selection: Dreams (poem)

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the expressions. Ask each of them to read the line in the poem that uses the expression. Point out to them that they will infer the meanings of the expressions by reading the lines. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to tell some of the challenges they have met in life. Ask them how they faced these challenges. What attitude did they show? Ask the class who the author of the poem Dreams is. Inform them that James Langston Hughes was a Black-American who became a poet. Have them find out how he faced his challenges in life and the kind of attitude he showed to be able to achieve his goal. Have the pupils interpret similes and metaphors and differentiate facts from opinions.


E. Read You may read the poem Dreams to the class or ask a pupil to read it. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the questions that follow. Let the pupils answer the additional questions: “Why is life without a dream compared to a bird with a broken wing?” (Show the illustration of a bird to the pupils.) “Why is life without a dream compared to a barren field frozen with snow?” (Show also an illustration of a barren field.) Have a short class discussion of these questions. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Figures of Speech Have the pupils go over the poem again. Point out to them that life is compared to: a broken-winged bird that cannot fly; a barren field frozen with snow. Tell the pupils that those two italicized lines taken from the poem are called figures of speech. Ask them what figure of speech is. Call on a pupil to define metaphor. Emphasize to them that in making comparisons using a metaphor, the word like is not used. Have the pupils learn the other figure of speech that compares two things, that is the simile. Stress to them that in a simile, the word like or the phrase as-as is used when comparing two things. Ask the pupils to read the examples of simile on page 5. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 5. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. metaphor 2. metaphor 3. simile 4. metaphor 5. simile

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

simile simile metaphor metaphor simile

Exercise B 1. lazy 2. mischievous 3. wide awake at night •

4. slow 5. not trustworthy

Using Synonymous Words and Phrases Emphasize to the pupils that it is good to learn more sophisticated vocabulary. Have them understand that a wide vocabulary will help them understand better what they read or listen to. Explain to them what synonymous words and phrases are. Synonymous words and phrases are alike in meaning. They can replace another word or phrase in a statement without entirely changing the meaning of the statement, such as leapjump, isolate-separate, industrious-hardworking, barren fielduntilled field, etc. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 6. The expected answers are: 1. b 3. a 5. c 7. h 9. i 2. f 4. e 6. g 8. d 10. j Have some pupils read aloud the sentences using the new words.

Forming Figures of Speech Have the pupils recall what a metaphor is. Ask them also what a simile is. Tell them to always remember that a simile uses like or the as-as phrase in comparison. Have the class work on the exercises on page 7. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. bird, broken wings, fly 2. barren field, frozen, snow Exercise B Answers may vary. Possible answers are: 1. cannot hover, cannot soar, cannot swoop, cannot take flight 2. dry, infertile, dried-up, uncultivated, useless, untilled 3. Life without dreams is like a bird that cannot take flight. Life without dreams is like a field that is unproductive.

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4. I dream of being a singer someday. I will be a recording star. 5. I would be very happy. I would be so disappointed or frustrated. The poet encourages us to develop strength and strong determination in pursuing our dreams until we succeed. •

Evaluating Statements Point out to the pupils that we sometimes have to evaluate statements as to whether they are facts or opinions. Emphasize to them that facts can be proven to be true while opinions are personal beliefs, attitudes, or values. Have the class do the exercise on page 8. Note that answers to items 1 and 10 may vary. Have the pupils explain their answers.

H. Do What’s Right • Valuing Dreams Ask the pupils to read the poem again. Then, have them answer the following questions: Do you think the speaker in the poem holds fast to his dreams? Do you know of persons who have made their dreams come true? Have the pupils work on the exercise by interviewing a parent or somebody to find out about his or her dream. They will ask the interviewee whether his or her dream was realized or not. Have the pupils find out also what he or she did to fulfill that dream or why the dream has not been realized yet. Have the pupils write a paragraph about the interview. Ask them to write a title for the paragraph.

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I. Make Connections • Researching on People Who Dreamed Inform the pupils that people enjoy using so many useful things today because there were those who dreamed dreams. Tell them that there are people who dreamed big dreams like going to other planets, walking on the moon, going around the world, exploring the deep oceans, etc. Tell the pupils further that these people dreamed of helping people live healthier, better, and longer lives. Have the class do the exercise on page 9. This may be given as a homework assignment. Tell the pupils to do research on the dreamer/s who made things in the list possible. Tell the pupils to look for stories about Filipino artists (singers, painters, sculptors, etc.), professionals, people in sports, people in government and their dreams. Have them read books, surf the Net, or interview people to get the information needed. Then, have them present their findings in class. They may show pictures to accompany their presentations. J. Spin Off Have the pupils listen to the song Impossible Dream. Ask them to sing the lyrics. Have them find out the story behind the song or the life story of the composer. Tell them to find out what he did to be able to compose the song. Have them surf the Net and then present their findings in class. Tell the class to research on the life of James Langston Hughes. Recall the question raised in Set a Goal for Reading and have a class discussion on his life.


LESSON

2 To Save a Life No. of Teaching Hours: 8-9

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Apply techniques for getting the meanings of words 2. Use context clues to get the meanings of words 3. Recall the meanings of words from one’s readings B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Scan a story for details 2. State cause-effect relationship C. Values 1. Show kindness and generosity to those who are sick 2. Display concern and right attitude to people who are in need 3. Show sincere intention to help and inspire others to give help to those who are hopeless

II. Subject Matter Selection: Five Thousand Pesos, (An Adaptation) (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 10-17 Illustrations showing a fund-raising campaign Pictures showing some children and people donating money for charity IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils if they know of organizations which help the sick and the hopeless through money and medicine. Have them tell about these organizations.

B. Add to What You Know Tell the class that there are people who give assistance to others no matter how great the problem is as shown in the picture. Ask them if they have seen on TV or heard over the radio or even read in the newspaper of people who offer help to others in cash or in kind. Tell them that these people want to share because they care. C. Search for Correct Meaning Point out to the pupils that they usually learn the meanings of words by using a dictionary or by using context clues. Inform them that other strategies may also be used to get the meanings of unfamiliar words. Encourage the pupils to use various strategies to get the meanings of the words in the list. Call on volunteers to give the meanings of the italicized words. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils if they know of organizations or people who give assistance in time of need even without being asked to do so, but give voluntarily because they care. Have the pupils name those organizations or people. E. Read Have the pupils read the selection Five Thousand Pesos on pages 11-12 silently. Ask them to follow the standards for silent reading. F. Share Your Ideas Have a short class discussion of the questions in this section. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Applying Techniques for Meaning-getting Ask the pupils what they do to get the meanings of unfamiliar words. Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 13. Explain how the matrix is to be filled out. •

Recalling Meanings of Words Remind the pupils to remember the meanings of some new words which they came across in their reading so that there would be no need for them to always use a dictionary.

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Have the pupils do the exercises on page 14. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. e 3. f 5. a 7. c 2. g 4. h 6. i 8. d

(Paragraph 10) Michael Santiago – He endured twelve days of chemotherapy and radiation treatment before undergoing the operation. 9. 10.

Exercise B. Answers may vary. Possible answers are: 1. campaign for a sum of money for a good cause 2. delegation for charity 3. so many gifts 4. the lowest possible level 5. non-earning organization 6. a medical treatment in order to save life •

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(Paragraph 3) Amy Santiago – She had to donate her bone marrow to her brother, Michael.

j b

Scanning a Story for Details Ask the pupils what scanning is. Tell them that scanning is the quick reading of a text to find specific information or answers to questions. Have the class work on the exercise on page 15. The possible answers are: 1. (Paragraph 2) Michael, the six-month-old son of Mr. Santiago was diagnosed as having leukemia. 2. (Paragraph 5) Dante Soriano withdrew his savings of 5,000 pesos and went to Mr. Santiago’s office to make his donation. 3. (Paragraph 6) The principal and Mr. Santiago agreed to use Dante’s gift to start the “Michael Santiago Fund.” 4. (Paragraph 7) Dante’s classmates began following his example. They started a drive to raise money for Michael’s operation. 5. (Paragraph 1) Dante Soriano – He had to withdraw 5,000 pesos from his bank account. (Paragraph 10) Rodolfo Santiago – It was an ordeal for him and his family as Michael undergo treatment and operation.

Stating Cause-Effect Relationship Explain to the pupils that a statement that tells cause-effect relationship gives the reason or cause for something that is observed to have happened or is happening or the effect. Write on the board the following examples of sentences showing cause-effect relationship and have the pupils read them. Have the pupils put together the two statements using this pattern: Cause + so + Effect Effect + because + Cause Cause

Effect

There was no rain.

The fields dried up.

The sun is so hot.

I have to open my umbrella.

Ask the pupils to do the exercise on page 16. The possible answers are: 1. (No. 1 is given as a sample.) 2. The principal and Mr. Santiago agreed to use Dante’s gift to start the “Michael Santiago Fund.” 3. The pupils in the school followed Dante’s example. 4. The baby brother would have a bone marrow transplant to enable him to live long. 5. The Santiagos would have more than enough money to cover the cost of his medical bills. 6. He would be cured of his illness and may live longer. 7. Michael gained relief from his illness and his body became strong enough to allow him to start playing. 8. It grew to be the Sparrow Foundation.


H. Do What’s Right • Knowing and Appreciating Charitable Organizations Ask the pupils to name groups, organizations, and foundations, which are formed to help people in need of medical help. Have them surf the Net for names of these organizations and foundations. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 17. The answers to this exercise will depend on the results of the pupils’ research. Have the pupils tell what the organization or foundation does and we can show our appreciation for what the organization or foundation is doing by supporting it. I. Make Connections • Researching on Cancer Tell the class that many Filipinos are sick of cancer. Inform them that there are many kinds of cancer and one of them is leukemia which is cancer of the blood. Have the pupils work on the exercise. This can be given as a homework assignment since they have to do some research or surf the Net. Ask them to present their findings to the class. They can show some pictures if they are available. J. Spin Off Tell the class that our government is doing many things to help people know more about cancer. Have the pupils interview a doctor or someone who works with the Department of Health in their community. Ask them what the government has done to prevent cancer. You may assign some pupils to report about the Philippine Cancer Society and what it is doing. Have some pupils interview a patient sick with cancer to find out the challenges a cancer patient faces. Have their findings presented in class. To find out more about local efforts to battle cancer, instruct pupils to log on to Wikipilipinas and read the article about the Philippine Breast Cancer Network in this URL: http://en.wikipilipinas.org/ index.php?title=Philippine_Breast_Cancer_Network. You may later ask them comprehension questions about the article.

LESSON

3 A Swamp Adventure No. of Teaching Hours: 8-9

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Deduce meanings of unfamiliar words through context clues 2. Use vivid words or expressions to replace words about a person, thing, or action 3. Summarize a story B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Evaluate statements as to their truth value 2. Note details of a story 3. Predict outcomes C. Values 1. Realize that fear is often caused by one’s wild imagination 2. Illustrate calmness during fearsome situations

II. Subject Matter Selection: Swamp Lights, (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 18-33 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils if they believe in ghosts or are afraid of them. Ask them what other things they are afraid of. Have the pupils tell what they are afraid of. B. Add to What You Know Talk about the picture of a swamp on pages 18 and 19. You may ask them what they can tell about a swamp as shown in the illustration.

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Ask them: “What grows in swamps? What animals live there?” Inform the pupils of a well-known swamp in the Philippines, the Candaba Swamp in the province of Pampanga. Have a pupil read the statement under this part and have a short discussion on it.

For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Meeting Challenges, then, Swamp Lights, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. Alternatively, you may access or ask your pupils to access the interactive activities for this lesson at i-learn.vibalpublishing. com. Pupils who have personal computers may work on this activity in their homes. Otherwise, make arrangements for the use of the computers in the school.

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the italicized words in the phrases. Ask which words are familiar to them. Have them tell the meanings of the words they know. Ask the pupils what images or pictures come into their mind as they read the words and phrases listed under this part. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the class that in the story Swamp Lights, Jimmy had a swamp adventure when he got lost in the swamp. Have the pupils read the questions under this part and to look for answers to these questions in the story. Have them also remember details of the story and predict outcomes. E. Read Have the pupils read silently the story Swamp Lights on pages 19-20. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the questions. You may ask the following additional comprehension questions: “What made Jimmy so terrified in the swamp? How did the story end?” G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Vivid Expressions Explain to the pupils the meaning of the word vivid. Give examples of words used to express ideas more clearly, such as: safe-unharmed; protect-defend, watch for; happy-blissful, delighted; fright-scare, shock. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 21. The expected answers are: 1. a 2. d 3. e 4. c 5. b

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Identifying True and False Statements Point out to the pupils that every statement should be evaluated to find out its truth or falsity. Tell the pupils to take note of the meanings of the italicized words used in the exercise as they may affect the meaning conveyed by the statement. Ask the pupils to take up the exercise on this page. The expected answers are: 1. True 5. True 2. True 6. True 3. True 7. Uncertain (Ask the pupils to check with foresters or other reference sources.) 4. True For Question 7, point out to the class that the term oak can be used as a common name of any of about 400 species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Lithocarpus. Have the pupils check in the Internet whether trees and shrubs belonging to these genera are found in the Philippines. They may also ask resource persons like foresters and biology teachers. This should be an opportunity for pupils to learn to withhold decisions until they are absolutely certain of the truth or falsity of a statement.


Remembering Details of the Story Have the pupils recall that at the beginning of the story, they were told to remember important details of the story. Have them find out how much detail they can remember about the story by working on the exercise on pages 22-23. The expected answers are: 1. b 6. d 2. c 7. d 3. d 8. d 4. a 9. a 5. d 10. c

Predicting Outcomes Explain to the pupils that what will happen next in a story may be predicted based on what has happened in the earlier part of the story. Tell them that their experiences can also help in making predictions. Tell the pupils that there are stories whose outcomes are unpredictable, keeping the readers always in suspense. Ask the pupils to do the exercise on page 23. The answers to the exercise may vary. Have the pupils explain the answers.

Summarizing a Story Tell the pupils that a summary is a shortened form of a story. Only the important events or actions are told in the summary. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 24. The sentences may vary but the following should be the sequence of the events. 1. Jimmy went fishing in a swamp. 2. Jimmy got lost in the swamp in a night. 3. Jimmy heard and saw frightful things in the swamp. 4. Jimmy found a shack in the swamp and met a man living there. 5. The man gave Jimmy directions for getting home.

As an added practice in the skill of identifying main ideas and supporting details, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Meeting Challenges, then, Swamp Lights, then, Identifying Main Idea and Supporting Details. For each item, pupils will read a paragraph taken from the selection. Then, they should click on the sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph. H. Do What’s Right • Identifying What to Fear and What Not to Fear Tell the pupils that many people are afraid of many different things. Sometimes people are afraid of other people, animals, failure, ridicule, the unknown, the future, loss of loved ones, and many other things. You may ask some people you know about what they are afraid of. Have the pupils work on the exercise on this page. Tell the pupils to look for verses in the Bible that tell them what to fear or what not to fear. Have the pupils write them on small cards which can serve as bookmarks. Ask them to write the book and chapter in the Bible where the verse is found. Ask them to make their bookmarks pretty enough to be given away as gifts. Have the pupils read the verses in class. This activity can be given as a homework assignment. Then, have them show their bookmarks to the class and read the verses they love. I. Make Connections • Overcoming Fear Have a class discussion of the questions on overcoming fear at the beginning of this section. Have the pupils do the exercise on this page. Ask the pupils what they know about Galileo, Marie Curie, and Isaac Newton. Ask them to select one important person in Science and Technology who overcame his/her fear. Have them look for his/her biography from any reference, encyclopedia, or in the Internet. Have the pupils read their findings to the class.

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J. Spin Off Have the pupils make a survey of the things children are afraid of. Their survey checklist may look like the survey checklist on page 25. Ask the pupils to use picture graphs to present a summary of their findings.

LESSON

4 A Memorable Event No. of Teaching Hours: 8-9

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Identify verbs that collocate with adverbs 2. Use synonyms for unfamiliar but vivid words B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Sequence events in a story 2. Make inferences C. Values 1. Show self-confidence with a determination to perform well 2. Show the best of yourself 3. Strive hard in order to succeed 4. Show appreciation for Philippine music

II. Subject Matter Selection: My First Assembly, (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 26-30 A picture illustrating a boy at a piano A picture of a boy staring nervously at a crowd of parents, teachers, pupils, and friends Pictures illustrating different musical instruments Pictures of some well-known musicians and composers

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IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils look at the picture on page 27. Ask them what the boy is doing. Ask them how the boy probably felt as he was playing the piano before a large crowd. Ask the pupils if they have ever experienced doing something before a large crowd, for example, singing. Ask them to tell about their experiences. B. Add to What You Know Point out to the pupils that all beginnings are difficult most especially when performing onstage. Tell them that once they have tried and succeeded in doing something, the next task would be easier than they imagined. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the words in the list. Tell them that some words are adverbs ending in -ly and others are verbs used as vivid words. Have the pupils name the words whose meanings they know. Instruct them to try to infer the meanings of unfamiliar words as they read the story. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils that they are going to read a narrative about the conflicts which a young boy named Jonathan Rosenbaum had to resolve during his first piano assembly. The story tells about a lesson he learned early in life which shaped his adult values and attitude in life. Tell the pupils that in this personal narrative, Jonathan Rosenbaum describes his experience and his feelings in a way which makes his readers have the same feelings. E. Read Have the pupils read the story My First Assembly on pages 27-28 silently. Remind them to follow the standards for silent reading. Ask the pupils to remember the details or important events in the story so they can correctly put the events in sequence and make some inferences associated with the story.


F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils read the sentences that describe Jonathan Rosenbaum’s feelings when it was his turn to perform onstage. Ask a pupil to read it orally while the rest read it silently. Have the pupils answer the questions under this part. Have the pupils answer the additional comprehension questions: “What emotion did Jonathan show as he was playing the piano? What did he fear most in this situation?” G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Vivid Words Tell the pupils that in this story, the author used adverbs that end in -ly in order to help the readers see vividly how the characters in the story behaved. Have them recall that most adverbs end in -ly and they can be placed before or after verbs or action words. Ask the pupils to work on Exercises A, B, and C on pages 29-30. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. stared 7. bowed 2. sat 8. responded 3. waiting 9. approached 4. announcing 10. announced 5. adjusted 11. waiting 6. played 12. burned Exercise B Possible Answers: (Note that answers may vary because a word may have more than one synonym.) 1. nervous 6. vanished, disappeared 2. immobilized 7. glided, slided 3. groping 8. stared 4. looked at 9. lifted, drifted 5. shake, trembled

Exercise C 1. very large, gigantic, very big 2. insulted, scorned, mocked 3. giant, devil, beast, demon 4. eat up, devour, gulp •

Sequencing Events Have the pupils do the exercise on page 30 or this can be given as a homework assignment to be checked the next day. Ask the pupils to retell the story following the diagram on page 30. The expected answers are: 1. b 3. e 5. d 2. c 4. a 6. f

Making Inferences Help the pupils become aware that they can make conclusions or guesses about the characters, setting, and events in the story. Emphasize to the class that these conclusions or guesses are called inferences. Have the pupils understand that they can also make inferences about the meanings of words in the story. Ask the pupils to do the exercise on page 31. The expected answers are: 1. (Paragraph 1) It is a piano concert. 2. (Paragraph 5) The other performers showed expert performances. They set a standard of perfection. 3. (Paragraph 9) He built his self-confidence and the playing on the piano flowed easily and natural. He had control of his fingers. He was concentrating with his playing and sonatina. He was enjoying the music, forgetting the crowd. 4. (Paragraph 7) He thought of his piano as a giant monster ready to gobble him up. 5. (Paragraph 9) Jonathan was given a standing ovation by the crowd. 6. (Paragraph 10) He would never allow fear to overcome him: He should have self-confidence.

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H. Do What’s Right • Showing Appreciation for Philippine Music Have the pupils realize that Filipinos are said to be lovers of music. They sing as they work and as they play. They sing to show different emotions. Have the pupils know that there are many Filipino musicians. Many of them have made names for themselves not only in the Philippines, but also in other countries. Most of them became recording stars, actors, and actresses like Ryan Cayabyab, Yeng Constantino, Gary Valenciano, Ogie Alcasid, etc. Ask the pupils to work on the exercise on page 32. Have the pupils make a list of Filipino musicians, composers and lyricists, young and old, living and deceased. Inform them that many of these personalities are well-known here and abroad. Tell the pupils that they may interview one of them or surf the Net for information on them. Have the pupils select one Filipino musician and present his or her biography in class. Ask the pupils to show his/her picture during the presentation. Have the class listen to the music he or she composed or sung. Ask the class to present a musical show where they can portray different composer-singers, lyricists, and well-known recording stars. Have the pupils write a short paragraph telling how they can show appreciation for Philippine music. I. Make Connections • Naming Different Musical Instruments Let the pupils be aware that there are different kinds of musical instruments. Emphasize to them that these instruments are played in different ways to produce sound. Have a pupil read the question under this part or give this as a homework assignment so the pupils can do some research using the encyclopedia or surf the Net. Then, have them report their findings in class. They may also show pictures of different musical instruments. The Filway Philippine Almanac, Centennial Edition would be a good reference book. Have the pupils do Exercises A and B.

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To help the pupils research on different indigenous instruments, refer them to Wikipilipinas.org and instruct them to search for the category Philippine Indigenous Instruments. Or, they may simply access this URL: http://en.wikipilipinas.org/ index.php?title=Category:Philippine_Indigenous_Instruments. Tell them to choose one instrument from the list and report on what they have read about it in class. Have the pupils draw or show illustrations of the different Philippine musical instruments and the cultural groups that play them. Ask some of the pupils to bring whatever musical instruments they have at home so they can listen to the sounds they produce. J. Spin Off Have the pupils answer the two questions in this section. Have a short class discussion. Ask the pupils to do further research about Jonathan Rosenbaum. They may present their findings in class and share with the class recordings of Jonathan Rosenbaum’s performances if they are available.

LESSON

5 Needless Fear No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Use contextual clues to determine the meanings of words 2. Infer the meanings of idiomatic expressions through context 3. Evaluate statements and express agreement or disagreement B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall important details in the story read 2. Identify phrases using similes C. Values 1. Be aware of the importance and proper care of the eyes 2. Show self-confidence 3. Demonstrate perseverance, tolerance, and hard work in getting over obstacles


II. Subject Matter Selection: The Challenge, (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 34-43 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 A poster showing the importance of the eyes A poster illustrating proper care of the eyes A picture of an eye doctor examining or treating a child with poor eyesight LCD projector IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask pupils with poor vision or poor eyesight to share with the class their experiences. If they are wearing eyeglasses, ask them how it is like to have them on every day. Ask if they enjoy wearing them or not. Have a short class discussion of the questions in Start with What You Know. B. Add to What You Know Explain to the pupils that many pupils do not do well in school because of poor eyesight. These pupils are usually subjected to a thorough medical examination before the school year begins. This will enable them to get help from an eye doctor or ophthalmologist when needed. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases on the list. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Ask which of these words do they know and which ones they do not. Call on volunteers to tell the meanings of the words they know. Ask what they can do to get the meanings of the other words. Have them implement the strategies they suggested.

D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils that the sentences in the box narrates the earlier part of the story The Challenge. Have them read the motive questions and the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell the pupils to remember as many details as they can as they read the story. Tell them to take note of words and phrases that are unfamiliar to them. Tell them to apply strategies for meaninggetting that they already know. Direct the pupils to the exercises under Sharpen Your Reading Skills. Tell them that in this lesson, they will learn to recognize vivid words, sequence events, and make inferences. Direct them to the questions under Share Your Ideas. Have them read the questions. Tell them to be ready to answer those questions after they have read the story. E. Read Have the pupils read the story The Challenge on pages 35-37. This may be done in class or given as a homework assignment. F. Share Your Ideas Before taking up the questions in this section, ask the following questions just to make sure the pupils understood the story: 1. How did Anna feel on her first day in her new class? 2. What did Miss Williams ask Anna to do? 3. What things did Miss Williams say that surprised Anna a lot? 4. Why did Anna ask her father what a challenge was? 5. What, to Anna, was the challenge? to Miss Williams? After this comprehension checkup, divide the class into several groups. Ask the groups to appoint a discussion leader and a recorder. Have the pupils discuss the questions in their respective groups under the leadership of the discussion leader. The recorder records the responses of the group members and presents them in the whole class checkup.

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G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Idioms Explain to the class that an idiom is an expression whose meaning is not easily understood through its literal meaning or the meaning of the words that make it up. For example, raining cats and dogs does not mean that dogs and cats are falling down on earth. It means that there is a very heavy rain or downpour. Direct the pupils’ attention to the list of idioms on page 38. Have the pupils note that all the idioms have the word time in them. Ask the pupils to read the meaning of each idiom. Then, have them read the sentences that follow. Through context, have them identify the idiom to be used in each sentence. The expected answers are: 1. behind the times 5. behind the times 2. from time to time 6. time and time again 3. time and time again 7. no time 4. against time 8. time of one’s life •

Evaluating Statements Point out to the pupils that when they read something, they consciously—or subconsciously—evaluate the statements. They form opinions about the statements. They may agree or disagree with them. Very often, the wrong use of a word may distort the meaning of a sentence. Have the pupils read all the sentences silently. Call their attention to the italicized words. Have them check the words they know. Help them deduce, through contextual clues, the meanings of the unfamiliar words. Then, have them answer the exercise. Have a class checking of the exercise. Have the pupils tell why they agree or disagree with the statement. The expected answers are: 1. A 3. D 5. D 7. A 9. A 2. D 4. D 6. A 8. D 10. A Have the pupils explain why they agree or disagree with a statement.

14

Getting Meaning Through Context Have the pupils read the introduction to the exercise. Point out to them that the italicized word in each sentence may be unfamiliar to most of them. Have them read the sentence and then identify the word/s that will help them get the meaning of each word. Take up this exercise sentence by sentence with the whole class. The expected answers are: 1. fear

6. tossed

2. strongly

7. surprised

3. stout

8. unsmiling

4. open

9. stood very still

5. old record player

10. did not notice

For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Meeting Challenges, then, The Challenge, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word based on its context by clicking on their choice. •

Identifying Phrases Using Similes Have the pupils recall what they have learned about similes. Point out that it is a figure of speech that compares two unlike objects. The words like or as-as are used. Give examples. Point out that not all phrases with as show similes. For example: He came as we were learning. Point out that in this sentence, no comparison is being made. Take up the exercise, sentence by sentence, with the whole class. Ask what things are being compared in each sentence. This question should help them identify the similes. The expected answers are: 1. 2. 3. 4.

S N S S

5. 6. 7. 8.

S S N S


Recalling Details of a Story Read Ask the pupils to tell as many details as they can recall from the story The Challenge. Point out to the class that the names of characters, places, things, and events in a story are details. Many details are specifically stated in a selection but there are others which are inferred. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 40-41. Allow the pupils to go back to the story to confirm their answers to the items. Have them mark the items whose answers they are sure of. This will provide both teacher and pupils a gauge of how well the pupils can recall details. The expected answers are: 1. a 3. c 5. b 7. a 9. a 2. b 4. a 6. a 8. d Making Inferences Ask the pupils what an inference is. If the pupils cannot tell what it is, explain that an inference is a logical conclusion a reader makes about the characters, events, places, and things in the story. To practice the skill of making inferences, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Meeting Challenges, then, The Challenge, then, Making Inferences. For each item, pupils will read excerpts from the selection. Then, they will choose a valid inference about the specified character based on the excerpt by clicking on their choice.

H. Do What’s Right • Accepting Challenges Have the pupils read the introduction to the section. Have a class discussion of the questions posed in Paragraph 2. Have them work on the following as a homework asignment: Have the pupils read Exercise A. Call on volunteers to share with the class which among the choices given is a challenge to him or her. Ask them to explain their answers. Have the pupils read Exercise B. Divide the class into groups and instruct the groups to have a group discussion of the questions.

Have the pupils work on the following as an optional activity: My Portfolio Name: _______________________________________ Date: _______________________________________ Share your ideas for: The Challenges by Jean Little Answer the questions. What do you think is more difficult to conquer: Physical defect or emotional defect? __________________________ What do you think is the bigger factor that contributes to a person’s success? _______________________________ Why do some people emerge victorious after a strong storm has come to their lives? ________________________ What value does a person possess that makes him strong in facing his/her obstacle in life? ______________________ I. Make Connections • Evaluating Performance in Different Subject Areas Ask the pupils if attending school has been a challenge to them, so far. Call on volunteers to tell what subject is different for them and how they meet the challenge of doing better in that subject. Instruct the pupils to make a copy of the chart printed on page 63. They can fill in the chart as directed. Have them explain under Reason why their grades are high. If their grades are low, have them write the possible reasons that contributed to those low grades. Ask the pupils to submit the chart to you. Ask the pupils to write a one-paragraph explanation about what they can do to overcome the challenge or obstacle to their getting higher grades. J. Spin Off Instruct the pupils to prepare a chart similar to the one shown in the book, with two headings: Challenges and What I can do. Give this as a homework assignment. The next day, call on volunteers to present their charts in class.

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LESSON

6 Widen Your Horizon No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Infer meanings of words through context 2. Evaluate opinions B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Identify rhyming words 2. Recall details of a poem read 3. Interpret lines of poetry 4. Assess ideas expressed in poetry and compare them to one’s own experiences C. Values 1. Illustrate self-confidence and determination 2. Show strength and strengthen one’s spirituality 3. Show optimism and look at the brighter side of life

II. Subject Matter Selection: Your World (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading (Second Edition), pp. 44-51 Pictures illustrating the idea of each stanza A little bird seated in the nest, somewhat frightened A little bird looking at the horizon (still in the nest) A little bird flying IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the picture of a little bird in a nest. Ask the pupils if the little bird can fly right away after it is hatched. Tell them that the little bird has to learn first how to fly before it can fly out in the air. Have the pupils answer the questions under this section and have a short discussion about these.

16

B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils if they believe in the saying that: you can never learn to ride a bicycle without getting bruises. Let them express themselves about this saying. Ask them also if this saying applies to many things in life. Have the pupils cite some examples. Then, ask them to write their examples on the board and have the class conduct a short discussion. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the italicized words in phrases under this section. Ask them to look for the words in phrases as they study the poem. Emphasize to them that they will get the meanings of the words based on how they are used in context. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils that this poem is about a little bird (showing the illustration of a birdling in a nest). Ask the pupils if the little bird can fly right away. Ask them also how they think the birdling can meet the challenges in its life. Let the pupils be aware on how the speaker in the poem meet the challenges of living. Tell the pupils that as they read the poem, they will identify the rhyming words, the details shown in every stanza of the poem, and the values which the poem teaches in meeting the challenges in life. E. Read Ask a good reader to read the poem aloud as the rest of the pupils read silently. Have them picture in their minds the idea or imagery shown in each stanza. Then, have the pupils read the poem in unison. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the pupils the idea that come into their mind in reading the first, the second, and the third stanza. Show the pictures listed under Materials. Ask the pupils what the birdling is probably thinking of and feeling in each picture.


Have the pupils try to recall the details in the poem and answer the exercise that follows. The expected answers are: Answers: 1. a 3. b 5. d 7. b 9. c 2. a and d 4. c 6. c 8. a 10. a

Have the pupils answer Questions 1-3. Tell the pupils that the poem also brings the following ideas: The little bird overcomes fear and learns to fly and appreciates the beauty of the world; the little bird is able to meet the challenges in its life; it conquers them by using its God-given power—its wonderful wings. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Getting Meaning Through Context Emphasize to the pupils that one way to get the meaning of a word is by using context clues. Have them get the meaning of the word by looking at the other words in the sentence. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 46. The expected answers are: 1. live 7. joy 2. far-off 8. beat 3. space 9. flew 4. struck at 10. shortest distance across 5. intertwined rope 11. saw 6. small object 12. want or wish •

Identifying Rhyming Words Tell the pupils that rhyming words have the same or similar ending sounds or terminal sounds. They give an element of musicality. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 47. The expected answers are: 1. abide, side 2. sea, immensity 3. breeze, ease

Recalling Details of a Poem Read Have the pupils understand that some poems are hard to read and understand. Tell the class that when this happens, the best thing to do is to try to reflect on the images created by the poem. The pictures created in their mind may help them understand the poem better.

Evaluating Opinions Ask the pupils what an opinion is as defined in the book. Tell them that an opinion is different from a fact because a fact is something known to have happened as truth, proven by actual experience or by actual observation. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 49. Answers to this exercise will vary.

H. Do What’s Right • Evaluating Your Values Have the pupils take these little words of wisdom to live by: Your world is as big as you make it. This means that we should not be afraid to explore the possibilities in life. Tell them not to be contented with the resources that are readily at hand and sights that are readily seen by the naked eye. Let the pupils understand that the world is full of different sights, sounds, experiences, and possibilities for them if only they are willing to search, explore, and discover like Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan did in their time. Have the pupils be aware that self-confidence and strong determination can play a very important role in one’s success. Ask the pupils to work on the exercise on page 50. Have them count their number of vs, s, and m. Ask them what their answers reveal about their values. I. Make Connections • Being Strong Have the pupils answer and have a short discussion of the two questions under this section. Tell the pupils that the best way to deal with failure is by strengthening one’s spirituality. Spirituality is the belief in the

17


existence of a Superior Being who guides people through life. When a person is spiritually strong, he or she believes that circumstances will turn out favorably in the end or things happen for a good purpose. Encourage pupils to be strong when meeting failures—and to be always optimistic. A person who is optimistic looks at the brighter side of life, while a person who is pessimistic is a person with a negative attitude. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 51. The expected answers are: 1. P

3. O

2. O

4. P

J. Spin Off Have the pupils go back to the poem and have them read it again. Let them comment on the first line of the poem. Ask the pupils to look for a poem expressing the same message as that of Your World. Have them read the poem in class.

II. Subject Matter Selection: Mother Earth Is Grieving (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading, pp. 52-59 Pictures illustrating pollution and the effects of pollution: showing barren land forms, thick smoke coming from factories and vehicles; dry, dirty water forms A picture of a clean, green world IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Call the pupils’ attention to the illustrations on page 52. Ask them what the children are doing. Then, have them answer the questions under this section. Ask how old newspapers and empty bottles can be recycled. Explain what an aerosol spray is. Make them aware of the danger of using aerosol spray. Ask how they can help take care of the plants and trees in their communities. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text under this section.

LESSON

7 Greening the World No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Infer meanings of words through context 2. Use the right words in sentences 3. Identify the words that complete analogies B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Interpret and understand the details in a poem C. Values Show commitment in taking care of the environment

18

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases listed under this section. Tell the pupils that they will infer the meanings of these words as they read the poem. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils discuss the ideas shown in the illustrations. Show the pictures listed under Materials. Then, ask them to study the title of the poem. Ask them what they expect to learn from the poem based on the illustrations. Have the pupils read the questions under this section. The questions are to be answered and discussed after reading the poem. Ask the pupils to note the details in the poem. They will also identify the words that complete the analogies and recommend activities to minimize the effects of pollution.


E. Read Have a pupil read the short paragraph in the box. Then, read the poem to the class while the pupils read silently. Have them picture in their mind, the ideas expressed in each line. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the following questions before taking up the questions under this section to find out if they understood the poem. 1. What kind of air do we breathe? Why? 2. What does the line Sorrowful is this desolate and tragic scene mean? 3. Why do fish and other sea animals lose their places for breeding? 4. What is the danger of the widening hole on the ozone layer? 5. What shall we do to help make our community a happy and healthy place to live in? Have a short discussion on these questions. Then, have the pupils read the poem orally. Assign each stanza to a group. Ask the pupils to answer the questions in Share Your Ideas. The discussion should bring about ideas of unconcern among many people regarding the environment as shown by: • indiscriminate logging resulting to barren mountains • unchecked quarrying resulting to landslides • lack of concern among many factory owners and car owners resulting in smog • careless garbage disposal resulting in polluted seas and rivers, which in turn, results in the death of marine life • overuse of materials containing CFC (like refrigerators, air conditioners, spray paints) which results in the thinning of the ozone layer, thus making people more exposed to the excessive heat of the sun. Expand the discussion to include present observations regarding global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer.

Knowing the cause of pollution will help pupils identify actions they can do to minimize it, e.g. • spitting pollutes the air and spreads germs that cause diseases • burning and using sprays contribute to the thinning of the ozone layer • wasting paper contributes to deforestation which in turn, causes floods and lack of oxygen. Have the pupils be aware of the other kinds of pollution we bring upon ourselves, like noise pollution and food pollution. Noise pollution is caused by unwholesome sounds from factories, vehicles (trains, jeeps, buses, etc.), loud radios/music boxes, people shouting, etc. Food pollution is caused by unhealthful means of food preparation, storage, and transportation, etc. Have the pupils discuss how to avoid these kinds of pollution. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using the Right Words in Sentences Tell the class that it is important for them to remember words and their meanings so that they can use the words correctly or appropriately when they read or write. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 54-55. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. environment 2. pollute 3. chemicals 4. toxic 5. chemical fertilizer Exercise B 1. smoke 2. bare and infertile 3. thickly covered

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

pesticides fumes smog recycle recycle

4. deserted 5. increased

19


Completing Analogies Tell the pupils that an analogy is a likeness in one or more ways between things which are otherwise unlike. Colons are used in analogies. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 55. The expected answers are: 1. cool 5. good food 2. destroy 6. crocodile 3. valley 7. penguin 4. fungi

Expressing Understanding of a Poem Have the pupils read the poem again. Tell them to remember the details in the poem so they can recall them later. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 56-57. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. c 7. c 2. a, b, c, d, e 8. b 3. a, b 9. d 4. a, b, c 10. b 5. a, b 11. d 6. a, b 12. a Exercise B 1. Factory smoke and car fumes cause pollution 2. Fish are smothered or lose places for breeding 3. For valleys, plains, and mountains are now barren 4. Her ozone layer shields us no more causing skin disease and eye sore

I. Do What’s Right • Saving the Earth Tell the pupils that environmental pollution has been discussed in schools, government agencies, scientific gatherings, and even in churches. These are the questions often raised: What is to be done? Who will do what?

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Let the pupils be aware that at their young age, they could do something in saving the earth. Have them start with what they can do. Have them start with their own environment, their school, and their homes. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 58. Have them discuss this problem: What can pupils like them do to have a pleasant environment? To work on this question, have the pupils form groups of five. Have them select a discussion leader and a secretary. Ask the members of the group to give suggestions to answer the questions. The secretary takes down notes. Ask the discussion leader to present the results of the group discussion. I. Make Connections • Designing Something to Help Tell the pupils that there are many environmental problems such as improper garbage and sewage disposal, water pollution because of oil spills, air pollution because of cigarette smoking, noise pollution because of loud sounds, and land pollution because of chemicals mixed with the soil. As children of Mother Earth, tell them to think of ways to solve these problems and act on them. Have the pupils work in groups on the exercise on page 58. Ask them to select their discussion leader and a secretary and brainstorm for ideas on the sequence of tasks indicated. Have them follow the instructions carefully. J. Spin Off Have the pupils work on Exercises A, B, and C on page 57. Ask the pupils to form groups of six (6) to work on Exercise A. Each group works on a chosen topic and reports on it in class. Guide the pupils in drawing their diagram showing the symbiotic relation between trees and clean air for people. Guide and help the pupils in preparing placards showing ways of saving the environment for the Save Our Environment Parade. Assist them also in their street play showing how a polluted environment can affect people’s lives.


Skill Focus A. Using Words and Affixes Tell the pupils that words are a part of our lives. When we speak, read, or write, we use words. We listen to words used by other people. Let the pupils be aware that there are thousands of words in English and in all other languages. They should know that words are free forms. They can stand alone. For example: cry, make, and pretty are free forms. They can stand alone. Have the class recall that un-, dis-, and -tion are not free forms. They cannot stand alone. They are not words. Tell them that in English, words can either be simple, compound, or complex. Boy, kick, sun, and light are simple forms. No other elements that have meanings go with them. Emphasize to the pupils that boy scout, kickball, and jack-o’lantern are compound forms. They are made up of two or more simple forms. Tell the class that boyish, illegal, and biology are complex forms. They are made up of free forms and some other elements or they are made up of elements that are not free forms like bio- and logy to form biology. Inform the pupils that English words can be formed in many ways. One of these ways is by adding one or more elements to simple, compound, or complex forms. These elements are called affixes. Affixes have meanings. Let the pupils be aware that in English, there are two kinds of meaning–bearing elements or affixes. They are prefixes and suffixes. A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word form as shown by the examples on page 60. A suffix is placed at the end of a word form as shown by the examples on page 60. Tell the class that sometimes, prefixes, and suffixes are added to word forms as shown by the example on page 60.

Have the pupils study the two charts. Let them take note of the prefixes and suffixes, and the new words formed by adding a prefix or suffix to a word form. Have them study the words formed by using the prefixes and suffixes in the chart. Ask the pupils to work on Exercises A-D on pages 62-63. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. superfine

6.

patriotic

2. overage

7.

development

3. undertime

8.

inward

4. overcharge

9.

ex-director

5. oversize

10.

undernourished

Exercise B 1. microscopic

5.

pinkish

2. undergarments

6.

achievement

3. ex-secretary

7.

overzealous

4. outward

8.

superscript

The answers may vary for Exercises C and D. Have the pupils use a dictionary to get the meanings of the words marked with X. Exercise E 1. arranged again

4.

like a child

2. not covered

5.

like yellow

3. modeled again

6.

over abundance; great abundance

B. Identifying the Elements of a Short Story Have the pupils think about the story Swamp Lights. Have them recall: Where did the story happen? Who is the “actor” in the story? What are the main events in the story? What characterizes each main event? Which main event is the most suspenseful? How did the story end?

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Their answers to these questions compose the elements of a short story. These elements are: 1. Setting Tell the pupils that setting refers to the time and place of the action of a story. Generally, a writer describes a setting early in the story to help picture the events. Sometimes, the setting is not described directly, but the reader can infer it through the writer’s description of the movements of the “actor” in the story. The writer tells that the setting is the swamp. It is muddy. The things that Jimmy thinks about tell the reader that the swamp is believed to be inhabited by mysterious beings. 2. Character Emphasize to the pupils that a character is a person or animal who takes part in the action of a work of literature. The main character is the one on whom the story focuses. Sometimes, a short story has minor characters. Tell them that the minor characters keep the action moving and help the reader learn more about the main character. Ask: “Who is the main character in Swamp Lights? Is there a minor character?” 3. Plot Tell the pupils that the plot is the series of events that make up the story. Each event has a conflict or struggle faced by the main character. Emphasize to them that each conflict has a suspense or a point of excited interest or worry. The suspense grows in intensity with each succeeding event until it reaches the climax or highest point of interest. Tell the pupils that the climax is the turning point of the story. The story ends soon after the climax, with a solution to the conflict. Some stories end with the climax without offering a solution. The reader is left to think about a probable solution to the problem. Inform the pupils that the plot generally includes the following parts: Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution which are briefly described on pages 64-65. Have the pupils go back to the story and tell which parts of Swamp Lights correspond to the elements stated above.

22

To have the pupils enjoy reading the story, let them picture the time, place, and atmosphere where the events take place. Have them pay attention to what is said about the character and their words and actions. Make them identify the problems or conflict that the main character faces, and have them make connections between events. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 65-70. Have them identify the elements of each short story. (Possible Responses) 1. The Dinner Party by Mona Gardner a. Setting: In India; In a colonial official’s spacious dining room b. Characters: An American naturalist A colonel official and his guests: Army officers, government attaches and their wives c. Jointly construct the plot summary with the class. Do the same with the other stories. 2. Terror on the Ledge, from Accent on Reading Skills a. Setting: Apartment b. Characters: Joe, voice 3. Thundering Water, by Sally Lee a. Setting: In a cabin in Green Valley b. Characters: Yumi, Mei 4. Word Power, by Jean Little a. Setting: at home b. Characters: Narrator, Hugh, Mother C. Using Library Resources Ask the pupils if they often go to the library. Ask them what reference materials do they find there. Tell them that the most often used reference material in the library is the dictionary. 1. Dictionary Have the pupils think about the vocabulary expressions assigned to them for study in this unit. You may have them recall how some of them may have gotten the meanings


from context while others have preferred using a dictionary. Ask: “If you used the dictionary, how were you able to find the meanings of the words easily? What other information did you get about the word? As you look up the meaning of a word in a ditionary, you can also get the spelling, syllabication, and pronunciation of a word, its synonyms, and part of speech. You can also learn its various forms and its history or etymology. Have the pupils study the simple dictionary page on page 71. Call their attention to the marginal notes which identify the different information given in a dictionary entry. Have the pupils read page 72. Point out the items mentioned in one entry in the dictionary page. Have the pupils work on Exercises A-F on pages 73-74. (Possible Answers:) A. 1. belonging to the present time 2. that part of any body of water which flow in a definite direction 3. a flow of electricity through a conductor 4. any general course, tendency, trend, and drift B. 1. p p r ; p po r 2. a jar of flower petals mixed with spices and used for scent or perfume 3. N 4. pot-pour-ri 5. (F pot pourri, (trans. of sp. olla podrids) 6. rotten, past part. of pourrir to rot C. 1. nar-ra-tive 2. N 3. the account of a series of events; stories; the art or study of narrating 4. account; description; tale; story; history; report D. 1. yes 2. yes 3. yes

4. no 5. yes 6. no

E. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

current cursive Tamil Kari sauce curere run circulating currish

F. 1. b 2. e

3. 4.

a f

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 5. c 6. g

-ly curriculums curricula curry second words transitive electricity 7. j 8. d

9. i 10. j

2. The Card Catalog Tell the pupils that when they are given research assignments, the library offers many resources. One of them is the card catalog which serves as the index to the books in the library. They are placed in a chest of drawers similar to the one shown on page 75. Have the pupils notice that the drawers are classified according to author, subject, or title. This arrangement helps the pupils find the books they are looking for. If they can’t remember the title of the book, but they remember the author, they can look up the book through the author card. If they have no specific book or author in mind, but have a particular subject matter, they can look up books under subject card. Have the pupils note further that the drawers are arranged alphabetically under each classification. Test their ability by asking them which drawer to open for a book on pollution, a book on Nick Joaquin, to find a book entitled Anne of Green Gables, and a book entitled The Last Days of Pompei; inside each drawer is a set of cards similarly shown on page 78. Have the pupils take note of the call number on the card. This call number is printed on the spine of the book. Ask the pupils to use the call number on the card to locate the book on the library shelf.

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Emphasize to them that in the subject card, the topic or subject of a book is on the first line next to the call number. In the author card, the author’s name is next to the author’s number. Have the pupils find out the other information given on the cards. 3. Book Parts Have the pupils know which books contain information about their topic. Have them use the subject card to determine whether or not the book will be helpful. Have them look at the title page, copyright date, table of contents, and index. 4. Reference Materials Tell the pupils about the other reference materials in the library which they will find useful. They are the encyclopedia, almanac, atlas, maps, magazines and newspapers, thesaurus, and nonprint resources. Have the pupils read the usefulness of each reference material on pages 77-79. Let them see the illustrations in the book so that they will be familiar with the different reference materials.

Linking Reading with Writing In this section, use the genre-process approach in teaching writing. The steps are as follows: A. Preparation Have the pupils read the first three paragraphs in the section. Have them narrate some personal experiences they have had. B. Modeling and Reinforcing Have the pupils read Step 1. Then, have them read My First Assembly all over again. Go over the story together with the pupils using the notes on Step 1.

C. Planning Have the pupils read Number 2 in Step 1. Suggest a class experience which can be considered a challenge and which the class can write about. D. Joint Construction Have the pupils read Number 3 in Step 1. Lead the pupils in writing the notes based on the questions. Have them read Step 2. Jointly construct the composition with the pupils. Ask them to dictate sentences using the notes they have given. Have the class read Step 3. Revise the draft together with the pupils. Have the pupils copy the final draft. E. Independent Constructing Tell the pupils that this time, they will write about an experience they have had. Go back to Number 2 of Step 1. Have them read the procedure. Have the pupils write some notes based on the questions in Number 3 of Step 1. Writing the draft can be given as a homework assignment. F. Revising Have the pupils read Step 3. Have them self-check and revise their compositions using the questions in Step 3 as guides. Provide time for them to write the final draft on a clean sheet of paper. Have the pupils read Step 5. Provide a space in your room where the compositions can be posted.

Unit Test Answers A. 1. True 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. False B. 1. 5 3 1 2 4 2. 2 4 5 1 3 C. 1. b

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

2.

b

3. 3.

b

False True True True False 4 1 5 2 3 4.

c

5. b

6. b


UNIT

II Footprints

Ask the pupils to look at the illustration on page 84. Ask them what the boy and girl leave behind as they walk on the sand. Have the pupils read the verse. Tell them that the footprints in the poem are not real footprints. Tell them that the lives of great men and other well-known people who have done great deeds during their time and at present should remind us that we, too, must live noble lives. Let the pupils be aware that besides these well-known people, there are also those who have done great deeds in their own ways. You may ask volunteers to tell about people around them whose lives they can emulate. This will also lead to the idea that even if they are young, they could accomplish wonderful things and be the pride of our country. Let the pupils be also aware that in this unit, they will read stories of some outstanding persons.

LESSON

1 Give the Best in You No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 84-91 A picture of a pine tree, a bush, and a shrub growing on a hill near a highway with a trail going up the hill A picture of a boat with a captain and a crew A picture of the sun and a star IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils to look at the pictures of famous or well-known persons on page 85. Ask some pupils to say something about Stevie Wonder, Apolinario Mabini, Helen Keller, and Ludwig Van Beethoven. Encourage the pupils to talk about some famous men and women in our country, in the past or in the present. Then, ask the pupils to answer the question under this section. Have a short discussion about this.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Identify words with multiple meanings 2. Get meanings of words through context B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Interpret lines of poetry 2. Understand the connotative and denotative meanings of words in a poem 3. Interpret ideas expressed in the poem C. Values 1. Show self-confidence, determination, and perseverance 2. Show the best of whatever they do

II. Subject Matter Selection: Be the Best of Whatever You Are (poem)

B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils that there are people who are considered successful because of their financial achievements although some of them come from poor or humble beginnings, but they have not forgotten to help their fellowmen in times of need. Examples are four Filipino philanthropists listed in the list of first heroes of Philanthropy namely, Jaime Zobel de Ayala, John Gokongwei, Ramon del Rosario Jr., and Oscar Lopez. There are also people in our community who do good deeds in their own ways. Have the pupils answer the question: “How will you describe a successful person?� Have a short discussion on this. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call on pupils to give the meanings of the words. Ask them what techniques to use in order to get the meanings of the words. Have them use the technique they suggested to get the meanings.

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D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils to read the motive question before reading the poem. Have them read the short paragraph in the box. As they read the poem, tell them to think of the answer to the question in the box and the answer to the questions under Share Your Ideas. After reading the poem, have them think also on how the lines in the poem are interpreted.

5. n. any of the heavenly bodies appearing as apparently fixed luminous bodies in the sky 6. n. a path or track made across a wild region, one rough country Have the pupils use the words in sentences in which the other meaning is conveyed. •

Recalling Meanings of Words Tell the pupils that the meanings of many words have been stored in their memory. When they come across the word again, they may choose from the many meanings they know that meaning which fits the new context. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 88. The expected answers are: 1. yes 6. yes 2. yes 7. no 3. yes 8. no 4. yes 9. yes 5. no 10. no

•

Understanding a Poem by Knowing Denotative and Connotative Meanings Let the pupils be aware that many words in English have two meanings, namely: denotative and connotative meanings. Have them take up the two examples. 1. The cat caught a rat. 2. That woman is a cat.

E. Read Have a pupil read the poem aloud while the rest read silently. F. Share Your Ideas Before answering the questions under this section, have the pupils answer the motive question followed by a short discussion. Have the pupils read the poem again. Ask them to answer the question in the box. Then, have them answer the question under this section. Have a short discussion on these questions. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Words with Multiple Meanings Tell the pupils that in English, many words have several meanings. Have the pupils get the appropriate dictionary meaning of a word by taking note of the context or sentence where the word occurs. Having them identify the part of speech of the word will also help them get the meaning of the word. Tell the pupils that several very simple words are used in the poem and have multiple meanings. They may know one meaning, but they may not know the other meanings. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 87. The expected answers are: 1. n. any of various coniferous trees with long, needleshaped leaves 2. n. a perennial plant having a permanent woody, selfsupporting main stem or trunk 3. n. an Australian freshwater fish 4. n. the star which is the central body of the solar system and around which the planets revolve

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Point out to the pupils that the denotative meaning of cat in Sentence 1 is a domesticated animal of the Genus Felis. The word cat identifies the animal by naming it. Tell them that the word cat in Sentence 2 connotes one who is quarrelsome. Therefore, a woman said to be a cat is quarrelsome. Ask the pupils if they know any connotative meanings for kitten, crocodile, and monkey. The word kitten connotes a girl and makes allusions to her softness. Crocodile connotes a person who is a cheat and makes allusions to his being treacherous. Monkey connotes a person who is mischievous and it makes allusions to his or her being funny and mischievous.


Tell the pupils that they can understand the poem better if they can determine the connotative meanings of words whose denotative meanings they already know, for example, tree, bush, shrub, grass, highway, trail, muskie, captain, crew, sun, and star. Ask them that when these words are applied to people, what do they connote? What meanings are conveyed? Have a short discussion on these. Have the pupils understand what the reader can be according to the poem. “If you can’t be a pine. be a shrub.” If you can’t be a tall beautiful pine tree, just be a low tree or shrub. “Be a bush, if you can’t be a tree.” Be a low plant with plenty of small branches, if you can’t be a tall proud tree. “If you can’t be a muskie, be a bass” If you can’t be a small hornless animal belonging to the deer family, just be a fish happily swimming in the lake. “If you can’t be a highway, be a trail.” If you can’t be a wide, cemented, or asphalted street, just be a narrow path where people can tread on. “If you can’t be the sun, be a star.” If you can’t be the sun to light the whole universe, just be a star beautifully twinkling in a faraway distance admired by everyone. Have the pupils work in small groups on the exercise on page 89. Have them discuss the connotative meanings of the italicized words. Ask them to find out their distinguishing characteristics or features. Have them read the guide questions and answer each. Have a group recorder to record their answers. Then, have each group present their group answer to the whole class.

H. Do What’s Right • Doing One’s Best Tell the pupils that the word best can be confusing or misleading. This may be because of the words that go with best, for example, doing one’s best contrasted with being the best. Have them understand that to be the best, one strives to excel, to be above someone else. To do one’s best, one strives to surpass his own earlier performance. In both, one has to put a lot of self-discipline, hardwork, and unswerving direction. Ask the pupil this question: “Can you be the best in something, but not another?” Then, have them read the short story about a boy named Emanuel who wanted to be one of the best students in the class. Have a pupil read the story. Then ask them to answer the motive question and the following questions. 1. What did Emanuel always want to be in his class? 2. Did he come out as one of the top ten pupils? 3. What kind of award did Emanuel receive? Was he happy about it? Why? 4. What line in the poem did he remember upon receiving the award? I. Make Connections • Researching on Outstanding Asians Tell the pupils that every year, awards are given to Asians who have contributed to the upliftment of people in Asia. Inform the class that this annual award is the Ramon Magsaysay Award. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 91. The following information could be of help to you 1. History, goals and achievements of the Ramon Magsaysay Awards In April 1957, the Ramon Magsaysay Award was established by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. With the concurrence of the Philippine government, the prize was created to commemorate the late president of the

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Refer your pupils to an article about recent winners of the Ramon Magsaysay Awards through this article in the Philippine Online Chronicles. Instruct them to access this URL: http:// www.thepoc.net/index.php/Politi-Ko/Sa-Madaling-Salita/ Filipino-governor-NGO-awarded-Ramon-Magsaysay-prizes. html. Instruct your pupils to read the article and ask them which outstanding Asians were mentioned in the article and what their accomplishments were.

Philippines and to perpetuate his example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society. The RMAF recognizes and honors individuals and organizations in Asia regardless of race, creed, sex, or nationality who achieved distinction in their respective fields and have helped others generously without anticipating public recognition. During the foundation’s four decades of existence, Asia has made great progress, some nations more than others. In recognizing individuals and organizations who have addressed the issues on problems of poverty, malnutrition, disease, and violence as well as newer problems with extraordinary vigor, integrity, and selflessness, the foundation seeks to honor the memory of President Ramon Magsaysay and to place living examples of exceptional service before the public. 2. Names of some Asians who received the Ramon Magsaysay Award: •

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Isabela Governor Grace M. Padaca – a journalist who did not let polio stop her from seeking public office and in the process defeating a powerful political dynasty. Thailand’s Therdchai Jivacate whose prostheses foundation makes affordable artificial limbs available even to the poorest amputees, was also cited for public service.

Japanese publisher Akio Ishii, was named journalism, literature, and creative communication arts awardee.

Indonesia’s Ahmad Syafii Maarif, who heads the Muhammadiyah mass organization, was named awardee for international peace and understanding for guiding Muslims to embrace tolerance and pluralism as the basis for justice and harmony.

J. Spin Off Have the pupils look for stories of ordinary people who became the best of whatever they were. They could be barkers, or beauticians, fisher folks or farmers, vendors or drivers, tailors or seamstresses, etc. Have the class find out how these show their best. Have the pupils share their stories with their classmates. Have a pupil write a short biography about an outstanding alumna or alumnus of the school and read the biography in class.

LESSON

2 Moving Forward No. of Teaching Hours: 3-4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Get the meanings of words through context 2. Identify clues that lead to the meanings of words 3. Identify terms used in painting B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Identify synonyms 2. Scan details of a story C. Values 1. Show self-discipline, perseverance, hardwork, and the value of integrity 2. Demonstrate love for art 3. Show concern for the poor


II. Subject Matter Selection: Bencab: Artist with a Heart (biography) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 92-97 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 Illustration of a boy painting on pavements and walls Picture of Bencab’s solo art display IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils look at the picture on page 92. Ask them what it may be about. Ask who among them love to paint. Have them tell the class the painting that they really like. Ask them to describe it. Then, have them answer the question under this section and have a short discussion about it. B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils that paintings have great value. They provide us with enjoyment and information. Paintings of some famous painters are so valuable or priceless that they have to be well taken care of such as the paintings of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. We have also our own famous painters like Juan Luna and Fernando Amorsolo. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Tell them to note the sentences in the story where the italicized words are used. This will help them in getting the meanings of the words from its context. D. Set a Goal for Reading Before reading the story, have the pupils read the motive question and the questions under Share Your Ideas. Write the following questions on the board. Tell the pupils that they will answer these questions after they have read the story. 1. When did Bencab start painting? 2. How did Bencab express his deep sympathy for the underprivileged or poor?

3. Who paved his way for the many art exhibits outside the Philippines? 4. Why did he join other artists in initiating Art Aid? 5. Why is Bencab called the “Artist with a heart.” E. Read Have the pupils read the paragraphs in the box on page 92. Then, have the pupils read the story in class or as a homework assignment. F. Share Your Ideas Before taking up the questions under this section, have the pupils answer the motive question and the questions written on the board. Have a short discussion on these. Then, have them take up the comprehension questions. Divide the class into four groups and assign a discussion leader and a recorder. Have the pupils discuss the question assigned to them. Then, ask a group to present the results of the discussion to the class. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Synonyms Tell the pupils that things and ideas can be said in more than one way. They can use synonyms for variety in the language. They can also use synonyms in order to be very specific in the message they want to convey. Tell the class that two or more words which have similar or almost the same meanings are synonyms. Have them read the examples in the book on page 95. Have them work on the exercise on page 95. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. pictures of persons 4. imaginative 2. an exhibit 5. to show or illustrate 3. shocked by example Exercise B 1. true 2. true 3. true

4. false 5. true

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For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Footprints, then, Bencab: Artist with a Heart, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. Alternatively, you may access or ask your pupils to access the interactive activities for this lesson at i-learn.vibalpublishing.com. •

Scanning for Details of a Story Tell the pupils that to scan is to look quickly for bits of information in a printed material. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 96. Emphasize to the pupils that this exercise is under time pressure. They have to record the number of minutes it takes them to complete the exercise. The expected answers are: 1. Bencab 5. myopia 2. underprivileged 6. Blue serenity 3. human rights 7. artquake 4. illustrator 8. barong-barong (shanties) As an added practice in the skill of identifying main idea and supporting details, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Footprints, then, Bencab: Artist with a Heart, then, Identifying Main Idea and Supporting Details. For each item, pupils will read a paragraph taken from the selection. Then, click on the sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph.

H. Do What’s Right • Accepting Difficulties and Trials Tell the pupils that at their age, facing difficulties and trials may be something difficult to understand. But for those who have experienced these, what are sometimes considered as trials are actually blessings in disguise. Point out to them that this is true in the life of the national artist Bencab who experienced success because he accepted the challenges that came his way.

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He gave support and inspiration to those who, like him, could hardly reach the top. Tell them that Bencab demonstrated gratitude by helping those who needed help. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 96-97. The pupils’ responses to these exercises will vary. I. Make Connections • Identifying Terms Used in Painting Ask the pupils if they know the names of the different materials used by a painter in his or her studio. Have the pupils do the exercises on page 97. The expected answers are: Exercise A Uses of the following painter’s materials: oil – oil paints are made by mixing dry pigment powder with refined linseed oil to paste used in painting easel – a stand or frame for supporting or displaying at an angle an artist’s canvas gown – a protective overgarment worn by an artist canvas – a closely woven heavy cloth on which a painting is made brush – implement consisting of bristles with a handle used for painting palette knife – a thin oval or oblong board or tablet used by painters for folding and mixing colors paint thinner – a volatile liquid, as turpentine used to dilute paint water color – a pigment for which water is used for the art or technique in painting charcoal – used for sketching; a drawing pencil of charcoal model – a person or thing that serves as a subject for an artist or sculptor painting knife – used for spreading color evenly paint – a substance composed of solid coloring matter applied as decorative coating or a canvas or other materials in producing a work of art


Exercise B Other terms used in painting Medium used in painting: 1. tempera – a medium which is a dry pigment tempered with an emulsion and thinned with water 2. fresco – the traditional medium for painting directly onto a wall or ceiling 3. ink – the traditional painting medium of China and Japan where it has been used with long haired brushes of wolf, goat, or badger on silk or absorbent paper 4. gouache – an opaque water color known also as poster paint and designer’s color 5. synthetic medium – is a medium developed by industrial research like the liquitex fabric dyes used in canvas 6. encaustic – encaustic painting was the ancient method of fixing pigments with heated wax 7. casein – a cheese painting with a pigment tempered with the gluey curd of cheese or milk precipitate 8. mixed medium – first printed in one medium and enriched with color and texture in another J. Spin Off Have the pupils work on the following: 1. Have the pupils bring to class prints of paintings of Bencab. If possible, ask them to bring small copies to show to the class. Ask them to give two- or three-sentence descriptions about each picture. 2. Have the pupils do research on other artists. Ask them to report their findings in class and tell why these artists’ footsteps are worth following.

LESSON

3 Humility Makes for Greatness No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Determine the meanings of words by associating them with their synonyms or antonyms 2. Infer the meanings of terms related to tennis 3. Get the meanings of words through context 4. Identify true or false statements and give one’s own judgment B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Evaluate ideas that support or contradict one another 2. Infer the character traits of a person C. Values 1. Demonstrate sportsmanship and perform action demonstrates this value 2. Show humility in victory and graciousness in defeat

that

II. Subject Matter Selection: An Outstanding Young Man in Sports, (biography) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 98-105 Pictures of different outdoor games Picture of well-known Filipino tennis players IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of different outdoor games and have the pupils identify each. Ask them which of those games would they like to play or watch. Have them give reasons for their choices. Guide the discussion on the game of tennis and how it is played. Show pictures of well-known tennis players and have the pupils identify them.

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B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils to name Filipinos who have distinguished themselves in sports. The boxed text on page 98 gives a few examples. Ask for the names of other players aside from Lydia de Vega, who was once Southeast Asia’s Fastest Woman. Guide the discussion to the idea that being a good sport, not winning at all costs, counts a lot in endearing a player to spectators. Ask the pupils how one can show sportsmanship: • as a winning player • as a losing player • as a fan of a winning team • as a fan of a losing team C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to read the phrases in the section. Have them determine the meaning of the italicized words by associating them with other words of the same meanings or synonyms. They can also associate the words with their opposites or antonyms. If they fail to give the meaning of a word, then have them use a dictionary. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils study the pictures on pages 98 and 99, as well as the title of the selection. Have them form questions which they think can be answered in the selection. Have the class study the motive question under this section as well as the questions under Share Your Ideas. Tell the pupils to be ready to answer these questions after they have read the selection. Tell the pupils that as they read the story, they will try to infer character traits, evaluate ideas which support or contradict each other, and judge the truth or falsity of statements. E. Read Have the pupils read silently the selection on pages 99-100. Ask them not to forget to read the text in the box on page 98. This can be also given as an assignment to be read at home.

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F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the motive question, the questions on the board, and the questions under this section. Have a short discussion about these questions. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Determining Meanings Point out to the pupils that when they read a selection, they may come across some unfamiliar words. They may try to determine the meanings of these words by associating them with other words of the same meaning or their synonyms. They can also associate the words with their opposites or antonyms. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 101. The answers to this exercise may vary. Sample answers are the following: 1. souvenir 5. writer of sports 2. not showy 6. long lasting or not forgotten show off 7. anger 3. renowned or famous joy unknown 8. give up or 4. very small leave behind big •

Evaluating Ideas Tell the pupils that ideas in statements can support or contradict one another depending on the words used. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 102. The expected answers are: 1. s 3. c 5. s 7. s 9. c 2. s 4. c 6. s 8. c 10. s

Inferring Character Traits Tell the pupils that a trait may be inferred from the way a character acts or speaks. This can also be described directly by someone else, by another character, or by the author.


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 102. The expected answers are: 1. b. humility 2. a. he bore them no grudges or resentments 3. c. sportsmanship 4. b. to be a good sport 5. c. the elder Ampon trained his son to play tennis well 6. d. the numerous accomplishments of the Ampons in sports 7. a. he was both a businessman and a sportsman 8. c. he was very humble and unassuming 9. a. deceptiveness 10. b. My father would be glad to hear that. •

Recognizing True and False Statements Point out to the pupils that Ampon was not affected by the glory of success. Totoy Ampon’s humility is something builtin in his character. He remained humble in spite of success. Stress to them that humility has always characterized the Ampon Family. Have the pupils realize that winning a game is not all that matters, and that sportsmanship is a great value to be developed. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 104. The expected answers are: 1. False 6. True 2. False 7. False 3. True 8. True 4. True 9. False 5. True 10. False

H. Do What’s Right • Being Humble in the Midst of Success Have the class work on the exercise on page 104. Ask the pupils to read their work in class or, if the person is available, to have him or her tell his or her story to the class.

I. Make Connections • Familiarizing Oneself with Tennis Ask the pupils for the name of the game in which Felicisimo Ampon excelled. Ask them who among them know how to play tennis. To familiarize the pupils on how tennis is played, have them read the text on page 105. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 105. J. Spin Off Ask the pupils the sport which interests them most. Have them paste a picture of the sport on the space provided on page 105. Ask them to write the name of the sport and a description of how it is played. The pupils will read their descriptions to the class. Have the pupils display their pictures on the bulletin board.

LESSON

4 It Pays to Be Creative No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce the meaning of words and phrases through context 2. Define terms related to business B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Evaluate ideas based on the selection 2. Recall important details in a story C. Values 1. Show perseverance in order to succeed 2. Appreciate the values of industry and initiative

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Toothpaste Millionaire, (biography)

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III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 106-113 Illustrations of toothpaste advertisements IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils talk about the brand of toothpaste they use to answer the questions under this section. Have them explain their preferences. Ask the pupils to read the toothpaste advertisements they have brought with them and to tell ingredients in the toothpaste. Have them tell what each ingredient is supposed to do for the teeth. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils to read the text in the box at the bottom of the page to give them more information about the development of toothpaste. Ask the pupils to read and answer these questions which have been written on the board. • How did the development of dental cream begin? • What improvement did the Egyptians make on it? • Why do we have to fight tooth decay? C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Ask them to look out for these phrases in the story that they will read. Then, ask them to deduce the meanings of the words through their contexts. D. Set a Goal for Reading Before the pupils read the text in the box and the story, have them read the question under Share Your Ideas. Tell the class to be ready to answer these questions after reading. As the pupils read the story, tell them to note ideas in the story, evaluate it with accuracy, recall details in the story, and to persevere to make dreams come true.

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E. Read Have the pupils read the story silently in class or give it as a homework assignment. Remind them of the standards for silent reading. F. Share Your Ideas After reading the story, ask the pupils to answer the motive questions and the comprehension questions on the board. For the questions under Share Your Ideas, ask the pupils to form four groups and choose a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign a question to each group. After the discussion, have each group present the results of their discussion to the class. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Deducing the Meanings of Words and Phrases Through Context Point out to the pupils that when one deduces the meaning of a certain word, he or she tries to guess its meaning by reasoning or inferring. Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 110. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. expensive 6. instantly 2. marvelous 7. bulletin 3. recycled 8. sterilized 4. advertising 9. hobbies 5. peppermint 10. exaggerates Exercise B 1. d 2. a •

3. f

4.

b

5. c

Evaluating Ideas Tell the pupils that ideas or statements expressed by others based on a selection read should be accurate. They should conform to what is in the selection. Point out to them that a good reader can detect accuracy of information if he or she comprehends the reading material.


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 110. The expected answers are: 1. False 4. True 7. True 10. True 2. True 5. False 8. True 3. False 6. True 9. False •

Recalling Details in a Story Point out to the pupils that details can make a story or article interesting and colorful. Important details need to be remembered. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 111-112. The expected answers are: 1. d. He found the toothpaste in the store too expensive. 2. b. recycled baby food jars 3. a. one cent 4. a. They wanted to help Rufus earn. 5. a. They sterilized them. 6. b. People with interesting hobbies 7. b. baking soda 8. a. The recipe for it was tried and tested. 9. c. By packing toothpaste in baby food jars. 10. a. He got more orders for his toothpaste.

H. Do What’s Right • Persevering to Make Dreams Come True Tell the pupils that many stories have been told about ordinary persons becoming well-known personalities. With perseverance and hard work, one could succeed if he or she persists in spite of difficulties. Stress to the pupils that with patience, industry, initiative, and hard work, they would most likely be successful in life. Tell the pupils the saying “No matter how humble an endeavor is, if done with perseverance, a good outcome can always be expected.” This has been proven true on many instances. Have the pupils do the exercise under this section. Have them present their success stories to class.

I. Make Connections • Defining Terms Related to Business Tell the pupils that when one starts a business, he or she must have some knowledge about that business area. Otherwise, he or she will not be in proper control of the business. He or she won’t be able to communicate with people. Have the pupils learn the meanings of the following terms related to business. 1. Capital – cash money for investment that can be used to produce further wealth 2. Asset – valuable thing or property 3. Liability – debt and financial obligation that appears on a balance sheet 4. Credit – integrity entitling a person to be trusted in buying or borrowing 5. Loss – money spent in excess of income 6. Profit – excess of income over expenditure 7. Debit – an entry showing a debt or expense in a record of accounts 8. Retail – selling of goods in small amounts directly to consumers 9. Labor – supply of work or workers for a particular job, industry, or employer 10. Wholesale – the business of buying and selling goods to consumers at discounted prices usually direct from the manufacturers or distributors Tell the pupils that knowing the above terms will help them become familiar with small scale business. J. Spin Off Have the pupils do research on people whose business started from something small and later prospered and grew into a big business. Have them include details on the things which contributed to the success of the person in that business. Ask them to write their report on a sheet of paper. Ask some pupils to report in class.

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LESSON

5 To Be Special No. of Teaching Hours: 5-6

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce the meaning of words and phrases through context 2. Associate words with thoughts and feelings B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Arrange sentences in the proper order 2. Recall important details in a story C. Values 1. Show confidence in oneself 2. Show kindness to those with physical disabilities 3. Be thoughtful to those who are sick and disabled

II. Subject Matter Selection: Albert, the Seagull (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5, pp. 114-123 Picture of one-legged Albert and the other seagulls Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils if they ever feel insecure, and if so, have them think about the causes for their insecurity. Perhaps, they have siblings who they perceive to be endowed with more talents and skills. Perhaps, they feel that their parents/elders give them less attention. Have them discuss their feelings. Some pupils may claim to have no insecurity problems. Have them discuss ways to help those who feel insecure. The discussion will lead to answering the questions under this section.

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B. Add to What You Know One way to have pupils’ confidence in themselves is to develop their talents and skills. Let the pupils be aware that there are people who became great in spite of their physical defects, e.g.: • Charles Schwartz was a crippled hunchback, yet he became a world-renowned scientist and inventor. • Demosthenes, the great Greek orator, stuttered when he was young, but exercised his vocal organs to overcome his difficulty. • Helen Keller was blind, deaf, and mute, but she astonished the world with her unusual accomplishments. • Roselle Ambubuyog, a blind student who graduated from elementary, high school, and college always at the top of her class. Have the pupils discuss how these people learned to have confidence in themselves. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. They can get the meanings of the words by looking at the other words in the sentence. This is getting the meanings through context. If they can’t get the meanings of the words from context, have them use a dictionary instead. D. Set a Goal for Reading Show a picture of seagulls. Ask the pupils if they have seen this kind of bird. Ask those who answer in the affirmative to tell about what they know about seagulls. Have the pupils read the boxed text at the bottom of page 114 for more information about seagulls. Questions like the following may be asked: • Where do seagulls live? Why do they prefer to live in these places? • What is interesting about their color? • Why do great flocks follow ships for hours?


Let the pupils be aware that the story they are going to read has a seagull for its main character. Have the pupils read the motive question and the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to be ready to answer these questions after reading the story. Tell the pupils to take note of the important details as they read the story.

2. 3. 4. 5. •

E. Read Have the pupils read the story. This may be done in class or to be read at home as a homework assignment. F. Share Your Ideas Before answering the motive question and the questions in this section, ask the following questions to find out whether the pupils understood the story or not. • Why was Albert called mono by the other seagulls? • Why did he practice flying each day? • How did he prove himself to the other seagulls? • Were the gulls proud of Albert? Support your answer. After the checkup on the above questions, have the pupils form groups of four. Ask each group to appoint a discussion leader and a recorder. Each group will have one question to work on with their discussion leader. The recorder records the group’s answers to the question. Have each group present the results of their discussion to the class. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Recalling Thoughts and Feelings Associated with Some Words Tell the pupils that a word may have more than one meaning. One is literal meaning as found in the dictionary. This is called its denotative meaning. It may also have pleasant or unpleasant meaning for them. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 118. The answers may vary. Possible answers are the following: 1. Monday morning: flag ceremony, wake up early, school

Sea travel: big waves, sea water, boat Smoke: grill, fire, teary eyes School assignment: challenging, difficult, easy Summer vacation: Palawan, beach, outing

Deducing the Meaning of Words and Phrases Through Context Point out to the pupils that the meaning of words and phrases can be inferred by looking at the other words in the sentences. Tell them that this is called inferring meaning through context. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 119. The expected answers are: 1. exhausted 5. miserable 2. sand dunes 6. cocked 3. exhilarated 7. anxious 4. screeching 8. embarrassed For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Footprints, then, Albert, the Seagull, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context by clicking on their choice.

Arranging Sentences in Their Proper Order Emphasize to the pupils that the sentences in a paragraph should follow an order to make sense. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 119. The expected answers are: _1_ The seagulls made fun of Albert because of his disability. _4_ Albert felt good about himself. _2_ Albert was determined to be good at something to win the respect of the other seagulls. _3_ Albert practiced flying every day until he was faster and fitter than the others. _5_ In time, Albert became a very good flyer.

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_6_ _7_ _10_ _9_ _8_ •

Albert showed his great skill in flying when the seagulls left the shore to fly to an island. The other seagulls crowded around Albert in admiration. At last, Albert had won their respect. The other gulls did not make fun of Albert anymore. The gulls were amazed at Albert’s great skill.

3. a. He flew past the leader of the formation. b. He flew up and down, to one side and then to another, around and around. 4. a. Everyone looked at him admiringly. b. No one called him mono anymore. Recalling Details of a Story Tell the pupils that some details in the story are important and have to be remembered. Let the class be aware that these details will help them understand the story better. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 121. The expected answers are: 1. Albert was called Mono by the seagulls because he had only one leg.

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3. He developed the skill of flying by practicing every day. 4. The seagulls found out that Albert could fly very well when all the seagulls would leave the shore and fly to the island. 5. They admired Albert and were proud of him. At last, he had been accepted and respected by his friends in the flock.

Supplying Details Tell the pupils that the main idea is the key sentence of a paragraph. The main idea is supported by other sentence called the supporting details of the main idea. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 120. The expected answers are: 1. a. They called him Mono. b. They made him race with them knowing that he could not keep up with them. 2. a. He practiced hopping until he was tired, but he could not hop as fast as the others could. b. He tried flying until he was very good at it.

2. He chose to fly faster than the others in order to win the respect of the flock. He chose this skill to fly because there was nothing wrong with his wings.

To further practice the skill of making inferences, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Footprints, then Albert, the Seagull, then, Making Inferences. For each item, pupils will read excerpts from the selection. Then, they should choose a valid inference about the specified character based on the excerpt by clicking on their choice. H. Do What’s Right •

Showing Concern for the Physically-challenged Ask the pupils if they have ever imagined how it is like to be blind, deaf, or mute. Ask them: “If you were blind, what would your wish be?” Stress to the pupils that they are fortunate not to be blind or deaf. Tell the pupils that people sometimes feel outcast when they are not welcomed by a group. They get hurt easily and wish they could just get away from all unfriendly persons. It must be so painful for a person with a physical handicap not to enjoy social acceptance. Let them be aware that many handicapped people have become successful in spite of their “incompleteness.” This is the time for the pupils to reflect and be appreciative of what they have and to use whatever they have for the development of their potentials. Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 122.


A. Answers to Questions 1 and 2 may vary. B. 1. The blind – Perkins School for the Blind 2. The deaf-mutes – School for the Deaf and Blind The Nova Foundation 3. Homeless children – Gawad Kalinga 4. Homeless adults – Golden Acres 5. Autistic Persons – Autism Society Philippines 6. Persons with Down’s Syndrome – Down’s Syndrome Society of the Philippines 7. Children with ADHD – AD/HD Society of the Philippines I. Make Connections • Researching on Birds Tell the pupils that like human beings, birds also have their distinct features and behavior. They play a role in keeping the balance in our ecosystem. Have the pupils know that a special study on birds is called ornithology, a branch of zoology. Ornithology deals with the evolution of birds, their behavior, and ecology such as those of species, instinct, learning, conservation, and the like. While early ornithology was principally concerned with the description and distribution of species, ornithologists today concern themselves with answering specific questions after using birds as models to test their findings or prediction based on theory. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 123. (Have the pupils do their research and let them share this information in class.) J. Spin Off Have the pupils follow the instruction on what to do with the activity. Ask some pupils to present their work in class. Then, have them post their work on the English bulletin board.

LESSON

6 Courage to Tell the Truth No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Get the meanings of words through context B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall details of a story 2. Make inferences based on the information given C. Values 1. Show quick thinking in an unexpected situation 2. Illustrate courage to tell the truth

II. Subject Matter Selection: Rococo Skates (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 124-133 Pictures of paintings of some artists Picture/realia of a pair of roller skates IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Tell the pupils that in their neighborhood, they sometimes hear that some things are going wrong. Someone is making trouble or somebody does something which is against the law. Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Ask the pupils to cite some instances of wrongdoings in the community and follow this up with a short discussion on what people do in situations like this. B. Add to What You Know Ask: “What would you do if you see someone stealing money or goods from a store? What is the best thing to be done?” Have the pupils answer the questions in this section and have a short discussion.

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C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. To get the meanings of these words, ask them to use other techniques which they have learned in earlier lessons. Ask the pupils to use context clues to determine their meanings. D. Set a Goal For Reading Tell the pupils that they are going to read Rococo Skates. Ask the pupils to read the motive questions in the section. Have them read and answer the questions in the box. Have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to answer the questions after reading the story. Ask the pupils to remember the details in the story and make inferences based on the information given. Tell the class that the story they will read tells how a girl got something she wished for very much. E. Read Have the pupils read the story Rococo Skates on pages 125-128. This may be read in class or given as a homework assignment to be read at home. F. Share Your Ideas Before taking up the motive questions and the questions in this section, ask the pupils to read the following questions just to find out whether or not they understood the story read: • How many pupils visited the museum with Mrs. Ryan? • Who was always lagging behind? What was she thinking of? • Why did Mary Ann touch the copy of the original painting? • How did Mary Ann know that the original painting was missing? • Did Mary Ann get what she wished so much to have? Support your answer. After this check-up, have the pupils answer the questions. When discussing Question 1, show to the pupils the different small copies of paintings and the names of the painters who painted them. Have

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the pupils answer Questions 2-4. Have a class discussion about each question. And as a reward to Mary Ann’s quick decision to report to the office of the director the stolen original painting, she was rewarded with a pair of roller skates (show roller skates—real or picture, the thing she wished so much to have and she called it Rococo Skates. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Getting the Meanings of Words Through Context Explain to the pupils that they can infer the meaning of an unfamiliar word with the help of a clue which may be found in the sentence where the word is used or in the other sentences in the text. Tell the class that they can also use structural analysis in getting the meaning of the words. The pupils can later confirm their answers by using the glossary of their textbook or by using a dictionary. Have them look up the meaning of rococo. Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 129. The expected answers are: Exercise A The phrases below are the context clues: 1. looked exactly the same duplicate – an exact copy fingerprint – impression of the skin of a finger left on a surface 2. artworks and other displays museum – a building where objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance or value are kept, studied, and put on display 3. behind lagging –fall behind 4. held up with carved, golden figures canopy – a covering fixed above a bed for shelter or decoration 5. ran past dodging – to move away quickly to avoid being hit


Exercise B 1. b. the last left behind 2. b. a place of display and study 3. b. an act of avoiding 4. c. a loud noise •

Recalling Details in a Story Point out to the pupils that some details in a story are important. They have to be remembered. Tell the class that these details are recalled when a story is retold or when a summary is written. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 130. The expected answers are: 1. c 3. c 5. c 7. c 2. b 4. a 6. a 8. c

Making Inferences Based on the Information Given Explain to the pupils that to make an inference is to make a guess about people, places, things, and events based on information given in a text or on one’s experiences. Take up with the class the exercise on page 131 item by item. Ask why each option is a good inference or not a good one. Answers to the exercise may vary.

H. Do What’s Right • Making Quick Decisions Tell the pupils that two girls, Mary Ann and Frances, noticed that the original painting in the museum was missing. It had been stolen. Mary Ann thought quickly of reporting the missing painting to the director of the museum so that the thief would be caught. Ask the pupils what they would do if they were in a museum and noticed that a painting was stolen. Would they have the courage to report it to the authorities in the museum? Knowing what to do in unexpected situations is a sign of quick thinking. Ask the pupils if they are quick thinkers like Mary Ann. Have them cite situations to prove this.

Take up the exercise on page 132 with the class, item by item. Answers to the exercise may vary. Have each volunteer explains why his or her choice is the better decision. I. Make Connections • Visiting an Art Gallery Ask the pupils who among them have already visited an art gallery. Tell them that an art gallery is usually meant to foster understanding and appreciation of art. Tell them that when visiting an art gallery, they must have with them at least a handy pad and pen ready in case they want to take down notes. They should also know the policies of the gallery or museum. Tell them that they may get to know the artist whose works are on display if he or she is present at the time of their visit. They may then be able to appreciate the beautiful work of art on display. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 133. Instruct the pupils to follow what the exercise is asking for, to draw on a sheet of oslo paper one of the paintings that they see there. Have them do a research on the kinds of paintings displayed there. Ask them to report these to their classmates. J. Spin Off Have the pupils visit an art gallery. Ask them to write about one of the pictures that interest them most. Have him/her describe the picture and tell why he/she likes it. Have the pupils do some research on the life of the painter and write their findings on the space provided in their textbook.

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LESSON

7 How I Want to Be Remembered No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce the meanings of words and phrases through context 2. Identify words with similar meanings B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Infer meanings of figurative language 2. Interpret the message of a poem C. Values 1. Reflect on one’s good deeds 2. Decide to live a life characterized by good deeds so as to be a model for the younger generation

II. Subject Matter Selection: A Psalm of Life (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 134-139 Pictures of people known for their good deeds A picture of Cory Aquino IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of people known for the good things they have done for their fellowmen and country. Ask the pupils to identify these persons and the good deeds they have done. Have the pupils read and answer the questions in this section. Follow this up with a short discussion on the persons they have named.

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B. Add to What You Know After talking about the persons they admire most, tell them that oftentimes, the person they admire become their role models. The person who serves as his/her model is called his or her ideal person. He or she finds qualities or characteristics in him or her which he or she, too, wants to have. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Direct the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Have them look for other phrases or sentences in the poem where the italicized words are used. The other words will help them get the meanings of the words. If there are none, tell them to use other meaning-getting strategies that they have learned. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils that they are going to read a poem A Psalm of Life. Have the pupils read the motive question. Ask them to read the text in the box. Tell them that as they read the text, they ponder on what good deeds they have done in the past. Discuss with the pupils when and how they can start working for a more glorious past and a bright future and when and how they can be a guiding light to others. Tell the pupils that the poem they will study will give them some ideas. Have the pupils read the questions in Share your Ideas and tell them to be ready to answer these questions after reading the story. Tell the pupils that as they read the poem, they will try to identify some words with similar meanings, infer meanings of figurative language, reflect on one’s “footprints,” and remember their good leaders. E. Read Have the pupils close their books as you read the poem to them. Tell them to listen well. Then, have them read the poem. The stanzas may be read orally by rows or in groups, for example, boys and girls. While one row or group is reading aloud, the others read silently.


F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following comprehension questions to find out whether or not the pupils understood the poem. • What are these footprints which great men leave behind them? • How can we make our life noble? • How do you want to be remembered when you are gone? After the comprehension checkup, have the pupils answer the motive question and the questions in this section. Have a short discussion on each question. Then, ask the pupils to form five groups. Ask them to select a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign one stanza to each group. Instruct them to interpret the assigned stanza in one or more sentences. Then, have each group present their interpretation to the class. To appreciate the poem better, ask the class to have a choral reading contest in class. The class decides when the contest is to be held. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Deducing the Meanings of Words and Phrases Through Context Tell the pupils that the meaning of a word can be deduced from the way it is used in a sentence. The other words in the sentence will help them in inferring what the word means. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 136. Have them identify the clues that helped them choose the correct word to use in each sentence. The expected answers are: 1. solemn 5. slumber 2. forlorn 6. psalms 3. pursuing 7. footprints 4. mournful 8. earnest •

Identifying Words with Similar Meanings Stress to the pupils that the ability to associate words with other words they already know is a skill a good reader must develop.

Take up the exercise on page 136 item by item. Ask the class for clues that led them to their choices. The expected answers are: 1. Dust thou art, to dust thou returneth 2. We can make our lives sublime 3. Let us, then, be up and doing 4. Sailing o’er life’s solemn main a forlorn and shipwrecked brother 5. Learn to labor and to wait •

Inferring Meanings of Figurative Language Point out to the pupils that poets use figurative language or non-literal expressions in their poems. Tell them that one has to understand these figurative expressions to understand the message of a poem. Take up the exercise on page 137 with the class, item by item. Ask for clues that led them to their answers. Possible answers are: 1. in very sad songs or poems 2. the place where the dead is buried 3. we came from dust, God made man from earth 4. our bodies decay and we become dust/earth again 5. the years of our lives 6. somebody else who is sad and lonely 7. remembrances, memories 8. the minds of people who live in different years/times For an interactive game on metaphors, tell the pupils to log on to this Web page: http://www.quia.com/ba/42131.html?AP_ rand=590107275. Tell them that they need not log on, but merely click on the button Play This Game. After clicking on that button, the battleship game will start. For every hit made on an opponent’s ship, they will be asked a question about metaphors. If they answer correctly, the hit will be credited to them. They must sink all of the opponent’s ships before they are sunk in order to win the game.

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Interpreting the Message of a Poem Tell the pupils that readers respond to what they read, for example, a poem. They interpret lines of poetry according to meanings they give to the expressions, the symbols, or even according to their emotions, attitudes, or experiences. Take up Exercise A on page 137 with the class, item by item. Tell the pupils to explain why they agree or disagree with the statement. Pupils’ answers may vary. Exercise B Refer to the poem for answers.

H. Do What’s Right • Reflecting on One’s “Footprints” Point out to the pupils that young as they are, they might not have thought yet of how it is to leave life soon, but whether they like it or not, life on earth will end. Ask the pupils how they like to be remembered when they are gone. Ask them, too, what footprints they would like to leave behind. Tell the pupils that once, a wise man said that he did not want to be remembered for the things he would be leaving behind, rather, for the things in life that cannot be seen which are even more difficult to earn than the material ones. By intangibles, he was referring to something that could not be held nor touched. He was referring to the golden values that differentiate humans from beasts. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 138. This may be given as a homework assignment. I. Make Connections • Remembering Our Leaders Tell the pupils that one of the most remembered leaders of our country is former President Corazon Cojuangco Aquino (Show the picture of Cory Aquino.). She was the eleventh president of the Republic of the Philippines serving from 1986 to 1992. He was the first female president of the Philippines

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and was Asia’s first female president. She is a world-renowned advocate of democracy, peace, women’s empowerment, and religious piety. Tell the class further that Cory Aquino is a self-proclaimed “plain housewife.” Aquino is the widow of Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., a leading figure in the political opposition against the autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. Ask the pupils to read more about Cory Aquino. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 139. Ask the pupils to write ten or more sentences about a past leader who has impressed them most. Have the pupils read their compositions in class. J. Spin Off Have the pupils write about two people who have left footprints on the sands of time. Opposite each name, ask them to write what he or she has done that is worth emulating. Have the pupils present their work in class.

Skill Focus A. Using Synonyms and Antonyms, pages 140-143 Ask the pupils what they know about synonyms and antonyms. Have them read the explanatory notes on page 140. Have the pupils read Exercise A. Explain what the pupils are expected to do. For example, lanky can be used with persons but not with buildings. Have the pupils use each word in a set of synonyms in sentences. When using synonyms and antonyms, choose the word that expresses best the idea you wish to convey in a given text. The following are some examples of collocations. • tall – towering tall building lanky teenager towering palace • oily – greasy, waxy oily hair greasy plates waxy floor


• • •

thin – skinny, skeletal thin old man skinny boy skeletal form short – brief, concise, dwarfish short story brief letter concise paragraph slippery – slithery, soapy, tricky slippery floor soapy hand slithery eel/snake tricky monkey/person shabby – ragged, worn, threadbare shabby boy worn shoes ragged clothes threadbare pants bothered – worried, tormented, disturbed, disconcerted worried mother disturbed mind tormented heart disconcerted person quarrel – misunderstanding, altercation, fight, brawl misunderstanding the message altercation with someone fight with an enemy brawl with a neighbor rough – coarse, stormy, disordered, unkempt, boorish, ill– mannered coarse cloth unkempt hair stormy weather boorish place disordered files ill-mannered boy splendid – wonderful, marvelous, radiant wonderful world marvelous places radiant sunlight

Antonyms • rough – smooth, cultured, polished smooth top cultured pearl polished furniture/shoes • rash – careful, prudent, shrewd, sensible careful writing prudent mother shrewd judge sensible father • thoughtless – considerate, attentive, careful considerate lady attentive girl careful mother

• • • • • •

dim – bright, shiny, brilliant, gleaming bright sun brilliant colors shiny stone gleaming light large – small, tiny, little small boy tiny insect little house whisper – shout, yell, scream loud shout strong yell shrill scream leave – stay, remain, endure stay with me remain on my side endure the heat adept – unskilled, clumsy, awkward unskilled worker clumsy girl awkward appearance formal – informal, practical, realistic informal attire practical work realistic display necessities – luxuries, comfort, amenities expensive luxuries comforts of the family amenities of the house easy – hard, difficult, stubborn, troublesome, laborious, irksome, complicated hard work troublesome person difficult job irksome old man stubborn boy laborious preparation

Exercise B. The answers may vary. See to it that the words collocate. 1. towering 5. easy 2. discerning 6. stormy 3. altercation 7. ill-mannered 4. dwarfish 8. brief Exercise C. The answers may vary. See to it that the words collocate. 1. large 4. practical 2. small 5. stayed 3. amenities 6. unskilled

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7. difficult 8. frightful/horrible 9. necessities

10. beginning 11. mansion 12. thin

Exercise D. The answers may vary. See to it that the words collocate. 1. slithery 5. unkempt 2. disturbed 6. joy 3. glooming 7. yells 4. worn 8. brief Exercise E. The answers may vary. See to it that the words collocate. 1. gaze 3. quiet look silent stare peaceful 2. attractive 4. sleep lovely slumber beautiful doze/nap B. Getting Information from Newspapers, pages 143-146 Before taking up this section, tell the pupils to bring the latest copy of the newspaper that they buy or subscribe to. Tell the pupils that generally, outstanding people and events are featured in newspapers. Ask the pupils: “Which part of the newspaper would carry such information? What other information do you read from newspapers?” Ask: “What newspapers do you read? Which part of the newspaper do you read first?” Inform them that the newspaper is a good source of current information. They may not always have enough time to read every page, so they need to know which parts or pages carry the information they are looking for. They also have to learn to scan the headlines so they can rapidly get an idea of the news carried by the newspaper. Have the pupils study a newspaper. Have them note that many newspapers today have sections folded separately. Have the pupils read the explanatory notes for each part of a newspaper.

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1. Current News Have the pupils read the front page of their newspaper. Have them note that it carries the most important news stories. The title or the headlines of the news stories give the most important facts of these news stories. If they don’t have much time to read the full stories or reports, they can just scan these headlines and they will have an idea of the important events that have just happened or are happening. Have the pupils look at the headlines with the biggest letters. This is called the banner headline. The banner headline tells about the most important news of the day. Tell the pupils that other pages of the newspaper also have news stories but which may not be as important as those in the front page. 2. Editorial Have the pupils go through the pages of the newspaper. They will find a column labeled editorial. Tell the class that the editorial usually tells about the stand of the newspaper on a certain issue. The editorial is usually found on the left-hand side of a spread in the heart of the main section. Tell the pupils that sometimes, the editorial page also carries an editorial cartoon. An editorial cartoon may make fun of a person or an event but there are others which are informative. 3. Columns Let the pupils be aware that these are regular columns that express the opinions of the person writing them. Most column writers express their opinions on the issues of the day. Others write or comment on history, art, entertainment, and the like. 4. Feature Articles Tell them that many newspapers carry feature articles or stories on people, places, or events. These stories may aim either to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. 5. Business News Point out to the pupils that many newspapers devote an entire section to report on the status of different businesses and industries, the stock market, the peso-dollar exchange, flight and shipping schedules, and so on.


6. Sports News Tell the pupils that the sports section carries news on the results of games played the day before. It also gives advance notices of games to be played and updates about the world of sports including sports celebrities. 7. Entertainment Inform the pupils that some newspapers carry items for entertainment, such as crossword puzzles, comics, brain teasers, and horoscopes. Tell them that the entertainment page also prints schedules of movies being shown in different theaters of the locality as well as schedules of television and radio programs, concerts, and stage plays. 8. Readers’ Opinion Tell the pupils that the page for readers’ opinions contains letters from readers. These letters are published in a section labeled Letters; Letters to the Editor; We, the People; What Our Readers Say, etc. 9. Advertisements Tell the pupils that if people want to buy, rent, or sell something, if a relative needs a job or a business opportunity, if they need or are offering a kind of service, the Classified Ads Section will be very helpful. Sometimes advertisements are found on every page of a newspaper. 10. Other Information Tell the pupils that many newspapers offer some additional information like the weather report, social events, announcements of birth and anniversaries, and announcement of death (obituaries). What do we read to know about current events? Reading a newspaper daily keeps you updated on current events. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 145-146. Have the pupils use a specific newspaper. A. Answers may vary. B. Answers may vary.

C. Making an Outline, pages 147-151 Have the pupils study the set of main ideas and details they made for Supplying Details on page 120. Tell them that an outline of the story on Albert, the Seagull is printed on page 147 of their textbook. Point out to the pupils that in the two-point sentence outline on Albert, the Seagull, some observations can be made. Have them read the explanatory notes on page 148. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 149-151. Exercise A Revised Outline The Bookcase in Our Living Room I. Contents A. Books on engineering B. Fairy tales C. Detective stories D. History textbooks II. Readers A. Parents B. Grandparents C. Older brothers and sisters D. Baby sister III. Benefits of Reading A. Peace B. Contentment C. Close companionship

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II. Present uses A. Tunnel builders and road builders use lasers as guide to make sure that they are digging straight. B. Lasers are used to tell how far away things are. C. Laser can be found in many stores. D. Lasers are used to help sick people.

Exercise B Ask the pupils what changes were made in the outline and why those changes were made. Space Research I. Space research has helped new development in the field of medicine. A. Machines—called monitors—help doctors and nurses keep a close watch on patients. B. New medical equipment has made it possible for doctors to detect illnesses more efficiently. C. There are hearing aids small enough to fit within frames of eyeglasses.

III. Future uses A. Lasers may be used to make cars and trucks run. B. Econo planes and spaceships may be powered by lasers. C. Someday, a whole library might be found on laser discs. D. Television would be replaced by laser-created holograms.

II. Space research has given rise to new kinds of food. A. Food that comes in tetra packs are outgrowths of space research. B. Food that are freeze-dried and concentrated is a result of space research. III. Space research has come up with better home appliances. A. There are now less bulky and better-working television sets, audios, and watches B. Cellphones and computers make communication easier, cheaper, and faster. IV.

Space research has improved communications. A. Weather satellites help weather forecasters to make better forecasts. B. News can reach all parts of the world faster through television satellites.

Exercise C Ask the pupils to explain how the outline was made. The Magic of Laser Light by Thomas A. Gunning I. Characteristics A. Laser light can drill a hole through thick steel. B. Laser light makes a thin, straight, very bright beam of light. C. Laser light is very strong.

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Have the pupils explain the outline.

Linking Reading with Writing •

Writing an Essay Expressing an Impression, pages 152-153 Use the genre-process approach in taking up this section. Here are the steps to follow. A. Preparation Have the pupils think about the men and women they have studied in this unit. Ask them who among these people has impressed them most. Which of their achievements do they find most impressive or inspiring? Why? Ask: “If you were to write about one of these men or women, who would be your choice? Why?” The pupils’ impression of a person may not be shared by others. They may have other feelings or ideas about a person, perhaps because of other experiences. Tell the pupils to remember that an impression is nothing more than a belief or feeling that may or may not be true.


B. Modeling and Reinforcing Have the pupils read Step 1 on page 152. Take up the example of an essay expressing an impression. Ask them to read it on pages 152-153. Have the pupils note that the essay starts with an Introduction. The second paragraph tells who the person is and choose to write about him or her. The third and fourth paragraphs give details or examples of his or her achievements. The last paragraph, identifies the person again. C. Planning After studying the example, have the class decide on a person they would like to write about. Help the pupils write notes on the person’s traits and details or examples of his or her achievements. 1. Think of a person you would like to emulate. • What trait of his or hers made an impression on you? • What are his or her achievements? 2. Choose one value or one achievement which you would like to highlight. 3. List details or examples that show this value or achievement. D. Joint Constructing Jointly construct the essay with the pupils. See to it that the details are arranged in such a way that the value or achievement is highlighted. Have them contribute their ideas. Tell them not to worry about mechanics. There will be time to check on that later. E. Independent Constructing This time, tell the pupils that they will be writing their own essays. Have them read again Steps 1 and 2. Tell them to follow these steps as they write their essays. F. Revising Have the pupils read Step 3. Tell the pupils to revise their paper following the suggestions given. Have the pupils carry out Steps 4 and 5. Tell them that they will write their final copy. Ask them to read their work carefully over again in order to look for errors in grammar, spelling, usage, and so on.

Have the pupils share their essays with their classmates and tack them on the English bulletin board. They may have it published in their school paper. They can even have it tape recorded so that friends and family members can listen to it.

Unit Test Answer Key: A. Evaluating Ideas 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. T

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

T F F F F

B. Inferring Character Traits 11. b 12. c 13. b 14. b 15. a C. Giving Supporting Details (Supporting details may vary.) 16. a. Do something good for our country. b. Do something good for our fellowmen. 17. a. Show whatever best you have in your class. b. Do your best to develop self-confidence and selfdiscipline in accomplishing something. 18. a. He was strong and could fly faster than the other seagulls. b. The other seagulls admired and respected him. 19. a. He was a man that had the radiance of graciousness and serenity not found in many men of his age and time. b. The laurels he won left him unchanged.

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UNIT

III Crossing Borders

Have the pupils look at the picture on page 156. Ask them what it is about. Ask them what the girl is thinking about and where she would like to go one day. Have the pupils read the poem. Help them identify the places mentioned figuratively by the author by asking questions like: In what country do we find the “golden apples?” (In America, specifically Washington, which is sometimes called Land of Apples.) Parrots are birds. In what type of places do we usually find parrots? (In tropical places like Hawaii, Africa, and South Asia, etc.) What country is known for its Great Wall? (China) In what parts of the world do we find a vast parched, hot land? (Countries in the Middle East, including Egypt, have wide deserts.) You may also give the pupils information that the bells in the poem can stand for countries that use bells in most of their ceremonies, while drums can stand for countries where drums are commonly used. Let the pupils be aware that the stories to be discussed in this unit are about different countries and their respective cultures, traditions, history, and even folklore.

LESSON

1 All for One, One for All No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Identify the meanings of words 2. Deduce the meanings of words by using the context B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Identify true and false statements 2. Answer wh-questions C. Values Display concern and right attitude towards people of different races, creeds, and culture

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Global Village Finally Arrives (informative article)

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III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 156-163 World map Pictures of a Hindu man from India Persons of different nationalities clearly shown by their clothes or costume, hairstyle, etc. A picture of an American eating in a Chinese restaurant IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils what they would do if they see strangers or foreigners passing by their place. Ask them if they wouldn’t be surprised to see them. Maybe they would ask: “Why are they here?” or “What are they doing here?” Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Show to the pupils pictures of people of different nationalities. Ask them to name the nationality of each person shown in the pictures. Ask them if they like these people to live in their neighborhood. Then, have them answer the question under this section and have a brief discussion on it. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call their attention to the italicized words. Have them give the meaning of the word by using the other words in sentences in the story. Encourage them to use other meaning-getting strategies. D. Set a Goal for Reading Write this motive question on the board and have the pupils read it: “Why do people migrate to other places or countries?” Then, have them read also the questions in Share Your Ideas. Have them read first the short paragraph under this section and then, the text in the box. Tell them to be ready to answer those questions after reading the story.


E. Read Have the pupils read the story The Global Village Finally Arrives on pages 158-159. Remind them to follow the standard for silent reading. This reading may be done in class or given as an assignment to be read at home. F. Share Your Ideas Before taking up the motive question and the questions in this section, ask the pupils the following questions to find out whether they understood the story or not: • Why did the writer say that the day was a typical day for a typical person like him? • Why did he wonder where he was as he walked out into the street? • Do you think you would be confused as to the nationality of the writer, if he did not say anything about himself? • Why do you think is the whole world “going global”? Explain your answer. • Does globalization pose any danger? Support your answer. After this comprehension check-up, have the pupils answer the motive question and have a brief class discussion on it. Then, divide the class into six groups. Have each group appoint a group leader or discussion leader and a recorder. Each group discusses the question assigned to it under the leadership of the discussion leader. The recorder records the responses of the members. Ask each group to present the results of the discussion to the class. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Meanings of Words Tell the pupils that to identify a word similar to one used in a selection read is one way of showing the extent of one’s vocabulary knowledge. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 159. The expected answers are: 1. c 3. c 5. c 7. a 9. b 2. a 4. a 6. b 8. b 10. c

Identifying True and False Statements Point out to the pupils that a statement can be true or false depending on the word used, or the meanings or ideas expressed. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 161. The expected answers are: 1. True 6. True 2. True 7. False 3. True 8. False 4. False 9. False 5. False 10. True

Answering Wh-Questions Tell the pupils that an evidence that they understood what they have read is by being able to answer correctly questions about the selection. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 161-162. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. a, b, c 2. a, b, c, d Exercise B 1. remote city – Southern California 2. Indian – British 3. Japan – California 4. True 5. True As an added comprehension exercise, instruct your pupils to go to this Web page: http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/inthenews/ newstome/0306.shtml. Tell them that they must read the article found on that Web page. To see the meanings of the words in blue, they may simply place their cursor on top of the word. After they have read the article, tell them to take the quiz by clicking on the link Do the Quiz. For the quiz, they must click on the circle that corresponds to their answer for the question. When they are done with the quiz, they may check their answers by clicking on the link. You may also require them to print out their results.

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H. Do What’s Right • Being United Without Losing Identity Explain to the pupils that the identity of a country or its citizens is important in distinguishing one country from another. However, the need to be united is also a must. Tell the pupils that world unity is possible for all countries of the world. Have them realize that this unity will not cause a country to lose its identity. People can adapt to various cultures and adopt ways of other countries without necessarily losing their own. Point out that we can live in a global village without losing our identity as Filipinos. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 162. Answers may vary because of the different responses that may be given by the pupils. I. Make Connections • Complementing in Diversity Explain to the pupils that history tells us that the Philippines has been dominated by several foreign nations. Americans, Japanese, Spanish, Chinese, and many more foreigners have invaded and tried to dominate our land. Tell them that after a series of foreign dominations, we gained our freedom and now we have assumed an identity of our own; an identity which is truly Filipino, one which is neither American, Japanese, Spanish, nor Chinese. We have put together all these foreign influences and has evolved an identity of our own. Thus, what the Filipinos did was to assimilate other cultures while retaining their own. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 163. The expected answers are: 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. d J. Spin Off Have the pupils write a short composition of seven to ten sentences on the title “What Is a Global Village for Me?” on the space provided in the text.

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LESSON

2 What Time Is It? No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Deduce the meanings of words through context B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Infer the meanings of some fixed expressions 2. Identify main ideas C. Values 1. Observe punctuality 2. Respect each other’s viewpoint about time

II. Subject Matter Selection: It’s About Time (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 164-171 A clock A map of the world showing time zones A picture showing people during nighttime and daytime IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils what time they go to school. Ask if they are prompt or sometimes late in going to school? Ask them if they come on time or late for an appointment. B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils that different people have different ways of perceiving time. Have the pupils read the paragraphs under this section. Then, ask: “What could be the reason why people perceive time differently?” Have a brief discussion on this.


C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to read the phrases. Direct the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell them to look at the other words in the sentences in the selection which could help them in getting the meaning of the words. Tell them that they can also use the dictionary or other techniques in meaning-getting.

D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive questions for reading the selection and the text inside the box. Then, have the pupils read the questions under Share Your Ideas. Tell them to be ready to answer those questions after reading the story.

Getting Meaning Through Context Tell the pupils that the meaning of a word can be derived by studying the context where the word occurs. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 167. The expected answers are: 1. b 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. b

Identifying the Main Idea Tell the pupils that the main idea is the most important part of a paragraph. It is the major idea about the topic discussed in a paragraph. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 168. The expected answers are: Exercise A

E. Read Have the pupils read the story It’s About Time on pages 165166. Remind them of the standards for silent reading. F. Share Your Ideas After the pupils have read the selection, ask them these questions: • Why are some people prompt in completing their part of a project while others are slow? •. What do people of monochronic culture value? • What do people of polychronic culture value? • What other factors aside from culture influence an individual’s viewpoint about time? • When does conflict arise in monochronic and polychronic cultures? Then, have the pupils answer the motive question, the questions inside the box, and the questions in Share Your Ideas. Have a class discussion of the answers to the questions. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Inferring the Meaning of “Time” Expressions Used Let the pupils be aware that when one infers the meaning of a certain word or expression, he or she may guess the meaning based on the context where the word is used.

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 167. The expected answers are: 1. c 3. f 5. e 7. b 9. j 2. d 4. i 6. g 8. a 10. h

Par. 1 c. Time is approached differently by different people. Par. 2 c. People from different cultures perceive time differently Par. 3 a. Family, culture, and personality influence one’s attitude towards time. Par. 4 b. Conflicts can happen when one applies an approach to a situation which demands another approach. Par. 5 c. Life requires both polychronic and monochronic approaches. Par. 6 c. Respect people’s viewpoint about time to reduce conflict. Exercise B c. Culture, family, and personality types affect one’s attitude towards time.

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Contrasting Two Perceptions of Time Tell the pupils that time is perceived differently by people in different parts of the world. As discussed in the selection they read, there are basically two concepts of time depending on the people’s culture. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 169. The entries in the chart are as follows: The Two Concepts of Time Monochromic Culture 1. They tend to do one thing at a time. 2. They value speed and punctuality. 3. They are efficient and focused. 4. They are controlled by their schedules. 5. Monochromic people are organized, logical, and patient. Polychronic Culture 1. They tend to do many things at once. 2. They value flexibility over punctuality and tend to change plans often and easily. 3. They are controlled by human relationships more than their schedules. 4. A polychronic person has trouble meeting all deadlines. 5. Polychronic people are creative, intuitive, and impulsive.

E. Do What’s Right • Being Punctual Ask the pupils to answer the questions after they have read how time is perceived by different peoples. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 170. Have the pupils write a description of themselves, whether they belongs to monochronic or to polychronic. Call on volunteers to read their paragraphs to the class.

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I. Make Connections Explain to the pupils that when it is daytime in the Philippines, it is nighttime in the United States. When it’s 2:00 PM in the Philippines, it may be 3:00 PM in some other places in the globe. Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 171. The answers are as follows: Exercise A The time difference between the Philippines and the countries to the west is 15 degrees longitude which is equivalent to one hour. For 30 degrees, it is two hours and so forth. But we have to set our watch one hour ahead as we enter a new zone. For the countries in the east, 15 degrees longitude is equivalent to one hour. For 30 degrees, it is two hours and so forth. But we have to set our watches one hour back every time we enter a new zone.

Exercise B The following are the definitions of the terms listed: 1. Latitude – is an imaginary line joining points on the Earth’s surface that are all of equal distance north or south of the equator. 2. Longitude – The angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole and passes through Greenwich, England. 3. Greenwich Mean Line – is the time in the zone that includes the 0 degree meridian of Greenwich, London. 4. Equator – is the imaginary great circle around the Earth that is the same distance from the North and South Poles and divides the Earth into northern and southern hemispheres. 5. North Pole – is the northern end of the Earth’s axis at a latitude of 90 degrees N. 6. South Pole – is the southern end of the Earth’s axis at a latitude of 90 degrees S.


Exercise C The first time zone is at the Prime Meridian, which passes through Greenwich England. This is the Zero Time Zone—it extends 7 1/2 east and west of the 0 degree meridian. Since Earth is rotating eastward, if you travel towards the east, you must set your watch one hour ahead every time you enter a new time zone. On the other hand, one who is traveling toward the west has to set his or her watch one hour back every time he or she enters a new time zone. J. Spin Off Have the pupils write a letter to an imaginary friend, like a former classmate or a cousin, on the other side of the globe. They may ask their imaginary friends to answer their letters. Ask some pupils to read their letters to their imaginary friends (classmates) and the “response” to their letters.

LESSON

3 Traveling Through Reading No. of Teaching Hours: 3-4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Infer the meanings of words through context B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall important details 2. Evaluate statements 3. Take down notes to remember details C. Values 1. Display concern and right attitude towards people of different races and cultures 2. Demonstrate admiration for the scenic beauty of the Philippines

II. Subject Matter Selection: Five Days in Bali, (informative article)

III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 172-179 World map A picture of some Balinese people wearing their traditional costumes Picture of Bali’s beauty spots Pictures of beauty spots found in the Philippines IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show to the pupils a map of the world. Tell them that you will take them to Indonesia (indicating it in the map), to its greatest beauty spot which is Bali. Ask the pupils if they have had the chance of seeing other beautiful places in Southeast Asia aside from those in our country. B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils that they will visit with you one of Asia’s biggest tourist attraction–the beautiful island of Bali in Indonesia. Ask them if they like to visit it. Then, tell them that you will travel together through reading in order to learn more about Bali, Indonesia. Tell the pupils that they will meet its people in the selection they will read. (Show the pictures of some Indonesians wearing their traditional costumes). C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to read the phrases in this section. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell them that as they read the selection, they can look at the other words in the sentences which may help them in getting the meanings of the italicized words. Tell the pupils to use a dictionary and other meaning-getting techniques which they have learned. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils that they are going to read the story Five Days in Bali on pages 173-174.

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Exercise B

Before reading the story, have the pupils read the motive question and the boxed text. Have them also read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to be ready to answer the questions after reading the story. E. Read Have the pupils read the story Five Days in Bali. Remind the pupils of the standards in silent reading. F. Share Your Ideas Before taking up the motive questions and the questions under this section, check their comprehension questions by asking the following questions: • How were the Balinese created by their gods? • How do they bargain over price? • Are Balinese good cooks? Support your answer. • How is the Fire Dance performed? • What is famous in the village of Celuk?

Exercise A 1. e 3. d 2. i 4. j

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5. c 6. h

7. 8.

f a

9. g 10. b

3. b

5. b

7.

b

9. a

2. c

4. b

6. b

8.

a

10. c

Recalling Important Details Tell the pupils that one has to differentiate between details that need to be remembered and those which do not need to be remembered. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 177. The expected answers are:

1. c

5. a

2. c

6. b

3. c

7. b

4. a

8. b

Evaluating Statements Tell the pupils that in a travelogue, some statements may be factual while others are opinions. A reader’s reaction may be influenced by the opinions of a writer.

After the comprehension checkup, tell the pupils to form five groups. Ask each group to appoint a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign each group to work on one question. Tell them to conduct a group discussion of the assigned question to them. Then, ask the recorder of each group to present to the class the group’s answer to the question. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Learning the Meanings of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that words can be understood by looking at the other words in the sentence. The way the word is used may help them guess its meaning. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 175-176. The expected answers are:

1. a

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 178. The expected answers are:

1. F

6. F

2. O

7. F

3. F

8. F

4. F

9. F

5. F

10. F

Taking Down Notes Tell the pupils that when they read something, taking down notes can help them to remember details. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 178. Answers to this exercise may vary. Call on volunteers to read their notes to the class. Have the pupils compare the notes they have taken with somebody else’s notes.


H. Do What’s Right • Taking Pride in Your Country Tell the pupils that the selection they read gave them a beautiful picture of Indonesia where Bali is located. The Philippines also boasts of similar beautiful spots which tourists visit frequently such as Rizal Park, Boracay, Chocolate Hills, Banaue Rice Terraces, Hundred Islands, Taal Volcano, to name a few. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 179. Have the pupils pretend that they have a pen pal in a foreign country. Have them write a letter describing some scenic places in our country. Tell them to share the letter with the class. Have them show some pictures. Have the pupils write a paragraph describing or stating why they are proud of our country. They can write the paragraph in the space provided in the textbook. I. Make Connections • Computing Expenses in Visiting a Tourist Spot Ask the pupils to imagine that they are going to visit a tourist spot in the Philippines or in a foreign country. Ask them to have a list of the possible expenses. These expenses include fare, food, lodging, and others. Have them surf the Internet for information that can help them estimate how much money they would need. Example: Place to Visit: Boracay Round Trip Airfare: P8,000.00 Hotel: P3,500 (a day) J. Spin Off Ask the pupils to choose one tourist spot that he or she wants to visit. Have them consult a travel brochure. Have them make a comparison of this place and Bali. Have the pupils imagine that they are choosing between two tourist spots to visit. Ask them to make a comparative study of the two places. Their study may include the attractions of the places and the expenses that will be incurred.

LESSON

4 Innovate for a Cleaner World No. of Teaching Hours: 3-4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Use various strategies in meaning-getting 2. Use context to identify appropriate meaning of words with multiple meanings B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall important details in the story read C. Values 1. Show concern for cleanliness in one’s environment 2. Recognize the value of recycling

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Most Innovative City (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 180-189 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 A picture illustrating a dirty city A picture illustrating a clean city A picture illustrating how garbage is recycled IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils to read the question in this section. Cite some examples if you know any. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils to look at the pictures again. Tell them that to transform a place or city into a clean one is oftentimes hard to achieve. Ask: “What can be done to transform a place from being

57


unsanitary to one which is clean and healthful?” Have a brief discussion on this. Tell the class that to do this, the full cooperation of the people is needed. Everybody has to be involved in cleanliness campaigns led by government officials.

After the comprehension checkup, divide the class into four groups. Assign one question to every group. Have the groups discuss the answers to the questions assigned to them.

Ask: “How can we minimize or get rid of the piles of garbage we see around?” Tell them that the selection they will read will tell what a city does with the piles of garbage in the place.

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Context to Identify Appropriate Meaning of Words with Multiple Meanings Tell the pupils that many words have more than one meanings. The meaning that is attributed to a word depends on the context. Take up the exercise on page 183-184, item by item, with the pupils. The expected answers are: 1. d b a c 4. d a b c 2. c a d b 5. a c b d 3. b a c d

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell them that as they read the selection, some words in the selection can help them get the meanings of the italicized words. They can also use a dictionary or use other meaning-getting strategies. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive for reading the selection and the boxed for added information about the city which is described in the story.

Tell them that as they read, they have to remember the important details of the story. E. Read Have the pupils read The Most Innovative City on pages 181-182. This can be read in class or be given as a homework assignment.

For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Crossing Borders, then, The Most Innovative City, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word based on its context by clicking on their choice. Alternatively, you may access or ask your pupils to access the interactive activities for this lesson at i-learn.vibalpublishing.com.

F. Share Your Ideas After reading the selection, ask the pupils these comprehension questions:

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Why is Curitiba a different city from the rest of the cities in the world?

What is Curitiba’s most serious problem?

How did the recycling of garbage get started? Explain your answer.

What were the city mayor and the people trying to create in the city?

Using Various Strategies in Meaning-getting Tell the pupils that to get the meaning of a word, they can use a dictionary, use context clues, or ask another person. Take up the exercise on page 185 item by item, with the pupils. The expected answers are: 1. d 3. b 5. a 7. g 9. f 2. h 4. i 6. j 8. e 10. c

Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that details are small bits of information they may consider significant in a selection read.


Take up the exercises on pages 186-188, item by item, with the pupils. The expected answers are:

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 188. In this exercise, have the pupils write a short paragraph telling how they can help in the recycling program.

Exercise A 1. T

5. T

2. T

6. T

3. T

7. T

4. F

8. T

Exercise B 1. a

6. c

2. c

7. b

3. c

8. c

4. b

9. a

5. a

10. b

As an added practice in the skill of identifying main ideas and supporting details, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Crossing Borders, then The Most Innovative City, then, Identifying Main Idea and Supporting Details. In each item, pupils will read a supporting detail sentence taken from the selection. Then, they should choose the main idea that this sentence supports by clicking on their answer. H. Do What’s Right •

Recycling for a Better World Point out to the pupils that cleanliness is a value that should be part of one’s value system. Tell them that being clean is being healthy, since a person who practices cleanliness can avoid the occurrence of most ailments.

I. Make Connections •

Following a Positive Trend Point out to the pupils that they have learned that garbage can be sorted into disposable and non-disposable. Give example of disposable garbage (e.g. household rubbish, food scraps) and non-disposable garbage (e.g. galvanized iron sheets, household appliances, etc.) To find out if they still remember what they have learned, ask: “What do you do with disposable garbage? With non-disposable garbage?” Ask the pupils what the effect would be if people disposed of their garbage properly. Have them fill in the chart on page 189 with what they can do with disposable and non-disposable garbage. Give examples. (Disposable garbage: food scraps—place in a compost pit or heap; Non-disposable garbage: galvanized iron sheets—sell to a junk shop.)

J. Spin Off Have the pupils think of an activity where they can make use of recycled materials. Have them talk about it in class. For example, making hand and dish towels from old pillowcases and bedsheets. Have them explain in writing how this project was conceived by them. Have them share their project with their classmates.

Tell the pupils that one way of being clean is by disposing of one’s waste or garbage properly. One way of disposing of garbage is by recycling or reusing those which have been used already. An example is the reusing of plastic bags for groceries or other items. These plastics may also be recycled for some other purposes.

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LESSON

5 A Cool Country in a Hot Continent No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Use various strategies for meaning-getting B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Distinguish facts from opinions 2. Recall details from a story read C. Values Appreciate the true worth of a person based on his or her character

II. Subject Matter Selection: Kenya (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 190-197 A flat map of the world A picture of wild animals A picture of Masai people IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupil the world map and tell them that this time, you will take them to Africa (pointing to the continent). Tell them that Africa is a hot continent, but there is a place there where climate is cool. And that place is Kenya (locate Kenya on the continent). Ask them if they have ever considered visiting the continent of Africa. If the response is negative, ask why? B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils what they know about Kenya. Tell them that Kenya has one of the most ideal climates in the world. Tell them that they will learn more about Kenya as they read the informative article.

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C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to read the words and phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words in the phrases. Tell them that as they read the story, they can look at the other words in the sentences which may help them in getting the meanings of the words. They can also apply other meaning-getting strategies. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Tell them that as they read, they should be able to distinguish facts from opinions and remember the important details in the story. Then, have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to be aware of the facts or ideas as they read the story. They should be ready to answer these questions after reading. Have the pupils read the boxed text about Kenya to give them background information about this place. E. Read Have the pupils read Kenya on pages 191-192. Remind the pupils to follow the standards for silent reading. The story may be read in class or given as a homework assignment. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following to check the pupils’ comprehension of the informative article. • Why is Kenya being visited by tourists and holiday-makers from Europe and other African states? • Why does the Kenyan government guard its wildlife so well? • Who are the Masai pastoral people? • Why do they move from one place to the other? After the comprehension checkup, have them answer the question in Set a Goal for Reading. Then, ask the pupils to form groups with a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign to each group one question from Share Your Ideas. Ask each group to prepare a dialogue that will show the response to the question. Give them a few minutes to practice. Have the group present the dialogue to the class. After each presentation, the leader will say the answer to the question as shown in the dialogue. Follow this up with a brief discussion and evaluation of the activity presented.


G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Various Strategies for Meaning-getting Tell the pupils that a reader can arrive at the correct meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases in different ways. He or she can use a dictionary or he or she can figure out the meaning himself or herself by using context clues or by putting together the meanings of word parts. He or she can even use several strategies together. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 193-194. The phrases which the pupils check or mark with asterisks will vary. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. a 3. f 5. b 7. d 9. j 2. h 4. i 6. a 8. e 10. c Exercise B Take up the exercise, item by item, with the pupils. Answers may vary. Sample answers are as follows: 1. is as good as true 2. temporary place to stay providing needs for services 3. set aside a place 4. transports or takes tourists to places 5. a park where wild animals are kept and protected 6. food to eat 7. go from one place to another 8. decorated with shells 9. made from animal skin 10. little belongings or little things owned •

Distinguishing Fact from Opinion Point out to the pupils that facts can be verified and are stated in measurable and absolute units. Opinions express judgment. Though they are a result of serious thinking, they are personal, subjective, and open to different points of view.

Take up the exercises on page 195 item by item, with the pupils. The expected answers are: 1. O 4. F 7. F 10. F 13. F 2. O 5. F 8. F 11. F 14. F 3. F 6. F 9. F 12. F 15. F For an added exercise on fact vs. opinion, tell your pupils to go to this Web page: http://www.quia.com/jq/24723.html. The pupils will read a statement and identify if it is a fact or opinion by clicking on the appropriate choice. The number of correct and incorrect answers will be shown in the boxes above the items. •

Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that when reading a story or a selection, one has to be aware of details which could be very informative. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 196. The expected answers are: 1. Kilimanjaro 6. kinky 2. Lake Victoria 7. nomadic 3. unique 8. spears 4. safari 9. manyattas 5. Masai 10. move on

H. Do What’s Right • Looking at the Inner Person Tell the people that usually, our impression of a person comes from his/ or her physical appearance like the color of his or her skin and hair. However, the true worth of a person is seen in his or her character. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 196. Answers may vary for pupils will be expressing their own opinions in answering Questions 1 and 2. I. Make Connections • Researching About Philippine Ethnic Groups Point out to the pupils that there are many ethnic groups in the Philippines such as Igorots, Ifugaos, Mangyans, etc. They

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live in different parts of our country. Some live close to the sea. Others live on mountain sides. Others live on the lowlands, in towns, and in cities. These ethnic groups have different customs and traditions. Have the pupils do a research on ethnic groups found in our country. Ask them to share their findings with their classmates including pictures of these ethnic groups. Have the pupils write the answer to this question: “In what ways are these ethnic groups important to us?” Ask them to write their answers on the space provided in the textbook. Then, have them share their write-ups with their classmates. J. Spin Off Tell the pupils to use the Internet in doing a research about an important African person and his/her accomplishments. Write about him or her in a written composition of seven to ten sentences. Ask them to write their composition on the space provided in the book. Have them share their composition with their classmates.

LESSON

6 A Heroic Attempt No. of Teaching Hours: 3-4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Use various strategies for meaning-getting B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Determine the truth or falsity of statements 2. Sequence events C. Values 1. Show care and sympathy for the poor and the needy 2. Love the poor neighbor in need

II. Subject Matter Selection: Feed the World, (informative article)

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III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 198-205 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 Map of the world A picture of Bob Geldof A picture of poor, hungry people IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils the world map. Tell them that they will go back to Africa (pointing to Africa), but this time they will be in Ethiopia where many people need food and shelter. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils if they have heard people mention the name Bob Geldof. Tell them that Bob Geldof was very famous in London. He is a songwriter, an actor, and a singer. He has a very big heart for the poor and the needy. He has done so much to help them. C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to read the words and phrases. Direct their attention to the italicized words. If they can’t get the meanings of the unfamiliar words through context, then they can use the other techniques which they have already learned. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to read the goal statement in the section. Ask them to read the text in the box. The text has something to do with Bob Geldof. Tell them also to remember the sequence of events in the article they are going to read. Have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that as they read the article, they should try to remember the facts and ideas mentioned there. E. Read Have the pupils read Feed the World on pages 199-200. Remind them of the standards for silent reading. The selection may be read in class or as a homework assignment.


and phrases by looking at the other words and phrases in the sentence or paragraph where the word occurs. This strategy will help them improve their vocabulary skills. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 201-203. The words the pupils will check or those they will mark with asterisks will vary. The possible answers are: Exercise A 1. famine – a severe shortage of food resulting in hunger 2. very terminal – not so important 3. impressive – gives lasting effect on the mind 4. record for free – giveaway 5. assembled – put together 6. biggest selling single – biggest sell of a record sang by one singer 7. 8 million pounds – earning of Bob Geldof ’s record in January 1985. 8. feed starving people – feed hungry people 9. make good promise – make a good pledge to help or provide 10. aid organization – organizations which give help

F. Share Your Ideas To check on the pupils’ comprehension, ask the following questions. •

What was one of the tragedies of Ethiopia in the 20th century?

What made Bob Geldof stay awake after watching the film about Ethiopia?

How did he start his help for the poor people of Ethiopia?

Were there people willing to help him record his song? Support your answer.

How did Bob spend the money so that only the starving people would benefit from it?

After the comprehension checkup, ask the pupils to read again the goal statement. Have a brief discussion on it. Then, have the pupils form four groups. Ask the members of the group to select a discussion leader and a recorder. Ask each group to answer all the questions. Their answers will be recorded by the recorder. After the group discussion, have the groups present to the class the results of their discussion. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills •

Determining the Truth or Falsity of Statements Tell the pupils that statements made in a piece of writing can be true or false. A reader can verify the correctness of the statements by reading or examining other print or nonprint materials as sources of additional information. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 200. The answers to this exercise may vary. Have the pupils explain their answers. Sample answers are as follows: 1. T 3. V 5. T 7. V 2. F 4. T 6. F 8. T Using Various Strategies for Meaning-getting Tell the pupils that besides using the dictionary to get the meanings of words, they can also get the meanings of words

Exercise B 1. c 4. b 2. b 5. a 3. c 6. b

7. a 8. a 9. b

10. 11.

c b

For an interactive exercise on context clues, instruct the pupils to run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Crossing Borders, then, Feed the World, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word based on its context by clicking on their choice. •

Sequencing of Events Tell the pupils that sentences in a paragraph have to follow a certain order or sequence. Proper sequencing of ideas contributes to cohesion.

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Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 204. The expected answers are: 1. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3 2. 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 3. 3, 1, 4, 2, 5 To further practice the skill of making inferences, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Crossing Borders, then, Feed the World, then, Making Inferences. For each item, pupils will read excerpts from the selection. Then, they should choose a valid inference about the specified character by clicking on their choice. H. Do What’s Right • Showing Love and Care for the Underprivileged Point out to the pupils that to sympathize is to be concerned about a person who is in the midst of problems or difficulties. Tell them that one can show sympathy and care for the underprivileged by extending support to them materially, psychologically, and spiritually. Tell the pupils that besides Geldof, there are many other individuals and organizations who also extend help to the underprivileged. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 205. The answers may vary. The first question is on Bob Geldof ’s love and care for his fellowmen, most especially the poor and needy. The second question will elicit the pupils’ talents or skills and how these can be used to help others. I. Make Connections • Loving Your Neighbor Tell the pupils that the United Nations (UN), a world organization for peace and unity, has always placed importance on helping the underprivileged nations. The organization gives whatever aid is needed whether it is social, economic, political, or educational. However, some individuals refuse to extend help because they believe it is not their obligation.

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Point out that if we help alleviate the plight of the poor, we help build a better world. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 205. J. Spin Off Have the pupils write a short paragraph commenting on what Bob Geldof did. Have them read their paragraphs to the class. The pupils’ papers may be posted on a bulletin board.

LESSON

7 Another Racing Style No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Getting the meanings of words B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall important details in the story C. Values Show kindness to animals

II. Subject Matter Selection: Racing Alaska Style (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5, pp. 206-213 A map of the world Pictures of sleds drawn by dogs on snow Pictures of different races: bicycle, car, motorcycle, horse racing, etc.


IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Point to the world map and tell the pupils that this time, they will all travel to a very cold place which is always covered with snow. This place is Alaska which is the largest state of the United States. Show the pupils some pictures of the different kinds of races: a bicycle race, a car race, a motorcycle race, a horse race, etc. Have them identify each race, then have them answer the questions posed in this section. Have the pupils tell about the races they have watched. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils if they want to join a race. Tell them that to be able to join a race and come out as the winner is a very great accomplishment. This time, tell the pupils that they are going to read about a great race in Alaska, the Iditarod, participated in by a woman named Libby Riddles. Tell them to find out how Libby Riddles won the race. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Direct their attention to the italicized words. Ask the pupils to find the meanings of words by using the meaning-getting strategies they know. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive questions in this section. Have them also read the text in the box to give them an idea of the setting of the story. The race which they are going to read about is very much different from the races they are familiar with. Tell them to find out what the Iditarod is. Then, have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the facts in the story so they can answer the questions on the story. E. Read Have the pupils read Racing Alaska Style on pages 207-208. Remind them on the standards for silent reading.

F. Share Your Ideas To check comprehension, ask the following questions. •

Why is the Iditarod considered the hardest sports event anywhere in the world? Explain your answer.

How did Libby Riddles take care of her sick dogs along the way?

What did she do with the paws of the dogs?

What kind of weather did Libby Riddles overcome?

Did Libby Riddles win the race?

After this comprehension checkup, have the pupils answer the motive questions. Then, have the pupils form five groups. Have each group select a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign two questions for each group to work on. The leader leads the discussion and the recorder records the answers to the questions. The group recorder will present the results of the group discussion to the class. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Getting the Meanings of Words Tell the pupils that knowing the meaning of the words used in a selection would help them in understanding the selection better. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 209. The expected answers are: 1. a 4. c 2. d 5. b 3. c •

Recalling Important Details Tell the pupils that a good reader takes note of important details in what he or she is reading. At a later time, these details may have to be recalled for various purposes. Have the pupils work on Exercises A, B, and C on pages 210-211.

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Answers: Exercise A 1. a 3. b 2. b 4. c

5. b 6. a

7. 8.

d b c d f

Exercise B

Anchorage

Anvik

Shaktoolik



Nome



779 miles

270 miles 6 days travel  1,049 miles 18 days, 20 minutes, and 17 seconds travel

Exercise C courageous

appreciative

strong-willed

Libby Riddles

kind to animals

adventurous

physically strong

H. Do What’s Right • Showing Kindness to Animals Point out to the pupils that animals need care just as people do. Tell them to care for their pets at home by giving them a warm place to sleep in and by feeding them properly. Ask the pupils to tell about their pets and how they care for them.

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Tell the pupils that we sometimes see calesas on our streets. Calesas are horse-drawn carriages used for transportation. Ask them what the driver should do to care for the horses. Mention also that some animals are used for some sports like cockfighting and bullfighting. Ask the pupils to give their comments on cockfighting, dogfighting, bullfighting, and other animal games. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 212. Have the pupils write about their pets at home and how they care for them. To answer Question 3, tell the pupils that they can do library research or surf the Net. Tell them to share their findings with their classmates. I. Make Connections • Researching About Other Countries Tell the pupils that science and technology have made us close to other countries of the world. Tell them it is good to know more about these countries. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 212. The pupils will form groups to accomplish Activity A. The group will research on a country of their choice. They will gather information about its location, population, people, languages, etc. Have the pupils write a short paragraph about the countries they have read about. These two activities will help pupils to learn more about other countries. J. Spin Off The activities given will help the pupils learn more about Alaska and about the Eskimos. Divide the class into six groups and let each group choose the topic in Activity A they would want to research on. Assign Activities B, C, and D to all. After the information sharing, the data gathered can be compiled into a class information portfolio.


Skill Focus A. Making Definitions, pages 214-216 Have the pupils read the introductory notes (Paragraphs 1 to 5. Ask questions to check comprehension. Direct the pupils’ attention to the chart on page 214. Call on volunteers to put the phrases together to form a definition. Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 215. Exercise A In Exercise A, the words to be boxed are: 1. bulletin 2. plague 3. outrigger 4. somber 5. shivering The phrases to be underlined are: 1. a brief news 2. any deadly epidemic disease 3. a timber or framework 4. an atmosphere or feeling 5. an act Exercise B a. A sentence is a group of words which expresses one idea or a complete thought. b. A noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. c. An adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun. d. A verb is a word that expresses action. e. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

2. Mathematics Terms a. The term fraction refers to a part of a whole. It has a value equal to one or less than one. It shows the relationship between a part and a whole. b. A proper fraction is a fraction in which the value of the numerator is less than the value of the denominator. c. An improper fraction is a fraction in which the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator. d. The numerator is the top number in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are considered. e. The denominator is the bottom number in a fraction. It tells the number of equal parts into which a whole had been divided. 3. Science Terms a. A mammal is a class of warm-blooded vertebrate animals that have, in the female, milk-secreting organs for feeding the young. b. An amphibian is an animal that lives on land and in water. c. A reptile is a cold-blooded scaly vertebrate which is also an air-breathing and egg-laying animal. d. A bird is a two-legged warm-blooded animal that has wings, a hard beak, and a body covered with feathers. Exercise C Pupils will choose different words. Tell the pupils to see to it that each definition has the parts mentioned in the earlier part of this selection. B. Using Appositives, pages 217-220 Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Ask questions to check comprehension. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 217-218. In Exercise A, the phrases to be underlined are: 1. a democratic country 2. the leader of the revolutionary movement

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

lovers of freedom dubbed as the “Eighth Wonder of the World” the summer capital of the Philippines the largest wall of all time the wall that divided Germany into East and West the burial structures for the Pharaohs of Egypt one of the largest statues ever built the volcano said to have a perfect cone

Exercise B 1. The Philippine eagle, our national bird, is an endangered species. 2. Pag-asa, the eagle born in captivity, is now a mother of another eaglet. 3. The goofus, a mythical bird, always flies backward. 4. The ostrich, the biggest bird in the world, is flightless. 5. The heron, a long-legged bird, feeds on fish. Exercise C 1. The Luneta Park, one of the most popular parks in our country, is in Manila. 2. The Nayong Pilipino, a scale model of the different provinces of the Philippines, is a tourist attraction. 3. Intramuros in Manila, once the whole city of Manila, is called the Walled City. 4. Dr. Robert Fox, the chief anthropologist of the National Museum, identified the skull dug in the Tabon Cave as that of the first man who lived in the Philippines. 5. Noli Me Tangere, one of Dr. Jose Rizal’s famous novels, tells how the Spaniards mismanaged our country. 6. The tarsier, the smallest primate in the world, is found in Bohol. 7. The bat, a nocturnal animal, sleeps at daytime and looks for food at night. 8. Palawan, a haven for hundreds of species of birds, is a beautiful island.

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9. The sinarapan, considered the smallest edible fish, is found only in Lake Buhi and Lake Bato in Camarines Sur. 10. Mt. Apo in Davao, the tallest peak in the archipelago, is the home of the Philippine Eagle. Exercise D 1. Abu’s home, a tent, was with his father and mother in the desert. 2. Their animals, sheep, goats, and camels, moved with them from place to place. 3. The family looked for a new pasture, a place, they looked for almost every day. 4. Each morning, Abu like to watch the sun, a big pink ball right out of the sand. 5. The little stars, millions of tiny lights, made Abu happy and he would try to count them all. 6. Abu wanted to dig into the earth to find his shimmering stars, his little drops of water. C. Identifying Main Ideas Tell the pupils that a paragraph tells about a topic. The main idea of a paragraph is the sentence that sums up what all the sentences tell about the topic. All the other sentences state details about the main idea. Take up the paragraph in the first box on page 221 as an example. Ask if each sentence tells about the main idea. Tell the pupils that in this paragraph, the first sentence is the main idea. The sentence sums up what all the sentences in the paragraph express. The other sentences that follow it are supporting details which build or explain further the main idea. Have them study the next two paragraphs in the boxes on page 221. Tell the pupils that the main idea can be found in different places in a paragraph. It may be the first, the last, or the middle sentence. It may or may not be stated directly. Point out that in the


second box, the last sentence is the main idea. In the third box, the first sentence is the main idea. In these paragraphs, one of the sentences is the main idea; or the main idea is directly stated in the paragraph. In the paragraph in the box found on page 222, tell the pupils that the main idea is not expressed directly, that is, no sentence in the paragraph is the main idea. The reader has to state the main ideas in his or her own words. That means the reader will have to form a sentence that states the main idea. The main idea of the paragraphs in the box on page 222 may be: The quails escaped from the quail catcher by following the wisest quail’s advice. Tell the pupils that we can get the main idea of a paragraph, or a group of paragraphs by getting the whole idea of a paragraph/ paragraphs or by knowing what the paragraph is about. Take up Exercises A and B on pages 222-224, paragraph by paragraph, with the pupils. Have the pupils select the most general sentence in each paragraph. They can test if this is the main idea if the other sentences support it, or are details that tell about the big idea. Answers: 1. A blue whale is a mammal. 2. Indeed, there are many theories about how asteroids originated. 3. The newscaster has become a vital part of American life. 4. A noisy bus station is a vast theater where a real life drama is daily portrayed. 5. Recreation time is always debating time for me. Exercise B 1. c. A huge wolf was in the valley. 2. b. The wolf needed food and water badly. 3. a. The computer cannot think like a human being. 4. c. There was a man in a ship who would rather be with the engines than with humans. 5. d. Karate is an example of how a total ban on weapons led to the development of a system of unarmed fighting.

Linking Reading with Writing •

Writing a Description of a Place A. Preparation Tell the pupils that in this unit, they read about certain places of interest: Bali in Indonesia, Curitiba City in Brazil, and Kenya in Africa. A tourist wanting to see different places in the world reads travel brochures. He or she wants to know what a tourist destination has to offer, how to get to that place, the lodging facilities it offers, and the estimated cost of the visit. Point out to the pupils that there are probably many places of interest in their province or region. If they were to describe that place in order to attract tourists, tell or ask them what to include in their account. Tell them that to be able to write a good description of a place, there are some things they must do. B. Modeling and Reinforcing Have the pupils read Step 1 on page 226. Have them read an example of a description of a place. They can find it in travel brochures or magazines. One example is the selection Five Days in Bali on page 173. Ask the pupils to read it and note the structures of the description. Tell them that the article gives a description of the following: a. the people b. shopping possibilities c. cuisine/food d. night life and other attractions e. lodging places f. scenery and other attractions C. Planning Have the pupils think of places of interest in their province or community. Have them list down these places. Have the pupils select one place of interest which the class can write about. They can interview resource persons or read travel brochures, if any, about the place they have selected.

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D. Joint Construction In this step, you and the class jointly constructs the composition. Divide the class into groups. Have each group write down notes about each topic. Let them think of a title for their description. Have the pupils read Step 2 on page 226. Have the pupils write sentences about the topic assigned to their respective groups. Have them group their sentences into paragraphs. Tell them to sequence the paragraph in the order they think is best. Have the groups put their paragraphs together. Have them answer the following questions as they go along. • Did I provide enough information? Is the information accurate? • Did I present the information clearly and in an orderly manner? • Are the sentences well-formed? • Did I use appropriate vocabulary? • Did I observe writing conventions? Have the class make appropriate corrections on the jointly constructed composition. When the pupils have done additional corrections, ask them to write their composition on the lines provided in the book. They may include pictures of the topics they mentioned in the composition. 1. Have them show their paper to their classmates and to adult readers for comments. 2. Have them post their paper on their English bulletin board. 3. Have them send a copy to their school paper if they think it deserves to be published. E. Independent Constructing The pupils are now expected to write their own compositions after having had the experience of jointly constructing a composition. Have the pupils read again Steps 1 and 2 on pages 226-227. Tell the pupils to follow the steps described in their textbooks.

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F. Revising Have the pupils read Steps 3, 4, and 5. Have them write their compositions on another sheet of paper. Give the pupils the opportunity to share their paper with others and to publish the same.

Unit Test A. Recalling Details Answers: 1. d 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. b B. Getting the Meaning of Words 6. c 11. j 7. f 12. b 8. a 13. e 9. h 14. i 10. g 15. d C. Identifying if a Statement Is a Fact or an Opinion 16. F 21. O 17. O 22. O 18. O 23. O 19. F 24. O 20. O 25. F


UNIT

IV Flights of Fancy

Have the pupils read the title of Unit IV. Then, ask them to read the four-line poem by R.L. Stevenson and ask them what the author wants to convey. He says that all he had to do was to open the pages of a book and he would be able to go to different countries or places even into the enchanted world. Ask the pupils to give significant landmarks in a country such as Eiffel Tower in France, Statue of Liberty in America, Taj Mahal in India, Great Wall of China, the Pyramids of Egypt, etc. Ask the pupils if they have dreamed of visiting another country or touring around the world to see those magnificent landmarks. Then, ask who among them wants to join in going around the world. Tell them that there is a very cheap and easy way to be in those places and that is through books—by reading books. Let the pupils be aware that books are like doors leading them to other places, or even to the other side of the world. A way of seeing new places and meeting new people. Tell the pupils that the lessons to be discussed in this unit are stories of places and their landmarks, different peoples and their beliefs, traditions, history and culture.

LESSON

1 A Wish Is Just a Wish No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Determine meanings of words used in a selection B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Use similes in making comparisons 2. Sequence sentences to form a coherent paragraph 3. Recall incidents in a story read C. Values Show love as an inspiration

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Little Mermaid (fairy tale) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 230-241 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 Picture of a mermaid Picture of the mermaid, but now with legs of a human Picture of a handsome prince IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show a picture a mermaid. Ask the pupils to give the word for the picture. Ask the pupils if they have seen mermaids in movies, on television, or in books. Let them say something about a mermaid. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils if mermaids are real. Have them read the text about mermaids in this section. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the words and phrases. Call their attention to the italicized words. Have them deduce the meanings of the italicized words. Have them use meaning-getting strategies which they have learned earlier. D. Set a Goal for Reading Before reading the story, ask the pupils to read the motive question. Have them also read the text in the box. It tells something about the author of the story. Then, have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember details that will help them answer the questions after reading the story. E. Reading the Selection Have the pupils read The Little Mermaid on pages 232-237 in class or as a homework assignment.

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Have the pupils work on the exercises on page 239. The following words and phrases are the ones to be underlined: 1. stars / like lanterns 2. He / like a leaf 3. bird’s feathers / as black as midnight 4. rainbow / like a colored bridge 5. rice stalks / as gracefully as dancers 6. princess / as sweetly as a nightingale 7. pearl / shaped like teardrops 8. heavy raindrops / like the thud of marching feet 9. thunder / as cannon guns 10. skin / as clear as a rose petal

F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to check pupils’ comprehension of the story. •

Who lived at the bottom of the sea?

Why was the youngest princess fascinated by the human world? Explain your answers.

How was the Little Mermaid able to save the handsome prince?

Why couldn’t the little mermaid talk?

What ending do you want this story to have?

After the comprehension checkup, have the pupils answer the motive question. Then, have the pupils form five groups. Have them select a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign one question to be discussed in each group. The recorder records the results of the discussion. Then, ask each group to present the results of the discussion to the class. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skill • Determining Meanings of Words Used in a Selection Tell the pupils that the meaning of a word used in a selection can be deduced or inferred by considering how this word is used in the story. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 238. The answers are as follows: 1. b 3. a 5. h 7. c 9. e 2. j 4. i 6. g 8. d 10. f •

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Using the Simile Point out to the pupils that in order to make a sentence more colorful, figures of speech are often used. One of these figures of speech is the simile. A comparison is made between two unlike objects with the use of as or like. Have the pupils study the examples on page 238. Emphasize to them how as or like is used in each sentence.

For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Flights of Fancy, then, The Little Mermaid, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word by clicking on their choice. Alternatively, you may access or ask your pupils to access the interactive activities for this lesson at i-learn.vibalpublishing. com. •

Sequencing Sentences to Form a Coherent Paragraph Tell the pupils that sentences need to follow an order to make ideas in a paragraph cohere. Ideas are said to be coherent if they stick together to put across a message clearly. This act of arranging sentences in a text by time or space-time order is called sequencing. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 239-240. The expected answers are: Set I a. 4 b. 1 c. 2 d. 5 e. 3 Set II a. 2 b. 3

c. 5 d. 1

e. 6 f. 4


Recalling Incidents in a Story Read Tell the pupils that it is necessary to remember important details in what they read. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 240. The expected answers are: 1. She did everything she can to make the storm calm down just so the prince would be saved. 2. She braved the terrifying monsters on the way to the house of the sea witch just to be able to get the potion that would change her form. She willingly consented to the witch’s prize for giving her the potion. She hid behind the rocks when the prince regained consciousness. She dared to have her form changed although it would cause her much pain. She left her own home to be able to go to the outside world. She helped the prince find the girl whom he thought had saved his life. She let the prince leave although she knew that she would most likely be unhappy all her life. To further practice the skill of making inferences, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Flights of Fancy, then The Little Mermaid, then, Making Inferences. For each item pupils will read excerpts from the selection. Then, they will choose a valid inference about the specified character based on the excerpt by clicking on their choice.

Tell the pupils that there are young people nowadays who can love as the mermaid in the fairy tale did, but at times, this feeling of love makes them lose interest in many things. They could no longer perform tasks assigned to them because they are greatly involved in an emotion they can hardly control. Stress to the pupils that love should not destroy the good in a person, but must bring out the best in him or her. Many works of art have been produced by great minds because of love. Point out that instead of forgetting to study one’s lessons, the person in love must be inspired to study more. I. Make Connections • Researching Works of Art of World Standard Tell the pupils that the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO Heritage Site in 1983. It was cited as “The Jewel of Muslim Art in India,” and one of the universally-admired world heritage. It is said that a love story was behind the construction of Taj Mahal. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 241. In this exercise, have the pupils do a research on how the Taj Mahal was built. Have them present their findings in class. J. Spin Off Have the pupils write five sentences about an artist whose masterpiece was inspired by someone. Have the pupils read their paragraphs to the class.

H. Do What’s Right • Looking at Love as an Inspiration Emphasize to the pupils that an inspiration serves as a motivation for a person to reach greater heights. It makes a person do a difficult task with ease. As the saying goes, “Love can move mountains,” but such loving should be propelled positively.

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LESSON

2 A Wonder of the Sky No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Identify synonyms B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Use metaphors in comparisons 2. Interpret the message of a poem 3. Use appositives C. Values Appreciate the beauty of nature

II. Subject Matter Selection: Song for a Child Watching Clouds (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5, pp. 242-249 Pictures of different kinds of clouds Picture of clouds forming sheep, faces, ship, and other forms IV. Procedure

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C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Ask them to look for the phrases as they read the poem. Let them be aware that they can get the meanings of the italicized words by using the meaning-getting strategies they have learned. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to read the motive question. Have them read the text in the box. Then, have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Ask them to remember the details so they can answer the questions after reading the poem. E. Reading of the Poem Call on a good reader to read the poem aloud while the rest of the pupils listen. Tell the pupils to form pictures in their mind as each stanza is read. Then, have the class read the poem. The stanzas may be read by rows or by groups. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions as a comprehension checkup. •

What are the words that rhyme in each stanza?

Whose faces are seen in the clouds?

Why do clouds move? Explain your answers.

A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils pictures of the different kinds of clouds. Ask them if they had watched clouds in the sky before. Ask them what forms or shapes they saw in the sky.

Have the pupils answer the motive question. Then, have the pupils form five groups. Each group will have a discussion leader and a recorder. Each group will be given a question to work on. The recorder will record the results of the discussion. Each group will then present to the class the results of the discussion.

B. Add to What You Know Show pictures of different cloud formations. Find out if the pupils can identify the different kinds of clouds. Ask them: “How are clouds formed?” After listening to their responses, have the pupils read the text in this section. Have a brief discussion on this.

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Synonyms Tell the pupils that the ability to identify words with the same or similar meanings is useful in understanding a selection.


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 244. The expected answers are: 1. fleecy 6. cloudy 2. beasts 7. sheep 3. fellows 8. dull 4. ship 9. shape 5. slipping 10. rolling •

Using Metaphors Ask the pupils to read the poem again. Ask them: “What are clouds compared to?” Tell them that if a comparison is made with the use of as or like, it is called a simile. A comparison without the use of as or like is called a metaphor. Sentences 1-4 are examples of metaphors. Have the pupils identify the two objects compared in each sentence and their similarity in quality. Have the pupils read the examples and stress to them the comparison using metaphor. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 245. The expected answers are:

Drawing Out the Message of a Poem Tell the pupils that a poem uses both the literal and the figurative language. A reader interprets a poem based on the meaning he or she gives to the language the poet used. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 246. The sentences to be checked are Sentences 2, 7, 8, and 9.

Using Appositives Point out to the pupils that an appositive is a word or phrase that identifies or explains further the word that it follows. Commas, and sometimes dashes, set off the appositive. Have the pupils read the three sample sentences showing appositives. Give emphasis on how the appositives are used. Have the pupils work on Exercises A, B, and C on pages 246-247. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1.

The white clouds, the fleecy sheep

2.

The passers-by, passengers of the ship

3.

John Farrar, the romantic poet

4.

The weather condition, sunny or rainy

4. The room and the junk heap are both dusty and disorderly.

5.

The readers of this poem, pupils at the grade five level

5. The human brain and the factory are work hubs.

Exercise B

6. The arms and the pendulum can swing from side to side.

1. John, my former classmate, …

1. Both books and ships take us to other lands. 2. Both eyes and a pool of water can reflect images. 3. Both mountains and sentinels stand quietly.

7. Waves of the sea and anger can rise. 8. One can read things from a person’s face and from a book. 9. People move in the world and on a theater stage. 10. Living in this world and going on a trip involve movement.

2. Bong and Toni, the new comedy team, … 3. The chihuahua, my favorite pet, … 4. My favorite classmate, Oscar, … 5. His favorite birthday present, a book on jokes, … Exercise C 1. The Zamboanga City Park, one of the most popular parks in Mindanao, is in Zamboanga City.

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2. The Taal Volcano, known as a volcano within a volcano, is in Batangas. 3. Baguio City, called the summer capital of the Philippines, is a favorite vacation place by Filipinos and foreign tourists alike. 4. Jose Maria Panganiban, known as JOMAPA, showed through his writings that Filipinos are not ignorant people. 5. Dr. Jose Rizal, our national hero, was born in Calamba, Laguna. 6. El Filibusterismo, one of the famous novels of Dr. Jose Rizal, tells of the Spanish cruelty to the Filipinos during the Spanish time. 7. Former President Corazon Aquino, the first woman president of the Philippines, overthrew Ferdinand Marcos. 8. Cebu, the home of the original otap and danggit, abounds in beautiful white beaches. 9. The tamaraw, a rare animal, is found in the island of Mindoro. 10. The Tubbataha Reef, a 32,500-hectare system of submerged coral mountain, is along the Cagayan Ridge in Palawan. 11. The Philippine mahogany, a trade name for famous Philippine trees, is known in Western countries. H. Do What’s Right • Appreciating the Beauty of Nature Tell the pupils that Mother Nature has been very generous to us. She has given us plants and trees as sources of food to keep us healthy and fit. She has given us the air we breathe, the sunlight that warms us, and the rain that refreshes us. She has given us the beauty of the sky and the clouds, the sunrise, and the sounds of domesticated and wild animals, and many more.

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Tell the pupils that the gifts of nature are marvelous. But because they are just around us, easy to get, and free of charge, we tend to forget just how important they are. Think of a situation where nature’s beauty is absent. How would you visualize life on earth? Ask: “Shouldn’t we give back to nature what has been given us? One way to express our gratitude is by appreciating Mother Nature and by taking good care of her. ” Have the pupils do the exercise on page 248. The pupils’ answers to this exercise will vary. Have the pupils explain their answers. I. Make Connections • Recalling Learnings About Clouds Have the pupils recall about the different kinds of clouds and what they signify. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 249. Have some pupils present their work to the class. J. Spin Off Have each pupil pick out a topic from the list and write a poem about it. Ask some pupils to read and present their work to the class. Have all the pupils’ works posted on the bulletin board. Some poems can be published in the school paper.


LESSON

3 Progress in Unity No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Use words with the same spelling but different meanings B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Use appropriate idiomatic expressions 2. Distinguish between reality and fantasy 3. Recall details of a dialogue read C. Values 1. Illustrate unity to develop strength 2. Show togetherness in order to achieve better progress

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Direct the pupils’ attention to the italicized phrases. Tell them that these phrases are idiomatic expressions. They don’t have literal meanings. They have underlying meanings or other meanings. The other words in a sentence can help give the meanings of each expression. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Ask them also to read the text in the box. It is about the pendulum. It tells more about the grandfather clock. Then, have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Ask them to remember the details so they can answer the questions after reading the story. E. Read

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Discontented Pendulum (play) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pages 250-257 A picture of a grandfather clock A picture of a clock, a modern digital clock IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils look at pictures of a clock. Let them talk about the improvements on the clock over the years. Ask what kind of clock they have at home. Have a class discussion on this. B. Add to What You Know Show the pupils the picture of a grandfather clock on page 250. Have them name the parts of the clock as shown in the illustration. Ask: “Which parts of this grandfather clock are no longer found in modern-day clocks?” Explain to the pupils what the pendulum is and its function.

Have a dramatic oral reading of the playlet. Assign roles to selected pupils. The pupils can rehearse the reading before the class presentation. F. Share Your Ideas Check comprehension by asking the following questions. •

Who suddenly stopped working? Why?

What did the Face do each day?

Who was very smart in computing how many ticks and tocks Pendulum made in a day, a week, and a year?

Why was Pendulum convinced to go back to work?

Then, have the pupils answer the motive question. Have a brief discussion on this. Ask the pupils to form five groups. Have each group select a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign one question to each group. The recorder records the results of the discussion. Ask each group to present to the class the results of the discussion.

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G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Words with the Same Spelling but Different Meanings Tell the pupils that words with the same spelling may not necessarily be identical in meaning. Even their pronunciation may be different. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 253. The expected answers are: 1. b a 5. b a 2. a b 6. b a 3. a b 7. a b 4. a b 8. b a

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Using Appropriate Idiomatic Expressions Point out to the pupils that idiomatic expressions are phrases whose meanings do not depend on the individual words in the phrase. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 254. The expected answers are: 1. c 3. f 5. a 2. b 4. e 6. d

Distinguishing Between Reality and Fantasy Tell the pupils that they must be able to tell the difference between reality and fantasy. Reality refers to what is observable through our senses such as our eyes, ears, skin, etc., whereas fantasy is that which exists in our imagination. There is no way by which we can give evidence or proof to fantasy. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 254. Have the pupils explain their answers. The expected answers are: 1. W 3. W 5. T 7. W 9. W 2. W 4. T 6. W 8. T 10. W

Recalling Details of a Dialogue Read Emphasize to the pupils that the ability to recall information from a story read is one way to measure how much you have understood the reading material. Tell them to find out how well

you comprehended the Discontented Pendulum by answering the exercise on page 255. The expected answers are: 1. a. It felt it was doing the greater part of the work. 2. a. By making it feel very important. 3. d. By pointing out that it was expected to wag only one wag at a time. H. Do What’s Right • Showing Unity and Cooperation Ask the pupils if they have heard the saying, United we stand, divided we fall. Ask: “How does this apply to the story you have just read? Is this true to all other undertakings?” Have a class discussion on the pupils’ responses to this question. Tell the pupils that more progress can be achieved when people work together for a common cause. When people are not united, with each one going his or her own way, confusion may result. Take up the exercise on page 256 with the pupils. Have the pupils retell the stories they have heard or read about unity and cooperation. Then, have them narrate their experiences on unity or cooperation at home or in school. I. Make Connections • Computing Numbers Correctly Tell the pupils that being able to do mathematical computations will help them in their daily activities. Knowing basic mathematics will help them when they go shopping, when they follow directions in cooking, or when they need to measure objects. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 257. Review the time equivalents, for example: 60 seconds = 1 minute, 60 minutes = 1 hour, 24 hours = 1 day, etc. Have the pupils work on the computation as a challenge to them. J. Spin Off Have the pupils work on the activities suggested in this section.


LESSON

4 Look Before You Leap No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Use words with multiple meanings 2. Deduce meanings of words through context B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall details in a selection read 2. Recognize statements based on a story C. Values Demonstrate honesty and truthfulness in any situation

II. Subject Matter Selection: Why the Owl Behaves as It Does (legend) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pages 258-267 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 A picture of an owl A picture of some birds with the owl

C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to read the phrases. Call their attention to the italicized words. The other words in the selection will help them in deducing the meaning of the words. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive questions. Then, have them read the text in the box. It tells about Ted Hughes (pronounced ted hyuz, the author of our story.) It tells how he loves to write poems and stories about birds. Tell the pupils to remember the important details in the story. Have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the details in the story so they can answer the questions on the selection. E. Read Have the pupils read the story Why the Owl Behaves as It Does, pages 259-263 in class or as a homework assignment. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions for comprehension checkup: •

What could the owl do which the other birds couldn’t?

What did he intend to do with the birds?

Why did the owl grow fat and contented?

Did the birds discover that they were only being tricked by the owl? Explain your answer.

Why couldn’t the owl go out during the day?

IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils a picture of an owl. Ask: “Do you know this bird?” “What do you know about an owl?” Have them answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils to learn more about owls by reading the text in this section.

Have the pupils answer the motive questions. Then, have the pupils answer each question. Ask the pupils to read the parts of the story that answer Questions 1, 2, and 3. For Question 4, the owl represents persons who are deceptive and treacherous, while the birds represent the meek or the weak ones. The lesson of the story may be: “Do not be lured or enticed by beautiful words, or don’t take advantage of the weak ones.”

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G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Words with Multiple Meanings Tell the pupils that there are some words with more than one meaning. It is important that the meaning be associated with how the word fits the sentence where it is used. Have the pupils work on the exercises on pages 264-265. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. c. very black 2. d. miserable or thin Ask: “How did you know which meaning to choose?” Tell the pupils that some words have more than one meanings. They can choose the right one by reading the sentence and choosing the meaning that fits the context. They can also get some clues about the meaning from the other words in the sentence. Exercise B 1. b 3. c 5. c 7. a 9. d 2. a 4. b 6. a 8. b 10. c •

Deducing Meanings of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that the meanings of some words can be understood by considering how these words were used in a sentence in the selection read. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 265. The expected answers are: 1. a 3. d 5. e 7. c 9. b 2. h 4. i 6. f 8. g 10. j For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Flights of Fancy, then, Why the Owl Behaves As It Does, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence with a vocabulary word used in the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice.

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Recalling Details Point out to the pupils that the characters, setting, and events in a story are described more vividly by using details.

The traits of important characters are shown through the words and actions of other characters. The setting is pictured more thoroughly by giving details about the places where the events happened and the time those events happened. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 266. The expected answers are: 1. of a safe, peaceful country made for birds 2. led all the birds to a rabbit hole on the hill 3. see by night 4. one peep at the dark, and they are dead birds 5. which they found by feeling with their feet •

Recognizing Statements Based on a Story Tell the pupils that statements can be quoted from a reading selection. Have them study the statements listed in the exercise. Let them tell if the statements are based on the story. Have the pupils answer the exercise on page 266. The expected answers are: 1. Yes 4. Yes 2. No 5. No 3. Yes As an added practice in the skill of identifying main ideas and supporting details, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 5 and click on Flights of Fancy, then, Why the Owl Behaves As It Does, then, Identifying Main Idea and Supporting Details. In each item, the pupils will read a sentence from the selection that expresses a main idea. Then, they would choose the sentence that supports this main idea by clicking on their answer.

H. Do What’s Right • Telling the Truth Tell the pupils that there has been so much uproar about a foreign and poisonous substance used in milk products. This foreign substance was probably added with the products so that the manufacturers could make more profit.


Let them know that this incident is not an isolated case. There are many people who engage in unwholesome practices in order to gain much in a short time even at the expense of the life of the buyers. Point out to the pupils that there are many malpractices which are discovered and the perpetrators penalized, their reputation destroyed. These people find out too late that cheating does not pay. As the Bible says, “What does it profit a person if he or she gains the whole world, but loses his or her own soul?” Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 267. Have the pupils group themselves into fives. Ask each group to act out a situation which shows that cheating does not pay. After the group presentation, have the class give their evaluation of the situations presented by each group. I. Make Connections • Researching More About Owls Have the pupils do research on the characteristics and peculiarities of owls and have them present their findings in class. J. Spin Off Have the pupils write a short composition about the importance of honesty. Ask some pupils to read their written work to the class. They can even record their composition so that their family and friends can listen to it. Then, have their written work be posted on the bulletin board.

LESSON

5 Keeping Promises No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Form negative words using prefixes 2. Identify synonyms or words which have nearly the same meaning B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall details of a story read C. Values Show discreetness by not hurting the feelings of others

II. Subject Matter Selection: Mang Beloy’s Promise (radio interview) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pages 268-277 A picture of Mang Beloy A picture of a fairy IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils: “Do you want to see a fairy?” Show the picture of a fairy. Tell them that fairies are just imaginary beings, but people love to hear and read fairy tales. Then, have them answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read this section to find out what fairies are. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell them to look for the meanings of the words in a dictionary.

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D. Set a Goal for Reading

Have the pupils answer the exercise on page 27. The expected answers are: 1. immature 6. irrational 2. uncommunicative 7. unfriendliness 3. disregard 8. incomplete 4. inedible 9. immortal 5. imperfect 10. uncharitable

Have the pupils read the motive questions and the text in the box about imaginary kingdom of spirits in order to know more about its inhabitants. Our story has something to do with a fairy. Tell the pupils to remember the details of the story they will read. Have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the details in the dialogue.

Identifying Synonyms Point out to the pupils that ideas can be expressed in more than one way. Hence, a word can have its equivalent or a similar meaning expressed through another word. These words which have nearly the same meaning are called synonyms. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 272. The expected answers are: Down Across 1. immortal 1. incredible 2. careless 3. rags to riches 3. sacred 5. stunned

Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that details or little things are important to remember. You may need the information anytime. Tell them that using a web organizer like the one on page 273 will help them better retain and recall information. Explain how the web is to be completed. You may draw a bigger web on the board. Explain what is to be placed in each circle in the web. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 273275. The expected answers are: Exercise A Answers may vary. Exercise B 1. c. heard a tiny voice calling his name 2. a. to help people in need 3. d. The fairy and others in the kingdom were going to another place.

E. Read Have the pupils read the dialogue. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions for comprehension checkup: •

Who was Mang Beloy?

Why was he at the local radio station DZBY?

Why was Andy Cruz interested in him?

Who was Mang Andoy’s friend? Describe her.

What did the little fairy ask Mang Andoy to do for her?

After a brief discussion on the above questions, ask the pupils to form four groups. Have each group select a discussion leader and a recorder. The leader leads the discussion and the recorder records the results of the discussion. Ask each group to present to the class the results of the discussion. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills •

Forming Negative Words Have the pupils think about the story Mang Beloy’s Promise. Ask: “How did the people regard the story about the fairy?” The people thought it was an incredible story. Note that incredible comes from the word credible which means believable or likely. With the addition of the prefix in-, the meaning of the word is changed to the opposite, not believable or not likely.

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4. b. She would place enough money in the bayong under his house. 5. a. a laborer at a banana plantation 6. a. She called him by name as he was on his way to the spring to fetch water. 7. c. He met the fairy three years ago. 8. a. Yes, it was the first. 9. b. It’s a story of good fortune by his meeting an immortal being. 10. a. turned his back to see who it was 11. c. Andy Cruz thanked Mang Beloy for his time. 12. b. Mang Beloy looked very proud. H. Do What’s Right • Being Discreet Tell the pupils that being discreet means being careful not to hurt the feelings of others. Point out that there are times when we need to talk as much as we can to express our ideas. Our being expressive or articulate may have positive and negative consequences. A person needs to be careful of his or her choice of words. Once a word is spoken, it can never be taken back. We need to be discreet. We can be spontaneous, but we need to be careful not to hurt other people’s feelings. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 275. I. Make Connections • Writing Your Favorite Fairy Tale Tell the pupils that from childhood, they have learned many stories about fairies. Some people believe that fairies do exist. But others think that they are just figments of the imagination. Whatever the case, fairy tales are entertaining and amusing, sometimes thought-provoking. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 276. Have the pupils write their own fairy tale on the space provided on page 276. Then, have them share their stories with their classmates.

Refer your pupils to the following Wikipilipinas category page: http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Category:Philippine_ Mythology. Tell them to choose a mythological character or story and click on the link to read the entry. Then, they may use the information from the article to help them write their own fairy tales. J. Spin Off Ask the pupils if they believe in fairies. Have them write two paragraphs on the space provided in the text explaining why they believe or why they do not. Have some pupils read their work in class and have them posted on the bulletin board.

LESSON

6 Kindness Is Universal No. of Teaching Hours: 3

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce meanings of phrases through context 2. Familiarize oneself with words related to space exploration B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall details of a story read 2. Make research on space exploration C. Values Create an environment with love and compassion for others

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Creature (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pages 278-285 A picture of a creature or space alien/extraterrestrial being in outer space A picture of a spaceship, a satellite

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IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask: “Have you watched the movie Star Wars? Who are the alien characters in the film?” Have the pupils tell what they know about extraterrestrial beings (E.T.). Ask if they believe that beings from somewhere in space have come to earth. Ask what stories about UFOs they know. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils to find out what a UFO is by reading the text in this section. C. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question and the text in the box that has something to do with reports on sightings of UFOs. As they read the story, tell the pupils to remember the details of the story. Then, have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the details in the selection so they can answer the questions after reading the story. D. Reading of the Selection Have the pupils read The Creature, pages 279-280. E. Share Your Ideas Ask the pupils the following questions for comprehension checkup. • Who were Ventor and Orna? • What planet looked like a great blue and green ball? • Why was Ventor in outer space? • What kind of creature did he catch? After a brief discussion on the above questions, have the pupils form four groups. Ask each group to select a discussion leader and a recorder. Have each group work on the four questions in Share Your Ideas. The recorder records the results of the discussion. Then, ask each group to present in class the results of their group discussion.

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F. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Learning About the Meanings of Phrases Through Context Tell the pupils that when one deduces the meaning of a certain word, he/she tries to derive its meaning by reasoning or inferring. This is done by studying how a word is used in the selection. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 280282. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. astronaut 6. space lab 2. orbit 7. gravity 3. space shuttle 8. booster 4. capsule 9. cosmonauts 5. space shuttle 10. galaxy Exercise B 1. a. very thin 2. b. prompt 3. c. a very long time 4. a. very much 5. c. the earth 6. d. human beings who are manning the spaceship 7. c. strange-looking from far away 8. c. to hold under control 9. d. because of the earth’s vegetation and seas 10. a. yes •

Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that the exercise that follows will help them remember and retrieve from memory significant details. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 282284. The expected answers are: Exercise A Have the pupils underline the sentences that follow the following letters: 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. a 5. c 6. a 7. d 8. c 9. b 10. d


Exercise B 1. True

6. True

2. True

7. True

3. True

8. True

4. True

9. True

5. False

10. True

H. Do What’s Right • Being Compassionate Point out to the pupils that being compassionate means taking pity on others as well as being loving. Loving others means doing things for someone else and expecting nothing in return. Tell the pupils that the story they read tells about a creature who is not identified as a human being yet has displayed the qualities of a human being. If such creatures can be compassionate, humans should do likewise because of their breeding, their education, and their ability to think. Ask: “What can you do to show love to others?” Have the pupils suggest things they can do. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 285. 1. Let the pupils write a few sentences showing their love and compassion for people who suffer during calamities. 2. Let them plan a school project to help the poor. You may monitor their project and its implementation. I. Make Connections • Researching on Space Exploration Tell the pupils that science brought us to the moon. Technology has refined ways and means of communicating. With all the advances in science and technology, ask the pupils if it is possible for scientists to find out if there are other creatures in outer space. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 285.

Have them research on the advances in outer space exploration. Have them surf the Internet and find out the projects undertaken by the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) in Houston, Texas or Cape Kennedy, Florida, USA. Let them write a report and share this with their classmates. J. Spin Off Have the pupils draw a space creature according to how they imagine it to be. Have them talk about their drawings. This activity aims to draw out the pupils’ artistic and creative talents.

LESSON

7 It’s All in the Mind No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce the meanings of idiomatic expressions through context 2. Identify synonymous words through their meanings which are the same or similar B. Reading Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Sequence events in the story correctly 2. Recall important details of a story read C. Values Illustrate courage and bravery in facing a ghostly apparition if ever there is such

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Tinker of Toledo (play) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 5 (Second Edition), pp. 286-301 A picture of a ghost in a haunted house A picture of a tinker with his tools

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IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils if they believe in ghosts. Have some pupils relate some ghost stories that they may have heard or read about. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section which tells what a ghost story must have. C. Supplement Your Knowledge Have the pupils read the phrases. Direct the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell them to use different techniques in getting the meanings of the italicized words. Test their vocabulary comprehension through a short checkup activity. Write the following exercise on the board. Match the underlined word in each sentence with its meaning from the list of words at the right. 1. The old mansion was eerie-looking and said to be haunted. 2. The delicious smell of food whetted my appetite. 3. She is talking over the babble of voices.

a. b. c. d.

stimulated a soft voice inhabited by spirits utter sounds or words indistinctly

D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question. Then, have them read the text in the box. Ask the pupils the following questions to find out if they understand what they read:

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What kind of play is The Tinker of Toledo? How is a radio play different from other plays?

What are the elements of a play? How is a play similar to a short story? How are they different?

How should you read a play to enjoy it?

Tell the pupils that as they read, they should try to remember the order of the events in the story as well as the important details. Have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the details so they can answer the questions in Share Your Ideas. E. Read Have the pupils read the play as a homework assignment. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the pupils the following questions as a comprehension checkup: • Who was Pedro? • What plan did Pedro want to carry out? • Was Pedro frightened when the ghost appeared piece by piece? Support your answer. • Why couldn’t the ghost leave the haunted castle? Explain your answer. • What kind of ghost was he? Support your answer. Have the pupils answer the motive question and have a brief discussion on this. Then, have them form four groups. Ask each group to select a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign a question in Share Your Ideas to each group. The leader leads the discussion and the recorder records the group’s answer to the question. The recorder presents to the class their answer to the question assigned to them. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Idiomatic Expressions Remind the pupils that they have learned that an idiomatic expression is an expression whose meaning is far from the literal meaning of the words that compose it. The meaning of the idiom may be deduced from context. Ask: “What does in two shakes of a donkey’s tail mean?” Present the following sentence: Sound: (Hammering on copper as the tinker works.) Blanca: How quickly he works.


From the given context, you may have been able to guess that in two shakes of a donkey’s tail means quickly, immediately. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 295. The expected answers are: 1. a 3. d 2. b 4. c For more practice on idiomatic expressions, tell the pupils to access this Web site: http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/ idioms/. Tell the pupils to click on “Start Here” to enter the site. Each Web page is one item, and pupils will have to choose an idiomatic expression for that item, explain the idiom by typing down their explanation, and using the idiom in an original sentence. They may print out their answers to each. After they are done with one item, they may click on “Next” to proceed to the next idiomatic expression. •

Identifying Synonymous Words Remind the pupils that they have learned that words are said to be synonymous if they have nearly the same or similar meanings. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 296. The expected answers are: 1. haunted 9. venture into 2. babbled 10. thumbed 3. whetted 11. moan 4. crock 12. curiosity 5. boast 13. gossip 6. tinker 14. tiresome 7. scorn 15. stretched 8. cypress Sequencing of Events Tell the pupils that one way of telling a story is by having the events or happenings in the story arranged in the order that they happened. This is called sequencing of events.

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 297. The expected answers are: 1. b, a, c 5. c, b, a 2. b, a, c 6. b, c, a 3. c, a, b 7. c, b, a 4. b, a, c 8. b, a, c •

Recalling Details of a Story Read Remind the pupils that they have learned that there are details to be remembered as they read a story. Tell the pupils that their ability to remember details will be assessed in the exercise on pages 298-299. The expected answers are: 1. a 6. a 2. c 7. a 3. d 8. c 4. d 9. d 5. c 10. c

H. Do What’s Right • Using Your Imagination Positively Tell the pupils that people who speak of ghosts are often thought by other people to be crazy or out of their minds. But this is not always so. Some people believe that ghosts exist. They have even “spoken” to some of them. Tell the pupils that there are some people, however, who believe that ghosts exist only in the imagination. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 300. Have them write a fanciful ghost story. Remind them of the three basic elements of a story: character, setting, and plot. (Remind them that plot is a series of events.) Remind the pupils also of the three things to be considered in order to make the reading of their story or play enjoyable. Have them write their story or play on the space provided on page 300 of the textbook.

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I. Make Connections • Extending Geographical Knowledge Tell the pupils that knowing more about other countries will help them understand other people better. Have the pupils do a research on the setting of their story, that is, Toledo, Spain. Have them write their findings in the space on page 301. Ask them to share their findings with their classmates. J. Spin Off 1. Have a class presentation of the play. This can be done as an ordinary play where the characters memorize their lines and act out the play onstage. 2. Have the pupils collect short stories about ghosts and share interesting ones with their classmates. Then, have them tell whether they believe in ghosts or not. Have them support their answers on the basis of their experiences, religion, or knowledge of science or stories they have heard or read about.

Skill Focus A. Using Figurative Language, pages 302-306 Let the pupils consider the following sentences: The seeds looked like tiny pearls. The seeds were as white as pearls. Ask the pupils: “What are the seeds compared to in the sentences above? What quality do the seeds and pearls have in common?” Tell the pupils to take note that seeds and pearls are unlike objects, but have a common quality. Have them also take note that the comparison is done through the use of like (in the first sentence) or as-as (in the second sentence). Remind the pupils that such comparison is called a simile and that a simile is one kind of figure of speech. It makes the reader see things in a new way. For instance, in the two examples given, the reader thinks of the similarity between the seeds and pearls which are both white and tiny. When a simile is used too often, it becomes a cliché. Ask the pupils about the two comparisons below. Have them tell what do the two unlike objects have in common? The warm car was like a cocoon that protected us from the cold. The Search, Roberta Simon

Point out that a warm car and a cocoon provides protection. The light from the flashlight was like a hunting dog with a yellow eye. Flashlight, Judith Thurman

Point out that the light from a flashlight and a hunting dog’s yellow eye both shine in the dark. Point out to the pupils that there are many other figures of speech, some of them are the following: 1. Metaphor – compares indirectly two unlike objects. The comparison is merely suggested or implied without the use of like and as-as.

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Examples: The warrior has arms of steel. Her stepmother has a heart of stone. 2. Personification – gives human qualities to an animal or thing. Examples: The moon walks in the night. April came, dressed in green. 3. Hyperbole – exaggerates or overstates an idea for emphasis. It should not be taken in its literal meaning. Examples: I could eat a horse. My blood boils. Ask the pupils what a figure of speech is. What are some common figures of speech? Emphasize that a figure of speech is a word or phrase meant to be used in an imaginative rather than in a literal way. The common figures of speech include simile, metaphor, personification, and hyperbole. Have the pupils work on Exercises A-G on pages 303-306. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. N 3. S 5. S 7. S 9. S 2. S 4. N 6. S 8. S 10. N Exercise B The pupils’ answers to this exercise will vary. Some possible answers are: 1. cotton 5. ice 2. cups 6. worm 3. an eel 7. a snake 4. a mother’s caress 8. a person’s arm/a man’s arm Exercise C 1. personification 2. hyperbole 3. metaphor 4. simile

5. 6. 7. 8.

personification 9. personification 10. simile 11. hyperbole 12.

personification simile simile metaphor

Exercise D Answers will vary. Point out that in this exercise, they will have to give attributes, emotions, or actions to an object. For example: The stars shining in the sky whispering sweet nothings to the moon. Exercise E Answers will vary. Exercise F Answers will vary. Give examples such as: The weather was so cold that I could hear the chattering of the trees’ teeth. Exercise G Answers will vary. Give examples such as: The child’s cry was as loud as a carabao’s bellow. Have the pupils write a short paragraph using some of the figures of speech they created. B. Evaluating a Literary Piece, pages 307-308 Have the pupils think once more about the selection The Discontented Pendulum. Ask them if they liked the story and why. Tell the pupils that sometimes, we like a piece of literature so much that we want to read it again and again. Other times, what we read tend to disappoint us. Explain to them that when we determine whether or not we like a piece of literature, we are evaluating it or making a judgment on it. We can make a good evaluation by examining the details and elements of the piece of literature and by determining how well these details and elements work together. Explain to them that specifically, they do the following: 1. Find out how well the details and elements work together as a whole. • Decide on the author’s purpose Is it to entertain, to instruct, to convince, to inform, or to criticize? • Decide if the details and elements work together to achieve the author’s purpose.

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For short stories, ask these questions: • Do the characters fit the setting? • Are the characters realistic? • Would real people act and speak that way? • Are the details of the setting accurate? • Is the plot believable? For poems, ask these questions: • Do the sounds and elements work together to give a theme? • Do the images or comparisons in the poem make sense? • Are the sound and rhythm used well? 2. Decide how important or significant the purpose is. Point out that the purpose of a piece of literature is important or significant when it does the following: a. seek not merely to entertain the readers but to bring them fresh or important insights into human nature. b. gives the readers a deeper understanding of life, of their fellow humans, and of themselves; and c. engages all the senses of the readers in their response, their imagination, emotion, and intellect. Have the pupils remember that a fact is something that has been proven to be true while an opinion is a belief based on something that has yet to be proven true. 3. State Your Evaluation Have the pupils make specific statements and support them with facts. For example, The Discontented Pendulum is entertaining and instructive. The characters are realistic because many people behave the way the parts of the clock did, especially the pendulum. The author achieves the purpose of entertaining by making clock parts behave like people. At the same time, the author teaches an important lesson not only

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about cooperation but also about the need to be appreciated as in the case of the pendulum which needed to be convinced of its importance. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 308. The expected answers are: 1. to convince

4. to inform

2. to instruct

5. to criticize

3. to entertain C. Skimming and Note-taking, page 309-314 Tell the pupils that in the previous lessons, they learned to do some research. They can make their research work easier if they do a type of fast reading called skimming. Explain to the pupils that in reading, skimming is letting the eyes glide quickly over a printed page to get the ideas from it. The reader reads, not word for word, but by phrase or ideas. It is important therefore, to note keywords and phrases when one skims and pays close attention to headings, subheadings, and beginning sentences of paragraphs. Explain also that skimming helps one read with greater speed and understanding. Skimming is fast reading by noting only keywords and phrases, not every word in the sentence. Have the pupils do the exercise on pages 309-310. Have the pupils skim the paragraph in 30 seconds and finish answering the 5 questions in 30 seconds. The expected answers are: 1. Seana’s characteristics: a. Always kept her room neat and tidy b. She did her homework on time. c. She did mind helping around the house. d. She liked to plan every minute of the day. 2. Tyra’s characteristics a. Tyra’s bed was piled so high with clothes, books, and other possessions.


Linking Reading with Writing

b. She didn’t mind doing her homework. c. Her papers were usually smudged and often left out answers to her homework because she was in a hurry. d. Tyra didn’t like chores. Note-taking Tell the pupils that as they read, they will come upon main ideas and important facts. Have them write these down in a notebook which they have set aside for that purpose. Tell the pupils to use their own words. They can also use abbreviations and symbols. The pupils may also use words/letters which they themselves can understand and decipher later. Have them write their notes clearly. Examples of some codes are: for you – 4u at – @ with – w/ care of – c/o which – w/c Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 311. Have the pupils read the news items and have them pick out the keywords and phrases. Call on volunteers to read the keywords and phrases they have chosen. Have the pupils close their books and listen while you read the next paragraph aloud. Have them take down notes about such details as the what, who, where, when, why, and how in the selection. Then, have the pupils complete the information asked at the end of each paragraph on pages 311-314.

Writing a Legend, page 315 A. Preparation In this section, use the genre-process approach in teaching composition writing. Have the pupils recall the story Why the Owl Behaves the Way It Does. The story is called a legend. A legend is an imaginary story about the beginning of things. Point out to the pupils that they, too, can write a legend. 1. Think of an object or a place that the class would like to write about. It can be a town, a mountain, a brook or a river, a fruit or an animal. 2. Ask yourself what features make this place or object different from others. For example, you may explain why the mango has a pleasant flavor or why roses have soft and fragrant petals but thorny stems; why the pineapple has many eyes; why the atis has many seeds; how a town, a mountain, or a river got its name or how it started; why the peacock has a multi-colored tail; and why the parrot can talk but other birds cannot. 3. Think of a possible story to explain the phenomenon. Make your story believable. 4. Jot down notes to remind you of what you want to write about. Have the pupils write a story on the space provided below. Have them follow the writing process that they learned in their earlier lessons. B. Modeling and Reinforcing Have the pupils read again the story Why the Owl Behaves the Way It Does on pages 259-263. You can also have the pupils read other legends in available sources. Call attention to the beginning and ending of each legend and the events that led to the final effect.

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C. Planning Tell the pupils that the class will write a legend for practice purposes. Have them read Pointers 1, 2, 3, and 4 on page 315 of their books. Write notes on the plot of the story. D. Joint Construction Jointly construct a legend with the class. Call on volunteers to contribute the sentences that will make up the story. Tell the pupils to read again Steps 2 and 3 on pages 226-227. Evaluate the class composition using the guide questions. Have the pupils copy the class composition. E. Independent Construction Tell the pupils that they will now write their own legends. Have them read again Pointers 1 to 5 on page 315 and Step 2 on page 226. Tell them to carry out the instructions. F. Revising Have the pupils read Steps 3, 4, and 5 on page 227. Tell them to carry out the instructions.

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Unit Test Answer Key: Exercise A Identifying Words with the Same Spelling but Different Meanings 1. a b 5. b a 2. b a 6. a b 3. b a 7. b a 4. b a 8. b a Exercise B Identifying the Use of Appositive, Simile, and Metaphor 9. simile 14. appositive 10. appositive 15. appositive 11. metaphor 16. simile 12. simile 17. simile 13. metaphor 18. appositive Exercise C Identifying Meanings Through Context Clues 19. a 23. c 20. c 24. a 21. b 25. b 22. b


VIBAL Publishing House, Inc. Feedback Form for Evaluating Textbooks and Teacher’s Manuals Name of Respondent: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Designation: ____________________________________________________________________

Subject Area: _______________________________________________

School: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ School Address: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Contact Nos/E-mail Address: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Textbook Title: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Year/Grade Level: ________________________________________________________________

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Part I General Impressions Please rate the following items by encircling the number of your answer to the question using the following criteria: 1 – hardly; 2 – moderate; 3 – adequate; 4 – very adequate; 5 – outstanding. Encircle the number that corresponds to your answer.

1. Objectives as stated in the Textbook, Teacher’s Manual or both 1.1

Do the objectives reflect national development goals and priorities?

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Do they conform to the DepEd and the School’s mission and thrust?

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1.3

Are they clearly stated for the learners’ comprehension?

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Do they cover the basic requirements as given in the Minimum Learning Competencies (MLC) of the course?

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Are they realistic and attainable by the target learners?

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Can they be verified by a system of evaluation to indicate levels of achievement?

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2. Content 2.1

Do the content cover the subject matter requirements for the year level as listed in the MLC?

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Are there enough materials for a year’s activities?

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Are the materials within the comprehension level of the learners?

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Are the materials interesting to the learners?

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Are there enough activities and exercises to achieve the objectives of the course?

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Is there a need for supplementary materials for this purpose?

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Is the vocabulary load used within the comprehension of the target learners?

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2.8

Are the facts and information presented correct, accurate and up-to-date?

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Are the concepts presented logically and in proper sequence?

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2.10 Are the illustrations relevant to the lesson/topic?

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2.11 Are the illustrations effective in making lessons interesting? Are they within the interest level of learners?

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3. Values Orientation 3.1

Do the materials provide adequate integration of values to the subject matter?

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Does the content reflect Philippine values as they exist in Philippine setting?

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Were the values presented in the DepEd values framework considered in the learning activities?

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Do the materials promote nationalism and Filipinism?

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Do the materials include those that promote a one-world view?

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Do the materials avoid prejudices and biases like sexism, stereotyping, religious and racial/ethnic discrimination, political propaganda?

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Do the materials promote and promulgate the ecological campaign of the government?

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4. Study Helps 4.1

Does the book provide a glossary of difficult terms to help the learners to comprehend the content better?

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Are there varied levels of exercises to help learners of different ability levels?

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Do evaluation exercises help the learners evaluate their own performance?

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Are the illustrative materials appropriate and helpful to the learners for understanding the concepts?

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5. Presentation 5.1

Is the layout suitable to the learners’ age?

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Does the layout make the materials attractive and interesting to the learners?

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Does the layout help in making the presentation of the materials clear to the learners?

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Are the letter/font sizes appropriate to the age of the target learners?

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Is the size of the book suitable for the target learners?

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Is the book durable enough for handling by the learners?

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Suggestions:

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Part II Specific Comments For specific implementation of your comment, please indicate the lesson and the pages on which your answers to the following questions are based.

1. On the textbook 1.1

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1.7

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Which lesson objectives were not achieved by the materials? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Based on your experience in using this textbook, which lessons or activities did the learners find relevant and interesting? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which lessons or activities did the learners find uninteresting? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which lessons or activities were difficult for the learners and needed a great deal of help and explanation from you? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which lessons had very difficult language structures for the learners? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which activities, exercises, illustrations were most useful for the learners? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which activities, exercises, illustrations were irrelevant? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which lessons need to be simplified? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

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1.9

Which lessons need enrichment? Lesson _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Pages ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Suggestions:

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. On the Teacher’s Manual (TM) 2.1

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Which sections of the TM’s were most useful to you? Section Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Which sections were not useful? Section Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ What background materials and information helped you most in teaching the content of the textbooks? Section Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

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