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USU Moab Permaculture Garden Jeremy Lynch & Roslynn Brain

SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)


Introduction to Site USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Welcome to USU Moab’s Permaculture Garden, a project of the Utah State University Permaculture Initiative through USU Extension Sustainability.

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In addition to providing a beautiful aesthetic to the university campus, the gardens embody innovative practices in resource and land management, including: on-site rainwater harvesting, efficient drip systems, design for stormwater management, edible plantings, pollinator habitat, and multi-use seasonal harvest. Though unique, the systems at work are simple to manage. This manual provides basic information and guidance to assist both newcomers and experienced gardeners in adapting their techniques to the needs of this landscape. The gardens serve as a “living classroom” for the university and offer gardeners and visitors the opportunity to learn about regenerative landscape design. Native and adapted plants are blended, demonstrating both wild/natural and cultivated ecosystems. The site benefits most from an adaptable management style which incorporates seasonal observations and annual changes — as well as long-term visioning — into its overall plan. Importantly, the garden does not use any chemical inputs. This means no herbicide, insecticide, pesticide or any other sprays or applications that would damage intact ecosystems of plants and animals. As you will see, these techniques are not necessary, and alternative methods are used to manage disease, pests, and common disturbances in the space.


Table of Contents USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Glossary....................................................................................4 Map of Permaculture Gardens..................................................5 Aerial View w/ Key.............................................................5 Gardens by Area...............................................................5 Overview of the Seasons............................................................6 Table of Seasonal Duties...........................................................7 Management and Maintenance.................................................8 Garden ..............................................................................8 Maintaining Earthworks...........................................8 Maintaining Soil Health............................................8 Manual Watering......................................................9 Managing Weeds and Invasive Plants....................9 Managing Pests.....................................................10 Managing Disease.................................................10 Fruit Tree Pruning..................................................11 Chop and Drop.....................................................11 Seed Harvest.........................................................11 Garden infrastructure......................................................12 Drip Irrigation.........................................................12 Gutter and Downspouts.........................................12 Cistern Array..........................................................13 Spring Activation....................................................14 Winterization..........................................................14 Inspection..............................................................14 Community Resources.............................................................15 Garden Resources..........................................................15 Community Groups..........................................................16

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Glossary of Relevant Terms

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Relevant terminology covering specific features and operations of the USU Permaculture Gardens.

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Armoring The use of rock to protect exposed soils against erosion at an inflow or outflow point.

Inflow The entry point of a water source into a garden or landscape.

Basin A depression or low point (often bowl-shaped) in the landscape designed to collect and infiltrate water.

Outflow/Overflow The exit point of water out of a garden or landscape.

Berm A mound or high point in the landscape designed to retain or direct the flow of water across a landscape. Chop and Drop The process by which woody and herbaceous plants and grasses are cut back and the removed material is spread as a surface mulch throughout the garden. Cistern A tank used for temporarily storing rainwater for later use in irrigation. Conveyance Swale A depression in a landscape through which water is conveyed as in a stream bed, wash, or arroyo. Conveyance swales are often armored with river rock to protect against erosion. Earthwork Any topographic variation in the landscape designed to contain or convey water. Examples include: basins, berms, and swales. Earthworks (such as conveyance swales) do not perpetually hold water, like ponds, but instead slow, spread, and sink water resources into the surrounding soil where nearby plants can access it.

Permaculture An integrative design process that mimics the diversity, functionality, and resilience of natural ecosystems. Rainhead A debris diverter that is mounted on a downspout, preventing unwanted materials from entering into a cistern. Rain Garden A garden or landscape designed to harvest all of its irrigation needs from rainwater, stormwater, and secondary use water, or a combination of these. Water Harvesting The intentional management and on-site application of rainwater, stormwater, and secondary-use water in a garden or landscape.


Permaculture Gardens by Area

South Rain Garden

Island Garden I

Island Garden II

Canyon Garden

Desert Garden

Located North of USU Building B; L-shaped

Located South of USU Building B

Located in Parking Lot between USU Build- Located along North, East, and South ings A & B; South of Island Garden I perimeter of USU Building B

Located in Parking Lot between USU Buildings A & B; North of Island Garden II

Located along East perimeter of USU Building A

Key to Garden Map (a) North Rain Garden (b) South Rain Garden (c) Island Garden 1 (d) Island Garden 2 (e1) Canyon Garden North

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

North Rain Garden

(e2) Canyon Garden East (e3) Canyon Garden South (f)

Desert Garden

(g) Cistern Array (h) Emergency Municipal Water Shut Off (i)

Municipal Water Spigot

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Overview of the Seasons An overview of Seasonal Duties, Tasks, and Emphases. See the Management by Tasks section for details and instructions.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Winter (December - February)

The winter months are a season of dormancy in the rain garden. All active systems have been winterized, including the cistern array and drip irrigation. Passive systems (earthworks) remain active as occasional rain, snow, and frostmelt feeds moisture directly and via runoff from roofs into the swales, ensuring year-round hydrological activity and water storage in the soil. Prune fruit trees and other woody vegetation as needed to maintain health, vigor, and shape.

Spring (March – May)

As temperatures rise, seedlings emerge. Spring – along with autumn – are the busiest months in the garden as climatic conditions (temperature and moisture) tend toward moderate consistency - ideal conditions for plant growth. Municipal irrigation water is turned back on (April) and the cistern array is reassembled (timing determined by year, once the risk of a hard frost has passed) to harvest spring rains. Walk each irrigation line to check for leaks and adjust emitter locations to match plant growth (at edge of canopy/drip line or slightly further out). Trees are repainted with a lime/water paint to protect from sun rot, and all plants are monitored for pest or disease presence. The weeding of elm, invasive grasses, and bindweed are a regular task by mid-spring. Generally speaking, the rain gardens remain fully reliant on rainwater through spring.

Summer (June – August)

As the heart of the dry season arrives, supplemental watering may be required. In the hottest, driest months, it is important to reg-

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ularly monitor soil moisture and provide this supplemental irrigation as needed, taking particular note of high-water-use plants such as fruit trees (north and south rain garden), grapevines (pergola), and figs (north edge of the south rain garden). Monitor moisture by feeling approximately six inches into the soil below the mulch. In determining how much supplemental water to give, view Wildland Scapes’ irrigation tables. Manual watering is currently performed by connecting a hose to the cistern array or, if cistern water is not available, using a hose connected to a municipal water stub-out located on a mature tree island in the parking lot between buildings. If a pump-powered drip system is connected to the cistern array, manual watering will be minimized further. Weeding continues through the summer, particularly of bindweed. Contact community groups on the last page of this manual for harvest of fruits, herbs, and flowers. Autumn (September – November)

Activity and growth in the garden increases again in the autumn as flowering and fruiting plants begin to develop end-of-year seedheads. The harvest (of seed, fruit, herbs, etc.) is a focus of mid- to late-autumn. In harvest, select plants are chopped and dropped, increasing surface mulch while clearing the way for the next season’s growth. Share resources (seed and fruit harvest) with the community by contacting community groups listed at the end of this document (do the same with any harvest reaped in spring and summer). Toward the end of October, the cistern array is winterized and municipal irrigation water is turned off.


Table of Seasonal Duties

SUMMER

AUTUMN

WINTER

ONGOING

• Provide supplemental irrigation from cisterns or municipal spigot • Reapply lime wash as needed • Notify community members of peach, plum, other fruits, herbs, and flowers to harvest

• Chop and drop herbaceous perennial plants • Notify community members of seed, Jujube, Asian pear, fig, golden currant and service berry harvest. • Winterize cistern array

• Fruit tree pruning • Monitor gardens for pest damage (deer)

• Weeding • Monitor garden infrastructure for proper functioning (cistern array, downspout and gutters, dripline) • Adjust dripline irrigation frequency to supplement rainfall • Manage pests and disease without chemical application • Guide grapevine growth over pergola • Invite community members to harvest herbs and medicinal plants

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

SPRING

• Reapply surface mulch • Uncover buried plants • Reapply lime wash to fruit tree trunks • Clear conveyance swales and rocked basins of excess organic matter and litter • Activate cistern array • Notify community members of cherry and apricot harvest

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Garden Management and Maintenance The following headings outline Permaculture Garden Tasks.

The colored icons indicate a task as: Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn or Ongoing.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Chapters are divided into two parts: Garden and Garden Infrastructure.

Garden 1. Maintaining Earthworks

(1) Rock-lined Conveyance Swales in North and South Rain Gardens (2) Rock Basins in Island Garden 1 and 2 What to Do: Monitor integrity of earthworks periodically and after major rain events. Inspect for: Erosion Build-up of organic matter (leaves, etc.) between rocks Trash Why: Large rain events have the potential to cause soil erosion. An excess of decaying organic matter or windswept trash may interfere with water conveyance.

2. Maintaining Soil Health

Mulched Surfaces in North and South Rain Gardens, Island Gardens 1 and 2, Canyon Garden and Desert Garden What to Do: Maintain 2�- 4� layer of woody mulch on soil surface Duties: Refresh surface mulch as needed. Plant growth and chop and drop will eventually replace the need for imported mulch. Has required 10 cubic yards, but amount will decrease as plants mature. Why: Maintains aesthetics and ensures soil moisture retention capacity in soil. Over time, leaf drop by deciduous plants and chop and drop create a rich surface soil mimicking a forest floor.

Fertilization What to Do: Identify plants with nutrient deficiencies. (Common characteristics include yellowing leaves or stunted growth. Example: Nanking cherry shrubs benefit from high nutrient content in soil) How: Apply manufactured nutrients such as Happy Frog or locally sourced, weedfree vermicompost or composted animal manures to soil near root base of selected plants. Apply beneath surface mulch at edge of plant canopy to maximize nutrient intake by active feeder roots. Monitor for changes to plant health.

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3. Manual Watering

Island Garden I and II; occasionally North and South Rain Gardens Why: In extended drought periods, the Island Gardens may require supplemental irrigation using cistern water or the municipal water spigot located in the parking lot tree island. This same hose and spigot may serve as a backup for manual watering in the North and South Rain Gardens in the event that the cisterns are empty and therefore cannot be used for supplemental irrigation [see Cistern Array below].

When: Monitor soil moisture by feeling up to 6 inches into the soil, inspect vegetation, and track weather patterns to determine need. Emphasize summer months and drought periods.

4. Managing Weeds and Invasive Plants

All mulched and rocked surface area in ALL gardens What to Do: Weed and remove all undesirable plants [see below] from gardens.

Why: A weed is any plant considered undesirable in the context of the garden. Emphasis here must be placed on thoughtful identification and consideration of the utility and role of a plant within the garden — even when that plant has not previously been found in the garden. The USU Moab Permaculture Gardens are designed to increase in plant density every year through the natural spreading of existing native plants. Of course, natural wind patterns also encourage the presence of plants considered undesirable. While weeding should remain a thoughtful, thorough, and site-specific process, there are a few plants whose presence is detrimental to neighboring plants and should be removed. Dispose in the dumpster any weeds that have gone to seed, or are likely to regrow if left in the garden once pulled. Undesirable Plants

Bindweed (morning glory) Convolvulus Tip: Remove before flowers emerge. Pull complete root.

Siberian Elm - Ulmus pumila Tip: Allow competition at first. Remove before plants are more than 1.5” tall. Pull complete root.

Spotted Spurge Euphorbia maculata Tip: Remove at first sign.

Myrtle Spurge Euphorbia myrsinites Tip: Remove at first sign. Pull snaking roots.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

What to Do: Attach 125’ length of hose to municipal water spigot or fill buckets with cistern water. Fill rock-lined basins in Island Gardens (or Conveyance Swales in North and South Rain Gardens) until full. Turn off hose BEFORE water overflows.

Ravenna Grass Saccharum ravennae Tip: Remove at first sign. Remove full root ball. Resembles native grass when young. Grows quickly; develops bamboo-like stalk. Remove before seedhead develops.

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5. Managing Pests

To date, the following two pests have been most prominent: (1) Aphids Where: Habitat includes low shrubs (particularly Golden Currants) and fruit trees.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Why: Aphid colonies have, in past years, established via the activity of ants. Ants ‘farm’ aphids, carrying and protecting the aphids to desired plants and then feeding on the aphids excrement. What to Look for: Leaf curl. White, sticky residue on the underside of leaves.

What To Do: Thus far, the most effective deterrent to colony establishment has been the use of Tanglefoot Tree Insect Barrier. This sticky trap prevents ants from traveling up and down the trunk of a tree, thus preventing the establishment of healthy, protected aphid colonies. While effective for trees, this method proves more difficult on smaller, multi-stemmed shrubs. In these cases, an organic spray incorporating soap, tea tree oil, garlic, and water is recommended. These elements coat the plants’ surface and make it difficult for insect mobility. (2) Deer Where: Deer presence has been infrequent.

Why: If deer enter the garden, they tend to browse on young trees and shrubs to the point of decimating new growth. What to Look for: Stripping of bark (often in patches) and broken or absent branches. What to Do: While multiple options are available, the use of wire cages has proven most effective through the early life of the garden. How: Install 2-3 t-posts 4” beyond the canopy of the tree. Wrap wire caging in a cylinder around the tree using the posts as attachment points.

6. Managing Disease

To date, the following one disease has been most common: Sun Scald Where: On the trunks of fruit trees.

Why: Direct effect of strong desert sun.

What to Look for: Broken, curling bark; thick, sap-like ooze at junctures between branches. What to Do: Regularly paint all fruit tree trunks with limewash, a powdered lime and water admixture. Combine: ½ gallon of Type S powdered lime with 4 gallons of water and stir. Adjust quantities to achieve a paint-like slurry. Apply with a paintbrush. Store leftover limewash in a bucket covered with plastic to maintain hydration of the mix. Keep in a cool, shaded location.

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7. Fruit Tree and Shrub Pruning

Aphids on golden currants

Prune as needed to maintain health, vigor, and shape. Why: To focus energy on fruit production, canopy form, and non-obstructive growth patterns. When: Dormant months of January/February.

8. Chop and Drop

Aphid leaf curl

An end-of-season task that encourages healthy soil and robust regrowth Where: Identify herbaceous perennial plants and select grasses in ALL mulched gardens. Why: Increases soil moisture retention, maintains plant health and vigor, and provides a direct source of nutrients in the decaying plant material.

Deer browsing fruit tree

What to Do: As plants die back to the ground in late fall, dry stalks, vines, and seedheads are chopped down to the ground and mixed in with surface mulch throughout the garden. Note, dead flowers can be cut back throughout the growing season to encourage continual blooms. Example Plants: Blanket Flower, Echinacea, Sunflower, Blue Flax, and many more. When: As plants dry out fully between late October and mid-December.

9. Seed Harvest

Sun scald

Sun rot ooze

In addition to edible (fruit, berry, herb) harvest, a vast catalog of native and adapted seeds are harvested every summer and autumn. Where: Throughout all mulched surface gardens. Why: Seed saving provides extensive available stock of native seeds to contribute to additional community gardens. What to Do: Contact community groups [see below] with invitation to harvest. When: As plants produce seed throughout summer and autumn.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

What to Do: Direct branch growth to encourage interconnection of tree canopies into maturity.

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GARDEN INFRASTRUCTURE Dripline and emitter

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

1. Drip Irrigation

Gutter downspout rainhead

Cistern overflow fitting

Currently, a dripline irrigation system waters the Canyon Garden and Desert Garden. It is a simple drip irrigation system run on a timer. The controls to the timer are located in the utility closet in Building B. The emergency water shut off is located exterior to the northwestern corner of Building B. The water key is located in the utility closet. Settings: Adjust settings to seasonal water use (see irrigation charts at Wildland Scapes). On average, the system has run for 1.5 hours twice weekly.

What to Do:

(1) Have irrigation water turned on in spring (April). (2) Regularly Inspect the dripline for breaks or loose emitters; repair as needed.

Community Resource: Jim Davis Tree and Landscaping Company built the original irrigation system and can be called with questions as well as to turn on/shut off municipal water seasonally.

Purple valve box north

2. Gutter and Downspouts

(1) Gutter and (7) Downspouts on Walker Lumberyard Building (2) Roof Area, (2) Internal Downspouts and (2) Outlets off of USU Building B Why: The gutters and downspouts on USU Building B and on the Walker Lumberyard Building integrate with the North and South Rain Gardens. Water from these roofs flows directly into the rocklined conveyance swales as well as the cistern array.

What to Do: Inspect all gutters, pipes, roof areas and outlets for blockages. Rim raingutters installed the original gutters and could be contacted if any infrastructure issues arise.

Valve

Isolation valve box

When: Following autumn leaf drop and periodically through the season.

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3. Cistern Array

What to Do: Seasonal winterization and activation and inspection for leaks and breaks.

Site Layout: Cistern 1 is the northernmost cistern. Cistern 6 is the southernmost cistern. System Components: Each pair of cisterns [a] is connected by a pipe arm [b] to a rainhead [c] attached to a downspout [d] leading up to a gutter [e]. [See image below] When functioning, the tanks are connected to the relevant downspout by 3” pipe arms. The pipe arms are connected by flexible, removable Fernco Couplers [f]. (A flathead screwdriver, knife tip, or dime coin is required to loosen the couplers). North of the northernmost cistern (set in the rock bed) and south of the southernmost cistern (on the edge of the South Rain Garden’s rock pool) are located two purple valve boxes. Each box contains a valve allowing for gravity-fed draining into the gardens. Each also contains a hose attachment to allow for manual watering of trees and other high-water-use plants.

In addition to (two) purple valve boxes located north and south of the array, there are (two) isolation valve boxes located between the sets of cisterns. These valves allow for isolation of one or more pairs of cisterns in the event of leaks requiring repair. The cisterns are connected by an equalizing pipe (part flex, part 1” PVC) buried just a few inches beneath the rock bed. The equalizing pipe has been insulated at each connection point to prevent frost damage. In the winter, the pipe arms are replaced with pipe arm drains, stored in the storage shed. The pipe arms are also stored in the storage shed when not in use. Both the pipe arms and the pipe arm drains are labeled 1 through 6 as each is custom-fitted to a particular cistern in the array.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

The 6-Cistern Array is located in the alley between USU Building B and the Walker True Value Lumberyard. The six cisterns are designed to harvest up to 3,200 gallons of water direct from downspouts and gutters on the Walker Building. When filled, the cisterns overflow in the rocked drainage area running north to south. The cistern array is integral to the overall functioning of the Rain Gardens in that it provides rainwater as a resource during the dry summer months. Storing the spring rains, both manual hoses, and gravity-fed pipes attached to the cisterns convey water to drought-vulnerable trees in the North and South Rain Gardens. This is a key component of regenerative landscape design: Depending primarily on rainwater in the garden.

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Spring Activation

In the spring, the winter pipe arm drains must be switched out with the pipe arms to redirect water back into the tanks for the spring, summer and autumn months.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

What to Do: Remove all (six) pipe arm drains by first loosening couplers. Retrieve numbered pipe arms (6) from storage shed and affix to appropriate tanks. Store pipe arm drains in storage shed.

Winterization

In late autumn, the pipe arms must be switched out with the pipe arm drains to ensure water does not enter the tanks in the winter months. What to Do: Proceed to follow the reverse of spring activation. When the pipe arms have been switched out, the tanks may be drained manually at the (two) purple valve boxes noted above.

Maintenance

The following tasks outline periodic maintenance checks. What to Do:

(1) Inspect rainheads and cistern screens to prevent build-up of organic matter and subsequent blockage. This includes an internal and an external screen on each rainhead.

(2) Inspect all fittings for leaks. This includes overflow pipes (6), connections between tank within a set (6), and connections between tank sets (6).

(3) The (two) isolation valve boxes located between the sets of cisterns may be used to isolate one or more pairs of cisterns in the event of leaks requiring repair.

When: Regularly inspect the cisterns and attending assemblage. Twice monthly is recommended.

Set to set pipe fitting

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USU Moab Garden Questions USU Extension Sustainability Roslynn Brain (435) 797-5116 History and use of garden.

USU Moab Subcontractors and Suppliers To-Date Real Earth Design Jason Gerhardt, (720) 496-9744

Garden design, plant function, and plant identification.

Jim Davis Landscape & Tree Company Jim Davis, (435) 260-0270 Irrigation system needs and queries.

Rim Raingutters Mike Bridges, (435) 259-3972

All raingutter and downspout needs (repairs, additions, etc.).

Triassic Industries Johnny or Justin, (435) 259-4912

In-Transition Permaculture, Jeremy Lynch, (631) 335-9801

Water harvesting infrastructure (including earthworks and cistern array) and any other query.

Wildland Scapes Kara Dohrenwend, (435) 259-0820

Questions/concerns regarding native plant care.

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

COMMUNITY RESOURCES

Walker True Value (435) 259-8258

Material and Tool needs, as well as assistance clearing lumber yard roof gutter.

Mulch orders.

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Community Groups to Notify Seasonally for Fruit and Seed Harvests (1) Resiliency Hub resiliencyhub@gmail.com

(4) Moab Gardening Club moabgardener@yahoo.com

(2) Youth Garden Project info@youthgardenproject.org

(5) Native Plant Society dianeackerman13@yahoo.com

(3) Bee Inspired Gardens roslynn.brain@usu.edu

(6) Moab Foodies moabfoodies@googlegroups.org

USU MOAB PERMACULTURE GARDEN SITE OPERATION MANUAL (SOM)

Local regenerative education nonprofit

Local consortium of farmers and home gardeners

Utah-based native plant enthusiasts

Local youth education nonprofit

Local food-centric listserv

Multipartner pollinator initiative

PHOTO CREDITS Gardens Before and After (Cover) – Ros Brain, USU Extension

Gardens Time Lapse (pg. 15) – Ros Brain, USU Extension

Aphids on Golden Currant (pg. 11)

- http://myosotis-horticulture.blogspot. com/2013_10_01_archive.html

Aphid leaf curl (pg. 11)

- http://www.aspenarbo.com/blog/ashcurl-leaf-aphids/2016/05/23/

Deer browsing young fruit tree (pg. 11)

- http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/diagnose/plant/deciduous/oak/ brancheschewed.html

Sun scald (pg. 11)

- https://permies.com/t/47427/dyingfruit-trees

Sun rot ooze (pg. 11)

- https://www.starkbros.com/growing-guide/article/fruit-tree-care-organic-disease-control

Flowering bindweed (pg. 9)

- http://digrightin.com/blog/whats-thestory-wild-morning-glory

Myrtle Spurge (pg. 9)

- http://worldofsucculents.com/euphorbia-myrsinites-myrtle-spurge-donkey-tail/

Ravenna Grass (pg. 9)

- http://forums.gardenweb.com/discussions/2128211/ravenna-grass-akahardy-pampas-grass

Siberian Elm Sprout (pg. 9)

Spotted Spurge (pg. 9)

- https://extension.umass.edu/landscape/weeds/euphorbia-maculata

Young bindweed

- http://www.happysimpleliving. com/2013/06/22/7-ways-to-politelydiscourage-bindweed-in-your-garden/ ory

Rainhead Detail (pg. 14) (edited by Jeremy Lynch) - http://picclick. co.uk/Rain-Harvesting-100mm-ADVANCED-RAIN-HEAD-LEAF-EATER-262712088140.html

All Other Photo Credits:

Jeremy Lynch, In-Transition Permaculture

- http://blog.growingwithscience. com/2011/03/seed-of-the-week-chinese-elm/

Utah State University is committed to providing an environment free from harassment and other forms of illegal discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age (40 and older), disability, and veteran’s status. USU’s policy also prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in employment and academic related practices and decisions. Utah State University employees and students cannot, because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or veteran’s status, refuse to hire; discharge; promote; demote; terminate; discriminate in compensation; or discriminate regarding terms, privileges, or conditions of employment, against any person otherwise qualified. Employees and students also cannot discriminate in the classroom, residence halls, or in on/off campus, USU-sponsored events and activities. This publication is issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Depart-

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ment of Agriculture, Kenneth L. White, Vice President for Extension and Agriculture, Utah State University.

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