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March • April 2015

The official publication of the U.S. Canola Association and Northern Canola Growers Association

MARCH MADNESS Gaming Out Odds on Disease

Commodity Market Outlook • Busting Canola Myths • Agronomic Research Roundup


MARCH • APRIL 2015 VOL. 10, NO. 2

WWW.USCANOLA.COM EXECUTIVE EDITOR Angela Dansby angela@uscanola.com

features

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MANAGING EDITOR Alison Neumer Lara alison@uscanola.com

Bust a Myth Addressing Consumer Concerns about Canola Oil

ASSISTANT EDITOR Molly Collins molly@inkovation.biz CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Barry Coleman, Jon Dockter, Bryan Hanson, Janet Knodel, Mike Krueger, Lesley Lubenow, Sam Markell, Luis Del Rio Mendoza, Beth Nelson, Lauren Port, Ron Sholar, Madeleine Smith, Karen Sowers, Dale Thorenson, Frank Young

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Canola Production Trends: Planting Dates, Seeding Rates and Other Observations

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Got Game? Know Pest Teams to Beat on “Field” Court

PUBLISHER Issues Ink 1395-A S. Columbia Road PMB 360 Grand Forks, ND 58201-9901 tel: 877.710.3222

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Flea Beetle Watch: Species to Scout in Northern Plains

OWNED BY U.S. Canola Association 600 Pennsylvania, SE, Suite 320 Washington, DC 20003 tel: 202.969.8113 • fax: 202.969.7036 www.uscanola.com Northern Canola Growers Association 2718 Gateway Ave, #301 Bismarck, ND 58503 tel: 701.223.4124 • fax: 701.223.4130 www.northerncanola.com

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Fooling Mother Nature Stripper Header Stubble Improves Winter Canola Production

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REGIONAL AFFILIATES Great Lakes Canola Association www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/canola

New Takes on Canola Photo Contest Entries Feature Fields Across America

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Commodity Markets Challenged by Strong U.S. Dollar and Supply

Great Plains Canola Association www.greatplainscanola.com Minnesota Canola Council www.mncanola.org

Demand and Consumption Grow Nonetheless

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Lights! Camera! Eat! Agricultural Documentaries Provide Food for Thought U.S. Canola Digest is published four times a year in January/February, March/April, September/October and November/December by the U.S. Canola Association (USCA) and Northern Canola Growers Association (NCGA). Subscription is complimentary to all USCA and NCGA members and other qualified members of the U.S. canola industry. Reproduction of contents is forbidden. Copyright 2015. Postmaster: Send address changes to Northern Canola Growers Association, 2718 Gateway Ave., #301, Bismarck, ND 58503 or email lcoleman@ndpci.com.

18 on the cover Meet the winner of this year’s photo contest taken by John Van Dam, Jr., in southern Colorado. He saw beauty in stormy clouds while doing a field inspection.

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Editors’ Letter USCA Update NCGA News GPCA News

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PNW News MCC News Quick Bytes Canola Cooks


editors’ letter

Farewell, U.S. Canola Digest WE’VE HAD A WONDERFUL JOURNEY bringing U.S. Canola Digest to your doorstep each year since its debut in January/February 2006. The need for this magazine followed increasing demand for and planting of canola in the United States. From 1989 (when the U.S. Canola Association was established) to today, canola planted acres have grown from virtually zero to 1.7 million. That’s a major accomplishment for a “minor” crop. We all have much to be proud of as an industry and each other to thank. With heavy hearts, we announce that this issue of U.S. Canola Digest is the last in print. Like other magazines, this one can no longer be sustained in the Internet age. But we are now exploring electronic ways to bring you canola news, so stay tuned! Meanwhile, savor this last print edition with articles on disease management, commodity markets, production trends, agronomy research and busting myths about canola oil. Also, congratulate our latest photo contest winners, including John Van Dam, Jr., whose first place shot is on the cover.

Disease Madness

The 2015 canola disease outlook gets a March Madness makeover. Find out who the top risk picks are and what you can do to guarantee a winning canola crop this season. Read about the odds on page 16.

Bug Out

Not all flea beetles are created or distributed equally as observed in the Northern Plains. Crucifer flea beetles are by far the dominant species, causing damage and yield loss to canola in North Dakota and Minnesota. But there are other species to scout for as well. Check out the “wanted posters” of these bad boys on page 18.

Commodity Outlook

Abundant supplies of commodity crops and a strong U.S. dollar will pose new challenges to U.S. and world producers in 2015-16, notes market analyst Mike Krueger of The Money Farm on page 24. The dollar is now trading at its highest levels against most other currencies in more than a decade. Unfortunately, that works against American agriculture because the U.S. is by far a net exporter, giving foreign farmers an edge in returns and export markets. Moreover, commodity prices have declined while input costs remain high, threatening to take a bite out of profit margins. Krueger notes that current crop budget worksheets project per acre losses for most, if not all, cropping choices. That said, U.S. canola acres are predicted to go up this year from 2014.

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Production Trends

Look at trends in canola production over the last 10 years, including flexible planting dates, sulfur management, blackleg control with broader rotations and resistant seed varieties, and monitoring for clubroot. Read how these trends turn into forecasts on page 14.

Agronomic Research

Held every three to four years, the 2014 National Canola Research Conference in Long Beach, Calif., again drew hundreds of canola growers, researchers and industry members to learn about the latest findings in agronomic and end use research. Two articles summarize topics of particular interest: 1) how stripper header stubble can improve canola production in the low-rainfall zone of the Pacific Northwest and 2) best seeding rates for maximizing yield in spring canola. Learn about these studies on pages 20 and 21. Pacific Northwest researchers are also looking at long-term cropping systems to see if crop rotations and residue management can provide an alternative to the common practice of burning wheat stubble in a continuous wheat system. Winter canola is a good fit in these rotations, as noted on page 27.

Myth-Busting

Consumers are growing more and more skeptical about the food they eat as Internet rumor mills circulate. This article clarifies common myths about canola oil, noting it’s very different from rapeseed oil, processed safely and a very heart-healthy choice. Also, plant biotechnology is simply explained as a concept to embrace, not fear. Turn to page 10 so you can better defend the crop you grow and love.

Visual Virtuosos

Our sixth annual “Lights, Camera, Canola!” photo contest brought in entries from across America. We even received submissions from an agricultural drone! See the winning photos and read what inspired them on page 23. The Oscars may have put you in a movie-watching mood, so we’re here to help. We’ve compiled 10 food-centric documentaries to watch until next Academy Award season. Get summaries of the films on page 31. Thank you for your readership over the past decade. Look for us online in the future and stay in touch at info@uscanola.com! With much canola love,

executive editor angela@uscanola.com

managing editor alison@uscanola.com

CORRECTION We wish to correct an error that appeared in the January/February 2015 issue of U.S. Canola Digest. In the article entitled “Research in Action: Nitrogen Use Studies Improving Fertilizer Recommendation,” researcher Bill Pan’s soil sampling depth was erroneously cited as 3-4 inches for spring canola and 4-6 inches for winter canola. Those depths were actually in feet, not inches.


usca update

Can Congress Work This Year? New Republican Majority Takes Capitol Hill DALE THORENSON

AT THE END OF February 2015, the 114th Congress had been in session for less than two months. Republicans, now the majority in the Senate, control both chambers of Congress and are eager to show they can govern. The first legislation they tackled was the bill to approve construction of the Keystone XL pipeline, as they felt enough Democratic Senators would accept it. The bill passed the Senate 62-36 on Jan. 30 and passed the House by a vote of 270152 on Feb. 11. However, President Obama promised to veto the XL pipeline legislation and since there isn’t a two-thirds margin in Congress to override the expected veto, this legislative exercise will not become law. Nonetheless, it did allow Republicans to deliver on their promise to return “regular order” to the Senate, where a much larger number of amendments were debated and voted upon during debate on the bill – a process rarely seen in recent years. If the process can continue, then perhaps there is a chance that the 12 appropriation subcommittees could actually get their bills reported out of committee, passed in their respective chambers, their differences conferenced and then the f ina l 12 conference reports passed and signed into law – all by the time the fiscal year ends on Sept. 30, 2015. That is what many members on both sides of the aisle in Congress would like to see. But “regular order” will need to ensue, otherwise, there simply isn’t enough time to get the bills finished.

Spending and Sequester Caps

T he f i r s t s t e p of t he F Y2 016 appropriations process took place when President Obama presented his FY2016 budget to Congress. The Administration’s budget calls for $75 billion of spending in excess of the sequester caps put in place

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by the Budget Control Act of 2011 when Congress and the President failed to agree on a long-term deal to reduce the federal deficit by a set amount. The spending is offset by proposed new capital gains and financial sector taxes of $320 billion over the next 10 years. While many in Congress would like the sequester to go away, there is little agreement on how to offset the increased spending, so the budget battles will begin anew in the coming months. The first issue to be tackled is the confrontation over funding the Department of Homeland Security for the remainder of FY2015. The temporary continuing resolution expired at the end of February and Republicans want to force President Obama to roll back his immigration policy enacted by executive action. However, legislation accomplishing this cannot overcome the required 60 votes to break a Democratic filibuster in the Senate. Failure to pass a bill may cause a shutdown of the Department – something that Republicans do not want to do. And it won’t bode well for the FY2016 process either. Also looming is another debate over raising the debt limit at some point later this year. Congress suspended the debt ceiling last year until March 15, 2015. However, the debt limit will be breached the next day, prompting the Treasury Department to begin extraordinary measures to keep it under the new limit – activities that when coupled with tax revenues received in April, could delay a debt ceiling standoff for several months.

Trade and Agriculture

Beyond the budget and appropriations, Congress is being asked to pass Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), expired since 2007, so that negotiations of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement

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can be finished. TPA gives the President authority to negotiate trade deals and bring them to Congress for ratification by an up or down vote without amendment. Without TPA, Congress could amend a negotiated agreement, meaning that no country will ever finalize an agreement with the United States if it is likely to be amended by Congress. So for the TPP to become a reality, TPA must be put in place. Several reauthorization bills are also on tap to be considered this year, including the Grain Standards Act, Commodity Futures Trading Commission and Child Nutrition. Congress is also expected to debate a biotech food labeling bill that would pre-empt a patch-work of state mandatory labeling bills and put in place standards that food companies could use to voluntarily label a food as non-biotech. Also included in the legislation would be the requirement that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration review and issue a letter indicating no safety concerns about a new biotech trait before the U.S. Department of Agriculture could deregulate it. Will Congress be able to overcome the partisan rancor and work this year? Only time will tell. But if it can, as indicated above, there will be plenty of items to keep members busy. DA L E T H O R E N S O N I S A S S I S TA N T D I R EC TO R O F T H E U. S . C A N O L A ASSOCIATION IN WASHINGTON, D.C.


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regional news

North Dakota Increases Canola Production NCGA Plans Summer Tours BARRY COLEMAN

U. S. C ANOL A PRODUC TION i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n 2 014 compared to 2013, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) January 2015 annual production report. Production in 2014 was 2.51 billion pounds, up 14 percent from 2013. Yield was at 1,614 pounds per acre, compared to 1,748 the prior year. Planted acres were 1.71 million, up from 1.35 million last year, and harvested acres were 1.56 million. North Dakota produced 2.14 billion pounds of canola in 2014, up 28 percent from last year, comprising 85 percent of total U.S. production. Planted area in the state was 30 percent more than last year. The planting conditions in spring 2014 were much more favorable than the prior year, allowing more canola to be planted. The USDA reported average canola yields for North Dakota of 1,800 pounds per acre – the second highest on record.

NCGA Annual Meeting

Nearly 300 people attended the 18th A n nu a l Nor t her n C a nol a Grower s

Association (NCGA) Canola Expo in Langdon in December. Jerry Gulke of The Gulke Group gave a keynote address on the state of world agricultural markets and outlook for oilseed production, supply and prices for the upcoming marketing year. Ron Beneda of North D a k ot a St at e Un i ve r sit y ( N DS U ) pre s e nt e d h i s f i nd i n g s on c a nol a production issues in 2014, highlighting incidence of black leg, clubroot a nd sclerotinia. Dan Orchard of the Canola Council of Canada delivered a report on clubroot observations in Canada. John Nowatzki of NDSU discussed drone research and applications in agriculture.

New and Outgoing Board Members

The NCGA welcomes new producer board members Troy Romfo of Langdon, N.D., and Steve Hart of Wales, N.D., to its board of directors. Hart was appointed to fill the remainder of Bernie Bachman’s term. Jay Bjerke of NorthStar Agri Industries was also elected to the board as an industry member. Finally, Trent Stremick of Fargo, N.D., was appointed to the board as an ex-officio crop insurance representative. T he NCG A extend s it s deepest appreciation to outgoing North Dakota board members Kevin Waslaski of Langdon, Wally Brandjord of Bottineau and Eric Mack of Velva (pictured). All three contributed a great deal of time and effort to the organization to benefit the canola industry.

2015 NCGA Summer Tours Outgoing North Dakota board members Kevin Waslaski of Langdon, Wally Brandjord of Bottineau and Eric Mack of Velva.

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This year, the NCGA is once again teaming up with the North Centra l Research Extension center in Minot,

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N.D., a nd t he L a n gdon R e s e a rc h Extension Center to give canola growers an in-depth tour of canola research projects. The Minot tour will be 9 a.m. to noon on Tuesday, June 30 followed by lunch. Topics will include canola research results, volunteer canola control strategies, resistance management and disease management. The Langdon tour will be Thursday, July 16 from 9 a.m. to noon, followed by lunch, in conjunction with the Annual Langdon Research Center Field Day. Topics will be disease research and other agronomy updates. BARRY COLEMAN IS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE NORTHERN CANOLA GROWERS ASSOCIATION IN BISMARCK, N.D.


regional news

In Farmers We Trust Spotlighting American Agriculture RON SHOLAR, PH.D.

RECENTLY, I NOTICED an Internet article reporting the results of a poll on the “most admired” professions in society. Naturally, I checked to see where farmers ranked on the list. Surely, those who produce the food, feed, fiber and fuel that sustain the lives of more than 300 million Americans would hold a prominent place on this prestigious list! But not only were farmers excluded from the top 10, they were not on the list at all. Interestingly, firefighters topped the poll followed by those serving in the military. Both are professions strongly associated with public service. Then again, farmers also provide tremendous public service; so why are they not receiving any credit? My interest now piqued, I looked around for other lists. A poll of the “most prestigious” professions placed firefighters, medical professionals and those serving in the military at the top – professions prominent on every survey that I checked – but again, no mention of farmers. Finally, they appeared … on a list of the “most trusted” professions. In fact, here farmers came in third place, right behind the same groups that had topped the other lists. Third place out of 30 professions was solid. It’s doubtful that farmers would be surprised their profession is not highly admired or considered prestigious. But given the choice between admiration, prestige and trust, farmers I know and work with would gladly identify with the last of these three.

Trusted Messengers

It’s obvious why trust is so important. Everyone needs what farmers produce. Wellplaced trust in farmers means consumers have confidence that the food they buy in America will be healthful and plentiful. Farmers need to take advantage of this fact. Opinions aren’t unchangeable and farmers and their industry representatives need to

continuously tell the incredible American agriculture success story. An old adage that applies here is that if you don’t tell your own story, someone else will tell it and it might not be one you like. There is an incredible amount of information available today but no one can tell the farmer’s story better than farmers themselves. They can provide valuable insights and awareness to the non-farming public about how food gets from farm to fork. Today, fewer farmers are responsible for the abundant supply of U.S. food and fiber than ever before. Farm and ranch families producing the agricultural goods that sustain their fellow citizens make up only about 2 percent of the population. And they do this for a very small share of the total cost to consumers. For each dollar spent on food, the farmer’s cut is less than 25 cents. The rest goes to costs beyond the farmer’s control: production inputs, processing, marketing, transportation and distribution.

There is an incredible amount of information available today but no one can tell the farmer’s story better than farmers themselves. American farmer efficiency contributes directly to low food costs for consumers. Americans spend less than a tenth of their disposable income on food – less than citizens of any other country in the world. This is especially true when comparing U.S. food expenses with those in developing countries such as China and India or high-income European countries like the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Sweden.

Agriculture is not just a story of food and fiber production, it’s one of people combining a rich heritage with dedication and perseverance in the face of constant challenges from nature and markets over which they have no control. Even as they focus on earning a living and feeding their own families, American farmers are also dedicated caretakers of the environment. They are committed to farming practices that protect their land and water resources while they produce the most abundant, safe and affordable food in the world.

Share Canola Story

Canola growers themselves have a great story to tell. Thanks to the hard and effective work of the U.S. Canola Association and regional canola groups, this story is being told every day. To be certain, there are competitors equally dedicated to telling their own story so canola growers and industry partners must consistently and continuously get the right information out to the public. The benefits of using canola oil are clear and so are the messages that must be shared. As one of the healthiest edible oils in the world, canola oil is helping A mericans meet recommended fat intake levels and reduce the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. No wonder consumers are increasingly attracted to canola oil. As members of one of the most trusted professions in society, farmers at large and canola growers specifically, must seize the opportunity to tell their own story. No one can tell it better or with more credibility. RON SHOLAR, PH.D., IS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE GREAT PL AINS CANOLA ASSOCATION IN STILLWATER, OKLA.

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Bust a Myth Addressing Consumer Concerns about Canola Oil ALISON NEUMER LARA AND ANGELA DANSBY

CANOL A OIL IS WIDELY viewed as safe, healthy and versatile, but an increasingly voca l – and vitriolic – contingent of consumers aren’t so sure. Whether online or in daily conversation, misinformation is usually the culprit behind those concerns. Rumors, fuzzy facts and sometimes outright fiction are often reinforced by media unfamiliar with the research and science. So how does one dispel the myths? Several readers have asked us just that. Organizations like the U.S. Canola Association and Canola Council of Canada do their best to communicate sciencebased facts to the media and consumers, but persuading the public sometimes requires a grass roots effort. To this end, below are the most frequent allegations about canola oil, followed by straightforward answers to explain canola oil’s origins, benefits and nutritional research in consumer-friendly terms.

Myth: Canola is rapeseed and their oils are the same. Facts: Canola was derived from rapeseed

by Canadian scientists in the 1960s through traditional plant breeding, but the two crops are distinct with very different nutritional profiles. The breeding process

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removed high levels of two undesirable substances: erucic acid in oil and bittertasting glucosinolates in meal. Canola has low levels of both by an internationally regulated standard. While this standard calls for less than 2 percent acid, most canola oil nowadays has an average of 0.01 percent.

Myth: Research shows that canola oil is bad for the heart. Facts: This mistruth stems from

conf usion w it h r ap e s e e d oi l. One animal study in the 1970s found that r at s de ve lope d he a r t le sion s f rom rapeseed oil consumption, which was attributed to the oil’s high (roughly 40 percent) erucic acid content. As a result, the United States banned the sale of rapeseed oil for human consumption. But the rat research was not replicated in humans, nor did it include canola oil. Nonetheless, like many rumors found on the Internet, the association with canola oil is still erroneously attributed to this animal study. On the contrary, canola oil has been proven to be heart-healthy in several human clinical trials. Based on this re sea rch, t he U. S. Food a nd Drug Administration (FDA) authorized in 2006

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a qualified health claim on canola oil’s ability to reduce the risk of heart disease due to its high unsaturated fat content. When used in place of saturated fat, just 1.5 tablespoons of canola oil a day is enough to help keep the cardiologist away. T h a t ’s a p r i m a r y r e a s o n w h y cardiologists, registered dietitians, other health professionals and their associations (t he A meric a n He a r t A s sociat ion, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and American Diabetes Association just to name a few) recommend canola oil. It’s even been recognized as safe by the FDA for use in infant formula.

Myth: Canola oil is unsafe because it is processed with a dangerous chemical. Facts: Canola oil is processed the same

way as all refined vegetable oils such as soy, corn and sunf lower. Seeds are first crushed mechanically to remove about 80 percent of their oil content. Then seeds are further processed to remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. Any processing aids that are used, such as solvents, are removed from the finished products during oil refinement. These extraction and refining processes are deemed safe around the world for producing edible oils. Refined


oils must meet strict quality and safety standards prior to commercial sale. Some oil extracted during mechanical crushing is sold as “cold-pressed,” “first press” or “expeller-pressed.” Such oils are more expensive because less oil is obtained from the seeds than with fully refined oil. They are usually not used in commercial food processing. Cold pressing controls temperature below 120 °F. E xpel ler pressing does not.

Myth: Canola oil is genetically modified and therefore unsafe. Facts: Canola was developed through

traditional plant breeding in the 1960s, not t hrough modern biotechnolog y (“genetic modification”), which had not even been invented at the time. However, most canola grown today is genetically modified to tolerate select herbicides, which allows for better weed control and less use of herbicides. Nonetheless, farmers may choose to plant non-biotech and/or organic varieties of canola instead. While some canola seeds are genetically modified, the oil extracted from them is not. The biotech trait or genetic material resides in plant protein (meal), not the fat (oil). Any potential trace amount

of protein in the oil is removed by the refining process so the biotech trait is not detectable in the oil. To clarify, canola oil is often derived from biotech seeds, but the oil itself is not genetically modified. Regardless, biotech crops are safe. They have been cultivated for 19 years and consumed by billions of people worldwide without a single documented health problem. No biotech crops are allowed in the marketplace until they undergo extensive safety assessments, following strict scientific criteria, which meet regulatory approval. In fact, biotech crops are tested more rigorously than any other plant products in the world. All commercial biotech canola varieties have been tested and reviewed for food, feed and environmental safety by governments in Canada, the U.S., Japan, China, South Korea and the European Union. Plant biotechnology has been adopted by farmers worldwide at a higher rate than any other agricultural practice in history. In 2014, a record 18 million farmers in 28 countries planted more than 181 million hectares of biotech crops. More than half of these hectares were grown in 20 developing countries. W hy? Pla nt biotech nolog y helps farmers provide more food, animal feed, textile fiber and biofuel for a growing world population, while sustainably using existing farmland and other natural resources. It also protects crops against the effects of climate change and increases farmer incomes worldwide. For consumers, biotechnology offers benefits such as more stable food prices and a consistent, safe food supply with reduced environmental impact due to enhanced crop quantity and quality.

Myth: Vitamin E in canola oil harms the lungs. Facts: A w idely circu lated ne ws

release in 2014 about a study from Northwestern University raised concern that a type of vitamin E in canola oil may have a detrimental effect on lung function. According to the release, the study “ties the increasing consumption of supposedly healthy vitamin E-rich oils – canola, soybean and corn – to the rising incidence of lung inflammation and, possibly, asthma.” The study itself, however, did not measure canola oil consumption, nor even mention canola oil. It simply made a correlation between blood tocopherol (vitamin E) levels

and lung health measurements, then linked gamma-tocopherol (a building block of vitamin E) to decreased lung function and alpha-tocopherol to increased lung function. While gamma-tocopherol levels in the U.S. diet may be high, it is a stretch at best to link this to canola oil, which is not a rich source of this substance. In fact, canola oil contains a significant amount of alphatocopherol. Moreover, the news release jumped from cause to effect – and implicated canola oil – based on incorrect statistics about the prevalence of different oils in various countries and linking them to lower rates of asthma and vice versa. For example, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden – countries cited with low rates of asthma – have canola oil market shares of 42, 23, 90 and 56 percent, respectively, according to Oil World. The market share for olive and sunf lower oils in these countries ranges from 3 to 6 percent, compared to a 4 percent in the U.S.

Myth: Canola oil is unhealthy because of all of the above reasons. Facts: Scientists, doctors and dietitians at large agree that canola oil is healthy and sa fe for consumption. Clinica l studies have been going on for decades involving thousands of human volunteers to examine canola oil, its components (e.g., monounsaturated and omega-3 fats) and their effects on the body. Canola oil is not only safe for humans per strict U.S., Canadian and other government approvals, but these studies have shown the oil’s health benef its. A scientif ic literature review published in the peerreviewed journal Nutrition Reviews in May 2013, summarizes 40 research studies to date related to the health benefits of canola oil. They show that: • Canola oil substantially reduces total and “bad” LDL cholesterol levels and improves insulin sensitivity when used in place of saturated fat. • Canola oil can help consumers meet expert dietary fat recommendations (less than 10 percent saturated fat from total daily calories, minimal trans fat and no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day) and can be included in a diet designed to reduce cholesterol. • Compared with high-saturated fat or typical Western diets, canola oil-

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based diets can reduce total and LDL cholesterol in healthy people and those with high cholesterol, reducing the risk of heart disease. • With 61 percent monounsaturated fat, canola oil may prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Oxidized LDL may contribute to inflammation in the arteries and heart disease risk. • Canola oil may promote immune and cardiovascular health through its antiblood clotting and anti-oxidative effects. • Canola oil may help reduce inflammation in the body and possibly protect against breast and colon cancers. Researchers are interested in studying this further.

Myth: Heating canola oil destroys its health benefits. Facts: Any vegetable oil heated past its smoke point – the temperature at which it starts smoking – can produce undesirable fumes and break down the oil. Different oils have different smoke points, depending on their fat composition, which makes some better for high heat cooking and others better for dipping or dressings. Canola oil has a high heat tolerance (smoke point of 468 °F) and is suitable for all cooking methods without comprising its health benefits. Refined, shelf-stable oils such as canola are also heated during processing, but this step does not alter the oil’s health profile either. Myth: Canola oil is unsafe to consume because it’s used as an industrial lubricant in motor oil, cosmetics and other beauty products. Facts: Many vegetable oils, including canola oil, are useful for industrial purposes but that does not mean they’re inedible. For example, soybean, corn and palm oils are all sources for biofuel. Olive and coconut oils are popular ingredients in soaps and other beauty products. For more information, go to www. uscanola.com and www.canolainfo.org. Also, find the U.S. Canola Association on Facebook and CanolaInfo on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. ALISON NEUMER LARA IS MANAGING ED ITO R A N D A N G EL A DA N S BY I S EXECUTIVE EDITOR OF U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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Just the Facts, Ma’am Useful Talking Points About Canola Oil • Canola oil is one of the healthiest culinary oils in the world. It has the least saturated fat (half that of olive oil) and the most plantbased omega-3 fat of all common cooking oils. Canola oil is also a good source of vitamins E and K, contains zero trans fat and, like all vegetable oils, it’s free of cholesterol. • Canola oil can help protect the heart for just pennies a day. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized a qualified health claim for canola oil on its potential to reduce the risk of heart disease. About 1.5 tablespoons of canola oil a day is enough to help protect the heart when used in place of saturated fat. This is a simple, affordable change anyone can make to be more heartsmart. • Canola oil is extremely versatile. Its neutral taste, light texture and high heat tolerance (smoke point of 468 °F) make it ideal for just about any culinary application. Canola oil’s smoke point is one of the highest of all oils – far higher than extra virgin olive oil (331 °F). • Canola oil comes from the crushed seeds of canola plants. These seeds contain about 45 percent oil – more than double that of soybeans. This large percentage of oil comes in a small package; canola seeds are tiny like poppy seeds, though they are brownish-black in color. • Canola plants produce pods from which seeds are harvested. The plants grow from three to five feet tall and produce beautiful, small, yellow flowers. • Although they look similar, canola and rapeseed plants and oils are ver y different. Canadian scientists used traditional plant breeding to eliminate two undesirable components of rapeseed (glucosinolates and erucic acid) and created “canola,” a contraction of “Canadian” and “ola.” • Canola is widely grown in Canada, where it was developed, and to a lesser extent in the United States and Australia. However, canola oil is consumed in many countries. • In the United States, canola is primarily grown in North Dakota as well as in the Great Plains, Pacific Northwest and other states. In 2014, about 1.7 million acres of canola were planted. • Canada – primarily the prairie provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba – accounts for the largest supply (exports) of canola in the world. The United States imports about 75 percent of its canola supply from Canada, growing the rest domestically.

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Canola Production Trends: Planting Dates, Seeding Rates and Other Observations LESLEY LUBENOW, M.S.

TRENDING HAS LONG BEEN PART of our vocabulary, even if we didn’t call it that. Agricultural producers always want to know “What’s going on there? What’s new in terms of technology or production practices?” For canola production, we’re looking at trends over a longer span of time. Where is canola production headed in the future? Here’s what’s trending from our perspective in the Northern Great Plains.

10 Years of Growth

N a t i on w i d e , U. S . c a n o l a a c r e s have moved upward. In 2005, canola production was 1.1 million acres, whereas in the past two years, growers planted 1.7 million acres. During this time, national yields have been consistent. In 2014, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service reported 1,614 pounds per acre compared to 1,419 pounds per acre in 2005.

In North Dakota, we’ve seen gentle yield uptick in the last 10 years with planted canola acres hovering around 1 to 1.2 million acres. In 2005, yields averaged 1,440 pounds per acre and now, for the last two years, North Dakota is returning to 1,800 pounds per acre. This is exciting and no doubt due to some fantastic weather conditions. Further to this point, the Langdon Research and Extension Center (LREC) is in the heart of Canola County in North Dakota, an area known for having the longest cold stretch outside of Alaska. In 1936, 41 days were below zero. Nevertheless, the last two years have been great canola growing weather with cool summers and no moisture stress. In 2014, from June 20 to July 30 during the reproductive stage of canola, the average temperature was 64°F, with a maximum temperature averaging 74 °F. The hottest day was 88 °F during this time. County average yields are not published yet, but in 2013 our county yield was 2,030 pounds per acre with similar weather. These yields were the best ever! That said, we expect excellent yield returns in 2014.

Flexibility in the Field

Both 2013 and 2014 years were late planting seasons. Statewide, North Dakota State University’s (NDSU’s) planting date recommendation for canola is early May. In our unique Langdon climate, NDSU research has shown that a late planting date can be successful if adequate moisture conditions continue through the growing season. Research at the LREC showed that late planting dates of June 9 and even June 16 had no negative yield impact. However, if moisture was inadequate, these later planting dates had lower yields. This research has strengthened local farmer resolve to stay with canola planting intentions during late springs. Canola seed is a hearty investment in production. NDSU crop budgets estimate seed cost at $51.25 per acre with a flea beetle seed treatment. There is growing interest in examining seeding rates for cost savings. Previous NDSU research on this topic used open-pollinated and hybrid non-herbicide-

PHOTO: LESLEY LUBENOW, M.S.

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tolerant lines. Now, herbicide-tolerant canola seed (Roundup Ready® or Liberty Link®) are used predominantly in our region. Data from two years of research suggests that a seeding rate between 9 to 12 plants per square foot results in optimum yield. Seed lot size varied between years and hybrids, but this roughly translates to 3.5 to 6 pounds of seed per acre.

Sulfur Management

The 2014 growing season was a perfect storm for widespread sulfur deficiency in North Dakota. We had cooler than average temperatures and wet soil conditions. As a heavy sulfur consumer, canola fields were purpling from deficiency as well as less sulfursensitive crops of wheat and corn. Sulfur research in northeast North Dakota goes back to 1993. Typically, low organic matter (less than 3 percent) and coarsetextured soils along with eroded hilltops are most sensitive to sulfur deficiency. Going back to the fundamentals was an important message in 2014: Know what sulfur deficiency looks like, scout and remedy the issue. The sulfur-sensitive areas in the field like hilltops typically do not have the inherent yield potential as more productive areas. Typically 20 pounds of sulfur per acre is enough to remedy deficiency in canola, but 10 pounds per acre is probably sufficient. However, fields with a 3,000-pound per acre yield potential should use the top recommendation of 20 pounds of sulfur per acre to correct deficiency. Elemental sulfur in North Dakota soil should be avoided as it releases too slowly to remedy deficiency symptoms. Another trending conversation piece with sulfur management is applying it in the spring only. Sulfur is leachable. Fall application on medium- to coarse-textured soils can be a risk especially if it’s followed by a snowy winter. Such precipitation, especially in banked areas around shelterbelts, means spring water coursing through the soil and ultimately taking your paid-for sulfur with it.

Combatting Disease

Blackleg has been a part of our disease vocabulary for many years and there is renewed emphasis on managing it today. An NDSU end-of-season canola survey in 2014 found a surprisingly high amount of blackleg in swathed fields. While late season blackleg infections do not impact yields like early season ones, there are some important takeaways here. First, rotate crops! And second, avoid inoculum build-up! Field surveys showed that those with tight, two-year rotations had more blackleg

incidence than further spread out rotations. Ideally, we would like to see a three- to four-year break between canola crops. In heavy blackleg fields, 80 percent or more of the 50 stems pulled from the field had blackleg microsclerotia present. Producers need to use resistant-rated black leg varieties and vary the brand. Don’t make it easy for blackleg overcome your canola! Another disease we are monitoring is clubroot. To date, this soil-borne disease has only been reported in Cava lier County, N.D., but it is a great concern to the region’s growers. Learning to identify the disease and avoiding its spread is paramount. Scouting for clubroot during late summer and during swathing are new management practices in 2014. Tha nk f u lly, clubroot-resista nt seed

genetics appear to be working against current infestations. Producers will have to lengthen rotations and actively work towards conserving seed resistance as these genetics were overcome in Canadian provinces, where growers first discovered clubroot more than 10 years ago. Canola production is ever-changing. As trends come and go, canola is a versatile crop for producers in northeast North Dakota. Managing the crop for high production returns will pay for ward canola’s “yellow gold” potential. LESLEY LUBENOW, M.S., IS A NORTH DA KOTA S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y A R E A E X T E N S I O N S P E C I A L I S T AT T H E L ANGDON RESE ARCH E X TENSION CENTER.

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45 qt. plus 20 qt. YETI COOLER

3 VARIETIES OF THE SAME CROP 400 TOTAL SOYBEAN • 150 TOTAL CORN 45 TOTAL SUNFLOWER • 40 TOTAL CANOLA (2 VARIETIES)

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3 VARIETIES OF THE SAME CROP 240 TOTAL SOYBEAN • 80 TOTAL CORN 25 TOTAL SUNFLOWER • 20 TOTAL CANOLA (2 VARIETIES)

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20 qt. YETI COOLER

2 VARIETIES OF THE SAME CROP (Must be a new customer) 200 TOTAL SOYBEAN • 60 TOTAL CORN 20 TOTAL SUNFLOWER • 16 TOTAL CANOLA

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Got Game? Know Pest Teams to Beat on “Field” Court SAM MARKELL, PH.D.; LUIS DEL RIO MENDOZA, PH.D.; AND MADELEINE SMITH, PH.D.

AS PLANT PATHOLOGISTS, we often get asked which canola diseases are most important and why. Since it’s March Madness time, we’re turning to college basketball to answer that question. Check out our “team” picks below for pest action in the field and get ready to play some defense of your own.

Mold Madness

In the college basketball tournament world, white mold is like Duke University. This team is always in the back of your mind, always in the mix, always a threat but really hard to predict whether it’s going to be their year or not.

In the basketball tournament world, white mold is like Duke University. This team is always in the back of your mind, always in the mix, always a threat but really hard to predict whether it’s going to be their year or not. Basketball fans remember many years when all signs were pointing to a Duke championship that fizzled out at the end, but also when Duke didn’t seem to matter and went all the way. White mold is the same way; it’s always a threat but you often don’t know the impact until the season is over. T he r e a s on i s s i mple : it ’s t he environment. White mold is particularly sensitive to environmental factors from a couple weeks before bloom to harvest. First, you have to have wet soil before bloom. Research in Minnesota suggests that 1-2 inches of rain about 1-2 weeks

White mold. PHOTO: SAM MARKELL

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before bloom is enough moisture to cause sclerotia to germinate and produce spores. If you have spores flying during flowering, then you also need a period of moderate temperatures during bloom, preferably with high temperatures in the 60s or 70s and very wet canopies. Combining those factors, you’ll likely have an epidemic. The hard part is that you often don’t have all three factors at once. It might be cool and wet during bloom but dry in the spring. Or your fields may be wet all season with temperatures in the 80s during bloom. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) were plagued by white mold for many years in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but the advent of the white mold risk map, availability of fungicides and better genetics have contributed to its reduction in recent years. In 2014, incidence of white mold in the NGP was about 10-20 percent of fields with low severity. It was just not Duke’s year. Will it be in 2015?

Blackleg Block

Black leg is akin to the Universit y of Louisville. This team doesn’t give ba sketba l l fa ns t he creepy a lway slooking-over-your-shoulder feeling that

Blackleg rupture lesion. PHOTO: SAM MARKELL


Duke does, but it’s there. Like blackleg, Louisville made major waves in the 1980s and early 1990s and has resurged with a vengeance in the last few years. It’s tough to manage and adapts very well. Black leg wa s the most importa nt disease in the NGP in the early 1990s. It si n g le -h a nde d ly c h a l len g e d t he establishment of canola in North Dakota (see our article in the March-April 2014 issue of U.S. Canola Digest). In the mid1990s, cha nges in genetics reduced blackleg to a cosmetic issue. However, in the last 10 years, blackleg made a dramatic comeback. The pathogen adapted and new races that could overcome genetic resistance became predominant in the NGP. In 2014, blackleg was the most important disease in the region and there is no evidence it’s going away. In 2015, you can expect it to be a contender again.

Aster Yellows Zone

Aster yellows fits the profile of many teams, but most closely resembles the University of Arkansas and University of Florida. When the Arkansas Hogs and Florida Gators were at the top of their game, nobody could touch them. Think of Arkansas in the mid-1990s or Florida in the mid-2000s with national titles and domination. But when they are not at the top of their game, they almost completely disappear from both contention and conversation. Like the Hogs and Gators, Aster yellows is a very hit and miss disease. For it to cause problems in the NGP, it has to hitch a ride in Aster Leaf Hoppers and blow hundreds of miles north. Most years this

doesn’t happen, but when it does, it can be devastating. Worse yet, there are no good ways to manage this disease so you sit and watch as the crop takes a beating from the sideline. In 2013 and 2014, aster yellows was absent in the NGP, but it’s anyone’s guess in 2015.

Clubroot Hoops

Clubroot takes after Wichita State University (WSU). A non-contender for decades, WSU came out of oblivion a couple years back and shocked a lot of people. It appears this team is here to stay and if you only started following basketball in 2012, you would assume WSU has been pre-eminent for decades. Complicating a good prediction on WSU is that it comes out of a smaller conference so it’s hard to get a good read on how the team will handle consistent, top-notch competition or if it has the staying power. Clubroot ha s been a problem in Canada since it was first identified in the mid-2000s. In 2013, it was found for the first time in the United States in Cavalier County, N.D. – the nation’s leading canola-producing region. As a soil-borne disease capable of causing consistent and high yield loss, clubroot is likely to be on everyone’s mind. It has a blend of Duke’s ever-present threat mixed with the unknown potential of WSU. The only thing for certain is that clubroot is going to spread and get worse. At this point, it is unclear how signif ica nt clubroot will be in the United States but we are paying attention.

Aster Yellows. PHOTO: SAM MARKELL

‘Alternaria’ Positions

Alternaria black spot, root rots and white rust are the 14-16 seeds in the March Madness tournament. You see them, they might win a game, but in the big scheme of things, they rarely matter. Although coaches and players won’t admit it, they tend to look right over these teams to focus on the bigger threats down the road. Certainly there are times that a low seed gets a big win but often those teams don’t go the distance; for example, North Dakota State University beat Oklahoma in 2014 … only to lose to a red-hot, highseed San Diego State team.

2015 Odds

We h ave ne ve r won t he pl a nt pathology March Madness bracket and we’re only slightly better at predicting disease outbreaks, but here’s how we would seed the diseases in 2015. The 80 0 -pound gorilla s in t he room – blackleg and white mold – get the #1 and #2 seeds. We are paying attention to aster yellows and clubroot, but it’s unclear how they will do so they are #5 and #6 seeds. Alternaria, root rots, white rust? You guessed it: #14, #15 and #16. Now we’ll have to see how the games play out. SAM MARKELL, PH.D., AND LUIS DEL RIO MENDOZA, PH.D., ARE ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AT NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY IN FARGO. MADELEINE SMITH, PH.D., IS ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSIT Y OF MINNESOTA IN CROOKSTON.

Clubroot. PHOTO: LUIS DEL RIO MENDOZA

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Flea Beetle Watch: Species to Scout in Northern Plains JANET J. KNODEL, PH.D.

WALKING THROUGH THE canola f ield at swathing, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s easy to observe small, black insects hopping around and feeding on any remaining green tissues. They are f lea beetles. A fall survey of swathed canola fields was conducted to determine f lea beetle species and abundance. A total of 94 fields were surveyed in 12 counties of northcentral and northeastern North Da kota a nd eig ht f ield s in Roseau Count y of northwestern Minnesota, thanks to funding from the Northern C a nola Grower s A s sociat ion. Fou r different species were collected in North Dakota: Phyllotreta cruciferae (crucifer f lea beetle), Phyllotreta striolata (striped f lea beetle), Psylliodes punctulata (hop f lea beetle) and Phyllotreta albionica (cabbage f lea beetle). The dominant f le a b e e t le sp e c ie s c ol le c te d were crucifer followed by striped. Hop and cabbage f lea beetles represented less than 1 percent of the total collected. The highest numbers (>500 crucifer f lea beetles per 50 sweeps) were in Bottineau, McHenry, Mountrail, Ward, Ramsey and Sheridan Counties of North Dakota. Minnesota had low populations of f lea beetles (<20 f lea beetles per 50 sweeps) and only two species: crucifer (80 percent) and stripped (20 percent). Crucifer f lea beetles are the major species causing damage and yield loss to canola in North Dakota and Minnesota. They emerge in spring to feed on seedling c a nola pla nts a nd c a n c ause severe defoliation. Insecticide seed treatments are used primarily for control, with an occasional foliar insecticide as a rescue treatment during cool springs when seed treatments fail. Damage caused by f lea beetles has more to do with spring weather than overwintering population levels. If the spring is warm and dry, conditions are favorable for f lea beetle feeding and emergence. If the spring is cool and wet, f lea beetle emergence will be slower and more erratic. Regular field scouting is the

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Top: crucifer beetle; middle: striped beetle; bottom: striped and crucifer beetles. PHOTOS: PATRICK BEAUZAY, NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY

best strategy to ensure that insecticide seed treatments protect aga inst f lea beetle feeding injury and will determine if a folia r insecticide application is needed. Use the action threshold of 25 percent defoliation caused by f lea beetles for decision-making. Happy scouting for f lea beetles this spring! JANET J. KNODEL, PH.D., IS AN EXTENS I O N E N TO M O LO G I S T AT N O R T H DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY IN FARGO.

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2014 National Canola Research Conference The next two articles summarize research presented at the National Canola Research Conference in Long Beach, Calif., in November 2014. View complete conference presentations and research posters at uscanola.com.

Mid-Range Seeding Rate Best for Yields in North Dakota BRYAN HANSON, M.S.

SPRING CANOLA has become a viable economic alternative for many producers in North Dakota with an average acreage of 1.14 million from 2010-2014 across the state. Rising seed prices in the past few years have resulted in producer consideration of lower seeding rates to reduce costs. Previous seeding rate research conducted across North Dakota from 1999-2001 focused on open-pollinated and hybrid non-herbicide-tolerant lines. Advances in canola breeding have led producers to favor seeding herbicide-tolerant Roundup Ready® (RR) and Liberty Link ® (LL) hybrids. This two-year field study examined the effects of seeding rates on yield and agronomic traits of RR and LL canola hybrids. Precipitation and temperature conditions were nearly ideal in both years of the study, resulting in very high yields. Because seed size in canola can vary greatly at times, seeding rates were planted on a pure live seed (PLS) basis at rates of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 PLS per square foot (PLS/ft 2) rather than on a weight per unit area basis. Both the LL and RR hybrids responded similarly for the agronomic traits observed, therefore, seeding rate effects on these traits and yield were averaged over hybrids.

Study Results

Days to f lower, end f lower and plant maturity were all delayed at the 3 PLS/ft 2 seeding rate compared to other seeding rates. The higher the seeding rate, the faster ground cover was attained. Plant height was greater at the lower seeding rates while lodging increased slightly with increasing seeding rates, although the differences were not significant. Seeding rate had no effect on oil content, which supports previous research. Agronomic trait differences between seeding rates were small in this study and generally would not be of any practical significance to canola production. Yield generally increased with higher seeding rates (Table 1). The 3 PLS/ft 2 seeding rate yielded significantly less than all others. There were no significant differences in yield between the 6 and 9, 9 and 15, and 12 and 15 PLS/ft 2 seeding rates. The data would suggest that seeding between 9 and 12 PLS/ft 2 would result in maximum yields.

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Bottom Line

The goal of a producer is to obtain the maximum net return per acre. Achieving maximum yield, however, may not always result in maximum economic return per acre. In this study, net return per acre was calculated by multiplying yield times a market price of $0.17 per pound minus seed cost. Seed cost for the two year study was $10.72 per pound for both hybrids. The seeding rate in pounds per acre for each hybrid varied depending on the seed size and percent germination. Results from this study indicate that seeding rates between 9 and 12 PLS/ft 2 should result in optimum yields and net return per acre. Plant emergence in these studies was very good, >90 percent, which is somewhat atypical. If seedbed conditions were less than ideal at planting, resulting in 60 percent emergence, plant stands between 5-7 plants/ft 2 would still be acceptable. Additional work will continue on this trial. BRYAN HANSON, M.S., IS A RESEARCH AGRONOMIST AT NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY’S LANGDON RESEARCH EXTENSION CENTER.


Fooling Mother Nature Stripper Header Stubble Improves Winter Canola Production LAUREN PORT AND FRANK YOUNG, PH.D.

FOR 20 YEARS, 16 acres in the winter wheat-traditional fallow zone of southeastern Washington state have been devoted to the Ralston Project, where researchers have been evaluating alternative crop rotations for the low rainfall (<12 inches) region of the Pacific Northwest. Wind-driven erosion of soils from conventionally tilled fields can be extreme and the multidisciplinary research at the site has been aimed at evaluating no-till cropping systems. Previous phases of research evaluated the agronomic and economic feasibility of continuous no-till a nnua l spring cropping to replace or supplement the wheat-fa llow system. Results showed that while spring crops reduced wind erosion susceptibilit y, t hey were a n economic failure. Realizing that a fallow period cannot b e e l i m i n ate d w it h a n nu a l c rop s , t wo approaches a re present ly being resea rched by scientists in the lowrainfall zone. One method employs an undercutter conservation tillage method, in which a V-sweep undercutter is used to break the soil capillaries and reduce movement of soi l moist u re upwa rd to the soil surface. This undercutter conservation tillage reduces soil mixing and leaves about 30 percent of crop residues on the soil surface. The second approach, located at the Ralston Project, utilizes a completely

Figure 1: A comparison of straw production by semi-dwarf winter wheat varieties (1996-2000) and the tall variety currently grown at the Ralston Project site in southeastern Washington state.

no-till approach. In an effort to increase crop residues and diversif y the 130year old winter wheat-fallow rotation, rot at ions of w i nter t rit ic a le a nd a tall variety of winter wheat are being integrated with winter canola. W hile fallow is not eliminated, a high residue no-till, chemica l fa llow approach is being explored. The triticale and wheat grown in the cereal phase of the rotation produce very high amounts of residue compared to semi-dwarf wheat that is grown in many conventional cropping systems (Figure 1). Not only is residue production increased in this system, no-till has also been maximized by using a stripper header for cereal harvest.

Stripper Header

The stripper header differs in many ways from traditional cutter bar headers that most area farmers use. Rather than cutting the stem of the grain-bearing plant a few inches above the ground, the stripper header uses eight rows of stainless steel f ingers mounted on a drum that rotates at 500 to 800 rpm (Figure 2). The header is set just below maximum crop height and as the drum rotates, the fingers catch the grain and strip it from the head, leaving behind standing stubble that is the same height as the unharvested crop. Until now at the R a lston Project, no c roppi n g s y s tem s re s e a rc h h a s evaluated a stripper header in the Pacific Northwest. Because the main threshing operation takes place in the header, less material passes through the combine and ground speeds at harvest can almost be doubled when compared to a combine equipped with a conventional header. Area growers who use stripper headers are their best ambassadors; it is not uncommon for a grower to reduce the number of combines in half because of the increased harvesting capacity of a stripper header. On the downside, the growers must increa se their f leet of trucks hauling grain!

Figure 2: The stripper header used in the Ralston Project.

A stripper header is being used at the Ralston Project to maintain tallstanding stubble for the fallow period. After growing triticale and winter wheat and harvesting with a stripper header, the stubble in the field has been as high as 36 inches tall! By using a chemical fa l low s y stem, t he re sidue s rema in sta nding from t he time t he crop is harvested in summer to the time the next crop is planted the following summer.

Stubble and Soil Moisture

Two goa ls of t he R a lston Project a re to determine if a no-till winter canola crop can be successfully planted into stripper header stubble a nd to evaluate the effect this stubble has on soil moisture, temperature and wind speed. During July 2014, wind speeds measured 6 inches above the soil surface in reduced tillage fallow. With no upright residue, these wind speeds were four times greater than those measured at the same height in stripper header triticale stubble. Additionally, soil temperatures were lower in stripper header stubble by as much as 14째F. By reducing the heat energy that turns soil water to vapor and reducing the amount of wind that moves water vapor away from the soil

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Figure 3: Poor stand establishment of winter canola in traditionally tilled fallow.

Figure 4: Planting into stripper header residue with a no-till drill.

Figure 5: Establishment of winter canola in stripper header crop residue.

surface, evaporation rates are decreased. This leads to conservation of soil water, as seen in the Ralston Project. During planting in 2013 and 2014, there was more available water in the top 3 inches of soil in stripper header triticale stubble than in conservation tilled winter wheat. In a region where average rainfall is 11 inches (2013-2014 growing season precipitation was 7.4 inches), and most of this water is stored during the winter months, it’s critical to reduce evaporation of as many precious inches of soil moisture as possible during hot, dry summers. In add ition to t he hig h rates of evaporation from bare traditional-fallow soil, diversifying the rotation in this lowrainfall zone by adding winter canola can be very difficult because it is small-seeded and cannot be planted as deeply as winter wheat. This makes canola seed less likely

to encounter the moisture it needs to germinate in dry topsoil. Due to lack and non-uniformity of seedzone moisture, establishment of winter canola in traditionally tilled fallow has been poor (Figure 3). Previous research has found that winter canola establishment is improved when planted in August, when post-plant ambient temperature is below 85 °F for several days and when soil moisture is sufficient – in other words, when “Mother Nature” says so. The moisture-preserving possibilities that stripper header stubble provides are being used to ensure a seed-zone that has adequate moisture for canola germination. It would allow growers to pursue a planting schedule that’s convenient for them rather than dictated by “Mot her Nat u re.” Pre l i m i n a r y research indicates winter canola can

be successfully established in standing stubble (Figures 4 and 5) and that soil moisture and temperature are improved compared to the conventional winter wheat-fallow system. To continue to increase the adoption of winter canola in the low rainfall zone, future research involves timing and rates of fertilizer, variety trials and herbicide research to reduce resistance. FR ANK YOUNG , PH . D., IS A R E S E A R C H AG R O N O M I S T AT T H E U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTUR AL RESE ARCH SERVICE AND AN ADJUNCT PROFESSOR IN THE CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT AT WASHINGTON STATE U N IV ER SIT Y I N PU LLMAN . L AU R EN PORT IS A MASTER’S GRADUATE STUDENT IN CROP SCIENCE AT WSU.

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New Takes on Canola Photo Contest Entries Feature Fields Across America MOLLY COLLINS

THERE’S NO DENYING IT: canola is extremely photogenic. Something about the way those yellow flowers stand out against a clear sky or attract wildlife catches our eye and compels us to reach for our cameras. U.S. Canola Digest received a wide array of photographs for the magazine’s sixth annual photo contest, including panoramic views, macro lens shots and – for the first time – aerial photos of canola fields taken by an agricultural drone fit with multispectral imaging. The future of photography is reaching new heights! The winner of this year’s “Lights, Camera, Canola!” contest is John Van Dam, Jr., of Lakeville, Minn., a new canola grower. He took his panoramic cover shot while out inspecting field flowers and checking for any weed or insect issues in southern Colorado’s San Luis Valley. “As part of the inspection, I have been keeping a photo log of each field,” said Van Dam. “I saw the storm approaching, so I just had to include it.” This is only his first year growing canola, but Van Dam has been around the crop his entire life as his father is a grower and hybrid seed producer. Second place was awarded to Stephen Van Vleet, Ph.D., a regional extension specialist at Washington State University. He was five miles south of Colfax, Wash., off of U.S. route 195 when he noticed an old draft horse barn by a field of spring canola. “I make barn photograph calendars each

year and donate the proceeds to the library,” said Van Vleet. “I also document canola because so many people ask where they can see it in the area. This picture was able to ser ve bot h purposes.” The third place photo was taken by Audry Melville of Enterprise, Ore., near what is known as the “Switzerland of America,” where the borders of Oregon, Washington and Idaho meet. She was with her family on four-wheelers heading toward Lake Wallowa to see the annual Fourth of July firework display when she took the photo. “As we moved through the canola field, deer were jumping up everywhere in front of us,” said Melville. “There must have been 20-25 deer.” Melville and her husband tend to almost 200 acres of rotational canola near their home ranch. As you continue to travel across America, please ”hit us with your best shot” of canola by e-mailing Alison Neumer Lara at alison@

uscanola.com. We may feature it on the U.S. Canola Association website and/or Facebook page. Canola, stay beautiful. And America, keep growing canola. MOLLY COLLINS IS ASSISTANT EDITOR OF U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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Commodity Markets Challenged by Strong U.S. Dollar and Supply Demand and Consumption Grow Nonetheless MIKE KRUEGER

LAST YEAR WAS ANOTHER volatile one for agricultural commodity markets. Trading ranges were wide with prices strong in the spring growing season, but they weakened significantly in the summer and fall. Price weakness continued in the winter, punctuated only by occasional, unexpected market upswings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; none of which lasted very long. The markets face many headwinds moving into 2015, as well. Generally excellent weather over the past two years resulted in record world oilseed, wheat and feed grain production, and steep price declines. World ending supplies moved away from the dangerously low levels that brought record high prices just a few years ago to comfortable supplies in wheat and feed grains.

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MARCH â&#x20AC;˘ APRIL 2015

In fact, on the horizon are all-time record high soybean supplies, assuming the crops in Brazil and Argentina finish without significant problems. Other market headwinds include the super strength in the U.S. dollar. The dollar is now trading at its highest levels against most other currencies in more than a decade. The strong dollar works against U.S. agriculture because the U.S. is a net exporter by a very wide margin. A strong dollar makes U.S. agricultural products less competitive. The Canadian dollar, for example, is now trading below 80 cents, down from 90 cents a year ago. The Australian dollar was trading at about 89 cents a year ago and is below 78 cents today. The situation is similar in Brazil.


The spread gives foreign farmers an edge in returns as well as the advantage in export markets. Crude oil also collapsed in the last six months, prompting a decline in competing currencies, but also creating a level of doubt about the health of the world’s economy. Perceptions of weak economic growth create perceptions of weak demand for agricultural and industrial commodities. That, of course is bearish.

Oilseed, Rapeseed Total Dom. Cons. (1000 MT) World

Bullish Demand

Yet while record crops and increasing supplies have been bearish, world demand and consumption continue to grow regardless of prices or perceptions of economic strength or weakness. The first chart at right shows the expansion in world canola/rapeseed consumption since the 2004-05 marketing year. It’s interesting to note that this annual growth took place right through the years of record high prices. What happened to “demand destruction” that was supposedly caused by these high prices? The situation is almost identical to world demand for corn, wheat and soybeans. World consumption has rarely dipped. In those few years where demand did retreat, the cause was inadequate supplies to meet the demand, not high prices. The growth in China’s canola/rapeseed imports has also been impressive, as the middle chart illustrates. The one year dip was the result of significant transportation issues in Canada that slowed shipments to export points. The Canadian railroads (like U.S. railroads) have made big improvements in the past year. U.S. canola production has leveled off the last three seasons, but it is at much higher levels than 2009 as the final chart shows.

SOURCE: FAS/USDA

Oil, Rapeseed My Imports (1000 MT) China

Down the Road

The 2015-16 marketing year will be challenging for U.S. and world producers. Commodity prices have retreated while input costs remain high. Profit margins will be squeezed for the first time since the commodity bull market began back in 2006-07. In fact, current crop budget worksheets now project per acre losses for most, if not all, cropping choices. It is expected, and seed dealers confirm, that corn acres will decline and soybean acres will go up in 2015. Most analysts today are looking for a 2-million acre swing out of corn into soybeans. U.S. canola acres are also predicted to go up this year from 2014 while Canadian canola acres go down about 5 percent. Observers also say that farmers have not yet decided what they will plant on at least 20 to 30 percent of their acres (more in some areas). Ultimately, the market outlook for 2015 will depend solely on weather. Demand will be there, it’s just a matter of how big the supply will be. Can the world produce record crops the third year in a row? That’s doubtful for several reasons. First, low prices will start to pull marginal land out of production. Second, crop inputs will suffer with negative margins. Third, there are weather concerns in some of the world’s key winter wheat-producing regions. Despite these market challenges, producers should keep their eyes on the long-term picture: world demand and consumption of canola are on the rise.

SOURCE: FAS/USDA

Oilseed, Rapeseed Production (1000 MT) United States

SOURCE: FAS/USDA

MICHAEL KRUEGER IS THE FOUNDER AND PRESIDENT OF THE MONEY FARM, A GRAIN MARKETING ADVISORY SERVICE LOCATED NEAR FARGO, N.D., AND A LICENSED COMMODITY BROKER CLEARING THROUGH ADM INVESTOR SERVICES. MORE AT WWW.THEMONEYFARM.COM.

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regional news

Innovative Cropping Systems and Strategies PNW Oilseed and Direct Seed Conference KAREN SOWERS, M.S.

ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL PACIFIC Nort hwest Oilseed a nd Direct Seed Cropping Systems Conference came and went in Kennewick, Wash., in January. The event built on the 2014 conference that first brought together the Washington State University (WSU)-based Washington Oilseed Cropping Systems (WOCS) project and Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association (PNDSA). Attendance topped 500 with growers, agriculture suppliers, university and government agency representatives from 11 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. The three-day conference featured 85 speakers and 45 research posters and was supported by 60 sponsors – 50 of which were exhibitors. “The size and scope of what began as town hall meetings about canola production has expanded over the past five years in step with the dramatic increase in regional oilseed acreage,” said Bill Pan, professor of soil science at WSU and leader of the WOCS project, who opened the conference. “In the last two years, the WOCS team has partnered with PNDSA, the University of Idaho, Oregon State University and National Institute of Food and Agriculturefunded projects to embrace integrated cropping systems. We continue to reach out to new stakeholders and growers who are interested and invested in growing a regional oilseed industry, market and cropping system. “As an old-timer, it’s been great to see new faces in attendance, particularly young farmers, new crop consultants and young researchers coming together to talk about the emerging forefronts of agriculture and science.”

On the Agenda

Frank Young of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service introduced the conference theme, innovative

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cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), and was followed by speakers Neil Harker of Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Andy McGuire from WSU Extension, and a panel of five PNW growers who have successfully adopted canola and direct seeding on their farms. Soil health and quality were also addressed, led by Dr. Jill Clapperton of R hizoterra who compa red crop productivity and soil health. In a general session about cover cropping, WSU’s Lindsey du Toit shared details of the 2014 blackleg outbreak in the Willamette Valley and a recent diagnosis in Lewiston, Idaho. WSU is currently blackleg-free and steps are being taken at the state level to ensure that status continues. Other presenters included Central Washington University geologist Nick Zentner on how the Ice Age floods shaped agricultural production regions of the PNW; WSU economist Randy Fortenbery about biodiesel facility location decisions and feedstock dynamics; and Michael Neff, WSU molecular geneticist, with an in-depth view of biotech crops. Fifteen oilseed and 15 direct seed breakout sessions were also offered during the conference. Oilseed breakout sessions covered topics more specific to canola production, economics and marketing strategies; other oilseed crops such as flax, camelina and mustard; the latest university and industry canola breeding updates; insect and disease management; forage, grazing and feed uses of canola; canola impacts on soil health, nutrient requirements and soil water; winter survival; and managing chem fallow. A breakout session entitled “2014 – The Year Your Neighbor Was Right … But is

MARCH • APRIL 2015

Opportunity Knocking?” attracted a capacity crowd as three canola growers and two university researchers relayed their woes from 2014 crop “crashes.” “As farmers, we’ve found it really helps to connect with universities and industry at this conference,” noted Denver and Monty Black, who grow direct-seeded winter canola near Mansfield, Wash. ”We want to hear what they have to say from their research, but also talk about what we’re seeing in our fields and work together to make plans for the next growing season.”

Voices of Support

As noted by canola growers, breeders and industry representatives, the Pacific Nort hwest Oilseed a nd Direct Seed Cropping Systems Conference is really onto something. “This is the best canola-related event all year in the Pacific Northwest – there’s really no comparison,” said Steve Starr, vice president of seed procurement at Pacific Coast Canola. “The idea that canola can be part of a sustainable cropping system is a major reason why we consider this conference to be the single-most important event of the year for us.” Mike Stamm, canola breeder at Kansas State University, also noted the conference was well worth his time. “I’ve enjoyed the connections that I’ve made with oilseed producers and researchers in the PNW because our regions share a lot of similarities,” he said. “Wheat-based cropping systems in both parts of the country are in need of rotation crops like canola to improve overall profitability and long-term sustainability.” Dennis Swinger, Jr., who grows canola near Lind, Wash., noted the tremendous


regional news amount of information at the conference and the opportunity to network with other growers. “The people here are innovators; they’re well-qualified, sincere, ask good questions and the atmosphere is professional,” added Harold Dopko of Pillar Lasers Inc. from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. “I will be back next year!”

“People a sk why I come to this conference,” concluded Jeff Schibel, irrigated winter canola producer and treasurer of the Washington Canola Commission. “Talking to other growers from Washington and the PNW is always important, but to me, if I come away with just one key idea to implement on my farm,

it’s worth my time, and I always leave this conference with many new ideas.” R e s e a rc h p o s t e r s a nd Pow e rPoi nt presentations from all breakout sessions are available on the WOCS website: css. w su .e du / biof ue l s . Vide o s of g ener a l sessions and oilseed brea kouts will be forthcoming.

WSU Researcher Looks at Long-Term Cropping Systems Canola Rotation May Benefit Washington Wheat Growers KAREN SOWERS, M.S.

LOW ANNUAL PRECIPITATION, high winds and low crop yields are common for dryland farmers in eastern Washington and also for Dr. Bill Schillinger, Washington State University (WSU) research agronomist and director of Lind Dryland Research Station. As a result, he is an advocate of longterm cropping systems research at Lind and in the field. Schillinger started looking at canola in 2000 as part of a six-year, irrigated cropping systems study at Lind. The research was designed to investigate crop rotations and residue management that would provide an alternative to the common practice of burning wheat stubble in a continuous wheat system. “Unfortunately, the winter canola was weakened by a new strain of Rhizoctonia during the second year of winter canola and we lost the crop with the first cold snap in five of six years,” Schillinger said. “However, we successfully established spring canola with an average yield of 1,900 pounds per acre. “Another result was that wheat yields in the alternative rotations and direct seeded treatments were the same as continuous wheat with burning plus tillage, which demonstrated that growers can plant into high quantities of surface residue without burning and maintain wheat yields.” When funding became available in 2007 from the state legislature through the Washington Oilseed Cropping Systems Project, Schillinger began another cropping systems study on a farm in the intermediate precipitation zone comparing the grower’s three-year rotation of winter wheat (WW)

-spring wheat (SW)-chemical fallow (CF) to winter canola-SW-CF. “Although we lost the winter canola in 2010 and 2014 to winterkill, stand establishment has never been an issue in the seven years we’ve had the study,” noted Schillinger. “Growers in the intermediate precipitation areas can be successful with winter canola even in a dry year and the yield potential is quite high – we had several years with yield of 2,900 pounds per acre or better, with one year at 3,800 pounds per acre.” Schillinger also measured water use in both rotations and found that some years, the canola extracted more water and other years, the wheat did. When averaged over all years, water use through the soil profile was almost identical to six feet, with measurements taken every six inches. One puzzling result has been the reduction in spring and winter wheat yields following winter canola that is not water-related. “The fields where we had the experiments did not have disease or weed issues, yet the spring wheat yields were down an average of 16 percent after canola so we are going to take more samples this spring to figure out what is causing that drop in yield,” Schillinger said. With high winds and dry soil conditions common at the Lind Station and in the surrounding region, wind erosion is a concern, particularly in fields with little residue cover. Schillinger collaborated with soil scientist Brenton Sharratt of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service to monitor wind erosion following oilseeds versus following winter

wheat. Dust emissions were 250 percent higher following oilseed crops since the maximum amount of residue cover was so low (11 percent versus 30 percent cover from WW). “From these data, we recommend that growers either plant a spring crop afterwards (i.e., no summer fallow) or go to no-till summer fallow,” stated Schillinger. “Even the undercutter method of conservation-tillage summer fallow will not retain enough residue following these oilseeds or winter pea.” Other winter canola research Schillinger is currently undertaking includes a residue management study to assess alternatives to burning and disking fresh winter wheat stubble prior to planting winter canola in an irrigated system. Another study initiated in 2013 is comparing stand establishment, water use and yield of dryland winter canola planted on several dates from mid-June to late August. The most recent study is a four-year no-till rotation of WC-CF-winter triticale (WT)-CF and winter pea-CF-WT-CF to determine best management practices for residue following canola or pea, with the idea that the WT can be planted late in the fall in dry years and still produce decent grain yield and a high quantity of straw to maintain ground cover. “The funding we receive from the WOCS is critical to conducting the long-term cropping systems projects; we wouldn’t be doing this amount of research otherwise,” Schillinger concluded. KAREN SOWERS, M.S., IS EXTENSION AND OUTREACH SPECIALIST IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES AT WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY IN RICHLAND.

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regional news

State Awards Minnesota Growers Research Funds Strong Turnout for Winter Meeting JON DOCKTER AND BETH NELSON

MCC Wins $64,000 Research Grant

T he M i n ne sot a Depa r t ment of Agriculture’s Crop Research Grant Program awarded the Minnesota Canola Council (MCC) funding for a study, “Improving Canola Yields and Quality Through Best Management Practices for Disease.” The grant is a three-year award for more than $64,000. The MCC is pleased to be working with Madeleine Smith of the Northwest Research and Outreach Center in Crookston on the project. Central to effective disease management is understanding the timing and efficacy of management practices, whether they are cultural or chemical. Little research has been conducted in Minnesota on the timing of blackleg infection. The objective of this study is to develop disease control options and best management practices to control the disease. By researching the consequences of disease management practices on yields, there is a unique opportunity to increase both yield and quality in Minnesota canola. This would help demonstrate the reliability of canola as a cropping choice in the state.

Winter Meeting Attracts Large Crowd

Nearly 150 producers, university personnel and industry representatives attended “Add Gold to Your Rotation and Watch Your Profits Grow,” the MCC’s annual winter meeting in Roseau in December. Educational sessions focused on new innovations, the safety net available to canola growers through crop insurance and the farm bill; 2014 Minnesota Canola Production Centre research; world market demand for oil; and a summary of the 2014 growing

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season and benefits realized by producers who incorporated canola into their crop rotation. These sessions were followed by a grand prize giveaway featuring a Polaris 600 Indy SP snowmobile, sponsored by Northstar AgriIndustries. In addition, Bayer CropScience, Brett Young, CROPLAN, DeKalb, DuPont Pioneer and Star Specialty Seed each sponsored a giveaway of 20 acres worth of canola seed for 2015 production.

2014 Outstanding Service Award

The MCC’s Outstanding Ser vice Award recognizes and rewards significant contributions to the Minnesota canola industry. The 2014 award was presented to Minnesota Canola Production Centre Site Agronomist Dave Grafstrom, who has served in this role since 2012. He has logged many hours tending to plots, presenting information at meetings and working with the MCC to the benefit of Minnesota canola growers.

Open Seats for Election on MCC Board

The MCC is seeking canola growers interested in running for three director seats

MARCH • APRIL 2015

up for election this year: At Large, District 2 (Kittson & Marshall Counties) and District 4 (all other counties). The At-Large position can be filled by any Minnesota canola grower regardless of county. The District 2 position can only be filled by a Kittson or Marshall County canola grower. The District 4 position can only be filled by a canola grower who resides in any county other than Kittson, Marshall, Roseau, LOW, Beltrami or Koochiching. These are three-year terms.

Research Assistant Needed in Roseau

The University of Minnesota is looking to hire an undergraduate research assistant for upkeep of grounds and maintaining research plots at the Magnusson Research Farm near Roseau. General duties include operating small plot tillage, planting and harvesting equipment; assisting supervisors in preparing field research plots; performing routine maintenance on project equipment; and collecting data/samples. Must reside in proximity to Roseau and have transportation to and from the Magnusson Research Farm. If interested, please contact Donn Vellekson at velle001@umn.edu or 612.625.9765.

2013-14 MCC Annual Report

The 2013-14 MCC annual report is available at www.mncanola.org. If you were unable to attend the MCC’s annual conference to obtain a copy, visit the website to view and/or print it. BETH NELSON IS PRESIDENT AND JON DOCKTER IS ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF THE MINNESOTA CANOLA COUNCIL IN ST. PAUL, MINN.


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quick bytes

capitol hill A total of 36 federal lawmakers wrote to Env ironmental P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y ( E PA ) Administrator Gina McCarthy in early February, urging the EPA to set new renewable fuel mandates for 2014 and 2015, according to the Des Moines R e g i s t e r. T h e l a w m a k e r s argued the delay is causing biodiesel producers to reduce their work force and close plants. A survey showed 80 p e rce nt of U. S . bi o d i e s e l producers had scaled back pro duc t ion l a st ye ar, and about 60 percent stopped production altogether because the standards were not announced. The EPA is expected to rule on the 2014 and 2015 standards sometime this year.

agronomy A survey of canola growers in the Pacific Northwest by the University of Idaho over the last two years found that 63 percent of regional producers grew winter crops, according to Farm Progress. The survey shows that 78 percent produced spring canola and 95 percent of them will do it again this year. Most farmers plan to maintain the same acreage, but 22 percent will increase their area planted. The survey is intended to help farmers optimize canola production by identifying best practices in the Pacific Northwest.

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The Minnesota Farm Guide reported the results of Minnesot a’s Canola Production Centre’s 2014 trial results. The spring fertilizer rate was 140-30-30-30 and a p plie d a n d incorp o rate d b efo re t h e f i n a l s e e d b e d preparation. The seeding date was late, May 29, but good weather allowed for above average yields.

t o s h a r e ke y i n g r e d i e n t s to keep on hand for easy, healthy recipes. Canola oil made the list because it ’s low in saturated fat and a good source of plant-based omega-3 fat. It is also versatile, making it suitable for baking, sautéing and salad dressings.

includes research summaries, video interviews and clips, published resources and other multimedia materials. Kansas State Research and Extension will host canola schools in March to provide producers with tools to manage the agronomics and marketing of winter canola, according to Mike Stamm in the High Plains/Midwest Ag Journal. The first session will be March 5 in Concordia and the second March 10 in Kingman.

oil around the world nutrition While people may associate heart health with foods like fruits and vegetables, other heart-smart foods may come as a surprise, according to a re g i s te re d d i e t i t i a n o n WebMD. In addition to outliers such as beer and potatoes, canola oil made the list because it contains 93 percent healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and the least amount of saturated fat (7 percent) of any common oil. Also, studies show that canola oil may reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease when used in place of saturated fat. A health educator at Vanderbilt University shared a list of steps with the Vanderbilt University M e d i c a l Ce n t e r R e p o r t e r for maintaining a healthier heart during February’s Heart M o n t h . F o r co o k i n g a n d making salad dressings, she suggested using oils that are low in saturated and trans fats, such as canola oil. We are on the move more t h a n e ve r, m a k i n g l a b o rintensive meals rare, according to a Time.com article. The magazine turned to dietitians

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Good management practices and good varieties have h e l p e d i m p rove C a n ad a’s canola y ields, pushing the country to become the second largest oilseed producer in the world, according to Stock J o u r n a l . C a n ad i a n c a n o l a y ields have increased 4 percent each year since 2000. Wheat is still the pr imar y crop at 10 million hectares, but canola is catching up at 8 million hectares.

latest industry news The Canola Council of Canada launched an online database called the Canola Research Hub for growers to locate the latest research findings to help increase profitability and productiv it y, reported Alberta Farm Express. The Hub was developed t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s c i e n ce b e hi n d b e s t m a n a ge m e nt practices of Canadian canola production, provide practical tools to evaluate agronomic p e r f o r m a n ce a n d i n f o r m production management decisions. The database

about USCA events The USCA Annual Membership and Board of Directors meeting was held Feb. 9 -1 1 i n Wa s h i n g t o n , D .C . Re p re s e nt at i ve s f ro m t h e Coalition for Safe and Affordable Foods, National B i o d i e s e l B o a rd a n d U. S . Depar tment of St ate’s Biotechnolog y and Tex tile Tr a d e P o l i c y D i v i s i o n addressed the group. Board members met with members of Congress on Capitol Hill to emphasize policy priorities and hosted the annual Canola on Capitol Hill re ce pt ion , which drew about 400 guests. T h e M a rch/A p r i l i s s u e of U.S. Canola Digest will be the last print issue of the magazine. Our monthly e-newsletter, Canola Quick Bytes, will continue and the USCA is exploring options for communications continuity in the future. We welcome reader suggestions at info@uscanola. com. And don’t forget to sign up for Canola Quick Bytes at uscanola.com!


Lights! Camera! Eat! Agricultural Documentaries Provide Food for Thought MOLLY COLLINS

THE IDEA OF CURLING UP on the couch with a movie is inviting during the winter months. Make it worth your time with a flick from our list below: 10 awardwinning food-centric documentaries focused on U.S. agricultural production and food ser vice and use. Most are available to stream online via Amazon, Netflix or iTunes. Have another favorite you enjoy? Share it with us on Facebook at www.facebook. com/USCanolaAssociation.

Agriculture

1. Farmland (2014): This film travels across the U.S., interviewing young farmers in their 20s about working on their family farm, especially at a time when most Americans cannot even say where their food is grown. This high-quality documentary aims to showcase the future of agriculture in America. 2. Growing Cities (2013): Every inch of land is valuable, especially in expanding cities. Subjects of this documentar y grow their food on rooftops, vacant city lots, backyard c h ic k e n c o op s a nd a ny s p a c e they can find in a crowded urban environment. This film examines the impact urban farming has had on various communities, not just in the way people eat but how they work together. 3. Eating Alabama (2012): The food system of the early 20th Century was significantly different than the gastronomical lifestyle A mericans enjoy today. In this film, a young couple moves back to Alabama to attempt eating the same way as their grandparents, focusing on seasonal and local foods. They soon run into obstacles as the modernized food system sharply contrasts to that of a bygone era. 4. Grow! (2011): This film focuses on 20 of the newest U.S. citizens to add “farmer” to the top of their

resume. These newcomers borrow, rent or manage farmland until they can afford to buy their own. As the director travels across 12 farms in Georgia during a single growing season, these youth share their hopes and aspirations for the future of agriculture and the legacy they hope to leave. 5. American Farm (2005): The director looks at the past and present of his own family farm, where his mother grew up. He discusses the economic pressures and societal conf licts of farming with his children, who are planning non-agricultural careers. The f ilm paints a picture of the diminishing small, American farm.

Food

1. The Restaurateur (2013): Famous restaurateur Danny Meyer attempted to open two world-class restaurants in New York City within a month of one another in 1998. This documentary follows the challenges and triumphs along the way in creating Eleven M a d i s on Pa r k , s t i l l a w o r l d recognized culinar y wonder, and Tabla, which was unable to weather the economic struggles of the 2000s. 2. The Fruit Hunters (2012): This unique and beautifully filmed documentary follows globe travelers looking for the world’s most interesting fruits. Among the fruit hunters is actor Bill Pullman of “Independence Day” and “While You Were Sleeping,” who tries to open a community orchard in the hills of Hollywood. 3. Spinning Plates (2012): Whether a restaurant serves five-star cuisine or biscuits and gravy, there is a story behind them all and the importance they ser ve to a communit y. This documentary goes behind the scenes of three very different restaurants while showing similarities. 4. A Mat ter of Ta ste (2011): T h is documentary dives into the life of Chef Paul Liebrandt, co-owner of Cor ton restaura nt in New York City, and his creative approach to cooking. Over the course of 10 years, Liebrandt moves between restaurants and food consulting, trying to find a fit for his talents while aiming to please Michelin and New York Times critics. 5. Dive (2010): Does the amount of garbage in a landfill concern you? Would it prompt you to sift through a grocery store’s dumpster for edible food? This f ilm follows dumpster divers in order to highlight food waste in America. MOLLY COLLINS IS ASSISTANT EDITOR FOR U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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canola cooks

PUT SPRING INTO YOUR KITCHEN MOLLY COLLINS

LITTLE SPRING CAKES Developed for CanolaInfo by George Geary. canola oil cooking spray

SPRING IS A TIME FOR REFRESHMENT: cleaning out the house, restarting healthy diets and taking mental breaks from school and work. The tradition of celebrating spring crosses many different cultures. In ancient Greek mythology, spring was a time for Persephone, daughter of Demeter, goddess of the harvest, to return from the underworld and make everything bloom again. In Japan, the tradition of hanami signals the end of cold weather with the arrival of cherry blossoms across the country. This year, spring in the Northern Hemisphere officially begins on March 20. If you’ve already forgotten about your New Year’s resolutions, take this time to set new ones. In the kitchen, try out that recipe your grandmother handed down. Find creative ways to incorporate more vegetables into your diet. Consume healthy unsaturated fats, like omega-3 and monounsaturated fats found in canola oil. Most importantly, take note from our ancient ancestors and celebrate the rebirth of nature with plentiful crops and foods made from them. These spring cakes are an easy way to kick off the festivities, producing enough to share with your loved ones or save in the freezer for later. Canola oil in place of butter makes the cakes moister and reduces the amount of total and saturated fat in each delicious bite. Bon appétit and happy spring! MOLLY COLLINS IS ASSISTANT EDITOR OF U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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BATTER: 3 cups all-purpose flour 1 tsp ground cinnamon 1 tsp baking soda 1 tsp salt 1/2 tsp ground nutmeg 1 1/4 cups canola oil 2 cups granulated sugar 2 cups very ripe bananas, mashed 1 cup crushed pineapple, drained 1 cup mandarin oranges, chopped 1/2 cup pecans, chopped and toasted 3 large eggs 1 1/2 tsp pure vanilla extract

ICING GLAZE: 2 cup confectioners sugar 2 tsp mandarin orange zest 2 tsp canola oil 10 mL 2 tsp mandarin orange juice (variable)

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Preheat oven 325 °F. Prepare two 12-cup muffin tins by spraying with canola oil cooking spray. 2. In large bowl, combine flour, cinnamon, soda, salt and nutmeg. Set aside. 3. In mixing bowl attached with paddle attachment, on medium speed, blend canola oil, sugar, bananas, pineapple, oranges, pecans, eggs and vanilla until combined. 4. On low speed, add flour mixture. Blend until fully mixed, about 2 minutes. 5. Divide evenly into prepared muffin tins. Place into preheated oven, bake until light brown and toothpick inserted into center comes out clean (a piece of fruit from mixture may stay on toothpick, which is fine) about 18 to 24 minutes. 6. Cool for 10 minutes in tin. Remove from tins and place on wire rack to cool completely. 7. To make icing glaze, in small bowl, whisk together sugar, zest and canola oil. Drizzle orange juice into glaze until desired pourable texture is obtained. Drizzle a few tablespoons of glaze on top of each cake. Yield: 24 little cakes. Serving size: 1. Tip: You can freeze the cakes prior to glazing for up to 2 months.

MARCH • APRIL 2015


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U.S. CANOL A DIGEST

33


Maturity

Competitor Hybrid/Brand

Number of Comparisons

Percentage of Wins

Pioneer Yield (Bu/A)

Competitor Yield (Bu/A)

Yield Advantage (Bu/A)

45H29 (RR)

5

InVigor 5440

18

56%

49.5

47.4

2.1

45H29 (RR)

5

InVigor L130

23

78%

51.7

49.1

2.6

45H29 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-44BL

66

56%

53.3

52.7

0.6

45H29 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-54RR

25

56%

49.3

47.7

1.5

45H31 (RR)

5

InVigor 5440

22

68%

50.2

48.9

1.3

45H31 (RR)

5

InVigor L130

19

53%

52.2

50.7

1.6

45H31 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-54RR

21

57%

48.8

48.3

0.5

45H33 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-44BL

8

63%

45.3

44.5

0.8

45H33 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-54RR

9

56%

52.0

50.0

2.0

45S56 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-44BL

9

44%

42.4

42.4

0.0

45S56 (RR)

5

DeKalb 74-54RR

7

43%

45.1

44.8

0.3

46H75 (CL)

6

Brett-Young Seeds 5525CL

30

90%

54.4

51.0

3.4

46H75 (CL)

6

Brett-Young Seeds 5535CL

8

75%

56.3

52.2

4.2

45H76 (CL)

5

Brett-Young Seeds 5525CL

17

65%

51.2

49.7

1.6

Pioneer® Hybrid

1

For plots in your area go to Pioneer.com/Yield

Data is based on average of 2013 & 2014 comparisons made in North Dakota and Manitoba, Canada through October 6th, 2014. Comparisons are against all competitors, unless otherwise stated. Product responses are variable and subject to any number of environmental, disease and pest pressures. Individual results may vary. Multi-year and multi-location data are a better predictor of future performance. DO NOT USE THIS OR ANY OTHER DATA FROM A LIMITED NUMBER OF TRIALS AS A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN PRODUCT SELECTION. Refer to www.pioneer.com/products or contact a Pioneer sales representative or authorized dealer for the latest and complete listing of traits and scores for each Pioneer® brand product. MATURITY: 9 = Late; 6 = Medium; 5 = Medium-Early; 3 = Early; 1 = Very Early.

1

HERBICIDE TOLERANT TRAIT: Hybrids and varieties with the Roundup Ready® gene (RR) are tolerant to labeled rates of Roundup® branded herbicides. This technology allows for post-emergent applications of Roundup without crop injury or stress (see herbicide label). Labeled Roundup herbicide should only be used over the top of those hybrids and varieties that carry the Roundup Ready designation. Hybrids and varieties with the CLEARFIELD® trait (CL) are tolerant to labeled rates of Beyond®, Odyssey® or Absolute® herbicides. This technology allows for post-emergent applications of these herbicides without crop injury or stress (see herbicide label). Labeled herbicides should only be used over the top of those hybrids and varieties that contain the CLEARFIELD trait. Roundup Ready® and Roundup® are registered trademarks used under license from Monsanto Company. The unique Clearfield symbol and Clearfield® are registered trademarks of BASF. All products are trademarks of their manufacturer. The DuPont Oval Logo is a registered trademark of DuPont. PIONEER® brand products are provided subject to the terms and conditions of purchase which are part of the labeling and purchase documents. , , Trademarks and service marks of Pioneer. © 2014 PHII. DUPPCO.14006_CD-JF15

® TM SM

U.S. Canola Digest - March/April 2015  
U.S. Canola Digest - March/April 2015  

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