North Central Canola Research Program

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North Central Canola Research Program Brian Jenks North Dakota State University This project is supported by the Supplemental and Alternative Crops Competitive grant no. USDA-NIFA-OP-005676 of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

North Central Canola Research Program • • • •

North Dakota Minnesota South Dakota Wisconsin

2016 Priorities High priority will be given to research that identifies and addresses the major impediments to the expansion of canola acreage and production. Specific research priorities considered for funding may include, but are not limited to (not listed in order of importance): 1. Production practices that optimize yield, quality, and profit 2. Disease management with emphasis on blackleg management. 3. Insect management, identification and control 4. Straight-harvest canola research, including the use of desiccants

2016 Priorities

5. Rotation studies that determine optimal broadleaf crops to precede canola 6. Reduction of pod shattering, including identification of varieties resistant to shattering 7. Increasing oil yield per acre in canola 8. Nitrogen/sulfur fertility management, including useefficiency studies 9. Other traditional or non-traditional research that has potential to increase canola acres and production 10. Evaluating and improving canola production on marginal lands (e.g., saline soils). 11. Education and management of clubroot.

Canola Desiccation

• • • •

Desiccant Timing Harvest date Straight cut

Impact of previous crop on soybean and canola yield

1: Determine if soybean yield is greater following canola than wheat 2: Determine if canola yield is greater following soybean than wheat

Canola Direct Costs ($221.44) $/A Source: NDSU Crop Budget - 2016 $/acre Seed Fertilizer Herbicides Fuel Repairs Fungicide Crop Ins Op interest Misc

Canola Fertility Trial • Objective to compare 100% soil applied nitrogen to a base nitrogen applied at planting and followed up with post emergence dry and liquid nitrogen • Post emergence timing 3 to 5 leaf canola • Soil applied N only: 0, 90, 135 and 180 • Soil base N of 45 followed by post emergence dry and liquid rates: 45, 90, 135

Canola Stubble After Harvest Canola 12 inch rows

Canola 24 inch rows

Survey and Creating Awareness on Identification and Management Plan of Clubroot of Canola in Northeastern North Dakota

Venkat Chapara, Plant Pathologist Naeem Kalwar & Lesley Lubenow (Extension Specialists) LREC, Langdon-ND

Clubroot infected roots on Volunteers

Volunteer Canola

Clubroot on CanolaCavalier County 2016

Mid season Infection

Infected Volunteer Canola

Severe root infection


Clubroot Survey Results-2016







Cavalier Towner Pembina Walsh Rolette Ramsey Nelson Ward #of fields surveyed


119 fields have been surveyed with only one field positive to clubroot

Meetings conducted in 2016-17 County Cavalier Towner Pembina Walsh Rolette Ramsey and Nelson Ward

# of Meetings conducted

5 1 2 2 0 1 0

11 meetings have been conducted in the year 2016-17 in 7 counties

Plans in the future to help overcome production challenges  Clubroot may have a devastating impact on canola production without educating canola growers  Clubroot survey will be continued to monitor the prevalence of clubroot and its spread  Clubroot awareness programs, meetings, field days, and field visits will be continued in the coming cropping season

NDSU Canola Breeding Program Project title: Development of high oil per acre conventional canola cultivar using classical and molecular approaches Project report: Year 2016-2017

Challenges of canola breeding in ND? Alberta

Industry Breeding Saskatoon Manitoba

ďƒ˜ Canola variety grown in ND are developed and tested mostly in Saskatoon. As a result cultivated varieties may not be the best adaptive in North Central Region conditions. ďƒ˜ Therefore, ND required a breeding program to develop and to evaluate canola variety in ND conditions.

North Dakota

Industry collaboration established • • • • • • •

Monsanto (Hybrid breeding) DL Seeds Inc. (Hybrid breeding) Proseed (Hybrid commercialization) Croplan (Hybrid commercialization) Star Seed Inc. (Hybrid commercialization) INRA, France (CMS Licensing) INRA, France (Restorer gene Licensing)

Achievements until now  Released 1st high oil RR canola variety in North Dakota.  High seed yielding SPECIALITY CANOLA cultivar (NDSU14WC17) is in progress to release in ND.  Created and identified several hundreds conventional breeding lines with variable characteristics.  Developed full capacity for field experiment, greenhouse experiment, and Lab analysis.  Introduced double haploid technology to increase breeding efficiency.  Partial genome sequenced of 366 conventional lines.  Established collaborative research with public and private sectors.

Future plan to overcome production challenges  We are developing canola germplasm with high seed yield, high oil content, disease resistant/tolerant, stress tolerant germplasm adapted to North Central Region.  Joint Hybrids with Industry partners are in progress to develop and release in this region.

Canola Pathology – Summary  Dr. Luis del Rio

Canola Pathology – Summary Current situation • Blackleg is quickly becoming the most important disease affecting canola production in the region • A 2015 survey of 91 fields revealed blackleg presence in 78% of them; severe yield losses recorded in a few fields • Stage is being set for severe blackleg epidemics that could significantly reduce North Dakota production of canola (50-60% yield reductions)

Challenges addressed in the past • Blackleg is becoming the most important disease - Growers have been alerted about increasing prevalence of blackleg (2 field days and winter meetings) - Information on foliar fungicide use to manage blackleg has been generated and presented to growers • Most commercial cultivars are susceptible to blackleg - We have identified five plant introductions (out of 571) with broad resistance against blackleg - Association mapping analysis on 571 plant introductions identified 28 markers associated with resistance

What will be done in the future • Identify and validate most influential markers from AM analysis to assist in transfer of resistance • Transfer of resistance from plant introductions into modern breeding lines • Develop doubled haploid populations to identify additional markers that will speed up transfer of resistance • Identify seed treatments and novel fungicide delivery systems to improve chemical control of blackleg • Evaluate and transfer resistance from other B. napus sources

Future • • • • • • •

There is potential for more acres in NC region Expect similar research focus Clubroot could be serious Try to stay ahead of blackleg Shatter-resistant varieties make a difference Competition with other crops is a challenge Opportunity for canola to increase as other crops face challenges as well

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