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THE OFFICIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION OF THE UNITED STATES GYMNASTICS FEDERATION

September 1985

Vol. 5, No.3

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NON PROFIT ORGANIZATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ U.S. POSTAGE PAID Indianapolis, IN PERMIT NO. 123

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New From the USGF Bookstore C y ~ OACHING

OUNG

ATH L ETE S

Rainer Martens, Robert W. Christina, John S. Harvey, Jr., & Brian J. Sharkey Becoming a successful coach is what Coaching Young Athletes is all about! And being successful doesn't just mean winning meets; it means helping young athletes to enjoy mastering new skills , to enjoy competing with others, and to feel good about them selves. You'll be challenged to develop a coaching philosophy and to learn the essentials of sport psychology , sport pedagogy , sport phYSiology , and sports medicine-all in a fun and interesting way! 1981 • Paper • 200 pp • $12.00 - US & Canada

Coaching Women's Gymnastics

Physiology of Fitness

Coaching Young Athletes

(2nd Edition) Brian J. Sharkey

Bill Sands

Here 's a fitness book that's different. One that's comprehensive , well-written , and easy to use. And , it's written by one of the fore most authorities on fitness. In addition to covering the basics of aerobic fitness , fitness and weight control , and fitness and lifestyle , this second edition includes new views on the causes of overweight and obesity , and a revised section on muscular fitness training. Sharkey also provides 100 pages of helpful appendices with tests , programs , and information on caloric intake and expenditure . 1984 • Paper • 384 pp • $12 .95 - US & Canada

Finally! A common-sense approach to coaching women 's gymnastics . The four-part book is directed at both novice and experienced coaches and includes the following chapters:

ADDITIONAL BOOKS OF INTEREST.

In Pursuit of Excellence Terry Orlick Find out how psychological tools such as relaxation . mental imagery , and concentration can help both athletes and coaches in their pursuit of excellenc e. 1980· Paper· 326 pp • $10.95-US & Canada

Joy and Sadness in Children's Sports Edited by Rainer Martens A unique blend of informative and e ntertaining articles by well-known writers and athletes co ncerning major issues in children's sports. 1978 • Paper. 375 pp • $11.95 - US & Canada

Coaches' Guide to Nutrition and Weight Control Patricia Eisenman & Dennis A. Johnson Contains the most up -to-date informatio n on the "wh ys " and "hows" of high octane die ts , food fad s and myths , achieving ideal weight , and morel 1982 • Paper· 255 pp • 59 .95 - US & Canada

Children in Sport (2nd Edition) Edited by Richard A. Magill, Michael J. Ash, & Frank L. Smoll Twenty articles examine the current state of yo uth sports research and offe r gUidelines to be applied in sport settings. 1982. Paper. 327 pp • 510 .95-US & Canada

Living Anatomy

I. Philosophy 1. Why Coaching? 2 . The Role of the Coach 3 . Commitment 4 . Setting Reasonable Goals II.

Program Schedule and Training Load Facility and Equipment The Support Staff The Selection Process Talented and Enthusiastic Coaches 10 . Research 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

III. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15.

Preparation Physical Preparation Psychological Preparation Technical Preparation Tactical Preparation Theoretical Preparation

IV. 16 . 17 . 18. 19 . 20 .

Applications Looking at Two Skills The Full -In: A Methodology The Gymnast and the Warm-up Overtraining Compositional Analysis : Uneven Bars 21. Observations of Training : Female Foreign Gymnasts at the 1981 American Cup

Joseph E. Donnelly

Ergogenic Aids in Sport

This "nontraditional" approach to learning anato my uses a "hands on" approach instead of rel yin g o n rote memorization . The living anato m y tec hniqu e is fun - and it really works I

Learn about the latest research on 13 comm o n substances o r treatme nt s used by athle tes toda y in an effort to gain the "winning edge."

Additional Information Epilogue • Daily Training Diary. Computer Programs • Associations • Magazines and Journals. Recommended Books • Bibliography

1982 • Spiral· 207 pp • 513.95 - US & Canada

1983 • Hard. 395 pp • 523 .95 - US & Canada

1984 • Hard • 288 pp • $17.95-US & Canada

Edited by Melvin H. WHliams

Quantity

ORDER FORM Enclose check or money order payable to USGF Bookstore. Payment must accompany order. Return order to USGF Bookstore , 1099 N. Meridian St. , Suite 380, Indianapolis, IN 46204. Amount enclosed _ __ __ _ __ __

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Coaching Women 's Gymnastics

$17.95

Ph ysiology of Fitness

$12 .95

Coaching Young Athletes

$12.00

In Pursuit of Excellence

$10.95

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Jo y and Sadness in Children 's Sports

$11.95

Name

living Anatom y

$13 .95

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Coaches' Guide to Nutrition and Weight Control

$ 9.95

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Children in Sport

$10 .95

Ergogenic Aids in Sport

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Vol. 5, No.3

September 1985

Inside This Issue 4-7 Conditioning For Gymnastics: A Dilemma 8 Directives and Additions

By Bill Sands Univ. of Utah By K. H. Zschoke Pres. FIG/MTC

9-15 Judges Comments At 1985 Championships (Men) 16-17 Initial Management Of Gymnastics Injuries

By Jack Rockwell

18-19 USGF Calendar Of Events

Cover photos ~ 1985 USGF by Dave Black All inside photos ~ 1985 USGF by Dave Black CHA NGE OF ADDR ESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIR IES : In order to ensure uninterru pted qelivery of TEC HNI QUE m agazi n e. nolice of change of address should be made six to eig h t weeks in advance . For fas t est ser vice. please enclose your present m ailing labeL Direc t all subscri p t ion mai l to TEC HNIQUE SUBSCR IPT IO N S.

1099 N. Meridian St.. Suite 380. Indianapolis. IN. 46204 . POSTMASTER: Send address change 10 TECHNI QUE. t099 N. Meridian St .. Indianapo lis. IN 46204 . TECHN IQUE is published quarterly for 512.00 by Ihe United States Gymnastics Federation . 1099 N. Meridian SI.. Suite 380. Indianapo lis. IN . 46204 (Phone: 317-638-8743). Third class poslage paid at Indianapolis. IN . Subscription price: 512.00 per year in United Slates: all other countries 524 .00 per year. All reasonable care will be taken . but no responsibi l ity can be assumed fo r unsolicited ma t eria l: enclose return post age 1$ 1985 by USG F a n d Tech n ique. A ll rights reserved . Prin ted in USA Technique Preparation of Articles lor Sul:Jmission:

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Please fol low a uni form fo rm al o f pre p ari n g ar ticles fo r submission in order to p rov ide the most efficient channe l through t h e evaluat ion an d review process. The follow.ing Should be included in submissions : 1. An o riginal type copy, doubled spaced on BY.. x 11 inch paper . 2. An a b st r ac t . on a sepa rate page. a sho rt su mm ar y o f procedu r e a nd ex pl anat ion of study or artic le content (no t more than 150 wo r ds) . 3. A short biogr aphical parag r aph on a separate page of the author or authors accompanied by a small p hoto (2 h x 3 '/;> ") of th e aut hor 4. Refe r ences o n a sepa r ate sheet double spaced in consecutive o rder . using Index Medicine sty le (authors name-last name firs t. nameal book . city . publisher . year. page numbers) journal references . should follow same format (author. name of article . Journal name. vo lume . pages. year) . 5. Duplica tes of p ictures and diagrams or figu res (black and whi t e preferred) with sharp detail. A lso inctude explanations (ca ptions ) of pictures and diagrams on a separate sheet Photograph re lease-a letter of release from any Iden tifiable subject in photos tha t are included in the article unless the (ace or eyes are obscu rred . Letter should be sig ned by subject . parent or guardian

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Title page consisting of an informative title. authors name and com plete institutional or professional address. Submission of Articles for Publication :

Written articles will be accepted for review and possible publication in the following procedu re . First t he art icles a re sent to : USG F Depa rt men t o f Pu bl ications

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Publisher Mike Jacki Associate Editor Robert Cowan Production Michael G. Botkin USGF Member Organizations Ama teur Athk~tic U n ion; Ame rica n Sokol O rgani za tion; Ame rica n Turners; Assoc iatio n fo r Intercoll egiate At hl etics fo r Wom en; Na tio nal Association fo r G irl s and Wu m en's Spo rt s; Na ti onal. Assuc. o f Co llege Gymnasti cs Coaches; NACGC路Wome n; N\' tio nal Assoc. of WOllle n Gym na stics Ju dges; NCAA; ational Federation of Sta te H igh Schoo l Assoc.; ationa l Gymnas tics Judges Assoc.; Na ti o nal H igh Schoo l GY l11l'1.astics Coaches Nat io nal j ew i sh We lfa re Boa rd ; Na ti o nal Jun io'r Co ll ege A thle tic Assoc.; U n itl~d States Assoc. o f Independe nt Gym na sti cs Clu bs; U nited Sta tes Gym nas tics Safe ty Assoc.; You ng Men's C h ri stian Assoc .; Eli te Coac hes Assoc.; Men's Elit e Coac hes Assoc .; Wom en 's Elite Coach es Assoc.

United States Gymnastics Federation Board c f Directors: Executive Director, Mike jac ki . Athlete Representatives: Na ncy Ma rsh a ll; Bre nt Simm o ns; Larry Ge ra rd; To m Beach; Lydia Bree; Ka th y joh n son; Dia ne Bijesse; li m La Fle u r. Amateur Athletic Union : je rry Ha rd y. American Sokol Organization : Nor m a Za bk a. American Turners : H a rr y Wa rn ke n . Members at Large: Su e A m me rma n a nd Linda C h e ncinsk i. NCAA G y mnastics CoachesMen: Rus ty M itc h ell, U ni ve rsit y of New Mexico. NCAA Gymnastics Coaches-Women : jud y Aven e r, Penn Sta te U n ive rs ity. National Association for Girls and Women in Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray, S prin g fi e ld Co ll ege. National Association of Women's Gymn as tic s .Jud g e s: Da le Brow n . NCAA : Sylvia Moore, O regon Sta te Uni ve rsity; G reg Ma rsd e n , U n ive rsity of Uta h; je rry M iles, 'f, NCAA; Way n e Yo un g, Bri gh a m Yo un g Uni ve rs ity. NAIA : Bo nnie Mor row. NHsG C A: jo h n Brinkwo rth . National Federation of State High S chool Athletic: Sha ron Wilch : Susa n True. National Je wish Welfa re Board: Cou rtney Sha n ken. NJCAA: Dave Row lands, Truma n College; A rle ne C rossma n , Linn Be nto n College. NGJA: Mike Milid o ni s. UsAIGC: Ed Kn eppe r. Men 's Elit e Coaches Assoc.: jim Howa rd, Uni ve rsity of Nebraska. USECA for Women : Roe Kre ut ze r; Steve W h itl ock. Young Men's Chri s tian Assoc .: Bud Wi lkin so n . Jr. Boy's G ym . Coach es Assoc.: Robert Cowa n . Preside nt: Mike Dona hu e. Associate Content Editors

SPORTS MEDI CINE CQMMllTEE Me rrill A. Ri tter. M. D. SAFETY COMMIlTEE Dr. Marc Rabi noff EDUCATION COMMIlTEE D r. Garl an d O'Qui nn

BIOMECHANICS COMMIlTEE D r. Marlene Adrian, Director

SPQRTS PSYCHOLOGY COMMIlTEE Dr. Keith Henschen. Ph .D. EXERCIS E PHYSIOLOGY COMMIlTEE Dr. Pat Eisenman, Ph .D .

Unless expressly identified to the contrary, all articl es, st ate m ents and views printed hl' rein a rc attribut ed sok\" to th l' auth o r a nd th l' Unit ed Sta tl's Gy mn asti cs 'F ede rat io n ex presses no o p in路 io n th e r e on and ass ume s n o re sp o n s ibilit )" t he reof.

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Conditioning for Gymnastics: A Dilemma By Bill Sands Human Performance Research Laboratory University of Utah ymnastics is progressing in difficulty and risk at a rate that is hard to fathom . In an effort to compete in the international arena , the gymnast must constantly push his / her performance envelope wider and higher. Science can aid the athlete in this endeavor and perhaps must be called upon to help prevent injury. An area of sport science, that hardly gets an uptu rned eyebrow from the gymnastics community is exercise physiology. Gymnastics can be served by two branches of exercise physiology which are the study of; (a) the energy systems behind activity and (b) body com position . Recent information about energy systems and conditioning may have far reaching implications for gymnastics training and performance , particularly for women . Conditioning for gymnastics is a multifaceted concept. The goal of cond itioning is to produce fitness. Fitness is typically divided into several characteristics: (a) strength , (b) power , (c) flexibility , (d) muscular endurance , (e) cardiorespiratory endurance , (f) body composition , and (g) skill (de Vries, 1966) . Interestingly, recent information has shown that attaining these characteristics is even more specific than once thought and training for some of the characteristics can actually interfere with attaining others (Hickson , 1980) . If the gymnast is actually harming the attainment of strength , power, or muscular endurance by training some other different characteristic he/ she may become weaker rather

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than stronger by conditioning. This fructose, galactose , etc .), fats (trisounds like a real paradox, so let's glycerides), or proteins (amino lay some fundamental information acids) as fuel for work unless they to describe how this might work . are first used to make ATP . ATP is All athletes use muscle tissue to the " money" that the cell uses to buy produce the movements which are work , whether it be chemical , heat , the stock in trade of their particular or mechanical. When you have lots sport. Muscles are composed of of A TP avai lable you have the cells and each cell produces a potential for large outlays of energy, contraction by a wondrous bio- both in intensity and duration . When chemical process using thousands you don't, you 're energy poor, and of different enzymes and products . the cells cannot do work. Therefore, The energy that the cells extract in order to perform work we have to from foodstuffs , (ie . substrate at the make ATP, the more the better, and level of the cell) must be utilized to we must have a means of replenishproduce a wide variety of work out- ing it in time for the next work bout. put levels . The movement can be Interestingly, ATP is such a volavery fine , like lifting the limb alone in tile compound that the muscle cell a dance movement. The movement doesn 't keep much of it around . The can be very repetitive like running, cell uses another energy source to or any succession of the same skill. continually replenish its stores of Or, it can be very explosive and ATP; phosphocreatine (PC) . PC is powerful like the take off for a also a very volatile compound and somersault, a vault, or other quick the cell doesn't keep much of it explosive movement. The typical around either. The ATP-PC energy muscle cell comes with three cate- source is immediately available to gories of energy systems that do not the cell for high intensity work and quite comfortably fit into the move- can be used for between 0 and 15 ment categories listed previously, seconds . Together , they cou Id but are selected by the body based supply the energy for a single vault , on the intensity of the work that the a single tumbling pass, a single skill, cell must perform (Brooks & Fahey , etc. Any work that is of very low 1984) . intensity may still use the ATP-PC system or another system we 'll d ishe chemical that the cuss later, but once the intensity muscle cell uses to power goes above a certain threshold level the contraction process is the cell wi II use the A TP-PC energy called adenosine triphos- source until it nears exhaustion . phate (A TP). Th is is the su bstance These energy sources are called the used by all cells to convert su btrate "alactic " system since although they from one form to another , to are anaerobic (without immediate produce movement, to make mole- need for o x ygen) , they do not cular alterations in substances, etc . produce lactic acid as their final The cell cannot use sugars (glucose , product. Th e PC and ATP are

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replenished very quickly by the cell from its other energy systems. In a sense, the ATP - PC system just spends the energy currency . This system must rely on other less "aggressive" systems to repay the lost ATP used in work output. The second energy system of the muscle cell is the fast glycolytic energy system or " lactic " energy system. This system starts with glucose (blood sugar) or glycogen (sugar stored in the muscle cell) and throughs several biochemical steps converts the six carbon glucose molecule into two , three carbon structures called lactic acid, and in the process creates two new ATP molecules that the cell can use for producing work. These new ATP 's can be used directly by the muscle cell to produce a contraction or the ATP's might go to make more PC so that the stores are kept up. The glycolytic system can combine with the ATP-PC system and produce work for 15 to 45 seconds before the acidity of its by-product , lactic acid, messes up the metabolic processes and work must stop. The intensity of the work supported by the glycolytic system is somewhat less than the A TP-PC system but it can be mai ntained for a longer period of time . The glycolytic pathway essentially buys time for the cell by producing work and a by-product. The lactic acid cannot accumulate very lon g before it poisons the metabolic machinery. Lactic acid is later converted back to glucose by the liver or is burned by heart muscle , The skeletal muscle cells , generally , do not have the appropriate enzymes to convert lactic acid into a burnable compound so they must get rid of it as long as they can. The glycolytic system is very important to the gymnast. Combined with the ATP-PC system these two pathways can share the energy production from 0 to 45 seconds of high intensity work output. After the ATP-PC system is exhausted, the fast glycolytic system can maintain energy production at a lower intensity from 45 seconds to around 2 minutes . Gymnasts must use these two systems predominantly for the types of performance that they do. Unever bar routines last for 20-35 seconds and of course , beam and floor routines last less than 1 and 1/ 2 minutes . Gymnastics also has rather extended rest periods after each bout of exercise so that the muscle Technique

cell has plenty of time to recover and rebuild the stores of ATP and PC and elimin ate the accumulated lactic acid. Then with ATP and PC stores back to normal and the lact ic acid cleared out of the cell the energy production can again use the ATPPC and glycolytic systems for another bout of work production . hat if the work output must go beyond two minutes? The gymnast does not typically exercise for this time duration except in the case of back-to - back floor routines used for conditioning. The period of work output from two minutes to five minutes is shared by the glycolytic pathway and the oxidative (aerobic) system. The oxidative system is fed by slow glycolysis that sends the glucose molecule one step short of lactic ac id and into the oxidative pathway where it is completely converted to carbon dioxide and water. The oxidative pathway also uses fat as fuel , in fact , a primary fuel. The previously listed pathways do not use fat for energy production . The oxidative pathway yields very high amounts of ATP per molecule of substrate as compared to the glycolytic pathway. The oxidative pathway is much slower, however, and can sustain only mild to moderate work intensity levels . After five min utes of sustai ned activity the oxidative pathway is almost completely dominant in energy production. Gymnastics training and performance rarely and incompletely uses the oxidative system of energy production (Table 1).

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he aforementioned concepts of energy production in the athlete should make it clear that the gymnast does not use energy systems that are oxidative (aerobic) for perform ance. The remaining paragraphs will consider recent literature and describe how these energy systems have been shown to " interfere " with each other. Moreover, the gymnast and coach should monitor the types

T Pri m ary Syste m (s) 1 2. 3. 4. 5.

ATP-PC ATP-PC + Lactic Lactic Acid Lact ic + Ox idati ve Oxidative

of energy systems being trained so that the results intended are the resu lts ach ieved . The principle of training called "specific ity " should dictate th at the body will adapt to exactly what is demanded of it, no more and no less . If the gymnast is asked to adapt to training that taxes th e ATP-PC or glycolytic energy systems then these systems w ill tend to be enhanced . If the athlete is trained by utilizing the oxidative energy systems these systems will develop and flourish . The b ig question is: "What happens when you try to develop both? " After all , any gymnast that is going to dismount with a double back on floor exercise will have to have more " endurance " than a gymnast who is simply dismounting with a full twist. The danger here is that we are not really talking about "endurance " in the oxidative sense when we are referring to gymnastics performance . Absolute muscular endurance refers to the muscle's abi I ity to main tain a fi xed submaximal force output, ie . work rate , relying primarily on ATP-PC and fast glycolys is until exhaustion. This type of muscular endurance is largely dependent upon the strength level of t:1e muscles in question (Stone, Wilson , Rozenek , Newton, 1984). The higher the strength level the longer the contractions can be maintained , and the greater the intensity of the work that can be maintained. Therefore , one method of reducing the onset of fatigue is to increase the strength of the muscles involved . The ATP and PC concentrations in the muscle are crucial to maintaining high intensity work rates. Strength training has been shown to increase the ATP , PC , and glycogen in the muscle (McDougall , J.D ., Ward , D.G. , Sale, D.G. , & Sutton , J.R , 1977; Brooks & Fahey , 1984) . The distance runner , for example, tends to develop saracoplasmic protein , oxidative enzymes and mitochondrial mass. In contrast , the strength trained ath lete, such as a weight lifter, tends to develop contract il e prote in , ATP and CP enzyme systems , and buffer-

Time for Continuous Work

Example of Act ivit y

0-15 sec 15-45 sec 45 sec-2 min 2-5 min > 5 min

1 vault or sk ill 1 bar routine 1 fl oor routine 1 mile run. soccer 10,000 m. marathon

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ing capacity for lactic acid (Brooks & Fahey , 1984). This supports two important concepts, (a) the athlete will develop that which he/ she train s and (b) the body adapts very specifically , even at the cellular level. Hickson (1980) performed a rather landmark study investigating the results of training both strength and endurance regimens in the lower body. He utilized three groups ; one tra ined just for strength , the second trained just for endurance, and the th i rd trai ned with both the strength and endurance protocols. The strength group did weight training three times per week . The endurance group pedalled a bicycle egrometer for five intervals of five minutes work followed by two minutes rest and ran 30, 35 , or 40 minutes per day. The third group did both the strength and endurance protocols. Hickson found that the strength group improved in measures of strength throughout the study. The endurance group also improved in oxidative endurance measures throughout the study. Group 3, the strength and endurance group , improved in endurance nearly the same as the endurance group throughout the study . The strength and endurance group began improving in strength at a slower rate than the strength group until the seventh week and then dramatically declined in strength scores . That's right, they got worse on strength scores. Hickson attributed this to an interference of endurance training on strength acquisition . This can shed some light on the way the gymnast typically trains to improve "endurance " for gymnastics. It may not be appropriate for gymnasts to train in an oxidative energy manner beyond a certain , and perhaps rather low , threshold . If a gymnast is trying to dismount with a double back on floor exercise it appears most appropriate to increase strength rather than oxidative capacity . This may also explain why a gymnast appears to get weaker when you start doing routines from a preceding period of skill development. Food for thought. There is some controversy about this phenomenon . Nelson (Fleck, 1984) concluded that strength training interfered with the maximum ability of the athlete to use oxidative energy systems and that endurance did not interfere with strength acquisition . Everyone has probably 6

heard about differences in muscle cell types . There are slow twitch fibers that are best at performing low intensity work for long periods , and fast twitch fi bers that are best at h ig h intensity work but fatigue more easily. Actually , this dualism is not quite so easily applied with real muscle tissue but it will suffice for now. There may be a design problem with these investigations since the type of muscle f i ber recruited is dependent upon the speed and intensity of the workload . The amount of training th.at occurs in a muscle fiber is determined by the extent to which it is recruited . If the subjects were different in fiber composition in the involved muscle then the responses to training would likely be different. A subject with a preponderance of slow twitch fibers will not respond to strength training as well as a subject with a high percentage of fast twitch fi bers. Moreover, if the duration of the training does not elicit the full responses of the slow twitch fiber then the slow twitch fiber will not develop its enzyme systems to maximum . And , to make it even more complicated , there is a muscle fiber type that can go both ways. I n the future , some effort at matching the subjects would seem appropriate and a comparable work load for those with similar distributions of fiber types could better answer the question . These factors are difficult to control so it may be some time before a definitive answer is available. Other evidence exists to show that there is some interference among training the different energy systems. Although, at this point , determining the exact nature of the interference is unlikely . Dudley (1984) noted that simultaneous isokinetic strength and endurance training (each mode on alternate days) reduced the peak torque at high velocities of contraction . Since peak power from a muscle group is attained at high contraction velocities (about 240 degrees/ sec) this would indicate that endurance training hinders gains in power. tone (1984) stated that coaches of track and field athletes had noted a reduction in leg speed and sprinting speed following long distance running performance, and that any return to " normal " running speed

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took considerable effort and time . Stone also noted that observations of weight lifters , who participated in small amounts of aerobic training (2-4 miles jogging / week) showed d路rops in ma x imum squatting strength of about 15 kg in six weeks. Interestingly, weight lifters who ran short sprints showed small increases in maximum squat strength (Stone , 1984) . Stone also observed that weightlifters and power lifters all suffered set backs in squatting strength while participating in aerobic dance or swimming. The anecdotal and emperical evidence would appear to support Hickson (1980). A prudent conclusion is that interference between the conditioning regimes is likely , but we cannot yet definitively say what this interference is. Let's consider a scenario that may will sum up the information to this point. The gymnast is training , getting ready for competition , just starting to perform full routines . The gymnast wants to end the floor exercise with a double back . The first several attempts prove that she is just not up to the task. She cannot perform the round off and flip flop with enough speed to make a double back . Since she knows that she can do the double back by itself at the beginning of the routine with ease she decides that what she lacks is endurance. Therefore , she begins aerobic dance , running , and cycling to build up the endurance in her legs . Result , she still cannot dismount with a double back and her progress toward that end becomes slower than anticipated . In my opinion , the logic used in developing the training program for achieving a very worthwhile result is flawless. However, as stated previously , it is strength not oxidative endurance that determines the muscular endurance in work bouts lasting under two minutes. Our gymnast should seek to improve strength , not endurance . So this is our dilemma? Actually, it gets a little more complicated. The female gymnast who needs to control her weight must burn off fat. The only way for the gymnast to rid herself of excess fat is to burn it in exercising muscle . From our knowledge of energy systems , we know that carbohydrate (sugar) is used as the fuel source for work of high intensity and short duration , ie. gymnastics. In order to burn fat as a Technique


fuel one must use o x idative mechanisms . To use o x idative energy systems the athlete must exercise at moderate intensity for more than five minutes, ie . aerobic work. This will allow her to burn off body fat. However, if she does too much aerobic work she may hinder her ability to get strong enough to perform gymnastics safely . The classic viscious cycle.

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o what are the recommendations? An aerobic base is ..-..::.......:-.-often bounced around the literature and thought to be desirable for health , recovery from work bouts, ability to purge the blood of lactic acid , etc. Since all of the energy systems are su bject to improvement by training it would appear wise to train only those energy systems that are needed for health and performance , with care not to over-do the oxidative systems in our case of gymnastics . The opinions of the desirability of an aerobic base in power sports is divided (Allsen , Dudley , Fleck , Technique gives the gymnasMaresh , & Stone, 1984) . lf an aerobic base is desirable it would be wisest tics professional, as well as to train this energy system prior to the enthusiast, a clear jump competitive pe r iods or routine trainon the rest of the community. ing. As you know, education in The gymnast with a tendency to our fast-paced sport is essenbe overweight will have to be monitial to the development of a tored closely so that aerobic work , to keep weight down, does not intersafe and effective program. fere with strength levels . Perhaps Technique gives you that vithe subject of a future communicatal information. Take advantion will be the potential benefits of tage of this most important short term , high intensity intervals resource. Subscribe today. that may be of use in training a gymnast. An example of such an Please mail orders to : USGF Department of Education and interval would be pedalling a bicycle Safety; 1099 North Meridian St., Suite 380 , Indianapolis, IN 46204. egrometer at a very high cadence for Please e nte r m y s ubsc ripti o n immedi a te ly. one to two minutes duration , rest , o Enclosed IS S 12 check o r muot:' ) orde r fOl 4 ISS ue S and then repeat several times . We need to monitor our athletes o C hec k enclosed - no b oll me or COD accepred training very closely so that our training regimes do not interfere TH E OFFI CIAL with strength and power since these TEC HNICAL are necessary to maintain safety. It is my hope to provide some later rePUBLI CATI ON OF search information as to ex actly how THE UNI TED STATE S this balance might be achieved and GYMNASTI CS FEDERATION maintained . In the mean time , the coach should keep a very close eye Mr ' Mrs I M IS' _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ on the athletes and training Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ program . A few simple tests of Cor y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Srar,. _ _ _ _ _ __ anaerobic power may prove helpful in maintaining this balance . A future ZIP _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ communication will describe some 0 Parenr 0 Coach 0 Orher C heck one 0 G ymnast / Age _ of the anaerobic power tests .

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DIRECTIVES AND ADDITIONS For The Correct Interpretation Of The 1985 Code of Points for Men By K.H. Zschocke President FIG/MTC hrough evaluation of the Judges Courses , the FIG Men's Technical Committee submits directives for the uniform interpretation of the new Code of Points, 1985 edition , to all National Federations. This should clarify misunderstandings and avoid new ones. In addition , some elements and connections are given as supplementary examples to the tables of difficulties for the individual apparatus . ATTENTION All references are made to the German edition of the Cod e ( P age n u m be r s ) _ __ _ (.G .E . . . means .. German edition) Floor: V-7 (page 77 G.E.) is C-element, also with straddled legs VI-2 (page 80 G.E.) new addition ... as ... B-element "handspring forward and saito forward tucked or piked to stand " . VI-26 (p. 84 G.E.) add . .. .. " .. . or stretched ... " -Healy from a handstand to lying support rearways = A -Sa ito backward stretched with 1 V2 turn followed by saito forward tucked = D -Raise to handstand with arms in side support (2 sec) = C -Menichel li through handstand = A, to the handstand (2 sec) = B Pommel Horse Czechkehre between the pommels = B Ru ssian wendeswing = B , between the pommels = C Thomas circles on the pommels = B, between the pommels = C Thomas circles between the pommels to handstand = D scissor forward with V2 turn to sciss'o r backward = C

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Dismounts through the handstand, are always C ... . . only .. . Thomas with closed legs is the exception .... = D Rings 111-6 (p . 138 G.E.) isalsofromthe support scale ..... B -Double saito piked-stretched =C -Deltchev = A -Feige (hip circle) to support scale with straight arms = D -V-support is recognized as holding part. Parallel Bars: 1-27 (p. 167 G .E.) new edition : as C-element "Stem me (uprise) forward with V2 turn to forward swing in support, body at least 30째 " 11-7 (p. 169 G .E.) new edition i.e . add . . . as C-element " ..... or with straddle over to support (Morisue )" -Swiss strength handstand on one bar = C -V-support on one bar = C -Support scale with straight arms = B -raise to handstand from support scale with straight arms = C -Handstand V2 turn forward or backward on one bar = C -Handstand, lower to glide kip with straight arms = B Horizontal Bar 111-7 (p. 213 G .E.) add as C-element " .. . or from a stalder shoot. .. i.e . from a sole circle." VI-18 (p . 220 G.E.) new addition as B-element ... "from a giant swing backward hop change to handstand to reverse grip ." VIII-23 (p. 235 G.E.) new addition as C-element. .. "double saito backward piked-stretched ." -Endo-Shoot-ordinary grip = C, with V2 turn = D -Giant forward ordinary grip = B -Stalder, open turn to Endo shoot = C + B

-Russian giant with dislocate = C -reg rasp with one arm following flight element = D -hip circ le with hop change to handstand into reverse grip = C - " Koeste " to handstand =C , otherwise B (p. 255 G.E.) -S too P t h r 0 ugh rea r way s forward with 1/ 2 turn through the handstand = C -Ellgrip. Giant, hop change V2 turn immediate stalder = B + B GENERAL DIRECTIVES: 1. Article 60/ 3 should read .... " more than 2 times executed elements . . .. " (not repeated) 2. Elements executed with stradd led legs , if not listed as specific actual difficulty on their own, will be devalued by one category. This also refers to : for example: Russian wende swing on pommel horse or to : Support turn on Parallel Bars etc ... 3. According to Article 28/ 4 ... all mounts must be executed from the basic position and from a stand or from a short run , without previous intermediate element. This means that so-called momentum gathering movements or additional swinging of one leg for example on ParallelBars or Pommel Horse are not permitted. The DEDUCTION for non-a dherence will be 0.10 pts. 4. For the recognition of the number of holding parts and value parts i.e. difficulty parts, the following rule should be applied: Pure strength-or balance parts must be held for 2 seconds, in order to be accepted as full difficulty in their respective category . For example: XI-2 (p. 198 G.E.) or XI-3 (p. 199 G.E.) or 11-19 (p. 171 G.E.) Swinging parts , which are executed technically correct and which reach the required end position , will be recognized as Technique


full difficulty, even when not held for 2 seconds. For example: Stutzkehre or flying somersault to handstand. 5. A flight element on High Bar , is recognized as such , when a pronounced hangphrase was

present prior to a fall. If a pronounced hang phase was not observed, it is not recognized as a flight element. 6. Full difficulty for a saito is recognized, when the rotation movement was concluded

accordingly, prior to a fall. If the turn was not concluded and the gymnast falls either forward or backward, the degree of difficulty is devalued by one category. Berlin, (RDA) July 1985

Judges Comments At 1985 Championships FLOOR EXERCISE Comments by Mark Graham 1. Overall , the compulsory text of "Typical Faults " as developed by the compulsory committee is excellent. It is promoting high level performances that can easily be seen in the improvements our gymnasts have already made. It is fair to teach gymnast and separates fairgood-outstanding performances. It is complex , but with practice is manageable. I would like to see the compulsory committee consider removing deductions that are basically included in the FIG , e.g. , rhythm . Judges will take those deductions naturally and Silould be focusing their attention on other requirements. 2. The gymnasts have improved their FX performances tremendously. The three parts that were weakest were the Kip to handstand with 1/ 1 turn , slow roll to handstand and the dismount. With continued work , they should do this routine well. 3. I think the best thing the committee could do with the document (after omitting FIG deductions) is leave it alone and give it some time! It is servings its purpose well! 4. I have a few other comments about the FX routines at the Championships. a. Some gymnasts took extra steps in the compulsory and optional. In several cases it was the gymnasts that tend to hop before they start their run . The hop is counted as a step. Coaches should observe thei r gym nasts carefu lIy as it is an unnecessary deduction. b. Some gymnasts who had plenty of flexibility did not Technique

touch their stomach on the specific correctness that can be drawn from the information they compulsory split. c. If a gymnast does not have aD supply if the depth of our current move , MAKE SURE he has crop of gymnasts is to improve and 4C 's. Many gymnasts gave we are to maintain our status in away .6 because they lost the international competition : full .8 for no 0 move when 1. Continued emphasis must be they easily could have placed upon sound technical partially replaced (.6) it with a execution of compulsory C. This also applies (on all routines . The fact that only events) to a gymnast who approximately 55 percent of the misses a 0 move . If he falls off performances on compulsories on the 0 and does not either were above an 8.5 or that only 16 partially replace it with a C or of 68 performances were above 9.0 with none above 9.5, is not a go back and perform the 0 for credit , he could lose as much healthy sign. Equally alarming is as 1.3, .5 for the fall and .8 for the fact that 66 percent of the 65 the missing D. gymnasts completing compulsory/ optional routines had d. If a gymnast misses a B press to handstand he loses the B + optional scores above their .3 for the strength part. He compulsory score . Coaches and better somehow go back and gymnasts must reapply the fulfill the strength requireprinciple that led us to previous ment. international success which is to e. Many gymnasts were short broaden the base of gymnasts time in their balance on one that can perform compulsories at a high level. As gymnasts accept leg or one arm. the discipline of compulsories Floor Exercise their mastery of the integral By Tom Gibbs movements and skills in compulHow I hate to tangle with statistics, sories will later enhance their but they are oftentimes revealing . I ability to perform optionals. It is am by no means a statistician , but no easy task. Individually the hopefully my analysis of scores plus gymnast must first identify the remarks on performances from the troublesome parts, smooth out championships will be informative the mechanical flaws, and then to coaches and instructive to get the necessary repetition, gymnasts. repetition, repetition, to fix the The enclosed chart lists the learning. number of gymnasts scoring in each 2. Of interest also is the fact that of six score ranges along with an even with the new rule changes, accompanying percentage. In addiwhen looking at the top 18 tion, I have computed the average gymnasts , the average score for score for both compulsory and opcompulsories was 8.89 while the tional routines and figures that average score for optional reveal the number of gymnasts performances was 9 .06. And yet scoring higher on their optional than when we look at those gymnasts compulsory as well as the reverse. individually , 13 score higher on Obviously , statistics do not reveal all their optionals than compulsory that is known or recommend exercises. Looking closer we see 9


that only 9 of the top 18 scores above 9.0 on the compulsory, whereas 12 of the top 18 scores above 9.0 on their optional. The score range of 8.65 to 9.65 for optional routines of the top 18 also slightly higher than compulsory performances, would indicate that most of those gymnasts are adjusting to the new more demanding difficulty requirements reasonably well at this time . My overall impression of floor exercise optionals was that those who were up on the new rules changes were ready , while some gymnasts were either trying new D skills or D skills not particularly suited to their ability. Perhaps a full twist to a punch front saito is an easy D, but maybe not so easy for some gymnasts . Not to proselytize, it mig ht be adv isable for some gymnasts to avoid the quick fix of an easy D by foregoing the D part and replacing it with a C part they can perform. As for the compulsory text prepared by the joint committee of judges and elite coaches, it is wellorganized but to me appears better designed as an instructional guide for the coaches and gymnasts. It is somewhat cumbersome as a manual for a judges actual use during the competition. The floor exercise text alone contains approximately 76 lines of deductions, an average of 610 I ines for each skill or combination in the compulsory. Many of the deductions are redundant from one skill to the next and could merely be stated in a general way. If not careful it is easy to become overly critical on otherwise reasonable good routines. It is also possible to begin looking for more deductions for an individual part than is realistic . I don't mean to imply that the text isn 't valuable, because it is. For the education of judges we need to preface each compulsory with standardized deductions that could be anticipated at any point or throughout the exercise and then isolate those deductions perculiar to individual skills by highlighting the specific deduction. As for the floor exercise text , the major difference of opinion that I have is with the fact that we should have placed a higher value on the press to handstand (roll as described in the FIG text) along with corresponding deductions. In 10

FLOOR EXERCISE-1985 CHAMPIONSHIPS OF THE USA Optional Compulsory

Score 9.5 and above 9.0 to 9.45 8.5 to 8.95 8.0 to 8.45 7.0 to 7. 95 6.0 to 6.95 5.0 to 5.95

no ne 16/ 24 % 21 /31 % 11/1 6% 16/ 24% 3/ .4% 1/ .1%

5/ .7% 16/ 25% 22/ 34% 12/ 19% 9/ 14% 11. 1%

no ne

To tal 68 65 Ave rage Sco re 8.33 8.62 O f t he 65 gymn asts performing bot h com p ulsory and opt io nal ro utin es: 43 (66%) gymnas ts had an optio nal score above their compul sory sco re 21 (32%) gymnas ts had a compulsory score abo ve the ir optional score 1 g ymnast scored t he same fo r both co mpulsory and optional routines FX Results of Top 18 Gymnasts Score

9.5 9.0 8.5 8. 0

and above to 9.45 to 8 .95 to 8.45

Compulsory no ne 9/ 50% 7/38% 2/ 11%

Optional

3/ 16% 9/ 50% 6/ 33% non e

gleaning my notes from the championships, the press (or roll to handstand) and the preceding part (neck kip to healy twirl) were the skills that most often separated levels of performances. The FIG text places an 0.8 value on the roll (part #7) while our text only places a 0.6 value on it. POMMEL HORSE Comments by Tim LaFleur 1. The "Typical Faults" developed by the compulsory committee are positively impacting USA gymnasts. The gymnasts are performing the pommel horse routines fairly well . The two parts that are the most difficult to perform well are the backward long i- 7. There also severa l gymnasts ' who favored certain types of tudinal travel from the pommel to movements , e.g., flairwork or the end and the dismount. hopping travels. 2. The height or angle requ irements COMPULSORY RINGS are the most difficult to judge and Comments by Les Sasvary result in discrepancy in the The ring compulsory is very diffijudges scores. As judges we all 1. cult, however it appeared the need to spend more time in the gymnasts were not prepared for gym watching and judging this event. Only a few gymnasts routines , particularly height have had an opportunity to requirements . compete with compulsories 3. Most gymnasts fulfilled the 3 since the NCAA dropped them in hand placement req u i rement. 1984. 4. Coaches and gymnasts need to I had a difficult time following all study the difficulty on pommel 2. the deductions . They are too horse. There were many complex to follow accurately. gymnasts who lost .8 in difficulty Some of the deductions should that could have partially replaced be made ever harder. a missing D with an extra C. Example : #9 Feige to handstand. 5. Straddled skills (not flaired) are The FIG required to handstand . all devalued on letter, .e.g ., front In China and Canada the judges in-to immediate moore (normally took the full va lue (1 .0) for not a B) in devalued to an A if going through a handstand . Our straddled. deduction is only to 0.3. 6. There were a number of gymnast hopping before their optional 3. Only a few gymnasts were using mount. This is a 0.1 deduction . parallel technique . Technique

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OPTIONAL RINGS 1. Many gymnasts used an addi tional press to satisfy the 3rd strength requirement. We should not allow this as it destroys the beauty of the exercise . Also I believe the 3rd strength part should be at least B value . 2. Many gymnasts had poor position in their strength holds and were short on time. This caused several judges conferences. As judges we must become more consistent and strict in applying the rules . 3. Landings on dismounts need work. 4. I believe we should require a D dismount. 5. I noticed no originality on rings. I said years ago that we should set up a committee to research new movements instead of copying other nations. 6. Many of the exercises were short value parts (this was partly due to non-parallel bail technique). 7. Too many dislocates were used and too few good crosses. 8. Because so many low scores were given during compulsories I thought the gymnasts were discouraged . Rings Comments By Andy Zembower 01 . Is the compulsory text of the "Typical Faults " for the event which you judged appropriate in the following ways : a. Does it give you the right kind of guidance for your judgement? A. There are three parts that are difficult to evaluate . The first is the second inlocate that should go through a handstand . Your eyes are trained to look for angles. Many gymnasts go through a vertical position that resembles a handstand , but their shoulders are low. Unfortunately you miss that since you are watching to see what angle they are at when they go over the top. At some judging angles this may be tough to pick up even if you are looking for it. A deduction should be added for shoulders being too low (up to .3). The second part that is tough to judge is the back uprise to straddle " L" . Some gymnasts straddle early. That is not a problem if they keep their body line straight and pass through the handstand position . Many gymnasts straddled early and broke at the hips some with their feet below the rings . I feel that the

gymnasts are not interpretting this skill correctly and that the judges are not evaluating this skill correctly . A deduction should be added for a bent body position (up to .3) . The third area is the dismount. The bonus award is for significantly exceeding the height requirement. This is a real judgement call that can instantly create a conference situation With high scores. Perhaps we can come up with a more concrete definition (shoulders 2 feet above the top of the rings?) . At this time I would recommend that the bonus award remain worded the same until more input is gathered. b. It is manageable or too complex? A. It is manageable. Using these deductions is no more difficult than what we have been using for years with the J .O. compulsory routines . It only requires that a person know and study the routines and have a good feel for the level of performance that is expected to be demonstrated . c. Does it seem to be " fair" to all gymnasts? A. It seems to be fair to me . It is not easy to meet the requirements but the rules are fair. The performance requirements favor a strong gymnast, but I have been critical for some time now about the lack of strength on our national teams and how relatively weak (on a world basis) gymnasts get through to the highest levels of competition . d . Do you think that it promotes a high level of performance? A. I sure do . One area that I feel is perhaps overrated is the parallel bail. We 've been harping for years that the virtuous and best way to do a bail is with the arms parallel. I think that most gymnasts ignore us on that one. They do what feels good and enables them to work rings comfortably. We see bails with arms spreading so often that we don 't even deduct in most cases and probably don 't give bonus points back when we do see parallel bails . I agree that we should not advocate wide arm bails , but demanding parallel bails may be going too far . 02. What is your opinion of the deductions? A. In general I think they are good. The use of the irregular rhythm deduction could get carried away since there are no guidelines on what constitutes irregular or poor

rhythm . I think that some judges have a hard time taking the big deductions such as those for short hold parts or bent arms in the felge upward at the end of the routine . My own personal feeling is that sometimes those deductions were not strictly enforced when those errors were shown . Judges instead " bent " the rules and deducted less . This made their gymnastics sense feel better. I feel that the deductions are there for a purpose and should be enforced . Otherwise , the gymnasts do not know when we have detected and deducted for certain errors that we do not want to see in this country. 03 . What is your opinion of awarding bonus points for virtuosity on specific skills? A. I think that the awarding of bonus po ints is a great tool for directing the gymnasts into performance areas that they otherwise would not venture into . I think the bonus points were well thought out. The most difficult skill to show is the front uprise . I can say that I didn't award one gymnast bonus for that skill. Most gymnasts showed one bonus skill and some general virtuosity per the code . Perhaps only one gymnast showed two of the bonus skills as well as general virtuosity. I think that the judges felt limited somewhat by the bonus points. As an ex ample , Tim Daggett does a very nice ring set . He receives bonus on the planche and some general virtuosity but does not show the virtuous front uprise and does a good but not virtuous dismount. With only a .1 error for other execution faults , the maximum that he can score is 9.5. The score looks low if you watch the routine but we are limited to .2 per the Code and .2 for his planche . There is no way to go any higher. I have no problem with this, but I think some judges want to go higher based on their gymnastics sense and " bend " the rules to give a higher score . 04. Did you experience any problems in applying the text to your own judging? A. I think that I count slower than most judges and therefore end up with lower scores due to heavy deductions on the hold parts . This will not be a problem for the gymnasts when competing internationally since they will be used to holding the parts longer. Some of them would be wise to hold parts longer in this country just to be on 11


the safe side . I will learn to count a III. Bonus Points: Gymnasts must I ittle faster. concentrate on the above state05. Are there certain parts of the ments to garner bonus points . exercises which present Apparently , bonus points will particular problems? make the difference in scoring A. Most of the problems I have high . already been mentioned . The only PARALLEL BARS other thing that I can think of that is Comments by Cecil Woodruff difficult is the dislocate in Part VIII. I think that we were lenient on the 1. Very few gymnasts (1 or 2) were even close to a handstand on the deductions for shoulders being cast with 1/ 2 turn mount. In fact below the top of the rings. At this over 50 percent were below 60 point I think only a monster could do degrees . The low and rushed that. We shall wait and see! mount made the glide Kip very 06. How would you improve upon low . the document developed by the 2. The back uprise to a handstand, Elite Compulsory Committee? pirouette and t路he peach basket A. I would add words to the basic were in most cases performed text to clarify positions and hold part with bent arms. The judges are duration instead of burying the looking more for straight arms on requirements in the list of typical the peach than bent arms to a faults. We do this at the J.O . level too handstand . and I think that a lot of things that we 3. Very few d ismounts showed want to see go right past some enough rise and many were people . I also think that some of the deducted for land in g with the deductions go right past some of the feet apart. judges. I wouldn 't get terribly verbose , but something likePart III . Back u prise with straig ht body and straight arms to nominal handstand , lower to stradd led L. support. This may clarify the bent hip problem that I spoke about earlier. The only additional advice I can give to the team is to keep at it. Vaulting Comments by Richard Aronson

I. Pre-flight: Coaches should concentrate keeping the legs c losed-tendency to straddle prior to hitting the near vertical position on the horse . Suggest practicing keeping the arms straight before the first somersau It. II . Post-flight: Many gymnasts failed to maintain height and flight above the horse (i.e . too flat and forward , therefore , landing short of 4 meters.) Landing-4 meters is approxi mately 14' from the end of the horse . The FIG requirement is 3 meters or about 10' and easier to obtain . I feel if our very best gymnasts can make between three / four meters , we wi ll master the 3 meter requirement. (Falling short is very obvious!) Coaches shou ld work on a solid landing (no steps). This takes practice but important for a good score . 14

PARALLEL BARS Comments by Gary Alexander

1. The " Typical Faults" deductions on parallel bars are definitelyy encouraging the gymnasts to perform each skill to the ultimate and this is very desirable. Although the deductions are many and comp lex it is too early to consider lessening our expectations. Instead , just as the gymnasts are spending hours in the gym, we too, need to practice scoring compulsory , as well as optional routines. 2. The gymnasts are having a very difficult time performing the cast with 1/ 2 turn above 45 degrees and the peach basket to a handstand (straight arms). They are also hav ing difficulty with the height requirement on the dismount, as well as, getting their hips to rise on the glide kip. Other than that they are doing the routine weill 3. Overall , I believe the compulsory committee has done a good job and we should give the present deductions some time before we consider changing them. OPTIONALS 1. With the new rules on splitting parts most gymnasts had 12 parts . 2. The parallel bar combination requirements are relatively easy to meet. 3. Our USA gymnasts , as a whole , need to spend more time on PB ' s-we have very little origina lity . 4. A frequently performed 0 move was back uprise with 1/ 2turn and backward straddle cut. It was not being performed very well and we need to be strict in penalizing for poor execution. COMPULSORY HORIZONTAL BAR Comments by John Scheer 1. The text of " Typical Faults " gives the proper guidance for coaches , as well as judges . It is definitely fair since the specificity of deductions establishes the desired technical execution . From a judges stand point it is complex , but with practice , manageable . It is necessary to promote the same quality of performances our gymnasts achieved in '84.

Technique


2. The changes that have been 3. All one arm re leases must be premade by the compulsory ceeded by a full one arm g iant becommittee already are good . I fore the release for D value. For would like to see deductions example, one arm from handalready covered by the FIG Code stand to handstand , 3/ 4 one arm of Points eliminated . to release = D. All other cases 3. The bonus points discriminate result in a C value. well the good from the great per- 4. One arm giants. formances. a} One giant = C. 4. It was necessary to develop a b} Two giants = C (one only) . method to count the number of c} One arm giant to one arm with handstands attained as it is too 1/ 2 turn = 2C. difficult to remember, e.g ., mark d} One arm giant done later in the paper with a h or 1 when a the routine , if not preceeded handstand is reached . or succeeded by a different 5. The parts that presented the move will result in no value most difficulty were the stoop (even if performed on the shoot with 1/ 2 turn and the other arm). underswing out of the Kreiskhere. 6. I want to share a judging tip Dennis Fitzgerald showed me. Since a judge doesn't want to look down as his paper it is difficult to identify a deduction with a particular part. Dennis writes down the first letter of the part and then the deduction . It looks like this : S-2 F-2 K-1 U-2 etc. (Stem, 1/ 2 turn -.2, freehip 1/ 2 turn -.2, Kreiskhere -.1, Underswing -.2, etc.)

OPTIONAL HORIZONTAL BAR Comments by Jack Beckner 1. The special requirement, flight release and reg rasp , must be a big flight move , e.g., Gienger, Markelov , Deltschev , Voronin , rear vault, etc. Examples that do not meet the requirement are free hip Cal hop , free hip 1/ 2 turn hop (D), Stalder Cal hop, etc . 2. A hop with 1/ 2 turn from Elgrip giant alone is valued A. It is only valued a B when performed in combination with the Elgrip giant which is a B by itself. 15


Initial Management of Gymnastics Injuries Specific First Aid for the Gymnastics Coach By Jack Rockwell

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ou've heard a lot about recognition of injury , rehabilitation and some very specific ways of helping to treat these injuries . My discussion will cover the immediate management of injuries as they occur in gymnastics . That is really rather poorly put , these same injuries could and do occur in all sports, I have picked a number that occur more frequently in gymnastics . My rule of thumb is " always look for the worst and hope for the best," another little one liner you may want to remember is that " none of us has x-ray eyes ," if there is any question of fracture an x-ray should be taken to answer the question. One of the prime factors in the immediate management of athletic injuries is that you have a plan of action and the materials and supplies needed to carry out this plan of action . Ice , elastic bandages , tape, are just a few of the items you should have available , but just as important is a listing of phone numbers for ambulance , hospital , doctor, and of course parents . So lets get into a few general rules regarding immediate management of injuries. The Immediate Management of Sports Injuries 1. To have knowledge of standard first aid measures and techniques . 2. To have knowledge of the proper sequence and chain of command in any emergency situation . 3. To be able to relate pertinent informat i on of predisposing chronic injury, or other information that mayor may not relate to the current injury.

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4. To be able to assume the responsibility of determining the continued activity of the injured athlete following injury in the absence of the physician . In situations where there is any question of the athletes ability to play , return of activity is withheld until a thorough evaluation by a physician is completed . 5. To supervise and/ or assist in the application of protective equipment, including strapping and bandaging . 6. To maintain records of all injuries and illnesses . Coach's Responsibility 1. To have a knowledge of serious injuries that may be associated with the sport that he is coaching and the first aid measures necessary to manage these injuries properly. 2. To be knowledgeable and to assist in the proper chain of command that must be established in case of injury or emergency situations ; i.e ., to know the location and telephone number of the assigned physician, and to know whereabouts of the trainer at all times. 3. To cooperate with the physician and trainer in making certain that a player does not return to participation until cleared for participation by the physician or trainer. 4. To impress upon each player the necessity of reporting any injury or illness , whether minor or severe , to the trainer or physician immediately .

Principles of Management ollowing any injury , restrict play of the injured athlete and observe , listen, examine , and then initiate treatment when indicated . Before and following return to play , a functional evaluation is necessary . A. Restrict Play Any time that it becomes obvious to the coach, physician, or trainer that a player has been injured , that player should be removed from play . B. Observe Initial observation should be made on the spot , and later in a more appropriate area restricted from view of spectators so that all necessary clothing and equipment may be removed. Observe the state of consciousness and the general appearance of the athlete , the color of the skin , the ability to move , the respiratory rate , and the presence of abrasions , lacerations , pain , deformity, or bleeding . If he is unconscious , check the character of the pulse , respiratory rate , pupil size and reaction, presence of blood especially in the external ear , rhinorrhea or otorrhea , abnormal refle xes, and deformity. Establish a baseline level of consciousness as soon as possible. C. Listen If the athlete is conscious , allow him to relate the experience of his injury. What is injured? What was the mechanism? Was there contact? Was it a direct or indirect blow? Did he fall or did he twist? What did he hear? Was there immediate disability ? Was there a feeling of instability? Has there been any previous injury to the same site? If so , what was the extent of the injury? What is the site and nature of the pain?

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Examine Note any area of swelling, deformity , or muscle spasm. Palpate for tenderness and crepitus. Check for stability , weakness , or disfunction in the extrem ities , any sensory defect , and the range of motion. It is necessary to determine the nature as well as the extent of the injury. If, after careful eva luati on , the injury appears to be insignificant , then make a functional evaluation of the injured player. If normal function is present, then the athlete can safely be allowed to return to play. If abnormal function is observed , then further participation should be delayed until a more thorough evaluation or definitive treatment has been concluded. If the injury is significant, then restriction of play should be continued and treatment instituted immediately. Now these are general rules and can be applied to all injuries, lets talk specifically about one area of injury that occurs so very often in gymnastics , the ankle , I'd like to go through the immediate management of an ankle injury very thoroughly because it is so common and also because the pattern of management is so similar to all the joint and soft tissue injuries we see in sports. Ankle

nkle sprains constitute one of the most frequent inju ries in sports . An accurate diagnosis of the degree of damage is essential before making a determination of continued activity. The best time for accurate assessment of the deg ree of damage is immediately following injury when muscle spasm is absent, pain is not severe, and swelling and discoloration have not developed. Following an injury to the ankle, it is best to bring th e athlete to the sideline without permitting he or she to bear weight on the injured extremity. Once on the sideline shoes , socks, and any tape , wrap , or strapping should be removed and careful examination made of the injured ankle . Frequent comparisons with the normal ankle are very helpful , espec ially in relation to general conf iguration , range of motion , and stability.

A

Techniqu e

When the ankle has been exposed, mechanism. An anterior drawer sign listen to the athlete 's description of can be demonstrated with complete the injury. What hurts and where? tear of the anterior talofibular ligaHow did the injury occur? Was there ment and the anterior joint capsule . direct contact with another player, If there is any question about the the ground, or something else? Did stability of the ankle , these observahe or she fall , or turn over his or her tions should be supplemented by xankle? Did he or she hear a " pop " or ray examination under local or "crack " ? Was there imm ediate disa- general anesthesia with inversion bility? Was there a feeling of insta- and eversion stress in the anteriorbility? Has there been any previous posterior view and with the foot injury to the same ankle? If so , what pulled forward in slight plantar was the extent of the previous flexion on the lateral view . The immediate management of all i nj u ry? What is the natu re and site of ankle injuries should be to apply, the pain? Next, observe, is there deformity? cold , compression, and support and Is there swelling or discoloration? Is to forbid weight bearing. If a diagnosis of sprain without there muscle spasm? Is there a full range of painless motion? Is the skin fracture and without complete disruption of the lateral ligaments is intact? Now , examine. Palpate for tender- estab lished , bandaging of the foot ness or crepitus. Use one finger tip and ankle in mid position with elastic to ascertain the area of maximum adhesive form compression, tenderness. Point tenderness over followed by elevation as much as ligaments and their bony attach- possible and no weight bearing for ment strongly indicate the presence 24 to 48 hou rs is i nd icated . of a sprain, while maximum tenderness over bone should alert one to suspect a fracture. Point tenderness over the medial (de ltoid) ligament and over the fibula above the joint line should lead one to suspect that there may be disruption of the ankle mortise and further play should be restricted until a more detailed evaluation can be carried out (including x-rays). Point tenderness over a tendon or its bony attachment suggests a strain. Tendons most often injured about the ankle are the posterior tibial , anterior tibial, and the Achilles . Point tenderness and swelling over lateral malleolus and peroneal tendons suggests peroneal tendon strain or dislocation . Forced everson with the foot in plantar flexion is the usual mechanism for dislocation of these tendons and reduc tion may occur spontaneously with little initial swelling . Point tenderness equid istant between the lateral malleol us and base of the fifth metatarsal suggests an avulsion fracture of the anterior process of the calcaneus (seen best on oblique X-ray of the foot). In the absence of defor,mity, the active and passive range of motion and stability of the ankle shou ld be compared with the opposite ankle. Locking or a catch ing feeling should lead one to suspect a chondral or osteochondral fracture. Inversion of the dorsiflexed ankle is the usual

17


u USGF

ational Congress Salt Lake City, UT

12-13

Jun ior/C hildren USA C hampion ship s (W)

Salt Lake City, UT

23-0ct RSG World Colorado 2 Champions hips Tra ining Springs, Ca mp CO 26-28 St. Paul, World C hampionships Tea m Tria ls (M/W: S) MN 28-29 7th Int' l Tourname nt in Catane, City of Catane (W) Sicil y

JUNE

JANUARY 1-3

Jr. Boys Training Camp wi th Ca nada

Colorado Springs, CO

4

"USA Jr. Boys vs. Canada Jr. Boys

Colorado Springs , CO "Was h ington , D.C.

""24-26 "USA vs . USSR (M/W)

FEBRUARY

OCTOBER

MARCH

4-5

VI RSG Tournam ent in Switzerla nd (R)

Lausanne, Swi tzerland

1-2

10-13

Rh y thmic World C hampio nships

Va lladolid, Spain

Mc Dona ld 's American Cup (M/W)

7-8

World C hampionship s Trainin g Camp (M)

Co lorado Sprin gs, CO "East Stroud sburg, PA Mont rea l, Canada Montreal, Canada

First Elite Zo ne Mee t (W)

"25

In te rnationa l Mixed Pairs TBA (M/W)

29-30

Second Elite Zone Meet (W)

11-14

22-25

World C hampionships Training Camp (M)

25-31

FIG Congress

27

"Departure World C hampio nship Team

Inte rnati ona l Tournam e nt -Barcelona (W)

Barcelona, Spa in

13-15

Brussels International Gymna s tics Cup (M/W)

Brussels, Belgium

17-23

BAGA Internatio na l Co mpetition (M/W)

Londo n, England

26Ja n 5

Jr. Boys a ti onal Testing Colorado & Trai ning Camp Springs, CO

Junio r Boys Training Camp

5-20

Friend ship Games

25Aug 3

a tional Sports Fes tival (M/W/R)

TBA

Grass Roots Development Ca mp (Jr. Boys)

Atlanta, GA

JULY Moscow, USSR Hou ston , TX

AUGUST

30World Cu p (M/W) Sept 1

Various Sites (TBA)

TBA Bejing, Ch ina

SEPTEMBER "6-7/ 13-14

Pacific All iance Championships

TBA

USGF

Hong Kong

Four Continents (R)

Melbourne, Austra lia

TBA

17-19

World Cup (R)

Tokyo, Japa n

TBA

"Swiss Cup (M /W)

Zurich, Switze rland Japan

NCAA Na ti ona l C hampionships (W) "Class I Sta te Meet (W)

Various Sites (TBA)

TBA

Rh y thmic Championships of th e USA

TBA

MAY 3-4

"Class I Regiona ls (W)

Va ri ous Sites (TBA)

16-17

Third Elite Zone Meet (W)

Va rious Sites (TB A)

TBA 24-25 24-25

29-31

NOVEMBER

TBA

"Chunichi Cup (M/W)

TBA

"Four Continents (R)

TBA

Junior Boys Deve lopment Camp

TBA

"DTB Pokal (M/W)

TBA

"Coca-Cola Int' I To u rnam e nt (M/W)

"Junior Ol y mpic Western Blue Na ti onals (W) Springs, MO TBA U.s. Classic I ationa ls (W)

TBA

DECEMBER

"Brot her C up (R)

Japan "Junior Olympic Eastern TB A a tional s (W)

ationa l Congress TBA

OCTOB ER

TBA

19-20

DECEMBER 11-16

29Jul y 6

1-7

18-19

German y/ Switzerland

Junio r Olympic a ti onals (Jr. Boys)

Ja pan TBA

Colorado Sprin gs, CO Sou th Africa

DTB Pokal Cup/Swiss Cup (M/W)

27-29

"India napolis Atlanta, GA

"TBS Cup (M/W)

Junior Boys Develo pment Camp

30Dec 9

Championships of the USA (M/W)

""Juni o r Training Camp (J r. Boys) Ame rican Classic ationals (W)

4-20

Mt. Rushmore Cup

19-22

TBA

10-12

22

TBA

TBA Montreal , Ca nada

Japan Rapid City, SD

"Junio r Olympic a tionals

Lond o n, England

Wo rl d C ha mpi ons hips (M/W)

Chunichi Cup (M /W)

6-8

"Cham pi ons All (M/W)

TBA

3-10

So uth Afri ca n Cup (M/W)

Fairfax, Virgi nia Va rious Sites (TBA)

APRIL

NOVEMBER

17Dec 1 19-29

F

G

1986

SEPTEMBER 12-15

S

FRG London, England

TBA

Pacific Alliance (M/W)

26

Jr. Boys Na tiona l Testing TBA & Training


PROPOSED SCHEDULE OF EVENTS (Dates & Events subject to change or cancellation) AUGUST

1987 7-23

JANUARY '5

'USA Jr. Boys vs. Australia Jr. Boys

Colorado Springs, CO

TBA ' TBA

FEBRUARY

TBA TBA TBA

'McDonald's American 'l ndianCup (M/W) apolis, I International Mixed Pairs TBA (M/W) " Junio r Wo rld Cup " Junio r Training Camp

TBA TBA

APRIL TBA TBA ' TBA

'C hampio ns All (M/W) 'TBS Cup (M/W) 'First Eli te Zone Meet

London , England Japa n TBA

(W)

TBA 24-25

TBA

Rhythmic Championships of the USA CAA a ti onal Cha mpi o nships (W) Rh ythmi c Champions hip s of the USA

TBA TBA

TBA ' TBA

USGF Co ng ress 'Wo rld Champi onship Team Tria ls (MM' )

TB A

TBA

'TBA

TBA TBA

'TBA

JANUARY "USA Jr. Boys vs . Chi na TBA Jr. Boys 'Firs t Elite Zo ne Meet TB A (W)

FEBRUARY 'Seco nd Elite Zo ne Mee t TBA (W)

'TBA

'American Classic Na tionals (W)

'19-20 TBA

McDona ld's Ame rica n ' IndianCup (M/W) apolis, IN Internationa l Mixed Pari s TBA

'TBA

'Third Elite Zone Meet

OCTOBER TBA

Rh ythmi c Wo rld Championshi ps (R)

TBA TBA

FIG Congress Artistic Wo rld Championships (MIW)

Bu lgaria

Rotterdam , H olland

TBA

'Swiss Cup (M /W )

TBA TBA TBA

'DTB Poka l (M/ W) 'Chunichi Cup (M /W) ' Jun ior Boys Develop ment Camp

TBA

' Jr. Boys Na tional Testi ng & Training

TBA

MARCH

(M/W)

TBA

(W)

NOVEMBER

TB A

Zurich, Switzerland FRG Ja pa n TBA

APRIL TBA

'Coca-Cola In t' l Tournament (M/W)

London, England

TBA

' TBS Cup (M/W)

TBA

' Junio r Boys Training Camp

Japan TBA

DECEMBER

MAY TB A ' TBA

' Junio r Boys Develop men t Camp 'C ham pionships of th e USA (MIW )

1988 Indiana polis, I TBA

SEPTEMBER

MARCH ' 21-22

Pa n American Games (M/W)

' Brothe r Cup (R) Ja pan 'Seco nd Elite Zone Meet TBA

TBA

(W)

JU NE TBA

' Juni or Olympic Boys Na ti onals

TB A

' TBA

'A me rica n Classic a tiona ls (W) Third Elite Zo ne Meet

TB A

' TBA

TBA

(W)

JULY 7-11 TBA

FIG Gymn aes trad a ational Spo rts Fes ti val (M /W /R)

Hernin g, Denmark Raleigh/ Durham, IC

1-16 'TBA

Wo rld Uni ve rsity Games Zabreb, (M/W) Yugoslavia 'U.S. Class ic Na tio nal s TBA (W)

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RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS/TECHNICAL

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XXIII WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS OF GYMNASTICS

ASk Mr. Foster n"avE'1 SE'rVICE' ..... 1("1 lRR8

NOVEMBER 3-11 MONTREAL CANADA Ask Mr. Foster Travel , the official travel agency of the gymnastic championships, and Republic Airlines have teamed up to get you to Montreal in style , without costing you an arm and a leg. We have combined the lowest possible airfare and the most conven ient hotels in Montreal , to provide you with a package that is unbeatable. Come join our neighbors to the North , and experience these championships, which may not return to Canada in this century . Two night packages as low as 295.00 per person (based on double occupancy). HOTEL SELECTIONS Just pick the hotel of your choice and let our Ask Mr. Foster Travel representatives do the rest. We will combine the lowest Republic airfares with your hotel selection, times the number of nights you wish to stay . The following hotels are available for your review:

The QUEEN ELIZABETH HOTEL (located on Dorchester Street) is set atop the famous underground city. Each of the 1,112 guest rooms has a picture window offering a panoramic view of the city and of the St. Lawrence River . A health club and sauna are added features.

The HOTEL MERIDIAN is contained in an unltra-modern complex , consisting of a variety of quaint boutiques and cinemas. This hotel offers a large selection of restaurants , exercise rooms and swimming pool. This hotel is only minutes away from the events.

The HOLIDAY INN-DOWNTOWN is a few short steps away from the entrance to Montreal 's famous METRO. This hotel consists of 500 air-conditioned rooms , indoor swimming pool and sauna. Only 10 minutes to the Olympic Park (via subway). Other Holiday Inn locations are also available .

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Profile for USA Gymnastics

Technique Magazine - September 1985  

Technique Magazine - September 1985