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PUBLISH.: THE RUSSIANS ARE COMING: Awhirlwind tourof the USA by the Russian Olympic Gymnastic team sponsored by a perfume company, sanctioned by the USGF, arranged by the AAU is scheduled to arrive in New York on March 8th. This " exhibition only" tour will have stops at the Houston Astrodome on March 10th, Buffalo March 12th, Los Angeles Sports Arena March 14th, Miami Convention Center March 17th, Philadelphia March 19th, Washington D.C. March 21st and Madison Square Garden in New York City on March 23rd . From all indications there will be a sellout crowd with standing room only at every stop. At last report Tourischeva, Korbut, Andrianov, Voronin and Klimenko will be among the performers. Butwe will believe it when we see it. The exhibition in Houston is scheduled to be taped and televised the next evening (March 11th) which should help fill any empty seats ther e might be in future stops. Although this exhibition came about suddenly as far as the Gymnastic famil y of America was concerned, the ground work goes back several months to before the Olympic Competitions . After the TV coverage in Munich with the tremendous interest stimulated for Gymnastics, the tour of the US by a Russian team is a natural. I guess everybody thought about it and several parties wrote letters of invitation to the USSR team (Gymnast even had a drafted letter on file of inquiry to th e Russian Gymnastic Federation for information needed to host the USSR team.) But invitations to our National Championships, I nvitationals and many more idea s by many interested parties all came to a standstill when th e news broke that a large public relations firm in New York was finalizing all the exhibition tour arrangements of the Russian Gymnastic team for their client, Fabrege (Brut) . Although the local gymnastic associations will not be the hosts and receive a little needed revenue for their traveling funds, at least our USGF will receive a fee for sanction which in turn will help our national team. Also such a tour planned by a big P.R. firm can only help stimulate interest and growth for American gymnastics, perhaps even more than a lot of dedicated local groups could do no matter how hard they worked or tried. Anyway it is going to be very interesting to see what happens. Hope I'm not too late to get a ticket as I would su~e like to get some pictures I missed in Munich. Speaking of Pictures: How about a Photo Contest for the Russian tour ... GYMNAST magazine will pay $25 .00 and use on the cover of a coming edition the best photo (color or black & white) taken by a GYMNAST subscriber during one of the exhibition performances (even from the TV tube?) . Also a second prize of $10.00, a third, fourth and fifth prize of a one-year subscription to GYMNAST and five honorable mention prizes of a GYM SHOP Poster of your choice ... and if our readers would like to have more and different types of contests in the future for GYMNAST, send us some ideas to think about and consider. Fact is the best three contest ideas we receive from our readers will each receive a one-year subscription added to their current subscription ... How about that!

Volume XV / Number 1 / January 1973 5


6 ON THE BEAM, Barbara Thatcher 8 VIEWPOINTS, DickCriley 1972 OLYMPIC REPORT, Dick Criley

10 Women's Competition 13 18

Men's Competition

NEWS AND NOTES, Renee P. Hendershott

20 CENTERFOLD, Sawao Kato, Photo by Mitchell Barosh

















Drawings , Pat Avera








LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Cover: Karin Janz 1972 Olympic Gold Medalist in va ulting and second place in All-Around compet ition. Photo by Mitchell Barosh

Publisher: Glenn Sundb y Associate Editors: Dick Criley and Renee P. Henders hott Staff Writer: Barbara Thatcher Contributors: Pat Avera , James Bosco PhD, James He sson, Barbara Pfaff, Bill Roetzheim , Dieter Schulz, and Jerry Wright.

CHANGING YOUR ADDRESS? ? ? Please allow at lea st six weeks for yo ur c ha ng e of address. The Post Office Department does not forward 2nd class magazines unless you guarantee the forwarding postage. Missed iss ues will be sent upon request for 25<1 per copy (to cover hand lin g and postage ).

GYMNAST magazine is published by Sundby Publications, 410 Broadway, Santa Monica, Ca. 90401. Second Class Postage paid at Santa Monica, Ca. Published monthly except bi-monthly June, J,uly, August and September. Price 75~ a single copy. Subscrrption correspondence, GYMNAST - P.O. Box 110, Santa Moni ca, Ca. 90406. Copyright1973@all rights reserved by SUNDBY PUBLICA liONS , 410 Broadway, Santd Monica , Ca. All photos and manusc ripts submitted become the property of GYMNAST unless return request and, sufficient postage are included.

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ON THE BEAM by Barbara Thatcher Wow ! M y fi rst rea l fa n le tt e r. I' ll have to save it a nd at least fra m e it. I was thin kin g o f ha vin g it bro nze d but th a t wo uld p ro ba bl y be a littl e diffic ult. Th e le tt e r was fr o m Vicki Pasek, a Los An ge les re sid e nt w ho su ggested that I g ive a free trip to Ru ssi a as the pri ze in my Olga Korbut Essay Contest. But hec k (o r is th at h ec ht ) if I did th at I' d e nt e r th e co ntes t myse lf a nd a uto mati ca ll y w in . But th a n ks fo r th e le tte r Vic ki.



Havin g le ft Miss Korbut e n tire ly o ut o f m y column las t mo nth (Be t yo u d idn ' t no ti ce did yo u ?) it 's o nl y fa ir th at I me nti o n he r aga in thi s mo nth es p eci all y n ow th at th e littl e Ru ss ian rascal has m ad e th e news aga in. Yes, pe tit e Olga was nam e d AP (Associated Press) Woman Athlete of the Year. Not o nl y is she th e fir st gy mn ast to rece ive th e ho no r but a lso th e fir st iro n curta in athl e te. If this isn' t a not her sho t in th e a rm fo r gy mn ast ics I' ll eat m y typew rit e r ribb o n.

Look who's on the beam aga in this month. Ifs little Olga Korbut, Associated Press " Woman Athlete of the Yea r."

I have a lways wo nd e re d w hy hi gh ba r is usua ll y th e la st eve nt in m e n 's gy mn asti cs. And th e n I re ad Jim Borg's p oe m a nd rea li zed th at if high b ar was first m a ny peo pl e wo uld leave afte r th at eve nt was ove r. So for a ll of yo u hi g h bar e nthu sias ts w ho fee l th at hi g h ba r is the o nl y wo rth w hil e eve nt .. .. he re is "High Bar Is A lead Pipe Cinch"; wr itte n by t heCa pt a in of th e Uni ve rsity of Ca lifo rni a at San ta Ba rb a ra tea m . Un e dite d , un c ut a nd publishe d fo r th e fir st tim e in thi s magaz in e . "High Bar Is A lead Pipe Cinch."

This is a nice picture, (however I don' t know who the team is because Ihe arlicle is in Ge rman) and suggests a po se th at might be great for thai "end of the season" team photo.

Bob Farb, first place AA, Long Island Championships.


What did Free Ex get me? Free Ex got me rolled. What did Side Horse leave me? Side Horse left me told. Still Rings are a bore. Vaulting: nevermore. Parallels won't give an inch, But High Bar is a lead pipe cinch. Giant swings piked in the chest Takemoto's, stalders, Eagles, ono's, all the rest. A gymnast never falters. With blisters broken, Both hands smokin' ... AII of this without a flinch. Yes, iiigh Bar is a lead pipe cinch. By the time the last man's up. The meet could well be over. If his teammates hah: done well, Everything is clover. Coach is keep ing tabs . . Meet still up for grabs? Anchormen caught in a pinch Know High Bar is a lead pipe cinch. Ve ry good. Jim at least d ese rves a la rge o r rath e r " g ia nt " ova ti o n. And now fo r gy mn as ts w ho wo uld rat he r bo un ce th a n sprin g t hi s suggesti o n fr om Marvin Johnson, " W hy no t bo un ce trampo lin e in to our hig h schoo l All-Aro un d prog ra ms? " Th e Eastern Michigan University gy mn as ti cs co ach w ro te th at va ultin g was o mitted fro m th e

All-Around in the Sixth Annual Huron Invitational. Trampoline was subst ituted. The number of All-Around competitors increased by eight from the previous year. Many of Michigan's high schools are dropping vau ltin g in favor of trampol ine because supposedly vaulting is boring for both spectators and gymnasts. But then I always thought there was a certa in beauty in a double front or a good Yamashita. Well w ith one state vot in g to drop vault in g, do I hear any votes for dropping rings in stead or maybe sidehorse?

However Section 11 literally vaulted to victory in the First long Island Intersectional Gymnastic Championships when the outcome of the meet was decided on the last long horse vault. Section 8 lost by a slim .35 points despite taking f ive out of seven first places. The outstanding All-Around competitor was Bob Farb, a junior at Oceanside High School. He is coached by Rich landry. The meet concluded the hi gh school season for gymnasts in the Long 1~land area. The championsh ip brought together the two top sect ions in New York State. Section 8 may vote to eliminate vau ltin g but I have my doubts about Section 11. A lot of nice things are being said about the gymnastics team at louisiana State University. Of course it's LSU 's spo rts information department that's saying most of these things but so far the Tigers are living up to the predictions that they will be a strong team. Undefeated so far they have already beaten the University of Iowa and are looking forward to a fr iendly encounter with the Air Force Academy and finally the NCAA's. Among coach Armando Vega's star competitors are Mike Carter and Rick Russel . Remember those names, you ' ll probably be seeing them again and again and again.

And so as once aga in this co lumn draws to a close, I' m running out of patience and paper, I leave you w ith little known fact #37. Did you know 'that' accord ing to an old Modern Gymnast the first USA woman gymnast to place in a single event in International competit ion was not Cathy Mason but a litt le lady named Helen Schifano, better known as Helen Sjursen, author of Helen's Corner. Mrs. Sjursen placed second in the 1948 Olympics in side horse vaulting . However ind ividual medals were not given at that time. So supposedly it doesn't count or does it? Don ' t worry you didn't miss the other 36 items. I' m just giv in g them to you in reverse order. I am again contemp lating an Olga Korbut essay contest. If you wish to enter please send a typed 250 word essay on one of the following topics .... "Olga Korbut shou ld move to this country because .... " (I would have used defect but that sounds too political) or " Olga Korbut is my favorite gymnast because ..... " or " If I were Olga Korbut my next bar rout in e wou ld be ..... " I expect s'ome really good essays f rom you creat ive people. None of th is " OK shou ld move here because if she spoke English she cou ld get into the movies. " Or even " OK is my favorite gymnast because she's so cute." No something really creative. The prize has not yet been decided. Maybe instead of just a prize it will be a surprize prize. Anyway let's get those typewriters go in g.



.. .

""..." .



~\. ~ ~ ) 1(efen \ : \(C~F~O I )' I Helen Sjursen at the height of her competitive career and in her pre "Helen's_~orner" days.

And so as I type off in stead of sign off I must remind you that my co lumn is once again brought to yo u on the same page, under the same heading and in the same magazine, and published by Sundby Publications in beautiful , sunnv Santa Monica, four blocks from the ; ocea~, right near the Muscle Beach Gym Club and a barber shop. So if you're ever in Santa Monica stop by. And until then WRITE-

Bet you thought they were the same gymnast didn't you? Butlook closely. Many teams in doing Olympic compulsory routines look alike and obviously the North Korean team is one of them.

* Anothe r name worth remembering is Diane Dunbar. The little Diablo Gym Club dynamo finished second in the A ll-Around at the KIPS Invitational in Lakewood, Cal if. She gave AI IAround champion, Debbie Fike a run for her money or rather medals and helped her team secure an impressive team victory . The KIPS slipped and fell into the second place slot as each KIP competitor had a slight problem holding onto the bars. Oh we ll maybe they can win their own invitational next year. And if you happen to be around Penn State on February 23rd and 24th. You might think about attend in g the USA vs. Hungary International Meet. Such big names, as Cathy Rigby (opps Cathy Mason), Kim Chace, Joan Rice (Moore), Roxanne Pierce, Nancy Thies and Debbie Hill wi ll be there. Plus a men ' s team not yet se lected. (Wait a minute, rumor has it Mrs. Mason is retiring) Funny how these names keep reappearing. Could it be that these young ladies know something about the sport of gymnastics. It's apparent the Denise Fujiwara know. something about Modern Rhythmic Gymnastics. A member of the Scarboro Winstonetles, she recent ly won the Canadian National title, in Toronto (That's in Ontario). However in the group competition the Sen ior Division winner was Kalev Estienne 'from Toronto. Oh I've been informed that Canadians do other things besides ice skate. They also ski. My sincere apo logies.



anm ".iii---

by Dick Criley

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With thi s January 1973 issu e the GYMNAST starts its 16th volume. The first thin little issue with Jack Beckn er on the cover appeared December 1956. Many people have expressed their surprise that the magazin e has survived so long (although yo u m ay h ave wondered during the past f ew month s!). Through December 1972 this has m ea nt 137 se parat e issues! I' ve been proud to be associated with Glenn Sundby for the past 77 of them . The basic ap proach of o ur Editor ha s be en much th e same for the past 16 yea rs. The type has cha nged , th e photographs improved, the color come and gone and intermittentl y surfaced again , and Mademoiselle Gymnast enjoyed 5 yea rs of creative life as a spin-off from the Modern Gymnast. Only Glenn Sundby can tell of the many dedicated people who have helped him over th e yea rs by w ritin g without pay for their love of the sport and because of Glenn's unquen chabl e enthusiasm. The GYMNAST w ill , I tru st, co ntinue to grow with the sport, to highlight its bright moments and to boost for overcoming it s fault s. I hope too, th at our reade rs will try to help boost us too. W e receive many, many letters critical (justifiably, most of the time ) of our inabilit y to make a deadline. (If yo u think you just wrote us a blistering one, yo u should ha ve seen what th e Po st Office sent for getting the December issu e ou t in February! You might let us know what yo u think of th e ide a to simpl y number eac h iss ue (1 through 10) in stea d of putting the month on it; th e n we ' d always be out on tim e as long as 10 issu es ca me out each year.) What we rea ll y n eed are more boosters like Mrs. Jan Barosh whose H awa ii School of Gymn as ti cs gained us 100 new subscribers in 3 months. (Aloha to those of yo u who may be receiving this as yo ur first iss ue. )


TOM CHAPMAN Secretary-Treasurer Waukegan High School 717Edwards Ingleside, Illinois 60041


A few quick thoughts from th e Olympics: If Nationalistic judging is such a problem, why not rotate and sc rambl e judges w ith the different rounds of co mp etition. If the Women ' s Technical Committee ca n make the statement that their judg es are suffi cient ly well trained to distin gu ish different approaches to the compulsories and to remember if a team

uses th e same combinations in their Optionals (See Summary -- Minutes of the FIG Women ' s Technical Assembly, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, October 1970) th en they should have th e confidence that scores would be equally assessed by any qualified set of judges. Another note: West Germany sees a great future in a program called Reciprocal Sport Deve lopment Aid. The organizers of the XXth Olympiad foresee deve lopment of solid partnerships with other nations in Africa, Asia , and Latin America through the export of German know-how and technology in sports. The suggestion originated in a 1971 World Congress of National Ol ympic Committees in Munich. For example, countries such as India and Pakistan could se nd hockey development players to American and European countries, Iran--wrestling coac h es, Malaysia-badminton, and seve ral Latin American countries--soccer. I magine the impact of a Japanese offer of gymnastics or volleyball coaches to the less developed nations! The possibilities are exciting . Germany has already plunged into many aspects of assisting Third World countries with training films, spo rt s physicians, coaches, and sports facilit y architects, as well as with cloth es, equipment, and buildings and scholarships for study in Germany. There is official encouragement of outside agencies in these developmental programs too , and of pri va te individual s following their own profession s who find tim e to co ntribute to the sports knowledge of anoth er nation in their free time . These personal co nt a~ ts nearly always result from professional eve ry-day life, and sport is a welcome m ea ns to inten sify th ese contacts. Sport is perh aps the only sph ere of life where Afri ca n, Asian, and Latin American p eopl es have a chance of proving to be eq ual with inhabitants of other countries or even superior to them. Herein lies th e va lu e of rec iprocit y in sports aia--that no nation feel s it is only giving and others only re ce iving. Let us hope that the United States may also engage in such useful and friendly relationships.

BOOK REVIEWS by Dick Criley GYMNASTICS ILLUSTRATED by Don Tonry. 1972. ·publish ed by Gymnastic Aides, Bo x 475, Northbridge, M ass. 01534. Paperb o und . 228 pp . $9.00. It wa s w ith conside rab le interest that I set out to rev iew Don Tonry's boo k, hi s ultimate com pil ati on of moves in men 's gym nast ics . Don Tonry needs no introduction to our reg ul ar readers nor to anyo ne who ha s fo llowed gymnastics for th e past two decades. In addition to his many con tributi o ns to th e Modern Gym n ast, and GYMNAST, he has also prepared articl es and drawin gs for th e Olympische Turn kun st and the AAU Gymnastic News. Don 's own expe rien ce as a gymn as t, includ ed m emb ership o n 3 Wo rl d Games teams, 2 Pan A m teams, and th e 1960 Ol ympi c t eam. He has free -l anced as an arti st an d has prepa red m any booklets and ch art s dea ling with gy mn asti cs. At the very outset, it is clear that this book is to be a ca talog of moves, not a ho w- to-teach -it manual. Yet , th e de tail ed drawin gs often give th at tin y li tt le clu e th at rea ll y " makes" th e move. The nomen clatu re of gy mn as tic moves is esse nti al to any such cata log. Do n ha s drawn upon a bod y o f gymn ast ic expe rt s to eva lu ate th e term s appli ed to m any m oves and also upon hi s Master's the sis on th e sa me subject. I not e o nl y th at m ost o f his expe rts are from th e East and th eir bi as towa rds ce rt ain term s is reflected a littl e in th e book . O n the adv ice of hi s ex pert s, howeve r, h e has adopted th e FIG term s w hereve r possibl e. Thi s is both a li mi tat io n and a step fo rwa rd in m y op ini on. Th e li mitations ari se b eca u se of imperfect io ns in th e FI G system (Fr ench versus German pr efer red names) and in th e grea t geog raph ic d ive rsi ty in thi s co un try w hereby "straddl e fl ex," " pan ca ke," " Japanese splits, " and "C hi nese split s" all refer to the straddled seat pos iti o n with th e ches t lowe red for ward to the floor . Th e 1968 FIG Code and its 1971 Complement co mpl ete ly omit mention of th e move. Th e forward steps come in th e simplif yin g o f o ur co mpl ex and reg ion al termin o logy (a lthough it can be argu ed whether we need to adopt a French o r German name for a move when other nati o ns h<\.ve not yet fo llowed th at lead) and in cons istent app li ca tion of th e ba sic terminology. My first criticism is that the bo ok lacks an ind ex by which any given mov e ca n be eas il y located.

Let m e illu strat e. On the r in gs I wa s tryi ng to find th e back shoo t to suppo rt so that I co uld co mpare it w ith th e back k ip to su pport. Des pit e w hat see med to m e th e obv iou s si mil ar it y of a backward rotating ski ll, th e two mo ves we re 16 pages apart, sepa rat ed by forward rotat in g sk ills from han g, ve rtical mov in g skill s from hang, and forward rotatin g sk ill s from pike in ve rted hang. Obviou sly, the back k ip to suppo rt lay w ith piked inverted hang skill s and the backward shoot to support with th e sk ill s from a regu lar han g. Wh at th e rea der has to know then, is th e auth o r 's sys tem of grouping moves and thi s is provided so mewh at by th e table o f cont ents. The table of co ntents is set up to help find poss ibl e va riation s of a move from a ba sic sk ill (for exa mple, wh at poss ib il ities exist from th e front uprise skill o n th e parallel ba rs) . An index ce rtainl y would have b ee n he lpful , especia ll y as term s suc h as D iam idov, Shurlock, Ba ili e, Durham , Yamashita, and Voron in and Endo shoo t are also prese nted (W here ar e Ono, Takem o to, and Chagu inian?). A se ri es of aid s to understanding the termin o logy are prese nted in a · glossa ry (d efiniti o ns), an abbrev iati o ns section (on ly Fr en ch FIG term s and th eir Eng li sh equi va lents, howeve r), and a m ea ty chapter on gy mn asti cs nomenc lature w hi ch is wel l i llu st rated by D o n 's tal ented hand. Thi s chap ter is reco mm ende d to anyo n e trying to wade throu gh th e text o f an FIG-authored co mpul so ry exercise. In ad diti on, we are give n directions o n how to d escr ibe an exe rcise in FIG-ese, right down to th e proper use of pun ctu ati o n. One of t he thin gs th at fasc inates m e is th e numbered ratings w hi ch Don ass igned th e moves he i llu stra ted . Although he fail s to m enti o n th at these ar e o n a 1 to 10 basis (there are but nin e ski ll s rated at 10, four of th ese in va ultin g), it beco m es obv ious when th e moves are co mpared. Th e little empty circle beside each number offers ve ry interest in g poss ibilities, from markin g m oves you ca n do (or w ish yo u cou ld do) to co mposi ng lesso n p lans to tes ting one 's k nowledge o f th e FI G rating . (In thi s co nt ex t, I un ders tand that th e NGJA sa t down at t he 1972 NCAA's and rated every move. Perhaps some tim e th at too wi ll be p ublished .) This helps to m ake th e book even more va lu ab le as all of th e drawings are large enough to see, in co ntrast to t h e " minidraw in gs" of th e FIG Code. Th e o ne small cr iticism I mak e here is th at th e style of drawings diffe rs among t he va ri o us moves because the se have bee n taken from all of Do n' s work s: chart s, books , and arti cles. This is o nl y sli ghtl y distrac tin g, howeve r. Probab ly th e biggest plu s fo r ·the gymnast (coac hes and judges alrea d y ca n co n ceive of the book's uses) is th e cha nce to exa min e skill s close to and sli ghtl y abov e o nes he is now performing and to se lec t from t hese new ones to build o r rebuild hi s ro utin es . H e may have to relea rn a few nam es (inward transverse circl es in ste ad of " loop " ) but that is nothing compared to the chall enge of learning th e new moves.

STILL RINGS SKILLS and TECHNIQUES By John W. Hinds Jr. Over 90 pages of sequence and strobe action photos combined with easy to understand text, Makes "Still Rings Techniques" a welcome addition to any coach or gymnasts' library. · Deluxe Librar y Hard Bound Edition . . . $6.95 Comb Bound Workbook Edition . . . $5.00 Encl osed pleas e find $ . . . . for . . . . Hard Bound and/ or Comb Bound copies of STill RINGS SKillS and TKHNIQUES.

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Miyuki Malsuhisa (Japan)

Olympic Report by Dick Criley COMPETITION TWO In Competition II , Poland ' s M. Kubica did not compete which allowed Yugoslavia 's J. Brodnik to enter. The biggest jump in position was made by E. Gienger (W. Ger .) from 24th to 14th and the eiggest drop wa s by Russia ' s Mikhaelian from 9th to 20th. The 1.00 score gain registered by Japan's Okamura reflected the fact that he was no longer the first man up for a team score. The +0.80 scores awarded Andrianov and Klimenko see m to indicate a political influence, especially since the top 3 Japanese were penalized In comparrson w ith their previous AA optional total. Only Voronln and Mikhaelian could not be scored up because of their own break s. In Competition II , the Japanese women, especially Matsuhisa and Hirashima, made gains over their previous AA POSitiOns (6 and 10 places respectively) as did West Germany's Uta Schorn (8 places). US team members Chace and Pierce dropped 10 and 8 places respectively but Hungary's Marta Kelemen dropped 14 places. The greatest difference in scores between team and AA sets were Korbut (-2.05) and Kelemen (1.15) while East Germany's Richarda Schmeisser picked up 1.70 as did Russ ia 's Antonina Koshel.

Women's All-Around Finals Going into the women's all-around finals, Tourischeva was tied with Karrn Janz for first p lace followed by Erika Zuchold and Olga Korbut. The gymnasts were divided into 4groups of 9 each with apparently random asslgnmenL It was difficult to keep track of who was dOing what on each event. It was even more difficult for the coaches because they could be with only one girl at a time . Five US girls qualified into Competition Two : Rigby, Chace, Pierce, Moore, and Metheny.


Nancy Thies was tied with 5 other girl s at 35th 'a nd was dropped from the final competitions, presumably because there were already 5 others from the US in the finals and th e intention was to permit representatives of other countr ies to enter the AA finals. In the first round , all of the Russians performed well, getting high scores on their events.Tourischeva performed aYamashita and full twisting handspring to receive a 9.65. Rigby's first event was the beam , and she included the aerial walkover she had left out in Competition One. She received the same score, 9.35, as the first time she performed her optional. Her routine also included a handstand, snap-down, with a back handspring to a switch foot walkout, a swing-up handstand, a sWitch-leg back walkover, her press to handstand mount, and her rudolph dismounL She showed good amplitude and exciting dance elements. In contrast, Turischeva was to have breaks on the beam . Monika Csaszar, who was scored higher than Cathy, had similar composition and used a full twisting front for her dismount. Also on the bea m , Kaethi Fritschi of Switzerland performed a well-controlled sidewards aerial and received but 9.1 for her efforts. Olga Korbut was on Floor Exercise in the first round. She hit her arched dive roll better here than she did in the final competition and ' received a 9.8 from the judges. Her routine did not include a full twisting sa lta and used on ly the backward dive to chest roll for originality. Her dance was jazzy and cute and was described also as "darling" and "ex plosive ". Erika Zuchold received a 9.6 for her FX and tumultuous applause from the audience. Her routine was a hard act for Kim Chace to follow, but Kim performed a difficult routine with excellent tumbling and had to be content with a 9.4. Joan Moore followed Kim and was way underscored at 9.5. Joan mounted with aerial walkover into RO, ff, double twist, and later included handspring to layout front. Both US girls deserved higher scores than they received .

After the first round , Rigby was sti ll in 10th place behind Bekesi (Hun), Chace was still 18th. In the second round , Korbut was vaulting, receiving 9.65 for a Yamashita vault. Both Chace and Moore found it necessary to take steps after their vaults for recovery . Kim performed a handspring and Joan a high Yamashita. Meanwhile over on the beam, Saadi (URS) was looking good: cat jump, with y, turn, aerial, full twisting dismount for a 9.4. Zuchold on vault outclassed the others of her group with a 9.7. Roxanne Pierce was sure-footed on the beam except for a little half turn jump, and a loss of balance to fall from the beam . Upon remounting, she performed her one-arm front walkover with aplomb. In the floor exercise, Cathy Rigby 's " Roll Out the Barrel " netted her a 9.55 in one of her best floor performances. This was enough to boost her to ninth over Bekesi . Bekesi had only a 9.3 on the balance beam, just .05 behind Cathy. Janz was among the last up on the floor exercise and treated the audien ce to a light and spritely performance which was awarded 9.7. At the end of the second round, Chace had dropped to 20 thanks to herfall while on beam . Moore moved from 26 to 21 on the strength of her FX, Rigby was in 9th and Korbut had taken over first place, followed by Tourischeva, Janz, and Lazakovitch. Pierce's bad break on beam dropped her down to 33. The most significa nt happening of the third round was the ser ies of bad breaks which befell Olga Korbut on the unevens. She hit her feet on the stradd le glide mount, which broke the tempo so that she could not kip to grasp the HB; there were at least two other major breaks in the routin e and her score was 7.50 which dropped her to tenth rank. The other Russians were pushing hard as were the Hungarians. For the US, Rigby performed the flight aspects of her first vault well but stepped out off balance, but her second vault gained her a 9.4, which boosted her to 8th place. Janz performed a full twisting Yamashita for a 9.65 which boosted her into the

first spot over Tourischeva and Lazakovitch . Tourischeva was on the beam, mounting with st radd le L and pressing to handstand and forward walkover; she had a littl e bobble after a back handspring and was a little off-ba lance on her dismount for a 9.4. KimChace suffered a major break on the unevens for an 8.4. Joan Moore did a good job for a 9.35. It was perhaps fortunate that Lazakovitch followed Joan as Tamara received a 9.7 for a routine containing l Y2 twisting pirouette from a so le circle, and other flashy and difficult moves (free hip to hand) . Alina Goreac (Rom) st arted her UPB routine with a straddle on, immediate cast out and almost immediately suffered a break, a routine hard ly worth mentioning, except that her dismount was a hip circ le to handstand , back somersau lt off. Japan 's Matsuhisa had a routine possibly comparable to Moore's and received a 9.35, but the effect was hardly the same, because Joan's he ight gave her such beautiful amp litud e on her moves. In the floor exercise, Nemethova (Czech) had an interesting transition move: backward scissorstraddle with 2Y2 spins on her back. Roxanne Pierce, alone of our girls, appea red to ' be enjoying her floor exercise as she was smiling and relaxed throughout. She had a-slight break after her handspring piked front walkout and received a 9.20. Hungarian Aniko Kery had some good tumb ling, lots of leaps and turns, and displayed good shoulder flexibility when she performed an inlocate front walkover and back; she too, used a hand spring, layout front and received 9.55. With Korbut 's break dropping her to 10th, Janz was in first, Tourischeva 2nd, Lazakovitch 3rd, and Zuchold 4th . Burda was 5th, Hellman 6th, and the US girls: Rigby in 8th, Chace with breaks on the uneven s was in 30th , Moore was at 20th, and Pierce was still at 33 . Starting off in the fourth round , Romania 's Anca Grigoras had an interest ing mount for the unevens: she app roach ed as if to do an aerial onto the LB, but at the last minute did a half turn and single leg kip to str id e support facing out on the LB. Karin Janz kept up the pressure with a 9.7 on her UPB exercise. Over o n the beam, Lazakovitch moved almost in thythm with the "Hel lo Dolly" music being played for one of the FX performers and received a 9.75. Tourischeva got a big hand from the crowd to push her FX score up to a 9.9; she used a double twist in her mount (as did Joan Moore and a girl from Poland). Kim Chace hit well on her beam routine with a smoothly executed press down from handstand to V seat , valdez, back walkover, ... well contro ll ed aerial walkover, Joan Moore had a coup le balance problems in her beam routine, one after a walkover, but looked good in her stag handstand and was so lid on her gainer back dismount. Cathy Rigby performed a very secure uneven bar routine for a 9.5. Korbut, who was down in 10th place, needed a 9.7 or better on the beam to push past Cathy, and Olga ' was awarded a 9.8 which seemed a littl e high for the routine despite her or iginalit y in the layout back dive to chest roll and her dismount of back some rsau lt to immediate front somersau lt off. An interesting mount on the beam was performed by Hungary 's Medveczky: aerial walkover to a seat .on the beam. Ju st as she ducks her head on the aerial, she places a hand on the beam to help control the landing. In the final analysis Rigby still had 37.80 to Korbut 's 36.75, but th ere was a 1.225 edge for Korbut from the Competition One average. There were but 7 women with higher AA totals than Cathy Rigby for the day .

Tou rischeva 's 9.9 gave her a 38.60 total for the even ing for a 77.025 and the Gold Medal in the All-Around. Karin Janz followed with 38.45and 76.875 respectively. Tamara Lazakovitch had the high AA total for the evening at 38.65 but finish ed 3rd overall with 76.850. Erika Zuchold was 4th with 76.450, Liubov Burda (URS) 5th with 75.775, and Angelika Hellman (GDR) 6th with 75.550. Olga Korbut finished 7th with 75.100, followed by Saadi (URS) , Bekesi (HUN), and Cathy Rigby 10th at 74.925. Joan .Moore finished 21st (from 26th in Comp.I), KimChace 28th (from 19th) and Roxanne Pierce 33 (from 25th). Linda Metheny, who had qualified to compete in Competition Two, withdrew before the competition began because of her injuries . She had been tied w ith Joan Moore at 26th after Competition One. After the Competition, Kim Chace, mascot in hand , went over to Olga Korbut and gave the young lady a big kiss of sympathy and congratu lations. The warm -feeling which the whole crowd seemed to feel for Olga Korbut was perhaps best exemplified by the friendly sm il e of Superior Judge Madame Nagy after flashing a 9.8 for her beam performance. COMPETITION THREE

Women's Finals Tickets to the women 's individual event finals were almost impossible to obtain. Intense ticket-scalping brought more for standingroom-only places than good front-and-center seats. Despite the high demand for tickets there were large numbers of empty seats as the competitions got underway. By mid-point , however, many of those empty seats were filled with the blue, white, and orange uniforms of Germans working at the Games. The vaulting event was first for the women. The six best vau lts al l logged in at 9.60 or better. Olga Korbut was first up and hit her Yamashita and stuck her landing with the first vault a littl e better than the second . Tourischeva was the o nly vaulter to use two different vau lt s: Yamashita, and a handspring full twist. Erika Zuchold's Yamashita was higher with more preflight and postflight than Korbut's but she had a step on the landing of the first one while hitting the second one solidly . Incidentally, Russian coach Ashtakhova adjusted the board for Zuchold and the East German coach

Erika Zuchold (GORJ

Photo by Mitchrll BilfOsh


Karin Janz (GOR)

double-checked it and moved it o ne not ch . Tamara Lazakovitch ran with long easy steps (15) and performed her Yamashita with very tight pike but not too much preflight or postflight . Her landings were solid on both attempts. Luibov Burda performed a half-on , half-off handspring vault with long preflight with so-so postflight the first time but improved postflight on the second attempt. If one could be underscored at 9.7, she may well have been. Karin Ja nz ran with speed and purpose (18 fast steps) and twice performed an exce ll e nt piked Yamashita with full twist to solid landing for scores of 9.9 and 9.8. Her prefl ig ht was excellent and her strong pu sh-off gave her high postflight. Recapping the results : Jan z 19.525, Zuchold 19.275, To uri sc heva 19.250, Burda 19.225, Korbut 19.175, and Lazakovitch 19.050. The vaulting finals took about 20 minutes. The routine s on the un eve n parallel bars were difficult to record because of their difficulty and speed. The lowest award was a 9.65. Tourischeva : with" the beat board placed before the LB , run, jump to hand sta nd, kriskehre around, kip, grab HB and straddle ove r LB , kip to HB, so le circle, 1V, turns, bouncing off LB to front hip circle on HB , handstand, so le circle backwards, 1V, turns, hit LB , bounce back to full pirouette, drop to straddle glide on LB , kip to HB, sole circle on HB and v, turn , bounce off LB , stand on LB and jump to handstand , V, turn into wrap-around LB and full twisting hecht dismount. 9.80. Ilona Bekesi: with the beat board before the LB, run , jump a nd somersault over LB, grabbing HB in straddle, v, turn, stradd le, . . . front somersault between the bars, kip on LB to grab HB ... on HB , bounce, full pirou e tte, catc h, wrap-around LB , V, turn on HB , drop to LB , kip to HB, sit on LB , kip to HB , wrap-around LB wit h full.twisting he cht dismount. 9.70. Zuchold: b eat board back away from LB : run, bounce to grab the HB and st raddl e over LB , back kip on HB, backward hip c ircl e to handstand on LB , drop , glide, kip ... kip to HB , fr ee hip circle, cast, wrap-around , reg ra sp in eagle grip, st raddl e onto LB , bounce, kip to HB , hip circle, hecht over both bars. 9.80.


Photo by Mitchell Barash

Korbut: standing under HB , g~abs LB, glide, kip to grab HB , straddle over LB , kip to HB, stand on HB, layou t back to regrasp HB (fee t were sepa rated slightly), wrap arou nd , eag le reg rasp , drop to LB , front hip circle to hand sta nd and straddle backward and up to HB , handstand , to LB bounding off with V, turn to stand on LB, forward sole circle on HB, pushoff HB to back layou t over LB . 9.80. (The Russian delegation was sitting in front of yo ur GYMNAST reporters. We observed a disgraceful attempt by this delegation to ha ve Korbut 's score raised from 9.8 which put her in a tie with Zuchold for 2nd place. The racket from the audience was much th e same as in Dortmund in 1966 when th e c rowd protested a low score awarded Doris Bra use. Yuri Tito v who he aded the Soviet d e lega ti o n even went down on the floor to protest to the head scoring table. FIG Pres ideni Arthur Gander shook his head, NO, and sent Titov back to the sta nds. The score remained unch a nged a nd the noise went on. Angelika Hellman was forc ed to perform nearly her whole exercise in this discourteous cacaphony fr om the Olympic crowd .) Hellman: Mounted with run , jump a nd straddle over LB to g rab HB , kip to handstand , V, stalder, bounce off LB, full turn , bounce off LB , straddle over LB , kip, back hip circle to han dstand , V, turn , cast, wrap -arou nd , eagle regrasp, straddle glide kip on LB , grab HB , st raddl e over LB, kip onto HB , back hip circle to backwards somersault. Her landing was offbalance and she staggered seve ra l steps. The whistling over Korbut 's routine still continued a nd Hellman was vis ibl y upset. 9.65. Janz: With beat board back slightly from LB , run , jump with Y, turn over LB to grab HB , wrap-around, hip circle, V, turn onto LB, handstand, giant, straddle, seat circl e up , g rab the HB , stoop through , hip circle, V, turn, drop , catch the LB, g lide kip and grab HB , straddle over LB , kip to HB , cast to hand stand, V, turn, and drop to bounce off LB (st ill holdin g HB ) with front some rsau lt b etween the bars to regrasp HB, back hip c ircle, hecht over HB w ith full twist. Her score was first flashed as 9.8 but late r adj usted upwa rd s to 9.9. With the great fuss over Korbut's routin e, the

eve nt took abo ut 24 minutes to co mpl ete. Jan z was the cl ea r winner with 19.675, foll owed by Korbut and Zuchold at 19.450, Tourischeva 19.425, Bekesi 19.275, and Hellm an 19. 200. Monika Csaszar of Hun ga ry was first up in the beam finals. With th e beat board off the end of the beam, she ran and sprang to a straddle support and up to a ha ndstand , wa lkover followed by a couple steps, some poses, a stag jump, step V, turn, back walkover, bod y waves, arm waves, needle scale, sp lit handstand , step over a nd back thro ugh lunge position, V, turn , more poses and haRd waves, back hand sp ring landing one foot at a time , back walkover through stag position, split leap, seve ral poses, V, turn on one foot , forward walkover, step back, back wa lko ve r one hand at a tim e , pose and V, turn o n e nd of beam, aerial, forward aerial off w ith full twist for 9.6. Russia's Lazakov itch had the highest qualifying score but was up seco nd in th e finals. With the beat board off the end of the beam , she ran and jumped to a straddle support and pressed in st raddl e position to the handstand , straight split handstand , walkover, walking steps, diving cartwheel (very secure), step, split leap, lun ge positio n after V, turn, back walkover, momentary needle sca le, full turn, little leaps, back handspring from a two-foot takeoff, one foot landing at a time, step forward, poses, arm waves, V, turn , some dance steps, more turns, arm waves, V, turn, leg motions, kick to handsta nd , straight split, straddle split, back to straight sp lit, st e p down to arabesque on end of beam, cartwheel with v.. turn forward , more turns a nd body waves, back bendover to straddle seat, valdez up a nd step onto beam, cartwh ee l, back with full twist . 9.8. Erika Zuchold mounted from the side with the beat board on the diagonal: run and kick up into handstand to walkover (bu t had too much going for her and had to lower a foot for balance) , side leap, full spin in sea ted position, va ld ez, from end o f beam: some jumps and leaps, straight arm-straddle press to handstand , split, stag, straight split and on over into a walkover (w ith momentary loss of balance), kick again into split handstand; and on over to tou c h one foot and co me back, seated on beam in a stag pose, full turn with hip s against beam and legs below the beam , stand onto the beam, pose, arm sweep s, 2 full turns on one foot , split leap, sq uat with V, turn, ca rtwheel , mor e jumps and turns, ae rial off with V, turn. 9.4. Karin Ja nz placed the beat board on a diagonal and mounted with a run and kick to handstand and walk on over, back hand sp rin g, down to straddle, backward roll , exte n sio n through handstand , step down, wolf leap, more jumps and turns, V, turn back towards middle of beam, turn , seve ral poses and ballet steps on th e toes, turn with arm waves , kick to handstand with Y, turn , forward roll down , V sit, st raddl e o ut and whip up to handstand and step over, arabesque sca le, J;" turn on seat to the side, pose, sta nd with V, turn , semi -spli t leap, pose on end of beam, V, turn, full turn on one foot, backward walkover , fast handsp rin g wa lk over with momentary loss of balance, forward lo ss of balance, ca rtwheel to b ack off. 9.55. Tourischeva mounted witho ut the aid of the beat board, jumping to a stradd le L, pressing to a handstand, and walkover to sta nd , She co ntinued on wit h a diving cartwhee l, y, turn , two-foot takeoff into back hand spr ing, step out with sl ight break in form, V, turn , lun ge position, turn on one foot, st radd le L, st raddl es down and has break in getting back up on the beam, shallow sp lit leap, squat down and V,

turn, 2 fo rwa rd rolls w ithout hands , w hip p in g legs up , lower to japanese sp lits on th e beam, press to stradd le L, V. turn , sit stradd ling the beam, valdez through a wa lkover (looked un steady), body waves, so m e ste ps, lo n g kick step, ca rtw hee l with full twi stin g back off. 9.40. At las t came th e pe rformer the whole crowd had been wait in g for, O lga Korb ut. She mounted by jumpin g to sidewards sp lit s, pressing up a nd turnin g, and finall y swi ng in g he r legs up to sta ne o n the beam. From th e re: back wa lkove r, body wave , V2 turn , cartw hee l, pose, body waves, sp ri ght ly jumps, stag leap, ba c k wa lkover, w ith two-foo t tak eo ff : back layo ut di ve through ches t ro ll , through strad dl e seat, back roll , back wa lk over to st raddle sea t and w hip back up to stand (w ith a slight break ), stag h ands tand , step d own and step forward , full turn , forward wa lkove r, arm waves, pose, turn , sp lit leap, sid eward w iggles, back so m ersau lt to fro nt off. Her 9.9 was dubious in view of littl e bobbles and lack of difficult y in he r mount. Th e crowd, ho weve r, loved it, and she played them for a ll the applause and acknow ledgement she could get. Korbut , of course was the win ner with 19.400, fol lowed by Lazakov itch at 19.375, jan z at 18.975, Csaszar 18.925, Tourischeva 18.80 and Zucho ld at 18.70. On the floor exe rci se, Liubov Burda of the Soviet Un ion led off w ith a piece o f hea vy Russ ia n mus ic: With hea d down, wraps arms around and extends and goes into hi gh pose; RO , ff, layout, ff , layout to co rn e r; returnin g on same d iagonal: RO , 2 ff, V2 turn la yo ut to aer ial wa lkover; drops to ground an d comes back up in a walkover, pose, runn ing and dance steps, illu sion , spl it lea p; a long d iagonal: RO , ff , arabian hand spring, forward handspr ing, 2 split leaps, forward aeria l; in co rner, ara besque , back walkover, turn , step o ut forward, arabesque, sp lit leap, RO , layout with step out, pose. 9.60. East German y's Angelika Hellman was up ne xt: Dance steps, stag lea p, toss and back wa lkove r; RO, ff , full, bounce, steps, Tamara Laza kovitch (URS)

ca rtwh ee l, ba ck wa lkover; RO , f(wh ipove r, ff , tuck ba ck; tour jete, pose, fa ll back and straddle a round on th e floor on her back, extens ion to handstand, danc e steps; in the cor ner: RO , ff , la yo ut w ith step out, split leap, pose. 9.6. Lazakovi tc h' s mu sic was both folksy a nd modern. She sta rted with a few slow dance steps, somew hat in the modern dance ve in, then sped up w ith turn s, a nd a ful l axi l jump a nd into the co rn e r wi th a pose; a few fo lk dan ce steps (her m usic at thi s po int had the a udi ence c la ppin g in rh ythm) ; RO , ff, full, ff w ith walkout, kick, tour je te a nd more ste ps in a dance vei n ; pose, full turn down to o ne kn ee, arms moving ve ry gracefu l; aer ia l walkove r, steps, hand sp rin g over to knee sca le positi on; RO , ff, full; more dance steps a nd body waves; RO , ff , layo ut stepout to co rner a nd fina l pos e. 9.8. Next up was Ka rin ja nz w ho nee ded a 9.85 to tie Lazakovit ch. She had a little dance bit before her tumbling pass; he r mount th en was fron t handsp rin g step out to front so me rs ault, RO , bac k; aer ia l, l V2 axi l turn s, 3 butterfly moves to co rner ; RO, ff, la yo ut, 2 ff , layout to ste p o ut, fu ll spin on o ne kn ee,; a rabesqu e turn , mo re turns, stag leap, country dance steps (music in a fo lk sy ve in ), RO , ff , layo ut with step ou t, fin a l pose. 9.8. Tourisc heva had the highest qualifying score go ing in to the fina ls, 9.75, 0.075 ahead of seco nd p lace O lga Kor but. She started right in w ith he r tumbling: RO , ff, double full , d a nce steps, d iving tinsica , kn ee sca le poses, split leaps, forward aeri a l, more p oses; RO , ff , a rabian wa lkover into RO, ff , back (a low ba c k necessitating a boun ce and recovery of ba lance) , sidewa rd ae rial to imm e d iate knee stand, knee sca le ; RO , ff, full to finish in a seated pose. (The audience also clapped a long with the folk portio n of he r mu sic.) The judges awarded her a 9.8. O lga Korbut again drew the favored last spot. Her music was programmed just right for th e imp-p ixie-litt le girl image. Her start was a sortPhoto by Mitchell Ba rosh

of overplayed littl e g irl 's sop h isti ca ted stru t, then break into a medium high arc h dive ro ll , a nd up with more lit t le g irl wiggles; hand spring, front some rsault with step ou t into RO , ff , sui cide (or d e layed) back, dance ste ps, sid e sp li t leap, sca le , more so phisticated little g irl- type steps; RO, ff , layout back di ve to c hest rol l, (a li tt le short and hav in g a ll th e appearance of g ivin g he r ba c k a te rribl e crunc h), aer ia l wa lk over, to ch es t stand , sc isso rin g legs, RO , ff, low layout to fin a l pose. As th e crowd went wild , t he judges gave her a 9.9 a nd th e floor exe rcise tit le. Thu s, 17-year old O lga Korbut e d ged o ut vete ran Ludmill a Tour isc h eva by a scan t .025 , 19.575 to 19.550. In third was Lazakovitch w ith 19.450, fo ll owed by Karin janz at 19.40, an d Burda a nd Hellm an who tied w ith 19.10. Nine women representing but three countries took part in the finals. Korbut, Tourischeva, janz and Lazakov itc h competed in all four eve nts wh il e Erika Zuc h old appeared in three. The e ntir e competition in cl udin g awa rd s ce remonies took just under 2 h ours. CO MPETITION TWO US MEN'S TEAM AVERAGE SCORES FOR PAST 8 OLYMPICS Q..



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1936 1948 1952 1956 Team Average Scores 7.66 8.69 9.03 9.125 O p tio nal Average





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1S ~4
















Compu lsory Average

Men's All-Around Finals Fou r japanese, 4 Russians and 2 East Germans were in the top 10 going into the All-Around finals . Steve Hug was the only US gymnast in the men 's a ll-around fina l competition. He had fi ni shed at 26th in the AA standings after the team competition , with a tota l of 109.45. The 36th-ranked ind ividua l was Mauno Nissinen of Finland with 107.85. Marsha ll Ave ner was 50th with 106.35 and Makoto Sa kamoto 56th with 105.70. Hug got off to a ba d start on the para ll e l bars with muscled moves and intermediate swings for an 8.25, but even Eizo Kenmotsu netted only a 9.45 . North Korea n So ng jl Kim put togeth e r a smooth PB routin e for a 9.30 and Song Yu Kim hit for a 9.35. . In the floor exerc ise, Tsukahara performed a doub le twist to back fli p-flop as pa rt of his mount but looked a bit care less in other parts of the exe rcise; he d ismounted w ith a doub le twist as we ll. On the rings Nakaya ma paced the first set of gymnasts with a 9.55 but was pushed a little by West Germany's Wa lter Mo essi nge r who threw a sing le sa ito so hi gh it look ed as if he might be planning a doubl e, but the judges though otherwise and awarded a 9.40. At the conc lu sion of th e first round , the japanese were sti ll leading although Sawao Kato dropped to 2nd be hind Ke nmotsu because of a 9.25 on the floor . East Germany's Klaus Koeste, with a 9.15 on the pommel horse, dropped from 6th to 7th. In the second round of competition , Song Yu Kim ran into difficu lties on the HB and scored an 8.75. Voronin, w ho m ust have injured himself on the floor exercise dropped from 6t h to 9th as a resu lt of an 8.6 on that eve nt. Peter 13

Aleksandre Malee. (URS)


by Mitchell Barash

Rohner of Switzerland showed a nice handspring l V2 vault for a 9.5. Kato hit on the PH for 9.4 but despite this score, he dropped to 3rd behind Kasamatsu who scored 9.5 on FX to move into 2nd behind Kenmotsu . Kenmotsu retained , his hold on first place with a 9.45 routine on PB. Andrianov threw a high and solid double flyaway on the rings for a 9.50 while Eberhard Gienger (W . Ger.) used a piked double flyaway for a 9.45. A 9.55 was reg ist e red on HB by Poland 's Andrzej Szajna who used a high piked double flyaway. Steve Hug look ed more confident performing his HB routine for a 9.40, but this only boosted him 2 places to 32nd. Th e crowd was disappointed with the 9.5 awarded Kasamatsu on the floor. He mounted with a c ircus tuck double back, but the rest of his tumbling was high , clean , and extended. He dismounted with an exce llent exa mpl e of the full twisting sa ito. At the end of the 2nd round, the top six showed that Koeste had moved up from 7th to 6th with Voronin 's drop to 9th. Kenmotsu still led Ka samats u, Kato , Nakayama, and Andrianov. Tsukahara had moved to 10th on the strength of a 9.2 on PH. In the third round , Klimenko hit a hi gh Yamashita with great arch and low extens ion but so lid landing for 9.4. Voronin picked up 9.4 on PH but remained tied in 9th with Mathias Brehme who had picked up 9.35 also on PH. A nice one-arm balance or side planche was performed by the Russian, Maleev, but he netted only 9.05. Nakayama sailed through his PB routine with 9.65 an d great applause from the audience. Szajna 's HB score was originally flashed as 9.6 but a computer check later showed a 9.55 for his award. Moessinger's PB 14

routine was interesting: mount wit h g lide and suck through to L support on one bar, press to handstand, v.; pirouette and later, a peach basket to immediate stradd le cut. Hi s exercise excited the crowd but n ot the judges who awarded but 9.3. Trying to move up from 32nd, Steve Hug put out with the difficulty in his floor exercise: RO, ff, double twist; scale-fall back into splits followed by double leg c irc les, and dismount of RO, ff , full. His score, however, was but 9.05, due largely to sloppy form. In the meanwhile, Kasamatsu was hitting well on PH for 9.55, and Wolfgang Thu ene (GDR) hit for a 9.4, including a scissors with hop, V2 turn. Kenmotsu performed solidly o n FX for 9.45. Another circus tu ck double back was performed by Song Yu Kim in hi s FX mount, for a 8.90. After 3 events, Kenmotsu stil l. led by 0.075 over Kato; Nakayama had c limbed to 3rd while Kasamatsu dropped to 4th. Andrianov was still 5th and Koeste 6th. Hug had dropp ed a place to 33rd. Tsukahara climbed from 10th to 7th on the strength (no pun intend ed) of a 9.7 rings perfo rmance, which was th e high est score registered on that eve nt in the competit ion. In the 4th round , Kato hit his rudolph vault for 9.5, Nakayama picked up his pace with a 9.65 on the HB; his exercise in cluded an ONO and st raddle vault with reg rasp. Andrianov had hit for a 9.75 in the preceding round with his handsp ring l V2 vault a nd picked up a 9.4 on PB; his exe rcise includ ed a piked front between the bars. Tsukahara managed only a 9.4 for his RO , piked back vault because of a giant step backwards for balan ce . Little Okamura of Japan hit the handspring l V2 vault for a 9.6 score. With good height, flight , and solid landing it was evident" that he was happy with this vault as his face broke out into a big g rin. Mea nwhile, Kenmotsu was putting toget her a 9.6 on PH . Voronin showed that he st ill had somet hing left to give with a 9.55 on the rings. Klimenko started his PB exercise with a beat board takeoff and high vault, almost to ha ndstand , and included a Diamidov a nd full twisting back dismount. The top 6 individuals did not change, only the ran kings, as Nakayama edged past Kato 38.3 to 37.75. Nakayama 's AA tota l was actually higher than Kenmotsu's 38.10, but only 0.1 ahead of Andrianov at 38.20. Hug had moved to 31 after his 9.3 PH performance. Hi s 4-event total was 36.00. In the fifth round, Nakaya ma picked up 9.5 Akinori Nakayama (Japan)

Photo by Mitche ll 8arosh

on the floor exerc ise which includ ed handspr ing, layout front as the mount, and a high, back layo ut dive to support and lowe r to prone position, and a RO, piked side somie. In this round , Tsukahara suffered a bad break on his PB dismount: overturning his ha ndstand , snapdown, back so mersa ult, he rolled off the platform into the judge's pit. He ca me up smiling and with a 9.2 score. One of the high scores of the round was Eberhard Gienger (W. Ger) on H B with 9.6. Kato again impressed the crowd and judges (to the tune of 9.6) with his bac k toss to handstand, snap-down with straddle c ut to peach. Hi s score was initi a lly flashed as 9.75, then changed to 9.85 and ultimately reco rded by the computer as a 9.6 in a series of sco re changes that never seemed to be explained. Steve Hug remained in 31st position with a 9.0 on rings. Kenmotsu still led after 5 events with Nakayama just behind by 0.05 and Kato 0.075 out of first. Andrianov, Kasamatsu, Koeste, Klimenko, Tsuka hara , Thuene, and Brehme and Voronin (tie) rounded out the top 10. In the last round, Kasa matsu had a break ju st after his diamidov on PB to receive 9.2. Kenmotsu p e rform ed a high, full twisting hand spr ing for a 9.6 on the vault. Nakayama had a 9.45 on hi s va u lt. Kato scored a 9.75 on HB to vault past both Kenmotsu and Nakayama. Voronin, who was tied at 10th with Brehme, dropped to 12th after simplifying hi s PB routine (his dismount apparently was a bent-kn ee flank vault a nd the execution of the routine suggested that he was feeling his injuries.) It was up to Tsukahara to score the highest individual score of the evening, a 9.85 on HB , with a routin e which included a high barani hop vault, straight body kip with amplitude, and a half-in , half-out double flyaway dismount. Another double back mount was used by Song Sob Li who used a double twist in his dismount , rece iving 9.45 to tie such individuals as Kenmotsu, Andrianov, and Klimenko on the floor exercise eve nt. Had it not been for an 8.95 on PH , Li 's 6-event tota l could have pushed him up into th e top 10 instead of 13th. (Incidentally, the 9.45 awa rded Andrianov met with crowd disapproval despite the necessary deductions for stepping out of the area when he overturned hi s double back mount.) After the competition was concluded and Kato, Kenmotsu and Nakayama had won the top three places (114.650, 114.575, and 114.325 respecti ve ly), the whole Japa nese team was observed to grab Coach Yukio Endo and toss him up and down. Kato's evening total was 57.10 but Andrianov registered a higher score (57.30) and Kenmotsu and Nakayama at 57.20 were st ill higher; howeve r, Kato had had a 0.175 lead over Ke nmotsu from Competition One and this mad e the difference. Kasamat su, who had sta rted in 3rd position dropped to 5th behind Andrianov and Klimenko who had sta rted in 8th tied for 6th with Kl a us Ko este who stayed there throughout, Th e accompanying tab le compares the optional total for the AA competition ve rsus the team compet ition . Lower scores can be attributed to the greater seve rity of the judges' appl ication of the rules , especia lly the ROV aspects, and the likelihood that with only 36 competitors, the judges were no t as fatigued as in the fir st competition s and could be more critical. Another possible explanation for the lower would be that the gymnasts were getting tired after going through great

pressures and strains and so many sets of exercises. In an interview at the end of the competitions, th e japanese were asked if the addition of Competition Two had diminished the gymnast' s abil ity to present his best exercises in the finals. Th eir rep ly was that they felt it had, but while they st ill favored the use of the All-Around competition they hoped changes cou ld be made for fut ure Olympic Games. They were more concerned about the judging w hich had caused greater deductions for them than for the Russians . Japanese team during a'n interview following Olympic Competition.


Men's Finals The men's fina l competition was as jam-packed as was the women's thanks to the reputation for spectacu lar performances which the j apanese men had earned. Only 11 different gymnasts were to appear in the finals of each apparatus: Sawao Kato, Eizo Kenmotsu , Akinori Nakayama, Shigeru Kasamatsu , Mitsuo Tsukahara, N i ko lai Andrianov, Viktor Klimenko, Mikhail Voronin , Klaus Koeste , Wilhelm Kubica and Peter Rohner. Although already proven as the best team in the world, the japanese were determined to show their talents w ith even more difficulty and to prove that they were definitely superior to the Russians. Their ext ra difficulty was to backfire on them a littl e as severa l sure medals were lost because of breaks. Going into the fin als of the floor exe rci se , it was anybody's guess as to who would be the w inn er : Kato had a slim 0.025 lead over the other 5 finalists wit h a 9.55 average. Koeste: Front handspring, barani, ff, If, full , turn to lun ge, If, forward pirouette, front walkover, cartwheel, d ivin g back layout to chest roll out, crad le to kip w ith fu ll turn to rear support, 'I, turn, press w ith stradd le legs to handstand, tuck roll to stand, sid e scale and V. turn backwa rd s to back wa lkover ; stand, 'I, turn, handspring, full twisting front , headspring, front som ie, dive to J/4 handstand , front support, stand , tu rn , 2 steps, jump straddl.e toe touch , backwqrd extension roll with st raight arms, 'I, turn to ha ndstand, roll out, jump to 2 foot va ld ez, step down , 'I, turn , RO , If, full. .. .9.30. Andrianov: Front som ie step out, RO , ff, double back (th e o nl y one he landed was in the individual event finals); step to corner, back along th e diagona l w ith side somie, side somie, swedis h fall, stand , RO, full , If, lun ge, sing le leg circles , 'I, turn to prone position , to sp lits, st raight arm stradd le press to hand stand , step down, RO, ff, arabian dive roll , stradd le roll out, to 2 doub le leg c ircles, prone position, come to stand, Y scale, RO , If, doub le twist (with one step for balance) .. .. 9.65. Kasamatsu: RO, If, high double twi ster, turn to swedish fall , turn to rear support, turn to forward sp lit s, 2'1, double leg circl es w ith y, turn, turn , stoop up; step to corner and face diagonal: reverse lilt front som ie step out, RO , arabian dive, jump to prone drop, to japanese sp lit s, slide legs around to prone position, press straight arm, stradd le leg to handstand, step down ; RO , piked side; turn to front roll , back handsprin g to front support; turn along diagonal: Y scale, RO, If, full .. .. 9.50 Nakayama: Front handspring, layout front , headspring, swed ish fal l, lunge, back handspring, toe touch ff to front suppo rt, from knees Ito move, rear suppo rt , 'I, turn to stand , towards corner: RO piked straddled side som ie, swed ish fall, front support, turn to rear

support, p ress to V seat, press through and with shoulder roll, turn, lunge, side sca le, full turn; stra ight arms and straddle legs to handstand ; along diagonal: RO, If, double twist....9.40. step down, bounce turn, single leg circle , turn, Th e final floor exe rcise results: Andrianov lunge, Y scale; RO , ff, full. ... 9.60. ' 19.175, Nakayama 19.125, Kasamatsu' 19.025, Kato: RO, ff, If, double back (low and over- Kenmotsu 18.925, Koeste 18.825, Kato 18.750. balanced but intending the 'I, turn) to stra ight To capture the routines of the best gymnasts body fa ll, lilt leg forward to sp li ts, 2 double le g o n the pommel h orse (as the sid e horse is now circl es with V. turn, back extension roll through to be known internationa ll y) was impossib le at handstand ; stoop down; RO, If, delayed piked the time. The fo ll owing accounts were arab ian front (sho rt rotation and cras hin g to his prepared by USA Olympic coach, Abie seat), front roll to sta nd o n one leg, turn, Grossfeld, from films . backward walkover, stoop through to back, sit Kubica: Mou nt looping on the end, 'I, ci rcl e, up and push up to stradd le L, st raight arm press reverse loop, 'I, ci rcle , loop travel in , travel out, to hand sta nd , rollout to one knee , stand and 'I, circle, loop, wa lkaround, loop, back stock li turn , RO, side somie, sideward roll; turn to in , 1'1, circles , moore, 'I, circl e, moore, 1 ci rcl e, lunge, tu rn to Y sca le, RO, ff, If, double twist 2 back scissors, 2 front scissors, 1'1, circle, t rave l (sho rt on twist and took step) .... 9.20. .o ut, double loop, 'I, circ le walkaround , loop At this point, Kenmotsu , w ho was among w ith 'I, turn off (Chagu ini an) .... 9.40. those tied wit h Andrianov at the sta rt , had to Kato : Mounts in the middle; jump to Y, decid e whether to go for broke and throw circ le, moore, 'I, circle , back moore, travel to everyth ing to try to beat the Russian or whether front in imm ediat e back stock li out, 1 circle , to play safe w ith a routine of lesser difficulty. He hop, immediate kehre in , 1 ci rcl e, travel o ut, 'I, elected to throw his trip le full in his mount and circle, back travel in , back travel out, 'I, ci rcl e, overturned the somersau lt w hile comp leting back stock li in , 1 y, ci rcles, 2 back scissors, 2 the triple twist and tried to save the situat ion by front scissors, 2 circles, travel out, 1'1, circles , turning arou nd to front support. This, along loop, hop, loop with 'I, turn ofl. ...9.50. with a form break on the dismount and a low Voronin: Mount from end w ith a loop, 'I, position in his sid e scale, gave the judges circle, hop (or wa lkaround mount) , loop, back enough to penalize him into fourth place. stockli in , 1'1, c ircles, moore, travel out, 'I, Kenmotsu: RO , If, triple full with turn to circle , 1'1, Russian (e nd to pommel to end), 'I, front support, stradd le cut , 'I, turn , stand , front ci rcl e, trave l in, travel out, 'I, circle, kehre in, 'I, somie, headspring, front som ie, stra igh t body circle , 2 front scissors, 2 back sc issors, 1 c ircle, fa ll , sta ight arm stradd le press to handstand, travel out, 'I, c ircle, loop, wa lk aro und , loop step down, RO, arab ian dive, stag jump, with 'I, turn off (Chagu ini an) .... 9.45. Nikoli Andrianov, 1st place in individual Olympic floor exercise competition on the victory stand with Akinori Nakayama (2nd) and Shigeru Kasamatsu (3rd).


Ka sa ma tsu : Back moore to center to moore to end (all on one pommel), immediate ke hre (with touch back), 2 circles, back stock li out, 1 circle, walkaround, 1 circle, front in , immediate back stockli out, Yz circle, back stockli in, 1 circle, 3 front scissors, 1 back scissors (high in both ways), 2 ci rcles, travel out, Chaguinian off .... 9.40. (In trouble near the end, he just mad e it to his dismount.) Klimenko did not need much above a 9.5 to be safe sin ce Kato had earned only a 9.50. The Russi a n led Kato by 0.025 while trailing Kenmotsu by the same margin . He mounted with 2 loops facing outwards on the e nd , Yz hop,1 circle, front in to moore, 1Yz circles, back moore travel out, Yz ci rc le, kehre in, 1 ci rcl e , 2 ba ck scissors, 2 front scissors, 1 ci rcl e, moore , 1Yz circles, travel out, Chaguinian off (with slightly bent knees in the final 100p) ... .9.60. The 9.60 awarded Klimenko put pressure on Kenmotsu, again the last man up . He needed a 9.6 to stay ahead; a 9.55 would put him second . Again , the breaks were not going his way as he suffered a slight break just after a moore, had other form breaks and just muscl ed his dismount th ro ugh. Ken motsu : Mount to center, back moore, travel in, 1 circle, Russian on one pommel to end , 2 circles, loop, back stockli in, 2 circles, back moore - travel- kehre in (one pommel), % circle, 3 front scissors, 1 back scissor, 1Yz circles, back moore travel out, Yz circle, loop, % c ircle, Ru ssia n off .... 9.40. Again , a Russian took the gold : Klimenko 19.125, Kato 19.000, Kenmotsu 18.950, Kasamatsu 18.925, Voronin 18.875, Kubica 18.750. To this point, the judges and the Japanese themselves had kept Japan from taking any of the gold 'm edals, Endo was so sure they would bring back from the finals. But then it was on to the rings where Nakayama, experienced veteran of the team and twice gold medalist in Mexico City and Ljubjana was to battle it out with the Russian , Voronin, who had placed second and third in these prior contests. Ke n~otsu : Straight body pull to inverted hang, cast, straight arm back uprise fall over to front giant with straight arms to handsta nd ; straight arm back giant to handstand, fall over . to whippet to L support; straight body, be nt arm press to handstand, lower to L cross, lower 16

legs to iron cross; lowe r and lift to in ve rte d han g, di slocate, hi g h dis locate, ful l twi st. ... 9.40. (In his w hipp e t to L, hi s feet ove r-rotate d a nd he had to bring them up and in his land in g, his feet we re perhaps a bit too far apa rt for aest hetics, though th e landin g was so lid.) Tsukahara: Strai g ht body pu ll to inverted hang, cast out to Ja pa n ese inlo ca te to stra ight ar m back upri se to hand stand; bac k giant with st raig ht arms to ha nd sta nd ; g ia nt down to front upri se to L support, straight body, bent arm press to hand stand , lower slow ly to maltese cross (didn ' t hold it ), then lower to cross lower a nd lift body to inve rted ha ng, dislocate, high dislocate , double piked flyaway .... 9.70. Koeste: Slow inlocate, cast, bac k upri se to handstand , front g iant , back g iant, lowe r to L c ross (high), lowe r, dislo ca te, shoot to tuck ba ck roll (Hi ck man ro ll ) to back lever, di sloca te, front uprise L, straight body bent arm press to hand sta nd , fall over to back uprise, piked back off .... 9.45. Naka ya ma : High (J apanese) inlocate, back uprise (s lightly be nt arms) to han dstand , back giant (straight arms), pl anc he down to back lever to L cross, low e r through back lever, kip to L support, straight body, bent arm press to handstand , fall over to back uprise to cross, dislocate to full off (a littl e short on the twistl ....9.65.

Voronin : Dislocate, straight arm shoot to handstand, straight arm bac k giant to handstand , fall over with straight arms to back uprise to planche, lower to cross (about Yz second), lower through back leve r to kip to L support, straight body bent a rm press to handstand , lower throu gh planche to back lever, immediate disl ocate, dislocate, full. ... 9.65. Kato : Pull to front lever, bent inlocate, cast out, high Japanese inlocate, back uprise, handstand (slight break in settling to handstand), fall over to rise up to straddle L, straight arm bent hip st rad dle press to handstand , back giant straight a rm to handstand, giant down to giant dislocate, double back (tucked) .. ..9.60. Akinori Nakayama again repeated as Olympic rings champion with a total of 19.350, followed by Voronin 19.275, Tsukahara 19.225, Kato 19.150, Kenmotsu 18.950, and Koeste 18.950. In the vaulting finals, the competitors were to do two vaults with th e average of both to be added to the previous C + 0 average from Competition One . Only Koeste and Klim e nko were to hit both vaults, and the East German was most surprised to learn that he had won . In th e post-competition interv iews, he explained that he hadn't even expected to make the finals and had not suffiCiently practiced h is second vault.

With Boris Sc hak hlin se rvin g as super ior judge on the va ults, and with only two Japa nese in the finals , it see m ed likel y that a Jap anese would not finish in first place. What was surprising wasthat neither finished with even a medal , the first time in many co nsec utive events in world competition that a Japa nese was not to occupy a spot on the victory stand. Ken motsu : handsp ring 1Yz but overturned it and had to scramble on his landing ... . 9.05. (High e r scores had been awarded ea rli e r for vaults with the same fault , but in Competition Thre e this seemed to merit st iffe r penalties instead of greate r len ien cy.) His seco nd vault was a handspring wit h full twist from the far end ; it was slightly overturned and required a step for balance .... 9.25. Ave. = 9.150. Klim e nko : Handsp'ring full from far e nd, slightly overturned and requiring a step for balance. It did not have the he ight of Kenmotsu 's vau lt but his score was upgrad ed from a 9.30 (initially flashed) to 9.4. His second vault was th e Tsuka ha ra vault--Ianding on the horse with bent a rm s but getting good push off for a high vault with fast tuck and a so lid landin g ....9.45 . Ave. = 9.425. Rohn er: He ap pare ntly missed his first vault performing a right side cartwheel with J/4 turn left to land with hi s back to the horse .... 8.80. Hi s second vault was the handspring 1Yz from the near e nd , but his legs were apart and slightly bent during the preflight, but he had a good postflight and needed but one recovery step .... 9.50. Ave. = 9.150. Kato : 1Yz twisting handspring (Rudolph) which was undertwisted and und e rsomersaulted and needing a step to recover balance .... 9.45. His second vault, a handspring 1Yz from the far e nd, was a disaster. Very poor pre-flight form co ntributed to under-rotation , an inglorious landing, and an 8.65 score. Ave. = 9.050. Koeste: Ha ndspring 1Yz from near end. This was a good high vault with plenty of room to stretch for the floor for the landing but he hopped slightly for balance .... 9.45. His second vault, a handspring with full twist, seemed to be turned a little too ea rly or too much while in contact with the horse. On this vault also he required a slight hop for balance .. .. 9.30. Ave. = 9.375. Andrianov: Handspring 1% from near end . This showed the best pre-flight form of any attempts at this vault but he landed off balance sideways and took a step ba ck onto the mat ... . 9.50. His handspring with 1% twist was und e r-so mersa ult ed and resulted in a so lid landing on his seat. Apparently the lenien cy clause applied as his sco re was 8.90. Ave. = 9.200.

Koeste 18.850, Klimenko 18.825, Andriano v 18.800, Kenm ots u 18.550, Kato 18.550, Rohn e r 18.525. Ther e we re four japanese and two Ru ss ia n s in the fin a ls of the para ll el bar compe tit ion. To milke up for their non-appearance on th e vic tory stand in the preceding eve nt , th e japa nese were to take a ll three medals. Klimenk o: Run , jump to hi g h pl a nc he po siti on , cas t, Y2 turn , streuli , ha nd stand , st ut z to hand sta nd , back toss to ha nd stand , Di a midov (w ith fee t apart), stutz handst a nd , drop cast, back uprise to c ut ca tc h to L support ; stra ddl e press to hand sta nd, back toss to ha ndst a nd and full twist off .... 9.50. Na ka ya ma: From sid e g rasps far bar in overgrip and shoots to hand stand, hop over to near bar, to g lid e and overshoot back up to stradd le L (in th e fina ls he had to hook a foot under the far bar for balance ), pre ss to handstand and v. turn onto both bars, back to ss th rough ha nd sta nd , drop to baske t to front uprise , rev e rse pirouette, drop cast, ba c k uprise to c ut ca tc h, L pr ess to hand stand , back to ss, drop to gl id e kip , front off w ith Y2 tw ist. ...9.25. Andrianov: Standing on beat board , pe ac h to hand sta nd , front pirouette, st ut z, layawa y, front upri se, front so m ersa ult ca tc h and sw in g forward to should e r roll , b ac k upri se, cut catch , straight arm straddle pr ess (a littl e fast and lack in g rh ythm ), back to ss through handstand a nd swing down a nd fa ll to piked upper a rm support, (lo w) back upri se wi th bent knees and 3 intermediate sw ing s th e n to handstand , double sa ito off .... 8.45. With th e low sco re awarded the Russ ian , th e press ure was o ff th e remainin g japa nese. Ea ch needed bette r than a 9.5 to to p Andrianov, a nd eac h was capab le of more. Kenmot su: Peac h to n ea r ha nd stan d , press, forward pirou e tt e , drop cast to support , swing back, priou e tt e, drop to peac h to handstand , stutz to hand stand , ba ck toss through handstand , drop cast, back upri se cu t catch L, straight arm press w ith stradd le le gs to hand stand , stut z to hand sta nd , back off with full twi sl....9.60. Kasamat su: jump to end , cast to support, swing forwa rd pirouette, hi g h back to ss to handstand , stutz to hand stand , Di a midov to handst and , drop cast, back uprise with Y2 turn (st utz), forward roll to ba ck upri se to straddle c ut catch to L, st raight a rm press with stradd le legs to ha nd sta nd , back off w ith full twisl....9.75 .

With th e 9.75 awarded Kasamatsu, Kato now needed a 9.6 to ti e for the go ld medal. Kato: From sta nd on beat board, jump ,to st raddl e cut, 2 double leg c irc les, drop cast ca tc h to midd le of bars, sw ing forward pir ouette, back toss to hand sta nd , stut z to near handstand , back toss to h andstand and snap legs down to stradd le cut and immediate drop cast, back upri se st raddle c ut to L, straight a rm press to ha ndsta nd w ith straddl e d legs, doubl e sa it o ofl. ... 9.80. Kato eas il y wo n w ith a 19.475, followed by Kasamatsu 19.375, Kenmotsu 19.250, Klimenk o 19.125, Nakayama 18.875, and Andriano v 17.975. All five japa nese performed in the fina ls of the hori zo ntal bar with only Andrianov to rep resent th e Ru ss ians. Nakayama: Undergrip sw ing, shoot to handstand , J/4 undergr ip giant, stoop through sea t c ircle, Ta ke moto to ba ck rise straddle c ut over the bars and regrasp, full turn out on one a rm , change to und e rgrip and J/4 forwa rd gian t, stoop through , seat circle shoot to 3 inverted g iants, hop to undergrip and immediate Endoshoot, J/4 front giant to stra ddled kehre, to . Stal dershoot , 2 back giants, to back turn to 3/4 front g iant, to full twisting hec ht. ... 9.60. Kenmot su: jump to undergrip , straight arm cast to hand stand , imm ediate Endoshoot into hop to di slocate grip , one eag le giant to one in ve rt e d g ia nt to Ono turn to rear vau lt , kip with straight arms, hop pirou e tt e , J/4 forw a rd giant to sta lder, shoot into ba c k pirouette, J/4 forward giant, hec h t w ith full twisl... .9.65. Kenmot su's routine seemed short, but he had 9 Cs and 2 B's and 1 A. USA Olympic coach Grossfeld felt it was the best routine in the finals and that on ly Ke nmotsu cou ld have executed such an intricate and difficult exe rcise. Andrianov: Underg rip swing, shoot to handstand with st raight arms, J/4 forward giant to hecht (Vo ronin) va ult , kip , change grips, 3/4 forward giant, stoop .through , seat ci rcl e, Takemoto, rear vault , back kip , cast to German giant, stoop out and half turn (below the bar),

swi ng forward c h an ge g rip, kip to one for wa rd giant , for ward p irouette to two back giants, pik e doubl e fl yaway .... 9.50. Kato: jump to undergrip sw in g, jam and stoop through to shoot into 2 eag le giants, J/4 eag le hop forwa rd , Y2 turn , J/4 back g ia nt, sta lder shoot, J/4 bac k giant, hop to und e rgrip and imm ed iate Endos hoot, J/4 forwa rd g ia nt , forwa rd pirou e tt e , one back giant to cross ri g ht hand over left and cross grip turn to fu ll forward pirou e tt e on left arm , one giant, Ono turn , rear va ult , kip change g rip, two forward giants, forward pirouette imm ed iate to tuck e d double fl yaway .... 9.75. Tsukahara : Undergrip, jam and stoop through to Tak emo to to ba c krise full turn ca tch , und ersw ing, hop grip, kip , J/4 forward g iant , stoop through , seat c ircl e, shoot , one in ve rted gia nt , J/4 eagle hop , Y2 forward pirouette, J/4 ba ck g iant, Staldershoot to hop to undergrip , 3/4 forwa rd giant, hecht (V oronin ) va ult to und e rsw ing hop to und e rgrip, kip, % forward giant, forwa rd pir o ue tte, two bac k giants to h a lf-in , h a lf-out double flyaway .... 9.90. Kasamatsu: Undergrip, stoop to immediate handstand, imm ed iate Endo shoo t, J/4 forward g iant , stoop through to seat circ le to 2 in verted giants, one eag le , hop to one arm undergrip, ful l forward pirou e tte, one giant, Ono turn to rear vault, kip c hange , one forward giant, forward pirou e tte , one back g iaflt to pike-ppen fl yaway with fu ll twi sl....9.70. The hori zo ntal bar was a fitting and exhi la ratin g climax to the Olympic gymnastic co mpetition s. Tsukahara earned the gold medal with a 19.725, one of the highest event scores on record. Immediately following we re Kato 19.525, Kasamatsu 19.450, Kenmotsu 19.350, Nak aya ma 19.225, and Andrianov 19.100. (Assoc. Editor's note: Many thanks to Abie Grossfeld for reviewing and correcting our interpretations of the final routines. We hope these will be useful in conjunction with the many excellent films of the finals.)


Mrs. Renee P. Hendershott 17605 Fries Avenue Lakewood, Ohio 44107



Renee ~endershott_ Women s _ _ _ _ _ __


Coordinating_ editor _ _ _ __

WRITING ON THE WALL Press On Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not ; Nothing is more common th an unsuccessful men with tal ent. Genius w ill not; Unrewarded genius is almost a provert. Education alone will not; The world is full of educated d ere licts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent. McDonald (Sunday Empire November 19, 1972, th e maga zi ne of the Denver Post)





Austin Schools This article appeared in the December, 1972 Texas Gymnastic Reporter, Official Publication of the Gymnastic Association of Texas, 5100 Old Manor Rd. , Austin, Texas 78723 The Board of Education of the Austin Independant School District approved a $27,700 Secondary Gymnastics Development Plan Phase I proposal at the August 31 , 1972 Board Meeting . Purchase of equ ipm ent and compensat ion of men and women sponsor/coaches are included in this official step toward a broad secondary physical education program in gymnastics. In Phase II and Phase III, more comp lete high schoo l equipment sets, and beginning junior high schoo l equipment sets, wi ll be. purchased, looking forward to the teaching of physical education-gymnastics in all high schools and junior high schoo ls for the 1973-75 schoo l year. The Austin program was developed by cu rri culum coordinators Ellie Noack and Curt Eckhart, with the coorparation and interest of parents groups from three high schools. Finalizing of equipment purchases and securing of staff are first priorities for th e 197273 year.


Austin 's pilot program in gymnastics was ' provided by the gymnastics club at John H. Reagan High School , sponsored by staff member Brian Schenk. The Reagan club began in 1967 as an extra curricu lar activity, and in 1968 a girls after-school program was added . Competitive teams were formed from the afterschool program, and the boy/ girl club conducted fund-raising activities, resulting in the purchase of $6000.00 of equipment. In 1971 , the first gymnastics-physical education classes were offered as PE-electives. Both girls and boys PE classes in beginning gymnast ics/ dance were offered , and one more advanced class in apparatu s gymnastics. Advanced courses (a second credit semester in physical education) will be offered in the spring semester of 1973. Competitive gymnastics groups for boys and girls are operated in the after-schoo l time block. Competition schedu les are being developed for dual meets, regional meets, and other act ivit ies such as the Texas High School Gymnastic Clinic. Tumbling clubs have been formed in some of the Jr. High Schools. In one, the students are paying dues of $1 .00/ month in order to purchase a trampoline. Complete sets of gymnast ic equipment have already been ordered for some of the junior & senior high schools and some strong clubs that are developing. At two schools, special gymnastic rooms will be built (44 x 120). One of the ingredients in the Austin success has been the strong support of parent organizations. The Rega n Parents' Steering Committee gave much leadersh ip to the communications w ith the School Board during the winter and spring this yea r. The men 's staff seems to be a p o tential holdup in Austin . New teaching positions have not been created in orde r路to teach gymnastics. It is necessary to utilize existing jobs in order to provide the program. Therefore, it is necessary to find individuals who are able to tea ch a partial gymnastics schedule and a partial academic load of two or three English, social science, biology (etc.) classes . PE-Gymnastics is taught as part of the normal teaching load . A stipend is provided for extra-curricular competitive gymnastics coaching. Persons interested in present or future high school teaching / coach in g positions are instructed to include information about gymnastics background as well as their other academic teaching areas. Gymnastics in Austin is entering a new area and a new era . Financial support, recruitment of staff, recognition as a worthy and va lid sport and excitement and approval by curricu lum director and athletic director have set the stage for what can be a real Cinderella situation.

Fund Raising TECHNIQUES Discussed by Jim Lu cero at the 1972 USGF Congress At the first meeting of the United States Association for Independent Gym Clubs, Mr. Lucero of the Pueblo Gym Club talked of his experience with fund raising. " We started four years ago and the team is growing fast. We used to take six girls for a dual meet. This year we will be taking 20, and this costs money! The parents raise the money for the girls." Selling various items is one source of in come to the group . Whatever it is that is to be sold, they have found that it does not work out to try

Graham Bartlett at the



to estimate how many of the item the group wi ll sell and order ahead. A month and a half before delivery, the girls gc :)ut and take orders. They are each supplied with an order blank and a picture of the item to be so ld. They are instructed about se ll ing techniques to be used . Even though some of the items could be bought in loca l stores for a little less, they have found that when people understand the purpose they are more than anxious to support the cause. They pay when the merchandise is delivered later. One thing they sold was candles. They so ld 200 dozen candles and 50 do ze n bases and made $4000.00. Their profit was 60%. Another item they sold was li ght bulbs. They, aga in made a 60% profit bringing in a total of $6000.00. Ticket sel ling contests are another method used. An incentive of a $25.00 to $50.00 savings bond is offered to the person who sells the most tick ets. Fathers and mothers also take the tickets to work and easily sell many tickets to their associates there. Las t year they made $8000.00 doing this. Voluntary potluck dinners are also on the docket. One group brings their own food and each person pays $1.50 to ea t it. The children of parents attending the dinner perform in a gymnastic show on their own skill level. Another group holds these dinners once a month and makes $250.00 a month doing it. Each family brings enough food for 12 people. Tickets are $5.00 per family or $1 .50 per adult and $1 .00 per ch ild . Some parents hold garage sales and have been known to make $200 or $300 a sale. Others se ll food at the concession stands at meets and clinics. The food is either donated by the parents or local merchants. Mr. Lucero reminded the group that they should promote their meets held at home . Th ey have brought in as much as $400.00 per meet. He mentioned that when one group inv ites another for a dual meet that it is best that the home team open their gym to the vis iting team for the night. Motel bills are expensive and this can often cut the travel bill in half. Often too .... the girls are very young and it good to be able to keep them all together in a gym rather than be spread out in a motel. Rod Hill mentioned his new fund raising idea ... . Each girl is accessed so much a month to go into the travel fund . How much they pay depends upon how much th ey wi ll be traveling. The less advanced ones who do not travel very much are all accessed $3.00 per month . They have divided their Elite gymnasts into four groups. The two less skilled groups are accessed $5.00 a month and the two most advanced groups who .... in turn .... do the most traveling .. .. are accessed $10.00 per month. This way they put $1600 a month into the fund or $20,000 per year! Their gymnasts will travel

42,000 miles in a year. Bud Marquette talked about how the SCATS raise money with their tours. He mentioned that their bud ge t is $100,000 a yea r. There are 60 girls in th e group. Some of t hem ha ve never won a medal, but there is a pla ce for each o ne in the show. Some of th em do dri lls. He said that the loca l Girls Athletic A ssociation (GAA) is usually very coo p erative in promoting th e shows. They se ll tickets and p oste rs. The SCATS make 70% and the local organization mak es 30%. This year they will go o n a foreig n tour to the Stuttgart Turnfest, N o rw ay, Rome, Greece, Australia , Japan and back ho me. Mr. Marqu ette told of anot her thing they have done. At Christmas tim e they have a big gym show in con junction w ith a band and sin ge rs. They raffle off somet hin g like a speedboat and have m,a de as much as $20,000 in o ne evening this way! Well. ... parents. Th ese ideas sh o uld get yo u started. Get you rselves o rgani zed so that wh en yo u r children n eed mon ey f o r a trip yo u won't

have to say NO.

Scene at the USAIGC meeting,

Editor's Note: These notes were taken at the first meeting of the United States Association for Independent Gym Clubs (USAIGC) at the 1972 USGF Congress - Hendershott

JUDGING NOTES NEW USGF/ DGWS JUDGES RATING OBTAINED SINCE THE LAST CUT OFF DATE OF JUNE 16, 1972. Thi s is from th e official li st put out by Sharon Wi lch, Ce rtifi ca ti on Chai rman (C ut-off Date .... Nov. 1, 1972) ALABAMA LOCAL RATING: Betty Nash. ARIZONA REGIONAL RATING: Barbara Hedges, 348 S. Bryant, Tu cso n 35215 CALIFORNIA NATIONAL RATINGS: Shirley Anderson, Joan Kidder, Cheryl Wagner and Debbie Swartz Damsen are all natio nal judges. They were li sted as both nat iona l and regio nal in the November issue of The Gymnast. REGIONAL RATING: Diana Bonani, 220 S. C:all isc h, Apt. F, Fresno; Denise Brown, 8822 Lindante Dr., Whittier 90260; Euni McEntee, 31 W. Rail, Clovis ; Ann Mori, 16, N. Rochester, San Mateo 94401 ; Joanne Pasguele, 204 S. Annin, Fullerton ; Shirley Ruhlman, 5725 Blanco Ave ., Woodland Hill s; Vicki Standridge, 2 Augusta Ct ., Los Gatos, 95030; Kathleen Shelly and Bobby Tudsbury have m oved up to regional f rom loca l rati ngs. LOCAL RATINGS: Sue Britt, Gert Larse n, Monica Lodge, Pam Migli o re, Andrea Mortimer, Susan Pi cc hi , Mary Quesne ll , Susa n Singrin, Penny Wilton, and Debbi e M cFadden.

FLORIDA RGIONAL RATING: Gail Sontgerath, 3613 Ave. K, Rivie ra Beach 33404 GEORGIA LOCAL RATING: Crystal Fountain ILLINOIS REGIONAL RATING: Ruth George, W heaton College, Wheaton . LOCAL RATINGS : Betty Axelson, Caryl Jones, Eli zabe th Whitney . INDIANA REGIONAL RATING : Berdene Wyse, Gos hen College, Goshen 46526 LOCAL RATING: Jane Betts, Billie Boultinghouse, and Jan Heppner. IOWA LOCAL RATINGS: Shirley Brown, and Linda Cood . KENTUCKY LOCAL RATING: Diane Ma Graw. MASSACHUSETTS REGIONAL RATING: Joan Hicks, 28 Farnham La ne, Westfie ld LOCAL RATINGS: Heidi Armst rong, Ly n n Becroft, Lis Carson,.Bet h Eva ns, Rugh Fai rfie ld , Virginia Irvi ne, Margaret Pappalardo, Diane Potter, Gretha Ru ark, and Le na Trancik . MICHIGAN REGIONAL RATING: Dana Sue Vail, 4600 W . Britto n Rd ., #128, Perry 48872 LOCAL RATING : Deborah Kastner and Donna Pipe r MINNESOTA REGIONAL RATING: Barb Hanson, 690 E. Balmont Lane, St. Pa u155117; Mary Ann Hoschette, 1169 Breen ; St. Paul 55106. LOCAL RATINGS: Patricia Eib rin k, Timara Gok ul za r, and Elaine Sch lec hter. MISSOURI NATIONAL RATING : Robbie Hoskovec (no address given) LOCAL RATING: Le na Sha ron Thurman. MONTANA REGIONAL RATING: Margaret Whittlesey, 1112 M il es Ave ., Billings 50102 LOCAL RATING: Ann Dorrance. NEBRASKA NATIONAL RATING: Linda Beran 1836 W . Adams St., Mi ll ard 68137 (moves up to national from local ) NEW HAMPSHIRE LOCAL RATING: Judith Beauregard. NEW YORK REGIONAL RATING: Lorraine Adams, 1493 Rosser Ave ., Elmo nt 11003. ' LOCAL RATINGS : Helen Allen, Den ise Ant hony, Li nd a Carpenter, Marcia Connors , Paulette Hoitmann, Dalmar Kitt redge, Loise Mangan , Elenor Scott , and Paula Summit. NORTH CAROLINA LOCAL RATING : Pat Granger. OHIO LOCAL RATING: Betty Sroufe , OREGON LOCAL RATING: Connie Bruce. PENNSYLVANIA REGIONAL RATING : Vicki Andrews, 913 Green St., Allentown LOCAL RATING: D orot hy Dotter, Donna Fink, Ruth Leid ick, Beverl y Step henson , and Vick i Yokum. SOUTH CAROLINA REGIONAL RATING : Helen Timmermans, 912 Ontario Ave., W est Columbia 29169, LOCAL RATINGS : Lo uise Peck and Mary Jo Riddle, TENNESSEE LOCAL RATING: Donna Donnell y. TEXAS LOCAL RATINGS: Darlene Schmi dt and Joy Waggoner. VERMONT REGIONAL RATING: Mariyn Sheldon, Green Mo untain Co ll ege, Pou ltney LOCAL RATINGS: Holly Carro ll and Rebecca Mathews. VIRGINIA REGIONAL RATING: Judy Fath, 511 Pine St., Farmville. LOCAL RATINGS: Debbie Ellebrand and Ardelia Smith. WASHINGTON REGIONAL RATING : Monica Brown, 5808 Lake Was hington Blvd ., S.E., Bellevue 98006 (m oved from local to regional) WISCONSIN NATIONAL RATING : Janyce Sjoquist moves to national from regional. LOCAL RATING: Jane Wisse.

Address Changes of Rated Judges: Ann Beeman , Parkrose H .S. 11717 N o. E, Carver; Portland Oregon Margorie Corso, SR1219, Woodland Park, Co lorado 80863 . Pat Hatmaker, 7049-223 S.E., Issaqua h, Washington 98027 Peggy Rowan, 4301 N . Lex in gton, Tacoma , Washington 98407 Editor's Note: Because of limited space we have omitted the addresses of locally rated judges. Should a meet director wish to contact a local judge we suggest he contact the regional judge in his area, who in many cases can supply the addresses of local judges.

CALENDAR International-National 1973 Mar. 9-10 Nationa l Junior College Gymnastic Champio nship, Farmingdale, N.Y . Mar. 23 NA IA Gymnastic Champ ions hi ps, Unive rsity of Wi sco nsin, La Crosse Campus. Mar. 30-31 NCAA College Divi sio n Gymnas ti c Cha mpi onships, San Franc isco State Co ll ege. Apr. 5-7 NCAA Gymnast ic Championsh ips, Un ivers it y o f Oregon, Eugene, Oregon . Apr. 7-8 National Gymnastics Intercollegiate-Women. Cliff Lo ther y, Chicago Met. PE Office 31 E. Ogden Ave. , La Grange, III. 60525. Apr. 12-14 USGF Juni or Nationa ls. M eet Director Rod Hill , 10601 W. 44th , W hea t Ridge, Co lorado. Apr. 13-14 Nat iona l YMCA Gymnas ti c Championships, Lee Circle Branch YMCA, New Orleans La. Apr. 20-21 Nat io nal DGWS Gymnastic Champ ionsh ip, Grand View Co ll ege, Des Moines, Iowa . Apr. 26-28 Seni o r Nat ion al AAU Gymnastic Champions h ips ; Buffalo , N .Y. Apr. 26-28 USGF Senior Nationa ls. Meet Directors Mr. and Mrs. Bill Strau ss, 10 Junip er Rd . A.O. Macungie, Pa. 18062. May 2-4 USGF Elite Championships ... 5eattle, Washington. May 11-12 AAU Jr. Nationa ls at Jeffe rson H.S. in Jeffe rso nville, Indian a. Con tact Cap Cauf ill , 5303 Pres ton Hwy., Loui sv ille, Ky. 40214.

NEWSLETTER And here we have some more Newsletter Writers. WASHINGTON ..... Washington State Gymnastics Association: Robert Tanac, 18533 Burke No., Seattle, Washington 98133. D ues $1.00 M ID- ATLANTIC. ... Mrs. Dolores Cuddeback clo The Beat Board , 1541 E Strasburg Rd . West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380 A LABAMA .... Wiliiam Guy, Rt. #4 Bo x 120, Birmingham, Alabama 35210 路MAINE .... Barbara Stoyell has changed her address to : 46 College Ave ., Orono, Maine 04473 . I am beginning to receive many newsletters written for individual c lubs. I am no t advertisin'g them beca use they are w ritten specifically for club members and parents. HOWEVER .... SOME VERY WORTHWHILE ARTICLES are being put down on paper in these little newsletters. It would overburden these clubs to send yo u all cop ies of their newsletters so I think the best thing to do is to ,extract the bits and pieces th at would be wo rthwh ile for all to rea d and pu t them in the Gymnast Magazine. SO .... IF YOU ARE WRITING A NEWSLETTER EVEN JUST FOR YOUR OWN PRIVATE CLUB .... SEND IT OVER AND WE' LL SEE WHAT WE CAN DO FROM THIS END. -


;A;li photo by Mitchell Barosh

1972 Olympic Games - Munich

SAWAO KAlO - Japan 1st Place All-Around







B Fig. 2 The gymnast performing this leap has used her arms to best advantage. By slightly lowering them upon takeoff ... then gradually raising them throughout the leap and landing (also raising the trailing leg slightly after landing) she has created the ILLUSION of endless flight. Because she is strong enough to maintain the proper torso position during takeoff, flight, and ianding, she has created an effortless look.


Let us say t hat our gym nast has al l of her difficulty, has good combinat ions, origina lit y, and fairl y good form , but still seems to be getting scored down on genera l impression ... ..or, when performing her compu lsories .. . gets g r aded down for heaviness: When it comes to defining " heaviness" , judges find it difficu lt to exp lain just what working heavily rea lly is. They know that t here are some very overweight gymnasts who work ve ry lightly ... and ... on t h e other hand .. .. there are many well put together ones who work very heavily. Th e key word here is " EFFORTLESS" . The gymnast who ca n work with litt le apparent effort is working LIGHTLY . Heaviness is caused by the inability of the gymnast to HOLD her lifted leg and her torso in the same relationship with each other that they were THROWN into during a jump o r a releve. The impact of each landing causes the leg and torso to drop. Because of weakness , the torso and arms are thrown out of control to assist in the ski ll. All of these things create a HEAVY performance! "The legs should never be kicked up higher than they can be HELD , to show position during jump and landing. This will always lead to a dropping of the le路g and a heavy appearance. The trick is to work to the amplitude that the strength of the body .... not the flexibility, can handle. Now, having explained what the gymnast must do to appear ligh t, let us examine some of the fine points which she must work on to enable her to change her performance : Th e key to the " illusion " is in the muscl es of the upper thighs, the hips, the abdomen and the back . All of these muscl es must be pulled up tightly before, during, and after jumping type movements. Th ey must HOLD the torso and


Fig. 1 The gymnast performing this leap, because of lack of torso strength, has leaned forward on takeoff (A) to give her a better push. Her body has reacted (D) in coming out of the leap (to maintain balance) by leaning backward. The impact of landing (E & F) has caused her weak torso, arms, and back leg to drop, thus creating a heavy appearance.

pelvis in an aesthetic alignment so that sho uld ers and arms will not be thrown in all directions during the effort. The arms must be free to move into planned pathways w ithout having to assist the rest of the body in performing the skill. The pelvis plays an important role, for if the pelvis is not held correct ly, the rest of the body has to compensate, and an effort less performance is imposs ible. We j u st recently saw "an art icl e in The Gymnast about posture. If the pelvis is tilted forward (fig. 3 a) , the upper back must pull back to maintain balance, and the result is lord os is. If the gym na st tries to co rrect this and tucks the hips under too far (ti lting the pelvis back .. . fig. 3 b) , then we have resu lting bent knees and rounded upper back . So we keep the hips from tilting either way (fig. 3c) The abdom in al muscles must be pulled up very tightly in an effort to st retch very tall. At


hips have rounded appearance


weight well distributed A

to~ much weight thrown on inside of ankle

The thighs are pulled up and buttocks pulled tightly together. The whole upper body is pulled straight up out of the hip of the support leg. B


Fig. 3

This gymnast's thighs and buttocks are too relaxed. The whole upper body is sunk into the standing hip. th e same time the upper back must not be thrown into an arch .... t he pull should be straight up. The shoulders maintain a slight downward pull and the arms must be free to move in a relaxed manner ....placed in the positions that the gymnast wishes them to go. There is another type of control that the pelvis must maintain. We could name this " lateral " placement. This comes into play especially when one leg is lifted off the ground and the weight is placed solely upon one leg. The untrained body will allow a lot of moveme ~lt of the hips under such conditions. One must pull the entire body up and out of the standing hip. This would seem to be an

impossibility unless there were ropes tied to the body supporting it and pulling it upward out of the hip, but here is how it is done : (fig. 4) The muscles on the front and side thighs are pulled up very tightly and shou ld give one the feeling that they are rotating laterally around the femur (th is holds true whether the legs are turned out or forward for tumbling). At the same time, the muscles of the buttocks must be pulled very tightly together. When the right muscles are being used , the weight is thrown more on the outer part of the feet and this puts less strain on the arches. When looking at hips that are properly pulled in (from the front or the back) they appear to be caved in at the sides in stead of rounded. One should be ab le to stand on one leg and look in the mirror and actually see the whole body be pulled up o ut of the hip WITHOUT ANY TILTING UPWARD OF THE HIP ON THE SIDE OF THE LIFTED LEG! At all times ... .whether the supportin g leg is bent, or straight, this tightly "pul led up and out" position must be maintained. With th is type of contro l, one is then ab le to keep the hips we ll under control under any stress.

Fig. 5 Hips remain even ...shoulders over hips. The things that the hips must do to enable the body to appear to be performing efiortlessfy

are these : One hip must not tilt higher than the other .. .. even when its leg is li fted very high . There is one exception to the idea of not lifting the hip, and this is when the leg is extended to the back. Using the Russian style the gymnast must learn to lift the hip along with the extended leg w ithout losing her body alignment. This is done to achieve the height of extension wh ich the gymnast needs for amp litude. When extending the leg forward , o ne hip must not rotate forward. It must stay back and even with the other hip. All of these things are necessary to maintain the proper balance and the ab ility to LOCK the parts of the bod y in place. If the hips stay in lin e, then the shoulders are easily kept right over them and losses of balance to the sid e are experienced less frequently . If the gymnast finds that she cannot lift the foot (with the leg extend ed) more than a foot or two off the f loor without also lifting the hip, she has weak thigh muscles. The dancer does many exercises daily (such as deve lopes and grand e battements) which gradual ly strengthen her legs so that she can lift her legs ve ry high ... even up to the level of her eyes ... without having to lift her hip or throw her shoulders out of line. (The importance of daily ballet bar work for the gymnast cannot be strongly enough emphasized here.) Not only can she lift her legs without loss of alignment, but she ca n HOLD them there .... even when going through the stress of coming out of a high jump. Furthermore .... the torso becomes strong eno ugh through doing the same exercises so that it does not drop forward when going into and coming out of big jumps. So ... the gymnast who wants to win that full point for LIGHTNESS in her compulsory floor exercise and beam routines and get a higher score on general impression on her optional work must.. .. l. Learn proper ballet alignment....2. Do daily ballet bar work to strengthen the body so that this alignment can be HELD during stress. and .... 3. Concentrate on its application when putting the body through stress.


1 rrY'


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knee faces directlv out to side stretch leg to lengthen ill



Fig 6



Russian Style.... to achieve greater height of extension to the back, the hip of the lifted leg is considered a part of the leg. The hip is rotated upward (a) along with the leg as it turns out so that the knee faces

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By Barb Pfaff Great Falls High School Complete ly relaxed now, I sat curled up in a Trembling, I pull ed on the cove ted blue chair, dangling stocking feet and discus sing th e uniform . I wondered if anyone felt the sa me events of the meet with my parents. " Did yo u way I did , whether anyone e lse saw the black see the time Michelle almost fell of th e beam , cloud of fear descending upon them. One Dad? She made a great recovery! Alii co uld say st rain of a rock song, ""Thi s' ll be th e day that I was ' whew ' ! Kath y's mixed grip-straddle die ... ", kept running throug h m y mind. " What looked ni ce tonight. Anna has a lot of grace, if I blow it?" I shuddered. " What if th at song don 't you th ink, Mom? Do yo u want to know co me s true? No! I can ' t think abo ut that! " something funny? Barb S. was more scared than As I was about to leave the locker room , I was! " Rea ll y, it wasn ' t a conversation ; it was a someone told me that my uniform was on Barb 's bab ble session. backwa rds. I had to lau gh. I mmediately I felt Dad made a comment that he and Mom so mewhat better. After cha nging it, I raced on would have to learn the terminology used in winged feet up the stairs and into the gym . gymnasti<;s. It has a language that is The cold gym wanted to swa llow me alive. unintelliglible to anyone not acquainted with Somehow, though the gym h adn ' t changed, it. So I began to exp lain each term and its the atmosphe re in it had. The air was charged corresponding movement to them in d eta il. with lit tle electric particles of excitement and But eve ry time I thought of my routine I felt li ke fea r. I saw the uneven s in th e center of the dancing around the kitchen. It seems to me I room , wa itin g. The horse, th e mats, the beam, did that a co upl e of times that night which is a and the uneven s all seemed to be waiting for norm for me when I' m excited. Suddenly, as I someone to lovingly go through a routine. Even talked , the blue-green kitchen wall fad ed into lovingly doesn ' t describe th e way a gymnast non-existence . The essence of fear, which was feels as she does a good routine. There is no not quite erased from my mind, again pervaded word that can. Concentration is so deep that as I was transplanted to the familiar tradition- nothing but the routine is felt. Ea ch bod y filled halls of Great Falls High. position is carefully planned before execution. Opening the gym door, I half-walked , half- Grace and excellence of p erform ance are all ran down the stairs to the locker room. Yanking that matter to the perform er. open that door, I found myself in the place I walked up to the bars to touch them. They where I had practically li ved the past week, felt the same as they always had , rounded and both in thought and reality. Th e familiar , ugly, slightly rough. The thought that at least they army-green lockers stood like sentinels in even hadn ' t changed was reassuring. Often during horizontal rows, filling the huge tan-colored pract ice I had stood touching them as I did room. now, watching someone smooth out the rough At the long mirror on the left wall several girls spots in her mandatory while waiting for my fixed straggly locks and adm ired the flattering turn . navy-blue uniforms. The towel carrier, usually The bars wobbled sli ghtly when I got on . But full to over-flowing with filthy white towel s, by now every littl e jiggle and wobble was stood forlornly empty against the cracked wall. familiar. Astride the bars, which are such a Where was the mess? There were no stacks of terror to many, I was in my rightful pla ce. Even books lyin g on the floor or clothes draped the painful contact of bli stered hands and haphazardly over locker doors. Even the noise unyielding wood comforted me. I practiced was different. Success, failure , and fear were sections of the routine repeatedly. Mr. Davis, the main topics of .discussion. the coach, told me to stick my hip-circles. I had


just lea rned the movement yeste rd ay, and he wanted me to perfect it in the hal f hour before the m ee t ?! Needless to say I couldn ' t do it, but no one co uld say I didn't try. Sweat poured from me, and the newly cleaned uniform was white with chalk spots. Finall y our other coac h, Mrs. Stalnaker, mad e me quit on th e g round s that I might tend to be too poop ed to p erfo rm . I complied to o rd e rs. Ju st then the Fort Benton girls paraded into the gym . Kathy, Barb S., and I, the unevens gang of Great Falls High School, watched th eir crew like hawks. Every move they made was either comp lim ented or cr itici zed. Ha vin g seen them and sized them up, we had a li ttle more confidence in ourselves. " All gymnasts clear the floor! " blasted from a microphon e w hich stunned me and interrupted my thought patterns . With stiff leg s almost like a tin soldier, I marched to a row of chairs spec iall y reserved for team memb ers. Having had man y yea rs of ball et lessons, without rea li zing it, when nervous, I always walk on m y toes . I would have made a great puppet at th at moment. If someone had pul led the imagin ary stri ng at the back of m y neck, I would have sq u eaked mechanically, " H elp, I' m sca red! H elp, I' m sca red !" Strains from a scra tched Star Spangled Banner record filled the air. But I doubt seriously that any gymnast there heard more than th e opening bars. I know I didn ' t, my mind was on the approaching test. Without warn in g, with a nod from a judge and the sound of running feet the meet began. The low hum from the crowd rapidly changed to complete sil ence. Though the gym was less than half filled with people, it seemed that there were hundreds, thousands. Eve ry eye was on each girl alone as she faced her Goliath. However, to disgrace the navy-blue uniform was the worst possibl e offense; it was bad lu ck even to think of fai li ng. During the routin es, from the Bison fans and team cou ld be heard , " Make it, Anna! " " Don ' t falloff, Mich elle. Whew! " Watching th e meet with glazed eyes, it seemed unreal, d reamlike. " Thi s can't really be happening, not now! " Freezing, I rubbed my palms togeth er to warm them and discove red a thick film of perspiration. A lump the size of a golf ball closed my throat and m y parch ed, dry mouth felt like sandpaper. I clenched m y hand s in fear awaiting the announcement for our team to warm up. During that time I formed a checklist in my mind : bad hip-circle, bent arm, bent leg, fa ll, rotten dismount...Every time a gymnast did something wrong my eyes widened with horror, and I made a mental note not to do the sa m e. I watched each moment tick away with dread, for each p assing second brought me closer to THAT MOMENT. Routine after routine began and ended. Applause ripp led in waves and bounced hollowly from the wa ll s. I heard the bea ting of determined h ea rts pulsating in rhyt hm with my own . With a surge of panic I knew that if I couldn ' t stil l this gnawing terror, I would mi se rably fail. Knowing of only one way to banish fright, I prayed, " Dear Lord, please take my fear away. I know you can. Help me to go through this routine by your strength. In Jesus ' name, Amen. " Slowly that unbearable horror left, and now I counted the minutes until THAT MOMENT, with an intense excitement, instead of dread .

Inev itabl y th e fateful announce ment ca me, " Th e Great Falls High Scho o l u n eve ns tea m may begin their warm ups." Th e three o f us, heads held high , walked togeth er to th e warm up mat. Whil e stretching m y mu sc les with all m y might, I had no time to think of THAT MOMENT. Aching legs protested as th e gap between them increased in th e split s position. I could almost hear my parents thinking, " You ca n do it, Barb ! Go on up there and give it all you 've got! " M y team mates w ere thinking , " Com e o n you gu ys, beat em! " Immediately after stretching we began our one minute warm ups on th e b ars . Ea ch girl completed one short movement. I did a shoot through and then climbed off. All too soon it was over. THAT MOMENT HAD COME. " Next on the unevens for Great Fall s High is Barb Pfaff. " Knowing that after my routine I would either hear a swan song or a well done I decided that I liked the latter. So with a step of determination I advanced to the bars. Every fiber in me was tuned for that infinitely short 30 second routine. Thrilled by the excitement of the impending test, m y breath came in short gasps. I \yas still trembling , but now not from fear. I'm sure a race horse waiting for the bell at the Kentucky Derby feels similar to what I felt at that instant. Standing there waiting for the " go" signal, I glared fiercely at the bar in concentration. Anyone watching me, undoubtedly would think I wanted it t6 disintegrate. However, if a glare could demolish those bars, I know that they would have died a sudden death long ago, shriveling into noth i ngness. Then seeing the judge's nod I did the weird little preparatory arm movement whi ch has earned me the title of " The Drummer. " Even though it'.s strange, it' gave me a moment to collect my thoughts before b eginning a brisk run . I hit the board , did a back hip-circle and thus mounted the bars. After th e mount I heard no other so und ; I was in the world of the unevens. Millions of thoughts crowded into my head -- point your toes, keep your arms straight, and hold your head high. My legs started to bend in the middle of the routine, but with a supreme effort I straightened them. After finishing one of the moves, suddenly I started to falloff. Suspended for a moment in space, holding on only by my arms, I strained every muscle and nerve to stay on . Miraculously I hooked a leg on the bar. As if in a dream, my mind clicked mechanically, "hipcircle, shoot through, mixed grip, straddle ... " . Gritting my teeth and contorting my features in the exaggerated faces which are characteristic of me, I strained each nerve to its limit with each movement I made. Practically floating down on my dismount i . hit the ground and threw my hands up in the V position which for me that night symbolized victory. My hearing again was restored ; I heard applause. After presenting myself to the judges, knowing that I had done my best, I stood to wait for the score. I could almost hear the pencils scratching as the judges worked out their verdict. " Oh, no, they 're going to have a conference! " I was hardly breathing, expectantly yet fearfully awaiting those all important numbers. Seconds ticked by, then minutes, it seemed like an eternity ... Suddenly I saw ...a 5.45! Exhilaration overwhelmed me. I had accomplished the impossible. I had conquered! Nothing is like that feeling: it's in a class by itself. My heart almost burst with the combination of joy and relief.

Almo st stunn ed, co m ple tely drained o f energy, and t rembl i ng fro m ex haustion , I sat d own to w atch t he re mainin g members of our uneveri s team face TH EIR MOMENTS. Th en together, triumph antl y we marched back to the sidelines once mo re. With ou r solos o ver w e stepped ba ck into th e fabri c of so ciety, facing oblivion gratefull y but proudl y. Editor's Note: Watch for "Gymnastics With Lourie" to appear again very soon. She has been on vacation and just getting back in shape.



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THE GYM SHOP 410 Broadway Santa Monica, Ca. 90406 Editor's Note: We would like to start a question and answer column. Sort of a " Everything You Wanted To Know About Gymnastics But Were Afraid To Ask." type of article. So if you have any questions (We'll accept answers) that you think should be in this column send them to Barbara Thatcher c/ o GYMNAST magazine P.O. 110, Santa Monica, Calif. 90401

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Gymnastics and Muscular Endurance. Seven of the eight studies rev iewed were of the training type. All seven r epo rted improve ments in muscu lar endurance with gymnastic training. Th e test items used were of the all-out variety inv olving the arms, legs and abdomi nal regio n (ch in-up s, dips, endurance hops, push-ups, sit-ups, etc.). The one " present statu s" st ud y showed highly trained gymnasts to be superior to a samp le of untrained men in chin-ups but inferior to highly trained track men and swimmers. Overall conclus ion s we re: 1. Gymnastic participation has been shown to improve muscular e ndurance.


Studies dealing with the effects of gymnastic training on the physical fitness of previously untrai ned subjects of different ages and of both sexes have been summarized by Bosco (2) in a dissertation e ntitled , " The Ph ys ical and Person ality Characteristics of Champion M ale Gym nast ics" (1962). Also su mm ari zed were " pres e nt status " studies based on measurements taken on highly trained gymnasts. Gymnastics and Strength . Of 10 studies reviewed , all seven of the training type repo rted increases in strength due to parti cipation in gymnastics. The test items used in all studies were generally of the dynamometric type involving maximal isometric co ntractions of the hand s, back and legs. Three "p resent status" studies showed real differences between varsity gymnasts and normal subjects. Superior strength was demonstrated by Dan ish gymnasts compared to American track and swimming Ol ympian s. Based on avai lable information, the followin g co nclusions were made: 1. Parti cipation in gymnastics ha s been shown to increase the strength of untrain ed subjects of various ages and of both sexes. 2. Trained gymnasts have been shown to be considerably stronger than samples of normal , untrained subjects. 3. Strength seems to be one of the outstanding characteristics of highly trained gymnasts. Gymnastics and Power. Nine studies we re reviewed which attempted to relate gymn astics and power. Typically the test item s used were of a throwing or jumping nature. All seve n of the training studies reported improvement in power after participation in gymnastics training. Women, c hildren and adult m en w e re represented in the samples. In two "p rese nt status" studi es, DiGiovanna (2) found gymnasts to be more powerful than members of other varsity teams while Cureton (3) found Dan ish ex hibition gymnasts to be inferior to Olympic track men but superior to Olympi c swimm ers in power. Within the limitations of the studies reviewed , the following conclusions were considered tenable: 1. Parti cipation in gymnastics will i mprove the power component of physical fitness in non-trained subjects. 2. Samples of trained gymnasts of any age or sex are co nsiderably more powerful than samples of normal, comparably aged subjec ts .


2. Trained gymnasts have greater muscular endurance than normal samples of untrained su bjects. 3. High muscular endurance, particularly in the upper body, is an outstanding characteristic of highly trained gymnasts. Gymnastics and Flexibility. I n all, seven studies dealing with flexibility were reviewed. The test items used to measure flexibility were, generally, of the "gross flexibility" type involving the ankles, trunk and shoulders. One study measured the effects of gymnastics on individual joint segments. Th e six training studies reported improvem ent in flexibility and the one " present status" study found the Danish gymnasts to be the most flexible group of young men ever measured. General conclusions were: 1. Participation in gymnastics will improve fle xi bility of untrained subjects.of various ages and of both sexes. 2. Highly trained gymnasts exhibit an extraordinarily high level of flexibility. 3. Flexibility seems to b e one of the outstanding characteristics of highly trained gymnasts. Gymnastics and Balance. Two stu dies were reviewed which attempted to relate gymnastics and balance. In the training study, children already in various stages of gy mn astic training failed from 32 to 60% less on three gross balance test items th an new gymnastic pupils. In the " present status" study, gym nast s were found to be superior to non-athletes and four other groups of athletes in tests of sta tic and dynamic balance. On the basis of available evidence, overall conclusions were: 1. Participation in gymnastics may improve balance in youngsters. 2. Gymnasts appear to have better balance than other athl etes as well as non-athletes.

Gymnastics and Agility, Speed and Reaction Time. Six studi es were reviewed which attempted to relate gym nastics and agility. The test items used io measure agilit y we re, generally, those which required the subject to perform some total-body movement involving a time element. Two stud ies reported gymnastics as improving ag ility but not as well as a number of other activities. Matz (4) repo rt ed only slight improvement in th e Illinois Agility Run test. Three studies attempted to show th e effects of gymnastic training on speed as measured by time in the 440-yard run, 5-second run test and 300-yard shuttle run , respect ively. Littl e o r no improvement was reported . One " present status" study showed gymnasts to be superior to non-athletes, football linem en, basketball players and baseball pla ye rs in speed measures. No training studies were ava ilabl e while one " present status" study showed highly trained gymnasts to be inferior to highly trained track men and superior to highly trained swimmers in gross body reaction time. On the basis of

available evidence, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Parti ci pation in gym nastics may improve slightl y, the agility of untrained subjects. 2. Train ed gymnasts are slightly better in agility than samples of normal untrain ed subjects. 3. Gymnastic training wi ll probably not improve gro ss speed in untrained subj ects. 4. Trained gymnasts have above average speed. 5. Train ed gymnasts have above average reaction times. Gymnastics and Physique. Six training studies associated improvements in the following measurements o n you ng boys who participated in gymnast ics : (1) foot measurements, (2) chest breadth, (3) ank le girth, (4) chest depth, (5) hip width and (6) height. Though often ru led out by the authors, these changes might have been attributed to growth. Studies on different age groups and both sexes most commonly reported red uction in weight and fat deposits as a result of gymnastics training. Two " present status" studies showed trained gymnasts to be smaller than normal in height, weight, leg length, hip width and arm span. The same gymnasts were larger than normal in upper-arm girth and shoulder width. The following conclusions were made: 1. Gymnastic training ma y decrease weight and fat deposits in untrained subjects. 2. Highly trained gymnasts have the physique characteristics outlined above, in the " present status" studies.

Gymnastics and Cardio-respiratory Fitness. Six training studi es reported increases, in va ryin g degrees, in vita l capacity or breathholding after participation in gymnastics. Conflicting reasons for this increase were proposed by Methany (5) and Zimmerman (6). The former attributed the increa se to the mechanical stretching of the thoracic walls during gymnastics training while the latter credited structural improvements in chest depth and breadth. One " present status" study found highly trained gymnasts to be quite inferior, on the average, to highly trained track and field men and swimmers in breath-holding ability. A large va ri ety of tests have been used by physiologists and physical educators in an attempt to quantitate d ifferen ces in cardiovascular fitness of no rmal subjects. Twelve studies were reviewed which attempted to relate gymnastics and cardiovascular fitness. The test items varied from pulse rat es to e lectrocard iographi c observations. The training studies reported little or no improveme nt in cardiovascular measures as a res ult of gymnastics training. Actually, some studies reported losses in cardiovascular fitness. Three " present status" studies reported, respectively, that (1) train ed gymnasts had lower pulse rates than physica l education students, boxers and wre stl ers, (2) highly trained gymnasts were inferior to highly trained track men and swimmers in most cardiovascular measures, above average in the Schneider Index and Barach Index but below average in the all-out treadmill run (10 miles an hour) and (3) middle and old aged gymnasts were found to be relatively free of cardiovascular degenerative diseases. The following over-all conclusions are made : 1. Gymnastics training has been shown to improve vital capacity of untrained subjects. 2. High respiratory fitness is not one of the outstanding characteristics of highly trained gymnasts.

3. Participation in gymnastics wi ll not improve circu latory fitness significantl y. 4. Hi ghl y trained gym nasts are not noticeably supe ri or to samples of untrained subjects in circulatory fitness.

16mm Olympic Gymnastic Films Price List


1. Bosco, 1.S. the Physical and Personality Characteristics of Champion Male Gymnasts. Urbana: Unpublished doctoral dissertation , Un iversity of Ill inois, 1962, Pp. 201. 2. DiGiovanna, V. The Relations of Structural and Functional Measures to Success in Coll ege A thl etics. Research Quarterly, 14: 199-216,

1943. 3. C ureton , T.K. Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes. Urba na: University of Illin o is Press,

1951, Pp. 457. 4. Matz, G. E. The Effect of Gymn astics on the Motor Fitness o f Boys. Urba na: U npubli shed M .S. thesis, University of Illinois, 1954, Pp. 99. 5. Methany, G.M. The Influence of Methodical Gymnastics in Increasing Chest Capacity. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education. New York : Rome Brothers, November, 1886. 6. Zimm er m an, F.V. The Effects of Tumblin g and Trampoline Act ivit ies on the Physiques of Young Boys. Urbana : Unpubl ished M.S. thesis, University o f Illin ois, 1954, Pp. 57.

1972 Olympics

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Trampoline Routine For Beginners Drawings by Pat Avera Routine by Jerry Wright Introduction: This is th e last in a ser ies of six articles designed to present routines su it ab le for high sch oo l P.E. classes, high schoo l intramura l meets, college P.E. c lasses and college intramural meets. Concerning this final art icl e the following clar ifi catio n is provided. The author recommends the t rampoline as one of six events fo r a P.E . p rog ram because it is easy to learn, easy to teach (but difficult to supervise so watch out there) and the event students gene rall y have the most fun on . Th e trampoline takes the place of vault in g because it is fe lt by many, in cl udin g t he author, that vault in g is unwei ld y at beginner leve ls. Please note that the following routine may be started wit h either a bac k sa ito or a back pullove r. The type of back pull-over recommended is the seat drop type as opposed to the back drop variety for safety reasons. A-a

A-b A- c

A-d 1-A 1-B 1-C

C. Swivel Hip

F. Cradle

~ ~

Beg in w ith back sait o and land on th e fee t (beginner co uld be pe rmitted to take an ex tra bounce here to re ga in co ntro l).

Ba ck pull ove r stan (ex tra boun ce may be used he re also) .





Sea t Drop y, tw ist to sea t drop (swive l hip) boun ce from sea t dro p to fee t and th en d rop to back drop - bo un ce fro m bac k to y, tw ist to back dro p (cra dle). Th en boun ce to feet and drop to kn ee drop. Fro m kn ee drop bo u nce to front sa ito (reco mm end ed from knee d rop beca use it is easi er to co ntro l).




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LET'S LEARN A STUTZKEHRE By Bill Roetzheim So you think you can work parallel bars without learning a Slutzkehre? Start constructingâ&#x20AC;˘. routine excluding this skill and its many variations. You qUickly realize that there a're limited means available to you for turning around. As you ad d skill to skill in developing a routine how apparent it becomes that a Stutzkehre could be used to solve some of those building problems. Even if you are

successful in constructing an exercise without using this skill you're not out of the woods yet. I would have to tax my memory and go back a very long way to find an Elite compulsory routine that did not include this maneuver. So why fight it, let's all learn a Stutzkehre. I am not going to dwell on the mechanical means you, as a coach, should employ in physically teaching this skill. The various logistics I've seen employed are numerous and each has redeeming qualities. Some coaches have the student grasp the end of the bars, facing outward to alleviate his fear of hitting the bars. Others use a spotting box on the side of the bars and actually have him throw for a handstand. They, of course, intervene by reaching over the bars, grabbing the gymnast by the thighs and hips, and setting him in the finished position. I' ve seen bars individually

padded with foam rubber and also mats thrown over the bars. It is my personal preference to begin the student in the middle of the lowered parallel bars. I have him start from a very small swing and only increase the arc of the swing when he gains confidence in handling the greater movement. You can use this same procedure but modify it so the gymnast is facing out at the end of the bars, however , it has b.e en my experience when using this approach that the performer did not keep his shoulders in proper alignment. That is also the reason I start him from a swing as opposed to a handstand . The beginner, in swinging down from a handstand , is inclined to press his shoulders forward for greater control. This physical position - is incompatible with the performance of a Stutzkehre.

Study the pictures; build up slowly, and before you know it, you will have the high Stutzkehre you've always wanted.


This skill is done so frequently your amplitude and general technique will inadvertently be compared to other gymnasts using this trick. It is essential if you are to benefit from this direct comparison that you strive to push toward the Stutz 路handstand. At the Munich Olympics every good gymnast carried the Stutzkehre in the compulsory to a handstand, although only a Stutz was prescribed. This sequence of pictures is excellent and is indeed worth pages of descriptive narration. I will however, try to hit some of the most important things to emphasize in teaching this skill. In this move the gymnast should think in terms of riding the swing through the bottom. If you stress any type of throw, dive, or sinking in the shoulder gi rdle during the fi rst half of the

skill, the student usually throws his shoulder forward and prematurely initiates the twisting action. Watch him closely , making sure his swing is free and that the shoulders remain over the hands as he passes the base of the swing. NO twisting action should be inaugurated at this time. The twisting action is begun when the body, in a slight piked position, passes a point parallel to the bars at approximately shoulder height. If you begin before this the swing will carry your body forward in front of your hands giving you a poor base of support. Notice you release only the hand away from the twisting action, rather than the simultaneous release that many beginners attempt. They body shol,lld almost complete the full 180掳 turri on one arm . Whil e still supporting weight on this pivotal arm the outside hand comes around to position just

above the pivotal bar. During this second phase the gymnast will lose center alignment. Because of the extremely late release he will move in varying degrees slightly over the pivotal bar. This is quite natural. Notice that the shoulders stay over or slightly to the rear of the supporting arm. During the final segment of this skill the gymnast pushes hard from the shoulder on the supporting arm. This is coordinated with the body finishing its final extension which was first started in the middle phase . This driving action not only gives you a final lift but also compensates for your lack of alignment and once again centers you between the bars. I think the most important single aspect of this skill is your ability to stay on the pivotal arms until the legs reach great elevation and the twist is almost completed .'


SIDE HORSE IS SIMPLE By James Hesson University of Nebraska There are many misconceptions about the side or pommel horse event i n gymnastics. The most serious of these is that working the side horse is difficult. This is one of the hardest obstacles to overcome as a coach . However, with enthusiasm, sound training techniques and enjoyable progressions this can be one of the most rewarding and enjoyable events in gym nastics. I have said that side horse is a simple event. There are only two kinds of swing on the side horse, the pendulum swing that is used for scissor work and the circular swing that is used for double leg work. A more detailed examination reveals that there are only ten basic skills to learn on the side horse, all other moves being a combination or variation of these basic moves. In this first of possibly a series of articles about the side horse I would like to concentrate on the most underdeveloped and overlooked aspect of side horse work , thal being scissor work . I notice that everyone I talk to cringes when I say scissors. Performers, coaches and judges all know how badly they are being performed and yet very few coaches or gymnasts have done anything about it. Many gymnasts either consciously or sub-consciously reason that since scissors are such a small part of their routine they need only a small amount of work. This could not be farther from the truth. The fallacy of this reasoning lies in the fact that while the scissors are numerically a small portion of the routine they are the largest area of deductions during the performance of a routine . Let me illustrate what poor scissor work can do to an otherwise excellent routine . Most gymnasts will touch the horse to stop the circular (doubl~s) swing and begin the Poor


for the side horse.

Larry Evermann, of the University of demonstrates well executed, controlled scissors on the side or pommel horse. pendulum (scissor) swing. According to article bending the front leg because the hips are 36 paragraph 2 of the "FIG Code of Points", behind the hands. If he straightens that front touching the body ofthe horse or the pommels leg he will either hit the horse or have his leg with the feet, legs or with the seat or other parts too high for an effective pendulum swing. So of the body if touching of these is not required add another.2 for touching, .1 for bent leg and by the execution of the movements, is a.2 to.5 .1 for poor position of head and body (article deduction, every time. Usually this break into 36, paragraph 1,"FIG Code of Points" .) Now, scissors is accompanied by at least a .1to.2 form because of the poor body position it is break in the knee or foot to cushion the impact. impossible to lift the hips to the desired height Then, assuming the first break is into a reverse for the reverse scissor. According to the Code scissor (very common), the gymnast swings of Points "forward or reverse scissors, without through the bottom of the scissor brushing or hip movement, means that the imaginary "touching" both sides of the horse and horizontal line does not pass throug~ the Correct body position for the side horse. r-------~-----------------------

upper hip and the shoulder of th e supporting arm , each tim e deduct up to .2." Rather than elaborati ng a po int, wh ich is in need of elaborati ng, go through yo ur own sc isso r sequence d ed ucting .2 to .5 every t ime you touch the ho rse o r pomm els w ith a body part other tha n the hands. Th en deduct up to .3 every tim e yo u bend a leg, do n' t point a toe o r ha ve the head or body in a poo r position , and up to.2 for each sc isso r in which yo u don ' t have a h o ri zon tal lin e from the su ppo rtin g shou ld e r through the upper h ip. You w il l find that. you are probably losi ng 1 to 2 full points ju st on yo ur scissor work. As a result most of the top side horse men are rece iv in g sco res in the high eight s and low nines. This leaves the coac h and the gym nast scratchin g t h eir heads and cussing the judges at the end of a routine wonderin g how they could h ave don e b ette r double leg work and how ma ny more C moves they shou ld add. Ho pefull y this art icl e w ill help yo u to discover what can be done to improve sc issor work and sid e horse score s and how to do it. START OVER if you are an adva nced perfo rm er or START A TTHE BEGINNING if you are just starti ng to work side horse, the best body position for scissor wo rk begins by straddling th e side horse with one hand on each pommel, body erect, h ead neutral, high in th e shoulders an d hips faCing the end of the horse (figure 1 and 2). Th ese are all important facto rs in obtai ning height and leg clearance at the bottom of th e swing. N o w begin to swing, low and controlled . Maintaining a smooth co ntro lled swing gradually increase the amplitude of the swi ng. Th is takes time, but do not sacrifice co ntrol fo r height. You will obviously rea ch a point at which you will bav e to lift the hand p r go through your arm, lift th e hand . Lift th e front hand o n the front swi ng and th e back hand on the back swing. At this point try to remain in a straight body position as mu ch as poss ibl e and avoid any excessive bending at the waist or liftin g of th e legs. All you want is a straight body SWING.On ce you can perform an excell ent sw ing both ways (right leg forward , left leg fo rward) begin to work o n low swing scissors by performing two swings between each scissor. Through all of th is progression maintain a hi gh degree of form and do not tou ch the horse with the legs. After yo u have accomplished the sc issor with swings in between , begin to work o n co nsecutive scissors, about 10 at a t im e. Smooth , co ntinuou s, clea n, sw ing sc issors in sets of 10 will develop th e coordination and body mechanics for the swing wit hout producing fatigue . Only after you ca n do the swing should you begin to think about the scissor lift. A s the term lift indicates it is from th e swi ng on up. Do not try to learn the lift before you have a good swing. It will result in jerky scissors with the hips low and it is very hard to co rrect o nce it be co mes a performance pattern. To work on th e lift after yo u have a good swing p erform a set of four high scissors or start with smooth low ones and build them up. I n performing the lift you ca n see th at th e hip angle (hips facing the end of the horse) is again to yo ur advantage for shortening the swing radius. To illustrate, try lifting your leg as high as you can to the side, then try lifting it as high as yo u ca n to th e front, if yo u are const ru cted like the res t of th e homo sapiens yo u will b e able to lift you r leg much higher in front. We are going to apply th e same prin ciple here as we do on th e rings , h igh bar, etc., shortening th e radius i ncreases th e speed of rotation or, as in this case, th e speed of upward mov ement. Drive the foot of the back

leg straight up toward th e ceiling, follow this w ith an exte nsion or disengagement o f the hips as high as possible. When the hip s are disengaged o r exte nded they are also b eing rotated th e opposite direction to prepare for the ne xt sc isso r (hips facing th e opposite end). At this point it is imp ortan t to reach between th e legs w ith the free hand in preparation for the swing through the bottom. Reaching for the pommel too ea rl y o r too late o n th e d own sw ing will co mpli cate the performance of the next scissor and w ill g ive t he sc isso rs a jerk y appea rance . Do not let yo ur feet reach the bottom o f th e swing before yo ur trail hand is o n th e pommel. For parallel bar men and coac hes the "arm ride " or " sho uld er ride " and hi p rota tion o n high scissors is ve ry similar to th e hi gh stutz o n the parall el bars . Eve n more n eglecte d than the fro nt sc isso r is the reve rse scisso r. Th e basic scisso r swing is the same an d the developmental seq uen ce is th e same, that is; lea rn the swing, two swings between sc isso rs, 10 co nsecutive swi ng scissors, four hi gh scisso rs . Th ere are some differences on the lift . To begin with yo u should drive with th e ba ck leg fro m th e bottom of the sw ing up to eliminate prema tur e hip rotation w hich usuall y ca u ses the back of lower leg to hit the horse befo re yo u are in position for a scissor. Dri v in g th e back leg will also g ive yo u max imum height on the sw ing. Ap proaching the top of the sw ing rotate the hips and lift the top leg toward yo ur face, once again foo t toward the ce ilin g. N ow yo u have hips h igh and leg over your head and you look grea t, but don't bask in yo ur glo ry too long or you will find yourself on th e downswin g with a short radiu s which will probabl y leave you in a d ea d han g o r sitting on th e horse when you ge t extended at the bottom . In stead push the leg and hip up and o ut in an att empt to get extended for th e d ow nswing, once again get your hand on the pommel as soo n as possible without damaging the swing.

Incorrect grip lor side horse.

shoulders back and push yourself 011 01 the hor se because the wrist has ve ry limited flexibility in th at direction (figure 4) . Some of yo u will get the ba sic front and back sc issor before o th ers so to keep you on the progress ive road h ere are so m e vari ation s for yo u to perform. Front Scissor: '12 twist (B) 1 twist (not listed, should b e C) hop side travel (B) hop side tra ve l with '12 twist (C) hop side travel with 1 twist (not listed, should be C) Reve rse Scissor: '12 tw ist (not li sted, should be B) ho p side travel (not li sted, hard B) hop side travel '12 twist (not listed , should be C) \ I have listed o nl y variations th at I have executed. Also remember that there is no rul e restri ct in g scissor work to th e middl e o f the horse. Presently th ere is no sp ecific deduction for scissor work not com mensurate with the difficulty of the exercise but it is disappointing to see a routin e o f eight or nine C moves with three A sc issors. Many jud ges will deduct for poor ro utine co nstru ction and will ce rtainl y hesitate to mitigate or award points for risk, originality or virtuosity. What a side horse workout should consist of is another article in itself. But baSi ca lly how long and how intensely you work on scisso rs should b e directly proporti o nal to how good you w ant to be on t he sidE: horse. The author, James Hesson

Rega rding the hands, try to keep them on th e front half of the pomm el wh enever you are working side horse. Th ere is a natural ana tomi ca l angle in th e palm of the hand when gripping and slight as it may be, po mmels have been built to compensate for that angle (figure 3). Placing yo ur h and in the middle of th e pommel yo u are putting the wrist in a diffi cult position and if yo u get your hand on the back of th e pommel you will bend your e lbow, (In fa ct thi s, not weakness, is the most frequent cause of bent elbows on sid e horse.) o r drop your


Photos by Dieter Schulz

Andreas Pilfich executes a backward rise to full twist catch to hang on the high bar. Notice the lift away lrom the bar and also the head position throughout the entire movement.

Ebehard Gienger does a back rise, forward roll to support or inlocate and kip to support. The move is done in a fairly tight pike position with steady pressure on the rings by the shoulders and arms.

Dana Shelley, :l,Jriiversity of New Mexico, backward dive, l V, twist to tucked l Y2 forward 路somersault, roll out. However notice the lack of extension in the third and eighth frames and also that the legs appear to be apart through most of the action.



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR EXKUTION UNDERSCORED D ea r Sirs: Th e co mment s about the USA Gymnasti C Team in the November GYMNAST prompt this letter. To me. one o f the p rob lems of gymnast ics in thi s country is judging. Thi s is mostl y judging at the high schoo l and small co ll ege leve l. Th e prob lem is that many of th ese judges are ove r imp ressed by long, choppy routines with hard moves. They don' t seem to care abo ut execution at all. The gymn ast wit h a sho rt routine, executed we ll and smoot h fl owin g is und er scored while th e gy mn ast w ith a rout in e containing free sw ings (he lps it look longer) , hard er moves, executed poorly is over sco red. Th e coac hes, see in g w hat th e jud ges lik e, start crankin g ou t gy mnasts who perform hard er moves w ith bad form in sloppy routines . Thi s poor technique learned early can stay w ith a gym nast no matter how far he progresses. And it is not good gymnast ics. We have seen thi s at t he hig h sc hool level in t he Bosto n area and sma ll co ll ege leve l in so uth wes tern Ohio . To improve gymn astics o n the Olympic leve l in the USA, gym nasti cs needs to be improved on th e lower leve ls and that mean s improvin g the jud gin g at those leve ls. Sin ce rely, Ju dit h Ca lkin Richmo nd , Kentucky Editors Note: We would appreciate the views of judges on this subject. Any comments judges?

MUSIC FOR MEN Dea r Glenn, W atching th e super cove rage of th e O lympi c games from Munich, one co uld not help but be disturbed by the man y decision s and disqua li f icatio ns that took p lace . If we are to get it altoget her fo r 76, th e n th e U.S. O lympi c Committ ee should take the ini tiative i n p ress in g for change and refo rm of t he O lympic games. One change I' d li ke to see mad e is in th e men ' s floor exe rcise-The Gym nasts should be all owed if h e w ishes, to perform to mu sic. Th ere are many masculin e songs (Shaft) that could be used. Mu sic yo u w ill ag ree adds to exp ress ion and p erforma nce but also in the final ana lysis to that f ive lette r wo rd " Score" . I ag ree, lets keep " Gymnastics the Beautiful Sport" bea utifu l, get those needed changes made, the n we're sure to share in the medals co lumn. Sin ce rely J. DaRocha East Provid ence, R.1. We have always felt a good start in this direction would be for the boys to practive their floor exerci se routines to music. The n eve n if the competition did not allow music, they would still have the music in their subconscio us minds to help them go through their routine with more ex uberance and efficiency in execution and timin g..•Ed.

DEAF GYMNASTIC TEAM Dea r M r. Sundby, I am th e physica l edu ca tion teache r and gym nastic coach at the Lex in gto n Sc hoo l for t he D ea f in Jackson Heights, Queen s, N.Y. Th e World Games fo r the Deaf w ill be held at Malmo Sweden this summ er, and I am unable to locate anyon e in vo lved with a deaf gym nastics team . If such a tea m ex ists, I wou ld like to offer th e coach my services . If there is no such team , I wo u ld like to start o ne. I w o u ld appreciate it if anyo ne affiliated w ith a gymnasti cs tea m fo r th e d eaf would pl ease co ntact me. Th an k Yo u, Sheil a Stei ner Lex ington School fo r the Deaf 30th Ave. and 75t h St. Jac kson H eights, N.Y. 11370 Phon e (212) 899-8800

STONY BROOK GYMNASTICS CAMP P.O. Box 593, Stony Brook, Long Island, N.Y. 11790 Telephones: 814-349·8343 until June 22, 1973 / 516-751·1800 from June 22 to Aug. 30, 1973 NAME _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AGE _ _ _ SEX _ _ __



midd le Initial

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o June 24th to July 1st o July 29th to Augu st 5th o July 1st to July 8th o August 5th to Augu st 12th o July 8th to July 15th o August 12th to August 19th o July 15th to July 22nd o Augu st 19th to Augu st 26th o July 22nd to July 29th o Please send lurther information


__ - - - ____ - _________ _ _____________ I 34

Editor's Note: Contact Tony Turbin, Gallaudet College P.O . Box 119A Washington D .C. 20002. He is the person who first informed us of the Games.


Experienced and Accomplished Staff includes:

ED ISABELLE, Camp Director. Assistant Coach, Penn State MIKE KASAVANA, Program Director Assistant .90ach, University of Massach <.:setts TOBY TOWSON , Instructor. NCAA Free Exercise Champion . Formerly with Joffrey Ballet Co.; Cliff Keuter Dance Co. MARGARET COMBS. Co-Captain Varsity Women 's Team , Un iversity of Massachusetts ANNE BURMEISTER VEXLER Varsity Women' s Team , University of Massachusetts JOHN CULBERTSON. National Gymnastics Judges Assoc. (August 19 through September 2.) EARNESTINE RUSSELL WEAVER. 1956 and 1960 Olympic Team . Internationally Certified Judge. And many other nationally-ranked gymnasts and coaches.


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1970 Yugoslavia World Gymnastics Championships Super 8 - in color The world's most exciting combinations, twists and new techniques have been recently filmed . See the winning and top optional routines , for all Olympic events, in semi-slow motion token from the best locations. In order to show more variety of routines, a second reel for men has been p'roduced showing top competitors throughout the world. Men's - # 14 - 400 ft .. .......... $35.00 Ppd. Men's - # 15 - 300 ft. ...... . .. $25.00 Ppd. Women's - #16 - 400 ft .... ..S35.00 Pod.


Super 8 film - in color See the mast spectacu lar Olympics ever held with many new maves and cambinatian s. The Final s includes the tap 4 - 6 compet it ars entire rautines held in the new Olympi c Spartsha ll e. Team optionals includes thase who. did na t make it into. the Finals. M en's Finals 422 400 ft. $35.00 Ppd . Men's Cam p . #22 -A 200 ft. 15.00 Ppd . W o men 's Ca mp . #23 200 ft. 18.00 Ppd. Wam en's Team Opt. #24 280 ft. 25.00 Ppd. Wam en's Finals #25 350 ft. 31.00 Ppd. Order from ,

FRANKENDO 12200 South Berendo Ave. Los Angeles, Calif. 90044 We stock 011 items fdr immediote delivery postpaid. Write for FREE brochure.



When sending i n yaur new subscriptian to GYMNAST Please indicate which paster yau prefer. .. Paster A. ar B.

GYMNAST Subscriptian rates are: 1 year $7.50 2 yea rs $14.00 please send me Paster_ and a _ yea r subscription to GYMNAST Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City----------------------State

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Mail to: GYMNAST Poste r Gift Offer Sundby Publications P.O. Box 110 Santa Monica, Ca. 90406

CENTURY SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS INTERNA TlONAL GYMNASTIC GOODWill TOUR OF CANADA AND THE USA Gymnastic clubs, schaa ls, YMCA's, schaals interested in hasting a tauring graup of 10 gymnasts and caaches during th e last twa weeks in August 1973, please cantact Pel Mead, 14 Pav ilion Raad. Apt. 33, Suffern , NY 10901. Tentative schedu le far taur is to. give fr ee Gymnast ic exhibit ian s and clinics far Canadiar) Gymnast ic clubs and to. sw in g dawn thraugh Michigan and Minnesota to. perform far clubs th ere th en bac k to. New York.

GRADUATE ASSISTANTS Graduate Assistantships are availab le in gymnastics far un derg rad uate Ph ys ica l Educatian majars who. wa uld be wi lling to. majar in Ph ysica l Educat ian at the grad uate level in ea rnin g th eir Masters Deg ree. In terested persans shau ld cantact: ar Head Head Wamen's Physica l Men's Physical Education Department Education Departm ent Ball Gym Men' s Gymnasium Ball State Un ive rsity Ball State University Muncie, IN 47306 Muncie, IN 47306

WANTED: Outstanding instructar far girls • gymnasti cs. $1,000 per manth , d epe nding a n res pan sibility ass umed. Must build ca mpetitive teams, train assistan ts and judges. Year-round nancredit pragram, ar summers aff, yaur cho ice. Ability to. wark with beginners and goad persa nality a must. Prefe r husband-wife team, sa lary apen. Contact: Regional Center, Box 653, Garden City, Kansas 67846, Phone (316) 275-5431.

lWICKEL A Distinctive Line of Men's and Women's Uniforms

Why Settle for less? FREE CATALOG

ZWICKEL Gymnastic Tailors

P.O. Box 309 Jenkintown, Pa. 19046

It's OK to dream, Jimmy! And to help make your dreams come true , you 'll need top quality gymnastics equipment. American has it whether you're a beginner or an international competitor. Write for your copy of our free catalog. It includes complete lines of gymnastic apparatus for all levels, physical education equipment, mats, trampolines and portable bleachers.

American Athletic Equipment P.O. Box 111 , Jefferson , Iowa 50129

Official equipment for the 1973 USSR Gymnastic tour..


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Profile for USA Gymnastics

Gymnast Magazine - January 1973  

Gymnast Magazine - January 1973