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This summer has been a busy one readin g letters from MG subscribers with suggestions, studyin g articles which have been sent in for publication , clearing file drawers of outdated and unusable material and trying to put together this issue of the Modern Gymnast. From everything I have read thus far I get th e impression you would generall y like a pictorial , instructional magazine. I have man y ideas along this line but have asked for help by forming an MG Advisory Board composed of Dr. Bill Vincent, former Head Gymnastics Coach, San Fernando Valley State College ; Mr. Les Sasvery, Head Gymnastics Coach, Monroe High School , Sepulveda, California; Mr. John Magginetti, Instructional Chairman of the Southern California Gymnastic Officials Association; Mr. Ken Sakoda, Art and Layout man for the MG; and Mr. Glen Sunby, Publisher of the Modern Gymnast. The idea here is to take your ideas and suggestions, along with the above mentioned peopl e each month and formulate them into an actual working plan for the magazine. This Board will meet each month to revi ew the issue just published and will suggest new ideas for the upcoming issue. I hope to start a column called ASK THE EDITOR which is designed to aid you in understanding a problem area related to movements in gymnastics . If you have a movement you want to learn or are having trouble with a movement, let us know. You will get action from Our Advisory Board, myself or any other source we may consult to get you an answer. To keep this service from being a financial burden on the MG, we suggest you send a stamped self addressed envelope and 2Sc to cover handling and possible photocopy material needed to fill your request. There may not be space in the MG to answer all questions in which case you will receive your answer by mail. We will continue to use sequence photos of routines but will start blowing up select portions of these routines for your analysis. A note regarding articles you send in for the MG; I have noticed in reading many of these that only physiologists could understand some of the descriptions and terminology used. I would like to see all of the instructional material in language that all of our readers can understand. We also need pictures or drawings of the movements you describe, making your information easier to understand. I hope that with this issue we will begin a new era of the Modern Gymnast, one in which you and I will have been proud to be a part. Jack Medina Editor 4











EUROPEAN TOUR , Dr. Joseph L. Massimo


PAM AM, Richard Aronson, William Roetzheim










MG CENTER PHOTO , Akinori Nakayama


INSTRUCTIONAL: The Double Back, Dick Criley


The Angle of Incidence, Gerald S. George


The "Schroeder Doughnut"


The Feige Handstand, Arno Lascari


Photo Sequence, Voronin PB Routine




A simplified method to determine the average of two scores, K. E. Kopecky, E. R. Gangier


BOOK REVIEW, Dick Criley

COVER STORY: Featured on this issue is a sample of photographer Ron McNees' gymnastics in motion series. See the MG photo essay for more. (page 26) PUBLISHER: Glenn Sundby EDITOR: Jack Medina ASSOCIATE EDITORS, STAFF: Kenneth Sakoda, Dick Criley ASSOCIATE EDITORS, FEATURE: A Bruce Frederick, Education; Dr. James S. Bosco , Research; Jerry Wright, Competition ; Frank Bare , USGF; John Nooney, Canada; Andrzej Gonera, European; Gerald George, Dan Millman, Don Tonry, AA Instructional; Bill Roetzheim, Instructional. THE MODER N GYMN AST maga z ine is pu bl ishe d by Su nd'by Pu bl ications, 41 0 Broa dwa y, Santa MO,)ica, Cali forni a 9040 1. Second Class Pos tage pa id at Santo Monica, Cali f , Pu bl ished mon thly except b i-mon t hly J une, J u ly, August a nd

Septembe r. Price $6.00 pe r year, 6'Oc a sing le copy. Subscription co rrespondence, The MO DE RN GYMNAST, P.O . Box 6 11 , Santa Monica, Ca lifornia 90406 . Copyrig ht 197 1Š all rights rese rved by SUN DBY PU BLI CATIONS, 4'10 Broadway, Santa Monica , Calif . All photos and manuscripts subm itted become the p ro perty o f The MO DERN GYM NAS T un less a return request and sufficien t posta g e are included .

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NEW JERSEY SERVICE AWARD Jo hn Bab uska, retired Soko l USA Na tional Secre tary wa s awa rd ed th e " 1971 New Jersey Gym nas ti cs Assoc iati on Servic e Award. " Mr. Bab uska, left, is being prese n te d the " Serv ice Award" plaque by Jerry

ABOUT THE NEW EDITOR Jack Medina is a gradu ate of San Jose State Co ll ege where he rec eive d a Masters D eg ree in Ph ys ical Ed ucat ion . In 1963 he j o in ed th e teaching staff of Hom estea d Hi gh School , Cupertino , Ca lifornia and f o rm ed th e Homestead Gym nastic Club. Sin ce that tim e, Homestead Gymnasts have co m p il ed a record of 125 wins, 25 losses, on e No rth ern Ca lifo rni a Tea m Championshi p and two Northern Ca li fornia A ll A round Champi o nships. Co ach Medin a has bee n on the coac hing staff of the No rth ern California Gy mna stics Camp, Th e Uni ve rsity of Ca l ifornia W in te r Clinic, Th e Nati onal Summ er Palaes trum in Michi ga n for 3 yea rs, and last 路summer directed the Pacific Coast Gym nastics In sti tute fo r Men ass isted by M asay uki Wa t anabe in Sa nta Clara, Ca li f. In the Fall of thi s past yea r, Coach Medina was hired by San Fernando Valley State Co ll ege to take over t he gy mn ast ics program from retiring Bill Vincent. Mr. Medi na was forme rl y in the North ern Ca li fo rni a Gym nast ics Offic ials AssoCiation , se rvin g as Vice Pres ident o n e year and was active in judg in g hi gh sc hoo l and col lege gy mna stics. He is currentl y a m ember of the South ern Ca li fo rni a Gymn as tics Offici als Assoc iat ion. Hi s knowled ge of gymnastics has been ga in ed through m any so urces, espec iall y his work w ith Dr. Clair Jenn ett, San Jose State Co ll ege; Mr. Ni ls Bengtsso n, Santa Clara ; Mr. Kats utosh i Kan zak i, Jap an; Mr. Masayuk i Watanabl e, Japan and Mr. Mitsuo M or i hi s n ew Assistant Coach from Japan. Coach Medina has wr itten numerous articles in th e field of gymnas t ics and w ill continue to add hi s tec hni ca l knowledge to the MG as Edito r.

TWENTY-THREE YEAR GYMNASTICS CAREER ENDS Dr. Hartle y Pri ce, lon g-time member of th e Florida State teach in g and coac hing staff, has retired. At FSU for 23 yea rs, h e produ ce d five Nati o n al Gymnastics Tea m Championships in 1951, 1952, 1953 and 1955 as Va rs ity Gymnastics Coach. Pri o r to his t en ure at FSU, Dr. Pri ce coached at Univers ity of Illin o is and th e United States Navy. H e w ill cont inu e to serve as NACGC Chairman of Co mmittee on Co mmittees in charge of NCAA awa rds. Speci ficall y as Chairman of th e H onor Coach 's Awa rd and th e Research Awards respecti ve ly. His man y co ntribution s to th e spo rt of Gymnasti cs have left a tremendous impression on many. The University is extreme ly grateful fo r, and prou d of hi s yea rs of service and so are all those of us who have known him throu gho ut th e yea rs.


THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE GYMNASTIC COACHES RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL LIAISON COMMITTEE in Coope ration w ith A m erican A thl eti c Equipm ent Co m pany, A tl as A thl etic Eq uipm ent Company, Gym Master Compa ny and Nisse n Co mpany. Cha i rman: Dr. Hartl ey Pri ce, Fl o rida State U ni vers ity, Ta ll ahass ee, Florid a An nouncem ent: Four Research Awa rd s wi ll be offered this year. Gymnastic Research Awards for 1971-1972:

1. The CH. McCloy Honor Research Award of th e National Gymnas ti c Clin ic and NACGC, Sa rasota, $100. Pre sid ent, Frank Cumi skey, RFD Westwood ; Rockl eight, New Jers ey. Decid ed at Saraso ta. Chairma n, Dr. H ar tley Price. (Sponsored by N isse n.) Cooperat in g, Frank Cumisk ey. 2. The Lyle Welser Honor Research Award Kraw itz , NJGA Presid en t. This is an annual of the NACGC, Fort Laud erda le, Fl o rid a, award give n to a person w ho has dedicated $100. Pres ident, Dr. Eric Hu ghes, Gymnasmu ch of hi s t im e towards th e promotion of tic Coach , University of Washin gton, Seat gy mn as ti cs over th e pa st yea rs. t le, Washington. Ch ai rm an, Dr. Hartl ey Othe r awa rds were given to th e " 1971 Price. (S p o nsore d by the At las Company.) New Jersey Gym nasti cs Association AI ICooperatin g, Coaches Dick Holzacpfel and arou nd Champions," name ly Di ane LawBill Meade. son (15-18 age gro up) coac hed by Carol 3. The Hartley Price Honor Research Award Reid , Rosann Wag ner (13- 14 age g roup) of th e NACGC, Tu cso n, Arizona, $100. coached by Ge rtrud e Di em , and Cind y Chairm an, Dr. Clair Jenn ett. (Spo nso red by Thomp so n (10-12 age gro up) coac h ed by Gym Master.) Cooperat in g, Coach j eff Mona Sessio ns. Th e 1971 NJGA Hands tand Bennon. Champ is Jo hn H enni ga n of C lark, N .J . 4. The Leopold Zwarg Honor Reseilrch Award of the NACGC, Berkeley Clini c, FREE CLINIC As part of th e Free Summ er Sports Clinic . $100. Chairman, Dr. Clai r Jenn ett. (SponProgram co-sponsored by the Athletic Deso red by A m eri can At hletic Equipm ent partm ent of Michigan and Ann Arbor RecCompany.) Cooperating, Coach es Hal Frey rea ti o n D epar tm ent, gy mnastics was ofand Eric Hu gh es . fered for a week und er the sup ervision of coac h Newt Loken, Jul y 12-16th an d 300 Procedure of Candidates: yo ungs ters atte nd ed . Th e m orni n g sessions 1. Cand id ates cannot submit th eir out lines were di v id ed into ages, 9, 10, and 11 at to all clinics. A cho ice must be mad e. 9 a. m. to 10:30, and then ages 12 o n up a. A prospectus of the problem mu st be from 10 :30 a.m. to 12 (noon) (b oth boys submitted by November 30. and gi rls). b. Studi es for consideration f o r th e C. H. Bes ides Gymnastics, severa l spo rts are McC loy H o nor Research Awa rd at Sarain clud ed each fo r a week, such as: footso ta or the Ly le Welser H o nor Resea rch ball, basketball, baseball , w restl i ng, etc. Award at Fo rt Laude rd ale mu st be subThi s being the 4th year of th e free clinics, mitted to Dr. Hartl ey Price, Flo rida State gave eviden ce of th e interes t in the sport University by November 30. The proof gymnast ics with a reco rd number of spectus w i II th en be passed on to th e pa rti c ipants and an elevated leve l of persub-co mmittee of the Resea rch Award fo rm ance. Se ems as if Gym nastics is o n th e Co mm ittee in order t o decide the winGo in A nn A rbo r! nin g can did at es. It w ill fac ilitate matters SPORT FILMS if severa l copies are sent to Dr. Hartl ey If yo u occasiona ll y or eve n frequ entl y Price. make use of film programs, yo u may be inc. Studi es for consideration for the Hartte res ted to kn ow that Mi ll er Brew in g Comley Price Honor Resea rch Awa rd at pany h as the larges t privately-owned sports Tucso n, A ri zo na, o r the Leopo ld Zwarg film li bra ry in th e world , containing more Hon or Resea rch Award at Berkeley must than 200 titl es, i ncluding NCAA GYMNASbe submitted to Dr. Clair Jenn ett, San TI CS. A ll th ese fi lm s are ava ilabl e free to Jose State College, Sa n Jose, California. yo ur fraternal , civic or professiona l o rganiLikewi se h e w ill us e a sub-committee for za ti o n. Th e only exp ense is return postage. eva lu ation. When ordering . . . fi lm s, please contact 2. Th e Prospectu s of the Research: yo ur loca l Miller High Life distribu to r or w rite to: a. Th e candidates should includ e th e fo lFi lm Section - Public Relation s D ep t. lowi ng points in th e ir pro sp ec tu s: 1) Miller Brewing Company Outline the problem; 2) State an hypo 4000 West State Street theses ; 3) Indicate th e m ethods to b e Milwaukee, Wisconsin 532 08 used; 4) Repo rt the bibliography that Pl ease order all f ilm s 4 weeks in advance was used in approaching th.e probl em ; of yo ur planned showing d at e. 5) Ju sti fy the rese arch .

b. In d icate th e p rog ress that has been m ade up-to-date o n t he resea rch.

c. The membe rs of the sub-com mi ttee wil l dec ide w hat candidate w i ll rece ive the award afte r studyi ng the prospecti. Th erefore, the p rospecti shou ld be very co m p lete. d. Each rec ip ient of th e awa rd is expected to p ub li sh hi s st udy in t he Modern Gymnast o r the Resea rch Q uarterly of the AA H PE R. He is also asked to re po rt h is f ind ings to the Tech ni ca l Researc h Co m m ittee (Chairm an, Dr. je rry George) for further distribut io n.

nastic tea m - eac h year Col u mbus Hi gh Schoo l. As a res ult of th is study it was found that the ave rage we ight of t hese champions was 129 pounds w h ile thei r average height was 5'7". Add it io nal f igu res showed that the average wa ist size for these champ ions was

28" , wh il e the average chest meas urem e nt was 36 " . Va ryin g sli ght ly f rom these averages was the record setting India na a llaround champion of 1970. H is sta ti sti cs were: 26" waist, 40" ches t, 5'10" ta ll , and "13 5 po un ds.

Criteria and Weightin gs for Evaluation of Prospecti: 1. Criterio n : a. 30 % - Pote ntia l value to teachers and coac hes of gym nastics . (Is the study of suff icient importance? Does it be nefit a large gro up rathe r th an a sm all gro up?) b. 25% - Adeq uacy of resea rch des ign . c. 20 % - Feasib ili ty of the stu dy. (App rop riate de lim ita t ion; avai labi lity of necessary eq uip m ent, in strum ents; reasonable cost; reasonab le pros pecti ve co m p leti on date.) d. 15% - Clar ity of prospectus; effecti ve ness of co mmun icat ion. e. 10% - Est ima te of cand idate' s abi i lty to sati sfacto ril y comp lete the study.


SIZE AND HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASTICS By j o hn H ind s, jr. Fat o r t hin , ta il or sh o rt - how do yo u li ke th em, coac h ? As w ith any spo rt t he gym nas ti c coac h t y pi ca ll y ide nt if ies one body t ype ove r anothe r as being idea l. Th e foo tb all coac h usual ly wa nts t hem b ig and heavy w hil e the basketbal l coac h looks t o th e tall boys fo r hi s success. Wh at size th en d oes th e hi gh schoo l gy mn as ti c coac h desi re o r fi nd m ost app rop riate? D efin ite ly it is not the two- hun dred pound er no r th e six foot plu s boy. Wel l, then, is it t he sma ll m an li ke the Wo rl d Cham pion japanese gymnast s or an average size yo un g m an simi lar t o m os t Ru ssian gymn as t s? Few wo ul d deny t hat w hateve r t he cho ice, strength, flex ib ili ty, and coord inati on are a mu st. Th e key to the idea l size of a gymnast appears t o be re lated to that size at w h ich an ind ivi du al ca n effective ly and efficien tl y coo rdin ate hi s act io ns on gymn as ti c equi pment. In an effo rt to d ete rm ine sta ti sti ca ll y w hat might be an idea l size fo r a h igh schoo l gy mn ast the aut hor checked the ave rage we ight and height of the letter wi nners on t he 1967, '68, '69, and '70 Indiana Hi gh Schoo l State Ch amp io nshi p gym-


Dear Coach; By far the largest body of coaches and competitors in the sport of gymnastics lies at the high school leve l . As coaches , and leaders of our sport it is our obligation to promote and direct gymnastics in the best interests of all. Up to date , however , littl e has been done effectivel y to organize high school gymnastics on a national scale and the potential good that would result from such an association has gone untapped. The Nat ional High School Gymnast ic Coaches Asso : iation (NHSGCA) now exists as a means to organ ize and make effective the "tren~th and influence that is inherent in the high school gymnastic coaches as a body. The tasks that lie ahead for the NHSGCA are numerous and monumenta l , but the good that can be accomplished for gymnastics through the association are deserving and long overdue. YOUR ANNUAL DUES WILL INCLUDE Membership to the NHSGCA A NHSGCA membership card A NHSGCA lapel pin The NHSGCA Newsletters Valuable coaching information perta in ing to complusory ro utines for novice and advanced gymnasts 6 . Specia l team and individ ual NHSGCA awards 7. Discounts on various items as advertised in the Modern Gymnast magaZine 8. A special team s ubscription rate to The Modern Gymnast magaZine 9 . Two issues of T he Modern Gymnast Magazine for yourself (one for home, one for your office) Most important you will be inst rumental in shaping t he futu re of gymnastics in t he United States.

1. 2. 3. 4. S.

If yo u would li ke to be part of t he Nationa l High School Gymnastic Coaches Association ,

to he lp with it's work a nd also benefit from it's position please fill out the enclosed membe r ship fo r m, include your $10.00 annual membership dues and mail it today.

Please find my $ 10.00 an n ua l mem bers h ip d ues to the Nat iona l High Sch oo l Gym nasti c Coa ch e s As soc iat ion en closed and in clu de my name an d high sch oo l on the NHSGCA roster wi th a ll t he pri v il e ge s g ra nted thereof. Co ach: Hig h Schoo l:_ _ __ _ Ad d re ss: _ _ _ __



U.S.G.F. BBPOB'l' The Pan-American Gam es, conducted in Cali, Columbia have bee n completed. Th ere were some problems with facilities , some we re not ye t rea d y. and some had minor or major problems during the games, howeve r, much has to be said for the beauty of the structures and surely th e Columbians did a great d ea l to m ake eve ryo ne welcome and at home . Th e City was beautiful, so we re the people. On the gymnastics scene it was as follows. The m en' s tea m under Armando Vega ' s coaching and Dick Aronson 's managing was well-prepared for th e optionals and either nervou s or just having one of those " bad da ys" durin g the compulsories. American gymnasts have for yea rs used th e statement that "we don't ever do well in compulsories" as a sort-of catch-all for our usual less than great performance in compulsories. In some past Ol ympiads we have been three, four or more places down the t ea m ran kings after the first compulsory days and came roaring back to sixth or seventh ba se d on our great optional performances. This time , however, Cal.i left us w ith a different task . The Cuban men 's team was ex tremely we ll prepared for th e compulsories. The y performed them in near perfect style . . . truthfully well executed , and rece ived scores that were, if a littl e high , not far out of line. At th e end of th e first days competition the men we re 6.50 or more behind . A lead that was virtually beyond reach. The optional s went well for the USA men's squad and they beat the Cubans that day by some three full points but the margin from the first day was far too much to catch up to th em. The team title went to Cuba . . . for th e first time . Primary less on to our USA program. We cannot breeze into the Pan American Games any longer and carry home all th e medals . . . the Cubans intend to do everything the y can (with considerable help from th e USSR) to beat us .. . and they wo rk at it ve ry hard both on th e floor as a com petitor and on the floor as a judge. Th e ladi es ... our wo men ' s team under the coaching of Muri el Grossfeld and th e mana gi ng of Greta Tre iber . . . came throu gh in great sty le. Winning the t eam and t ak in g 1-2-3 in th e all-around. Th e " perfectly able and girls looked ready capable and almost eager to w in everything available and did just that. Beautiful team .. . in looks, performance and attitud e. Young Ro xa nne Pierce showed real class . . . and steadiness to win th e allaround . . . ve t eran Linda Metheny had one brea k but hun g in th ere for second and our top six girl s are all defnite candidates for 1972 and Munich. Res ults follow. Some editorial co mments: The Pan-Am Gam es and th e rece nt Europ ea n Tour are history now. Both g rea t eve nts have been ppssible at the sa m e tim e. One of th e thin gs that th e USGF was interes t ed in years ago ... and fought hard for was th e ability to send t ea ms to different parts of th e World at th e same tim e . . . giving


more gymn asts experience and thereby bring our national team s into more promin ence throu ghout th e world . When the day comes that we have four teams . . . all ready to go to various nation s d epe ndin g upon our nee ds for that nation we will have a top team . . . the first t ea m so to speak that will bring us into the top three positions in th e Olympic and World Games competitions. Th e USGF is in its new building. Some five yea rs of work ha ve brought it into b eing . . . and it is a beautiful, well furni sh ed , and functional building of so me 3,000 sq uare f eet. In the next few months we will see the development of so me new guidelines ... and assignments of authority for the sport of gymnastics. They will prove to be useful , interest in g and problem solving . . . we've needed some sort of published guidelines for man y years. Women's Ol y mpic Compulsories are

available . . . so are the men 's. In time , th e women ' s routin es will b e. available in film (super 8mm ) and th e tape of the music will also be available ... for the tim e being w rite the USGF for copies of the women's routines . . . start now for 1972 . . . th ese routines will be utilized in the 1971 Championships of the USA .. . November 18-19-20 . .. 1971. USGF CONGRESS . . . November 6-7, 1971 . . . at the Sheraton-Chicago Hotel , Chicago, Illinois (downtown in th e loop). First business session is 9:00 a.m. on Saturday. Men's Olympic Games Committee meets Sunday p.m . . . . the National High School Coaches meet Saturday at 3:00 p.m. and the N .A.C.G.C. will have time available to meet at that same time. Write directly to the hotel for rese rvations . . . send your registration for the Congress ($ 12.50) to the U .S.G .F.


AA Winners: U.S.A. vs. France Under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. State Department and the United States Gy mnastics Federation , a team of seven men and seven women was sent to Europe this summer forO a competitive gymnastics tour. These yo ung gymnasts were to meet the national teams of both Romania and France. The girl 's team was selected from the Pan American Games competition and the m en's squad competed for European births at a try-out on July 9th & 10th at Penn State. Th e fin al men ' s team was: George Greenfield, Marshall Av~ner, Gary Morava, Craig Ritter, Mike Kimball and Barney Peters, with Joe Litow as alternate. The ofcials we re : Gene Wettsone, Joe Massimo and Sid Drain. The woman 's' team consisted of: Joan Moore, Janet Cantwell, Barbara Fleming, Kathy Stewart, Margie Py le, Janet Wright and Jodi Perrisini . Officials were: Ruth Ann McBride, Wanda Obradovich and Gai l Dav is. Our teams arrived in Bucharest, Romania on Jul y 20th and received a most cordial and warm welcome from the Romania Gymnastics Fed era tion . The first competition took place at Constanta on th e Black Sea. We made an exce llent effo rt, despite

by Dr. Joseph L. Massimo

some sickness, but the Romanian men and w omen were simply too strong for our group. Gary Morava received the highest all-around score for our men' s team with a 55.25 for 4th place. Upon returning to Bucharest we did a demonstration at the Olympic Sports Cerr ter in collaboration with the Romania gymnasts. This sports center is the training site for their national team. Our next stop was Paris and on to An tibes on the French Riviera. This was a fantastic site for an international competition. Our men and women were really " up" for this competition. They competed together over a two day period three men 's events and two women's events per d ay. Our two tea ms defeated the French in a brilliant meet performance. We gave one more demonstration in Fran ce at Mulhouse before returning to Paris, Zurich and on to the U.S.A. The tour was an unequivocal success . It was th e kind of experience necessary for our d eve lopment as world class athletes. We must congratulate our athletes for their friendliness , spo rtsmanship and general good will . They were wonderful resprese ntatives of th e U.S .A. and we of the officia l staff were proud to have been with them in both defeat and victory.

WOMEN ROMANIA-UNITED STATES 1. Ceampelea (RUM) 38.50, 2. Goreac (RUM) 38.20, 3. Paunescu (RUM) 37.25 , 4. Moore (USA) 37.20, 5. Grigoras (RUM) 37.00, 6. Cantwell (USA) 36.90, 7. Stewart (USA) 36 .50, 7. Wright (USA) 36.50, 9. Py le (USA) 36.40, 10. Fleming (USA) 36 .35, 11. Apatenanu (RUM) 36 .00, 12. Coman (RUM) 35.80 Team Score : Rumania , 187.45, United States, 184.05

FRANCE-UNITED STATES 1. Moore (USA) 37.30, 2. Wright (USA) 36.70, 3. Stewart (USA) 36.05, 4. Cayre (FRA) 36.05, 5. Cantwell (USA) 35.80, 6. Tilmont (FRA) 35.45, 7. Smondack (FRA) 35.40, 8. DeSanti (FRA) 35.20, 9. Peteau (FRA) 34.95, 10. Fleming (USA) 34.75, 11 . Pyle (USA) 34.40, 12. Sippel (FRA) 34.05 Team Score: United States, 181 .95, France, 179.60

MEN ROMANIA-UNITED STATES 1. Mihaiuc (RUM) 56.40, 2. Cosario (RUM) 55.35, 3. Grecu (RUM) 55.35, 4. Morava (USA) 55.25, 5. Gheorghiu (RUM) 54.75, 6. Avener (USA) 54.70, 7. Oprescu (RUM) 54.40, 8. Kimball (USA) 54.25, 9. Ritter (USA) 53.90, 10. Petrescu (RUM) 53 .00, 11 . Greenfield (USA) 53.20, 12. Peters (USA) 52.95 Team Score: Romania, 276.00, United State, 272.70

FRANCE-UNITED STATES 1. D euza (FRA) 55.80, 2. Avener (USA) 55.60, 3. Morava (USA) 55.10, 4. Miens (FRA) 54.85, 5. Kimball (USA) 54.70, 6. Greenfield (USA) 54.50, 7. Ritter (USA) 54.30, 8. Guelzec (FRA) 54.05, 9. Boerio (FRA) 52.85, 10. Peters (USA) 51.80, 11. Bienko (FRA) 50.95, 12. Cayre (FRA) 36.00 Team Score: United States, 274.80, France, 271.90

PAN AM Despite our requests it looked as if the October issue would lack a Pan A m report. A t the last minute we were flooded with material. We tried to make a complete report by using information from them all. (We unfortunately never did receive any action photos).

in g sched ul e. On Jul y 16, the team traveled to New Orle ans to put on an exh ibition and tryo ut parts of optiona l exe rcises in front of an aud ience. A lth o ugh the weathe r was very warm, the boys did an exce ll ent job for a very apprec iative crowd . The New Orleans YMCA took exce ll ent ca re of the team for training sessions and in vited the team to Biloxi , Miss for a day of sw immin g. This was the first day the team had off since start in g training. Finally, we arrived in Miami Beach on July 21 fo r process in g and continued training. Eve n though everyo ne had to squeeze into a compact car, the team trained eve ryday at Miami Dade Jc. (Tra nsportation was a prob lem but the gymnasts did manage to " find " a car so there wou ld be no let up in training.) We took one day off for processing, medical checks, uniforms, baggage checks etc. Everyone was give n parede outfits, trave l outfits and other wear supp li ed by Sears and, at lo ng last, we traveled to Miami Airport for the flight to Ca li , Columbia .. The date was Jul y 27th. Living co ndition s at the Pan Am Village were very crowded , the gymnasts sharing thei r room with other ath letes but the food was exce ll ent. After the opening parade, whic h was fantastic, the competition started for women on Jul y 31 and the men the following day. FROM THE STANDS at the VI Pan Games by William Roetzheim It is hard to describe what transpired on the gym floor at the VI Pan American Games. It wasn't a meet but an emotional exper ience. A lthough extreme ly frustrating at times, as a spectator I loved every minute of this six-day adventure. I' m sure cold and calculated accounts of this event will be printed and the U.S. readers wiil feel informed, but twenty people would all interpret this " happening" in Cali differently. I' m neither going to condemn, analyze, or judge, but rather describe the action from w here I sat in the stands. I don ' t believe it was the Pan Am gymnasts, coach, or judges, that esculated Cuba to first place in our hemisphere, but rather a mi sca lculati on of the entire U.S. gymnastic

community and a failure on our part to do our homework well. I hope that no one wi ll take my account of the games personally for I' m relating only what I saw and, in many cases, othe rs wou ld certainly disagree as to my conc lu sions. Because of the Cubans' poor sho wing in the World Games compared to us, .I'm su re many will try to rationalize our lo ss as a " hosing" by official s. The jud gin g was bad, we were robbed in sports, but the Cuban Team definitely won no matter who judged. They performed this miracle by beating us most sound ly in compulsory competition. They knew what had to be accomp li shed to ga in victory and then got the job done . Their interpretation , execution , and consiste ncy on their simple routines made them the c las s of the field. In the compu lsor ies that first day we led off on the f loor. For the most part we were quite adequate. Interp retat ion was not outstanding but so und . We had some shaky parts and al most everyone took steps on the dismount. The Cubans did a good job but in this event were over scored. Our scores were ju st about right but theirs were escalated. Anderso n and Butzman did a good stock job. Thi s is a difficult routin e to make look solid. Anderson got an 8.3 and Butzman 8.4. Ellis looked a little shaky thru the first half but settled down during the second part of his routine to earn 8.3. Brent did an outstanding job but was underscored at 8.45. Lindner did a good job, was shaky on one turn but pulled an 8.55. Crosby had to take a hop after landing on hi s first handspring but from there on out looked good-scoring 8.65. Floor U.S.A. Cuba 42.35 44.65 On the side horse the Cubans did a fantastic job. They earned eve ry point they got as they went through one after another like machines. This was the first time I began to seriously think that our position was endangered. Butzman led off, got in trouble on the mount, and sat down. This not only put a

Pan American Training & Trip by Richard Aronson , Te am Manager

On July 11, 1971 , the Pan American Gymnastic Team , arrived at Northwestern State College, Natchitoches, La. , to begin intens ive training und er the direction of Coach Armando Vega. Th e team consisting of Jo hn Crosb y, John Elias, Gary Anderson, Brent Simmons, Dave Butzman, Tom Lindner and Jim Culhane, was submitted to two sess ion s a day, one in the morning for stretching and basic parts whi le the afternoon session was devoted to compulsories and opt ion als depending upon the train-

Coach Vega; Butzman; Lindner; Elias; Culhane ; Ritter; Aronson (mgr.); Simmons, Crosby; Anderson.


great deal of pressure on the next five men , all of whom had to hit, but also started us out with a 7.95 . This, of course, Is a very low _score to build upon . Simmons did a great job, was low on his dismount for an 8.55. Anderson got in trouble at the beginning of his routine and down came the score to 8:15. Crosby had some minor form breaks and lost alignment on his dismount for an 8.85. Lindn er looked good, and Ellis, outside of brushing hard on his undercut, did a marvelous job. Tom earned an 8.95 while Ellis was awarded an 8.85. U.S.A. Side Horse Cuba 43.35 44.45 86.70 Running Score 89.10 Th e Cubans on rings looked strong as a team. There were some high leve rs, high " L"s, but they all finished with fabulous straddles. I, personally, liked the technique th ey employed in dismounting from the rings although others I talked to were critical. They used a shoot out from the rin gs with a strong pike arch that not only carried them up buckle high, but also set them abo ut six feet in front of the rings. I thought this upward-outward lift was great. Anderson started us out a superb performance and posted a 9.0. Brent was a little high on his lever and " L" and got swinging a little which explained his 8.95. Lindner, as well as Brent and Crosby, I believe, could have picked up their dismounts for a stronger routine. Tom also had a bad front-uprise but still earned a 9:30. Crosby was shaky on his lever but came up to the 9: 35 mark. Butzman struggled a little with the mount but after that was fantastic with a 9.35. Ellis, outside of a slightly high lever, got the job done for a 9.40. U.S.A. Rings Cuba 46.40 46-10 Running Score 135.20 133.10 Being a little over two points down at this point wasn ' t a great calamity. I felt if we just held our own on long horse, our parallel bars and high bar would more than make up any lost ground. Simmons started us out with the same score the first Cuban got, 8.60. Butzman's pre-flight angle was low which was refl ected in his 8.40. Anderson's first vault appeared to border on a stoop but he came through in good style on his second attempt for 8.65. Ellis hit an excellent jump but was scored only 8.75. Tom Lindn er's pre-flight was low, he failed to open up at the end of the vault, and the 8.35 thrown seemed about right. Crosby got off a marvelous vault for a 9.10, five tenths behind the best Cuban score. U.S.A. Long Horse Cuba 43.50 45.45 176.60 Running Score 180.45 Although 8.35 isn ' t the whole ball game it's " mucho" points to pick up. From here on out we had to hit. Our parallel bars


were superior to Cuba and I figured we would pick up at least 11/2 points in this event. Anderson started out, pushed the routine tric k after trick until th e dismount w here he caught a foot on the straddle and fell to the floor-score 7.95 . Everyone now had to hit for the next five sco res had to cou nt. Brent got in trouble on the pirouette before the dismount and fell off without completing the end for a low 7.50. This not only meant we were counting a 7.95 but our third man was about to wo rk and we still didn ' t have a mark out of the seve ns. Lindner performed w ell wit h the exception of the stradd le dismount for a 9.05. This was a good mark to build on but Butzman got stuck going to his last handstand and we dropped back to 8.95 . Crosby got through for a 9.0 and Ellis did an outstanding job for a 9.15. Parallel Bars Cuba U.S.A. 44 .10 44.80 Running Score 225.25 220.70 I think every American in the house thought of our 9.50 average in high bar in the World Games and how this high score saved us from finishing low. The Cubans worked before us and it was clear when their . first man dismounted that we would have our hand s full. They did the part th at called for an und erswi ng backuprise right to a handstand positiori beautifully. How they were ab le to underswing and then execute this uprise to a handstand with the wrong grip reflec ted a whole new approach in " beating " for this movement. On their kip , pirouette, dismount, they all got their shoulders forward and sacrificed a pe rfect dismount in favor of consistency. Thi s strategy led to a range of scores from 8.85 to 9.15. The i r average score was 9.05-not stupendous, but quite respectab le. Our first man up was Anderson . He got through his routine right up until th e landing on the dismount. At this point he lost his balance and fell down. He scored 8.30. Brent was a little low on his uprise and very shaky on his dismount but still pulled an 8.80 average. Butzman, Crosby, and Ellis, all looked solid and garnered 8.90, 9.0, and 8.95 respectively. Our last performer in this event was Tom Lindner who is one of th e outstanding horizontal bar workers in the nation. His routin flowed well until the kip pirouette dismount. After kipping, his shoulders never came forward and he missed the last sequence for a 8.30 total. Because we broke two men in this event we wound up witb only a 8.78 average. U.S.A. High Bar Cuba 45.05 43.95 264.65 Running Score 270.30 At this point an upset was fairly well established for a 6.65 deficit is an obstacle almost impossible to surmount. With that large of a margin we not only had to perform our best but the Cubans would have to help by by missing. A crowd of over 8,000 was on hand to watch these two teams battle it out on optional exercises. We were magnificent! Never have I seen six gymnasts hit better event after event. Their spirit and enthusiasm were

trem en dous. All of us can well be proud of this fine group of yo ung gymnasts and th eir coach. If on ly the Cubans wo uld have cooperated by blowing, we could have all li ve d happi ly ever after. Although their ski ll leve l in this phase of the meet was much below ours, as a team , they pu shed and stru gg led through every routine in a res pectable manner. Being emotion ally in vo lved, it is quite easy to sight o n Iy the places the Cubans w ere gifted and demonstrate how we really shou ld have won. It' s nice to forget Butzman ' s 8.95 side horse while being a " lette r" short and fai ling to cover all ends of the horse; or Lindner on rings who fell out of a handstand and st ill scored 9.0 . It was not judging but the trem endo us lead the Cubans compi led the first day that led to our demise. On the floor our team got off to a good start by posting Anderson at 8.95. I thought Butzman was scored a little low at 8.95. Ellis went out of the area and dismounted low, score 8.85 . Brent was going great until he blew a front handspring and fell flat on his back which resulted in an 8.60 . Lindner did an outstanding job and Crosby was the best I have ever seen him work. Their scores were 9.15 and 9.45 . The Cubans' scores ranged from 8.50 to 9.30. Jon Culbertson, on th e American judging staff of this event, questioned many of the Cuban scores and was asked to sit down. I don't know what was being said but it looked wild from the stands . The Cubans were definitely overscored in this event. Floor Cuba U.S.A. 45.35 44.65 310.00 Running Score 314.95 With the pressure on , and every score important, it was time to ride the horse. What a great show, 6 completed routines! Anderson got in a little trouble but managed to muscle back in command and finish . You had to take your hat off to a team that could put forth an effort such as that. Simmons 8.65; Butzman , 8.95; Anderson, 3.35; Lindner, 9.10; Ellis, 9.15; and Crosby, 9.05. The Cubans were tight and shaky through-out this event. They were not falling off but tight and unsure. This general presentation was reflected in their range of scores, 7.75 to 8.95 for a 8.43 average. U.S.A. Side Horse Cuba 44.70 42.15 354.70 Running Score 357.00 On rings, I believe the Cubans looked better than us as a team. We did a very good job but were also given every break possible on the scores. As I mentioned earlier, Lindn er fa lling out of a handstand and still recording a 9.0 was certainly a break for our side. John Crosby's 9.40 was also on the high side. As a team we lost this event but our performances were good. Anderson, 8.90 ; Simmons, 9.10; Butzman, 9.15 ; and Ellis, 9.40. U.S.A. Rings Cuba 46.05 46.20 Running Score 403.20 400.75 If we were overscored on rings, they





evened it out on the long horse. I think Ellis, Anderson , Butzman , and Simmons all could have had a few tenths added to their scores. Lindner's 8.55 was about right for neith er vault was outstanding. Crosby did a te rrific job and his 9.45 I thought was low. They loved the Cubans in this event and as a team their vaults were more difficult than ours. Double fronts , snap down backs, all with high risk but not the execution we demonstrated. Anderson , 8.95 ; Ellis, 8.75; Butzman, 8.95; and Simmons, 9.15 . U.S .A. Long Horse Cuba

45.25 446.00


46.15 492 .15


Running Score 450.20 On the parallel bars all of our boys hit great. This was shown in our average score of 9.23. If only the Cuban team would have cooperated by falling off we may well have closed the gap in this event. Although not as good as us, their 8.89 average kept us from gaining too much ground. Anderson, 8.95; Butzman, 9.15; Lindner, 9.15; Simmons, 9.30; Ellis, 9.25; Crosby, 9.30. U.S.A. Parallel Bars Cuba Running Score 494.65 On the high bar once again we were tremendous. We counted scores ranging from a low of 9.20 to a well deserved high of 9.55 posted by Tom Lindner. Again our opponents failed to cooperate and registered five marks between 8.90 and 9.35 . Anderson, 9.00; Butzman, 9.20; Lindner, 9.55; Simmons, 9.30; Ellis, 9.35; and Crosby, 9.35. U.S.A. High Bar Cuba

46.75 538.90


Running Score 540.35 John Crosby's performance over the two day event was good enough for second place in the all-around with Cubans first and third. The final two days was the wildest gymnastic meet I have ever attended . It was worth the price of admission even if you didn't watch one gymnast compete. In men ' s individual competition I felt we would be hard pressed to win a medal. The day before the men competed the women ' s individual finals were held. The crowd was definitely pro-Cuba. A Cuban girl on beam was elevated to a second place medal strictly on the screaming and chanting of "Cuba" by the crowd . To throw an honest mark for her performance would have been suicidal. After all, when 10,000 screaming people say you were the best, who are four little frail judges to challenge their decision? In the first event of the men ' s individual finals, floor exercise, there were only two Americans and four Cubans. This firmly established us as the underdog in the eyes of the fans and from that minute on, it was a U.S.A. crowd. To add to our image, John Crosby was great on the floor and became the Colombian hero. If John did it, it was always right. When a few die-hards tried to get the chant, "Cuba, Cuba" going, they were shouted down by the other spectators. John won the floor with the Cubans taking second and third. I have been around gymnastics a long

time but yet had no id ea who was going to score what. When an average was flashed it always came as a great surpris e. Any mark short of a 10.00 w as too low for John Crosby according to his 10,000 fans and called for whistling, yelling, and throwing anything not nailed down. It was during one of these demonstrations that a very sad thing happened to one of th e members of our team . In the middle of a viol ent demonstration the green light came on for Tom Lindner to work side horse . Concentration was impossible for the very walls of the gym w ere shaking with the yells of the dissatisfied spectators. Needless to say, he fell off once and then again. Crosby wound up with the second place medal followed by John Ellis and a Cuban in first place. Although Crosby won the ring event, in my opinion, John Ellis had him by a heck of a lot. (Sorry, Crosby!) Once again let me reiterate I had no idea what mark would be flashed at the end of a routine . Ellis looked great with straight arm work and when the scores were posted, he wasn ' t rewarded . We did, however, end up with the first and third place medals. If John Crosby was gifted on rings they took it back on long horse. His two jumps came as close to perfection as I have ever seen these two vaults executed . To my surprise he was beaten by a Cuban who fell flat on his seat on a double front. The one tenth he was behind going into this last round should have been made up with points to spare . To under score the Colombian ' s favorite athlete proved disastrous for the Cuban team . The crowd began whistling and pelting the judges with paper and the whole meet came to a standstill. Although the Cubans didn't control the scoring, from that time on they appeared in an event the whistling became ear splitting. (In Latin American countries whistling is like booing in the United States.) This adverse behavior towards the Cubans in the last two events certainly must have had an effect on their ability to perform. John Ellis did a great job to win the gold medal on the parallel bars followed by Crosby and Butzman. On the high bar there was another fi rst. When Rodriguez of the Cuban team won this event it marked the first time in the history of the Pan American Games that an American didn ' t win the horizontal bar. Crosby coasted to an easy second place while Simmons tied Guervo for third place. Guervo had trouble on a back kip German giant and fell flat on his back when he overturned a double flyaway. I know his coach and he must have been as surprised as I was when a 9.1 was flashed tying him for third. In summing up the VI Pan American Games I would have to say we were beaten by an excellent Cuban team in one of the greatest spectator meets I have ever attended. I hope you will realize that my thoughts on who should have placed where, and analysis of performances was only my opinion. The scores I used were the ones flashed in the arena and were not taken from the official sheet. In clos-

ing, if you want a different gymnastic experience four ye ars from now get to th e Gam es and you w ill have som ething you will lon g remember. (NOTE :

w as inform ed by the U.S. team m anager after the compulsory competition that Brent Simmons worked this meet with a 102 temperature. ) Floor Exercise: Side Horse: 1. John Crosby USA 1. Jorge Rodriguez Cuba 2. Jorge Rodriguez Cuba 2. John Crosby USA 3. Emilio Sagre Cuba 3. John Elias USA Rings: Vaulting: 1. John Crosby USA 1. Jorge Cuervo Cuba 2. John Elias USA 2. Jorge Rodriguez Cuba 3. Andre Simard Canada 3. John Crosby USA 3. Jorge Rodriguez Cuba Horizontal Bar: Parallel Bars: USA 1. Jorge Rodriquez Cuba 1. John Elias USA USA 2. John Crosby 2. John Crosby USA 3. Brent Simmons USA 3. Dave Butzman 3. Jorge Cuervo Cuba

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ludge's Perspective on Cali

b y Jo n Culbertson First, some general rem arks about thin gs in Cali b efo re turnin g to som e particulars of t he j ud g ing situatio n. Th e Columbian peop le we re very friendly and as helpfu l as they co uld be under the circum stances. A lth ough o ur Spanish was poor we made m any Co lumbian friends and I personally gre w very fond of th e peop le and t heir musi c. Th e officials h ad to arrive ea rl y for a judges co urse prior to the co mpetitio n. The co urse was primarily for the benefit of ed uca tin g judges from South and Central A m erica who did not have a brevet. Th e co urse for t he m en was give n by Mssrs. Gulack, Cumiskey, D ePavlo (from Cuba) and Riveros (fro m Columbia). It wa s a good course , but nothin g new o r es pec ial ly import ant was revea led . Compulsory Session (Au g. 1) Thi s was m y first experien ce judgin g an i ntern ational m eet and I must ad mit to havi ng entered into it w ith a ce rtain degree of n aive t e despite some previous wa rnin gs about m ani pu lati ons and th e ruthl essn ess of th e Cuban jud ges. I was wo rkin g floor exerc ise and va ulti ng with a Cuba n super ior (D e Pav lol. another Cuba n jud ge (Juan). one M exican (Oliveros) and a Columbion (Rodriguez ). D ePavlo and th e Cuban entourage of judges (th ey brought seven men) showed themselves during th e co urse to be very knowledgeable and critica l. Scores were low o n the first gro up of co mpetitors repres entin g Braz il , A rgentin a, Pan am a and Mexico. Th e on ly t im e my sco res tended to be out of lin e were on ve ry ba d ro utines w hen I was low. Th e second group was co m p rised of the Ca nad ians, Cubans and the U .S .A. Our men sta rted in fre e ex and did quite well but we re obviously taken aback by th e low scores. M y sco res were 0.2-0.75 hi gher than th e average and I thought I was being objective. My bi g mistake of the w hol e ga m es was that I did not get up and start co mpl ai ning to D ePavlo imm ediately after o ur first m an, Gary Anderson, got an 8.3 and I had him at 8.8 . Thi s was a psychological setback for t he U.S. team and th ey did not do well (from what I co uld see (o n th e oth er eve nts. Th ey were beaten by the Cuban tea m in the co mpulso ries, but n o t by nea rl y 7.0 poi nts! On free ex I thought th e Cubans and th e Americans were ab o ut eq ual, but they lost 2.5 points at least i n thi s event to the Cubans. When th e Cubans performed on free ex th eir scores were about ri ght I was in lin e with t he average. So the si tuation was th at th e U .S. was gro ss ly underscored while the Cubans got what they deserved. Th e judgi ng on lon g horse was good. M y sco res were right in lin e w ith the others and th e Cuban s rightfully b eat th e U.S. in thi s event by about 0.5 p oi nt. As usual in retrospect I saw my fatal inco mpet ence and vowed that ni ght to ha-


rass D ePavlo in the f uture. I fail ed because coac h Vega had placed a ce rtai n fait h in m y abilities to con t ai n D ePavlo by reques tin g I wo rk in that group of judges he (D ePav lo) was to be superior. Cu mi skey was superior o n side horse and h igh bar w h ere Don Nelson worked and kept t hin gs und er co ntro l there w it h h is great expe rie nce. As it turn ed out o ur team lost by precisely the am oun t of points I feel they were screwed o ut of in f ree ex. Th erefore, I f eel a g reat deal of respo nsi b i lity for the team loss . We lea rn by expe ri ence, but it is a sham e th at my initiation to intern ational co mpetition cost ou r gymn asts. Optional Session (Aug. 3) Th e U .S. tea m was up. I don 't know how or w hy, but they did a great job in the optio nals and fortunately I can say the same for my own role. I practiced questioning D ePavlo in the first gro up w henever my sco re was a hal f poi nt or m ore from the ave ra ge. Thi s way 路 I felt I was "b rea kin g him in " and he wo uldn ' t think I was just out t o work on U.S. or Cub an scores (which I wasn't - o nl y looking for justice). In f act D ePavlo was very agreeabl e and reaso nab le during these en co unters. Th en in the second group w ith U .S. up first o n free ex I began to wo rk in ea rn est. And erson led off with hi s usual steady job . I was up to th e scorer's table o n 3 men (half our team), but it was worth it. The scores came up a couple of tim es w h en I in sisted o n a co nference, and this time my scores w ere only 0.1-0.2 above the average. I b ega n to irritate D e Pav lo a bit when he wou ld call i n anoth er judge (anybody but me b eca use the oth ers were weak and easi ly maniplated in hi s direction) and I would come up uninvited to see what was up . Th en ca m e the Cubans who did ve ry badly executio n-wise. In thi s case (co ntrary to the situation in co mpulsories) they were being gros sly overscored . I was up qui te often pe rh aps to o often because Mr. Gul ack thought it w ise for m e to keep my seat or else he would be co mpell ed to remove m e. Wh en the smoke c lea red m y scores were in line with 3 out of the 6 (I was actually hi gher than ave rage on one Cuban) . Th ey we re g ifted abo ut 1.5 pts., but the U.S. team beat them in th e event. Lo ng horse was a different story. D ePav lo was o n to m e and he empl oyed a ve ry convenient p loy to effectivel y hind er my activiti es. H e would ca ll the next vaulter before the fi nal score was up so I didn't know whether to get up and ca ll a conference . This was effect ive ly co untered whe n the A m erica ns held our vaulters until th e score appeared, but it was n't rea ll y necessary. Th e Americans, more or less, got th e sco res th ey deserved . But th e pattern was cl ea r and I wou Id be frustrated in any atte mpt to question the Cuban's continued on page 26

MGPHOTO Like all sports, gymnastics requires strength, skill and endurance. Bllt, unlike football, wrestling or s wimming, it has its own unique beau ty - th e beauty of motion. Our eyes miss much of th e beauty inh erent in th e grace and movem ent of the gy mnasts as th ey perform. Y et, as th ese photographs show, bodies in m otion take on an aesth etic qualitv lik e that of a bird in flight. If th ere is such a thin g as poetl)' in motion , th en that poetry belongs to the gy mnast. (Th ese photographs were taken at K ent State University's eighth annual production of "G ymnastics in Mot ion ," dllring the weekend of April 23-24.)



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ences between th e two individuals ? Which type are you? Some gymnasts call themselves " psych


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Dan J. Millman Gymnastics Coach Stanford University Much has been written about the physical attributes of the gymnast, and the tremendous physical discipline req uired . Except for a few interested scholars like Dr. Joe Massimo, little more has been said about the psychological side of the gymnast than , " It takes a good attitude to be a gymnast." Football players and other combative heroes have ben psychologically stud ied insid e-out. In fact, the depth of psychological study seems to be directly related to the status of each sport on the present American sports scene. At one medicaltraining symposium th e author had th e good fortun e to attend, Dr. Bru ce Ogilvie stated that all the athletes at th e Olympic Games in Mexico had been rated on his 12 point personality inventory sca le. When I asked him how th e gymnasts fared, he replied, " Oh, well we haven't done very many gymnasts." Psychological research is bad Iy needed in the gymnastics field . Thi s writer doesn ' t feel it is chauvinistic to say that gymnastics is probably the most difficult athletic endeavor in th e world . No other sport requires the daily and year-roun"d determination. Few other athletic endeavors put the participant' s life and limb in jeopardy each day. No other sport requires the extreme complexity and number of movements, or the intensity of flexibility, strength and speed. Obviously it takes some extremely powerful motivating factors to continue to engage in such a challenging activity. The beginning gymnast is like a huge block of stone. Th e master gym nast is a finely chisel ed and polished statue. The energy necessary to begin cutting that unwieldly block of stone, making it take shape, requires a powerful m ental impetus. Th e elite gymnast is indeed a special individual. Many ques tions come to mind (and many more may occur to the reader). -What are the grade point averages of superior gymnasts? How do they compare academically to less serious gymnasts ani:! athletes in other fields? -How many superior gymnasts go into creative, independent fields? -How many superior gymnasts have strong success in later life as co mpared to other athletes or the general population? We can see the possibility of hundreds



of different variables that can be studied about the superior gymnast. The read er may wonder how the " superior gymnast" is defined . W e might say he is the all-around man above 50.0. But more likely, he can be defined in terms of the general m enta l state of motivated striving towards excellence. As coach, this writer has seen many gymnasts who begin with much less physical talent surpass other more physically gifted by .sheer will power. Every coach seeks gymnasts with talent and attitude, but if he has a choice of one, the smart c'oach will choose a yo ung man with attitude every time. What is this " attitude"? What psychological attributes are helpful for developing the superior gymnast? They depend upon the situations the gymnast encounters. Every gymnast must learn to ' overcome the feeling of fea r and nervousn ess. Every time the gymnast learns a new somersaulting movement, he is naturally afraid. Even g reat gymnasts . feel afraid , but they learn to use the fear in a constr uctive manner. Th ey react similarly to nervousn ess before pres~ ure competitions . Some gymnasts do the first f lyaway out of the bealt beautifully. Others cras h and burn . What are the psychological differ-


we miss in a meet? Why is it that some gymnasts who can get through 18 routines in one day in practice then do 6 compulsories one day, 6 optionals the next, and are "tired" th e third day? Above are just a few of the qu es tions we can as k about th e psychological side of the gymnast. We may all have theori es of why such and such is so. For example, the author has noted a correlation between personal shyness or timidity and accident prone behavior. There may also be a correlalion between suppressed aggressiveness and successful gymnastics. Many fairly quiet gymnasts who nevertheless have some held-in aggressive feelings often demonstrate this aggressiveness during meets. This is the type of individual who comes through when the press ure is on; he turns nerves into distill ed aggressiveness. This is the type of individual who has very few acute injuries becau se wh en he goes for a move, he really goes, and never slows down or gives up half way. However, he may receive more chronic injuries because of the brutal way he drives his body toward his goals. In studying the psychological side of the gymnast, we must keep in mind that there isn ' t a mind-body dualism. They work together. For example, one gymnast may perceive a meet as " full of pressure" and another may see the meet as " relaxed and fun and exciting." Pressure is only in people's heads. Yet the psychological side of the " pressured " gymnast may cause more adrenalin to be re leased into his blood stream causing various energy level changes that may help his performance, and some generalized muscle tension that could hurt his performance. Mind and body work together. If the gymnast can set his mind straight - if he can organize his psychological side - then perhaps the physical aspects of gymnastics mastery would come much easier. It may be eq uall y true to say, however, that the gymnast who begins with the desire to work and who follows through physically, may end up discoverin g much about his psycho log ical side. Gymnasts, don ' t worry about your psychological make-up. Just think positively (even if that takes some acting at times), and leave th e concern to the researchers. This article has rais ed many more questions than answers. Perhaps the new gene ration of students-gymnasts-researchers can come up with some enlightening answers of their own.



Home Town: Gifu, Japan High School: Ogaki Commercial High School College: Waseda University, Tokyo Age: 24 Age started gymnastics, 14 First competition, was in his first year of high school where .he placed third in the all around (10 schools competed) . According to Mr. Mori, this was the motivating factor in making him work harder in gymnastics. In his second year of high school, he took first in floor Exercise and Long Horse, and fourth in the all-around in local high school competition . In the international high school meet he placed ninth in tumbling. In his last year of high school he placed first in the all-around in local high school competition and fifth in tumbling in the international high school championships. At Waseda University he was co-captain his senior year and second man on the gymnastics team. He graduated in 1969 with a BA degree in Physical Education with a 3.55 overall GPA. He was 1971 Ben Price All Around Champion. Mitsuo is currently doing graduate work at San Fernando Valley State College and is assistant Gymnastics Coach there to Jack Medina.

Why did you come to the United States? I have an interest in the history of gymnastics. In japan I learned about American Gymnastics and I wanted to see it for myself. I think America is the best country in the world and I wanted to see it all. If it was possible, I would like to go to school and get a Masters Degree. I want to stay in the United States as long as possible. Why did you come to Los Angeles? I had met Makoto Sakamoto at Waseda University in 1968 when he was training there and he invited me to come and visit him. Why did you pick San Fernando State College for graduate work? I heard of their fine Physical Education and gymnastics program from Sakamoto. What is your first impression of American gymnastics? Good character, so-so gymnastics. Routines are just that, generally, not too much technique or combination. Many gymnasts seem to do movements they cannot handle. What is the big difference between American style workouts and Japanese style workouts? The difference seems to be that the japanese work out together as a team more. We enjoy workouts and our workouts are very intense. American gymnasts don 't seem to work together enough. They seem to be involved individually and don 't concentrate on helping each other enough. japanese gymnasts concentrate very hard on each others performance during prac-

tice and continually try to help improve one another. What is the big difference in American and Japanese style? I believe it is complete mastery of each individual movemen t in compulsory and optional exercises. Americans seem to do a routine a few times and think they have it mastered . This is impossible. Also I think they sometimes try to copy another gymnast routine when it is physically impossible to do so. You must capitalize on your own strengths, not someone elses. How can the U.S. improve its gymnastics? First by making their workouts more intense. Gymnasts must concentrate on each other during workouts and help one another. Possibly more authority should be given to team captains for squad discipline. Also the Olympic team and World Games team should be selected earlier to develop


oneness - a good team feeling . All good gymnasts must be able to keep up training after graduation from college. Almost all of the japanese gymnasts are over 22 years old and are in peak condition . Their colleges give them jobs, or they enroll in graduate school in order to stay in training. What do you think will be the Future Trend in Gymnastics? I think it will be more difficulty in individual movements and / or combinations. What age would you recommend children start gymnastics? Five or six years old, with emphasis on rhythm, balance, flexibility, agility and light tumbling. This can be done through dance, games, etc. Do you work routines year around? For the most part YES. Except for january and February in japan when it is very cold we work more strengthening exercises. March is spent working on new move路 ments and combinations, and in Apri I we begin routines again. Sometimes this schedule changes, depending on the schedule for large competitions. There are not too many changes in our routines throughout the year, most little things like full twist to double twist, etc. How many days and hours per week are needed to develop a ~op gymnast? About 5 days a week for about 3 to 3'/2 hours each day. Of course some gymnasts like to train 6 days, and some even like to loosen up on the 7th day. One problem in America seems to be the number of competitions during the collegiate season; there isn 't any time for proper training inbetween. Do you work all six events every day? Yes, I begin with Floor Exercise daily because it gets the body warmed up for all other events and is composed of basic movements to be used on all events. The remaining events I change around each day, and I usually Vault last each day. Do you recommend that gymnasts have a specific workout program to follow? Yes in terms of events to be worked and time at each event. If you could give any advise to our MG readers, what would it be? Work All Around rather than specialize. Also, discipline is very important. Everyone generally dislikes practice; each gymnast must control this and accept it. We have a proverb in Japan that says: "We should cry in the playground and laugh in the competition." Basically it means that we must work very hard and accept the pain and discipline needed in the gymnasium and then be very happy with the result in competition; the challenge of man vs. apparatus is very great. Finally I think you must respect your coach and his judgment. You must try, at least once, his suggestions and then try to analyze the outcome with him .



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INSTRUCTIONAL: Dr. Gerald S. George, coord inator We of the MG staff are constantly seeking ways and means of providing both educationa l and interesting materials for our subscribers. In an attempt to further increase the scope and breadth of the " A nyone For A ll-Aro und " series, we would

like to extend an in v itation to any and all gymnasts, coaches, judges, and enthusiasts to submit articles pertaining to all -around in struct ion. Perhaps you have a particular skill that you fee l particu larly qua lifi ed to i llustrate, discuss, and / or explain. Let' s share yo ur talents with the reading public

and thereby hel p to foster a stronger " System of American Gymnastics." Submit your illustrations and articles to Dr. Gerald S. George, Dept. of Physical Education, Old Dominion Univers ity, Norfolk, Virg inia 23508.

The Double Back Somersault 11 Double back somersault. (C difficulty) A move of imm ense potential (variations include pike position and full-in fliffis ), the double back is not f requ ently used in floor exercise because of the hazard of missing, the extra effort involved, and the

lack of protection afforded by the mat. A high tuck back with near vertical lift is essential, and the double itself is probably best learned on the trampoline. A mechanical analys is of the move by Dr. Y. Hatano was published in the November, 1962, (volume 8, # 4) issue of the Modern Gymnast. A previous MG photosequence and article (M itaki s, Modern Gymnast Comp li mentary edition, December, 1966) dealt with spotti ng the move in more detail. A noth er account may be found in " An Illustrated Guide to Tumbling," by Dr. James A. Baley, publ ished by Allyn and

Bacon, Inc., 470 Atlant ic Avenue, Boston , Mass. 02210. We have used pictures rather than th e proverbial 1000 wo rd s to guide the tumbler through approaches and transition portions of a number of moves in hopes that t he eye w ill perceive what the mind can ' t conceive. It seems fitting to conc lud e this series on tumbling topics with such an excel lent examp le of a top-rated move. Our thanks to Dr. Baley and Allyn & Bacon, In c. , for permission to use this and other movie seque nces in the co urse of this series.


THE ANGLES OF INCIDENCE Dr ..Gerald S. George Dept. of Physical Education Old Dominion University Norfolk, Virginia 23508 The accompanying illustration attempts to " freeze " that body position considered to be a most important aspect in backward tumbling sequences, i.e., " Th e Angles of Incidence" rea l ized prior to any backward saulto skill requiring maximum vertical lift (tucked, piked, layout, double, and variations of twi sti ng backward so mersaults and, of course, the variations in twisting backward dive rolls). In all of these skills, th e principles employed for attaining maximum vertical lift are one and the same. Body action and position at take-off truly depict those critical differences between the whip-back tumbler and the bounding tumbler. Let us then not consider how high the tumbler gets, rather let us con-

sider how the tumbl er gets high . In order to simplify the analysis and since the principles employed for attaining maximum vertical lift in backward tumbling sequences are the same, assume that the accompanying illustration d ep icts the transition phase be tween a backward handspring and a backward somersault. As revealed by Arrow A, the center of gravity of the body not only realizes appreciable velocity in a backward direction but it is also slightly rising immediately prior to take-off. This is accomplished by virtue of a long, traveling backward handspring with a most forceful push-off of the hands. The slightly rising center of gravity at the moment of take-off w i ll significantly facilitate the actual "p unching action" of the legs and feet . The push-off of the hands followed by th e timely punch of路the feet provide what can be termed a "sta ircase effect" realized by the body's center of gravity. Precise observation reveals that the feetto-ground contact occurs well behind the body's center of gravity in the horizontal plane . . The amount of blocking (and / or angulation) should be commensurate with the speed and direction of the center of

gravity. More simply, the faster the backward handspring is traveling in terms of its hori zo ntal speed relative to the ground, the more " blocking action" (a nd / or greater angulation ) is n ecessary to reali ze maximum vertical lift and vice-versa. Arrow B illustrates the relationship of the feet to the body' s center of gravity at take-off. A prime objective, of course, would be to attain max imum horizontal speed during the backward handspring phase and then to block in accordance with that speed . Th e movements of the legs and the arms prior to actual take-off are revealed by Arrows C and D respectively. The snapdown action of the legs in a back-downward direction and the trunk-lift action of the arms is a for-upward direction occur simultaneously with each other. Observe that the total body unit is standing relatively tall with its longitudinal body line in a forward leaning position and its center of gravity slightly in front of the hips. Upon contact, the slightly decreased ankle , knee, hip, and shoulder angles are most forcefully extended in the direction of Arrow B. Precise timing of the above actions will serve to maximally employ all potential and kinetic forces in the desired vertical direction.





THE "SCHROEDER DOUGHNUT" In our efforts to bring you th e read er new ideas in gymn astics w e took th ese ph otos at th e rece nt NCAA Champi onships

in Ann A rbo r, M ichiga n. Coach And y Kos ti ck of Barr ington Co nso lidate d High Schoo l, Barri ngto n, Ill inois, bro ught Steve Schroede r's m ove to o ur attenti on. Steve has bee n o ne of the to p floor exercise men on Barrin gton's Gymnastics Tea m fo r th e pas t 3 yea rs. Th e movem ents are his ow n ori gin al id eas. Th e first sequ ence, taken by Glen Sunby, is called a " Schroeder Doughnu t" fo r w ant o f a better name. It is a transiti o nal turnin g movement

Arno Lascari, Ph.D. - Gymnastics Coach, The University of British Columbia. In col legiate competition Arno won five Big Ten and one NCAA t itles. His international competitive experience includes representing the United States in the 1963, 1967 Pan Am Games, 1966 World Games, 1967 Universiade and in nine other international meets. He holds a B.S. from Michigan, M.S. from So. Conn . State College, and a Ph .D. from Wisconsin . In 1965-66 he coached and taught at Sacramento State . Arno has long been interested in mechanics of gymnastics as a competitor, coach, judge, and kinesiologist. At the University of Wisconsin he worked in Physical Education and Mechani cal Engineering in developing research techn iques for force anal yses ; in sports. Thi s artic le is the fi rst of a four part serie s partially based on a Ph .D. Dissertation on the felge handstand . The original doc ument may be obt ai ned by writing to University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan . Future articles w ill be " Problems Related to the Feige Handstand, " " A Method for Learn ing a Feige Handstand ," and " The Ultimate Feige Handstand."


th at starts o ut as a hand stand . He rotates one shoul der and does a half-turn , t hen he dis loca tes in the o ne should er, drops into a ti ght pike pos iti o n and handsprings off th e one arm to a stand facing in t he o pposite d irectio n. The last se quence is of M enech elli 's inloca te-d isloca te but Steve has add ed th e di sloca te to a sp lit whi ch make s it an interestin g se qu ence.

THE FELGE HANDSTAND - A COMPARATIVE KINETIC ANALYSIS Th e felge (peach) hand stan d, represents t he ultim ate in a genetic lin e of pure ki p move ments. Th e subj ect (A. Lasca ri ) use d th e late d rop fo r nin e yea rs befo re chan gin g to an ea rl y drop. A stra ight arm regrasp was o bta in ed w ith th e ea rl y drop grasp was o btai ned wi th th e ea rl y d rop and not w ith the late drop. Stu dy of th e large co ll ect io n of data is necessary for co m plete und ers tand ing but perh aps t he essenti al points ca n be vi suali zed f ro m Figure 1. Th e supe ri o r perfo rm ance of th e earl y d rop was d ue to th e grea ter verti ca l im pulse (fo rce multipli ed by t im e). Th e majo r reaso n was th e p iking and immediate o pening (hip fl ex i on-ex tensio n) action in th e ea rl y drop. Th e ve rtica l fo rce graph s for individual bod y pa rts are not shown. It must be menti oned th at only th at porti o n of th e grap h t o t he ri ght of th e pea ks of each curve represent th e totall y useful imp ulse. Th e secti o ns of ve rt ica l im pu lse deve loped befo re t he pea ks were pa rt ia lly di ssipated before t he bottom of th e drop was reached . On e ca n noti ce t he steep slope (befo re the peak) of the fo rce curve for t he ea rl y d rop . Thi s mea ns that vert ica l fo rce occurred rapid ly and w ith hi gh intensity at th e botto m of th e drop. Thi s may be an exp lanati on fo r t he fee ling m any gym-

nasts have of " pee lin g off the bars " wh il e perform in g the ea rl y drop . Th e stee p grad ient of force occurred becaus e the vertical force d eveloped by th e legs w ere opposite to th at of the rest of the body imm ed iately p ri or to the bottom (not shown in g raph). Simpl y stated , w hen the body was exe rtin g force upwa rd s the legs were being fo rced downwards (d ue to piking) but when the l egs did exe rt an upwa rd s force it added, in an ab ru pt and intense mann er, to the tota l vertical force. Th e evidence must be viewed w ith cau tion because no stat istical suppo rt ca n be given to t hi s stud y. It represe nts merely an exp lanation of o ne performer. The next art ic le wi ll exp lore the p ros and co ns of each style and t he lea rnin g of a fe lge handstand.

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Early Drop

PROBLEMS RElATED TO THE FElGE (PEACH) HANDSTAND It was de m ons trated in t he previous article that the ea rl y d rop felge handsta nd s of the lo ne subj ect was associated w ith a sudd en onset of high vertical force and a st raight arm reg rasp. Th e change of act ion from pik i ng to extendin g (hi p flexion- ex tension ) must take place at the bottom of the early drop so that the forces developed w ill be su mmated (coordi nation). Th e major problems found w ith t he early drop appear to be related to the gym nas t' s avo id ance of th e intense fo rce deve lop m ent because of the trem endous load p laced o n the g rasp . Examples of defense mechanisms are ; entering the drop slowly, bringing the hips between the hands (becom ing a cross between the early and late drops), being " loose" so as to da m pen the shock, not piking deeply, and not extending precisely at the botto m. Until the gymnast develops the abi lity to handl e the hi gh fo rces, o ne must pick am ong t he least objectio nab le of the life saving devices. Because m any gym nasts have had a difficult time arrivi ng at and utilizing a deep pike at th e bottom, it is suggested that coord in ation be maintain ed at the expe nse of a deep pike as an intermediary step in the lea rnin g p ro cess. Exp ressed differently, the cha nge of actio n should take place at the bottom of the ea rl y drop . I will not attempt an eva luatio n of th e esthetics of each drop . It is eq ually unproductive to state that one style is cor rect and the other is incorrect. From the limited evide nce, t he ea rly drop appears to be pote ntia ll y the better in terms of achieving the task of arriving in a handstand . A well exec uted ea rl y drop is more difficult to learn for 路 most gymnasts compared to a well executed late drop. To accomm odate the co mpl ex and intense forces requires considerab le expe rtise. Th e ea rl y drop is t hi s sensitive to imperfectio ns and difficult to contro l, partly because the body' s co nfig uratio n co nstantly changes. Furthermore, unless th e gymnast ca n execute an early drop from a handstand, he may fi nd it difficult to fit it into a ro utin e. Th e velocity of the bod y ente rin g the ea rly drop is also crucial. Th e late dro p is far supe rio r in its adaptability and control potent ial.

My recomm end atio n is that all gymnasts sho uld definitely lea rn the late drop f irst, partially beca use it is easie r to learn , contro l, and is an esse nti al ski ll. If at a later time the gymn ast appears to have talent for th e ea rl y drop, let him " p lay" with it graduall y ove r an extended period of time.

A METHOD FOR LEARNING A FELGE (PEACH) HANDSTAND I am presentin g o ne method of learning the- felge handstand, alth o ugh numerous method s exist. It doesn ' t matter whether the earl y or late drop it used in the cast method of learn ing the felge handstand . The most common erro r in lea rning and executing a felge handstand is the tendency to f li p ove r backwards because most gym nasts had prior experience and habits of a felge to suppo rt w ith th e body arriving in a ri ght sid e up position (feet under body). Id ea lly one should not learn a felge to support unti l afte r a felge handstand has been thoroughl y learn ed . One sho uld practice a cast to upper arm support with a nea rly full hip extension so that one is able to consistently land in a near vertical and ups ide down position . Spotting is helpful in elimin atin g the pulling forward of the head and upper trunk (due to righting reflexes) . It has proved helpful for the gymn ast to look at his feet and ceiling. If per chance th e gym nas t happe ns to fall th e wro ng way (backwards f ro m upper arm support), th e m ove m ent then becomes a feige, but an esse ntiall y co rrect one th e

first time it is acco mpli shed. Elated by t he joy of attain ing such a fine fe lge t he gym nast w ill the n be thinking of a felge in stead of a cast, at which time he invariably th rows his head back and rotates backwa rd s usually t o below th e horizo ntal. Thi s co m es from a previous ly learned felge to sup po rt. Th e answer- back to casts ! At abo ut this tim e littl e concern should be p laced on the regrasp . One should 路 attempt to land on the upper arm s with hand s latera lly placed and the head in a neutral or no rm al position . Th e eyes m ay be look ing at the wal l. It should be a gu ess as to w hi ch way he fall s. Using "a littl e more of everyth ing" techni que, a few inches greate r life of the body wil l enabl e the gymn ast to regrasp in a sho uld er sta nd position (bent arm handstand) . Thi s ca n be acco mpli shed without the head bei ng thrown back because thi s act ion con tributes extre m ely littl e lift. Once a felge shoulder stand has been attain ed, g reate r effort should be put into the felge as well as regrasping on the way up and press ing w ithout d elay. Th e h ead may then drive back (mainl y for upside down visual orien tation ) but, if lea rnin g has proceeded accord ing to plan, it will not be associated with over rotati on. Finall y the concept of all out effort perform ed in see min gly endl ess repetitions m ay b e a requirement even for th e most tal ented gymn asts. My personal guess is that " tal ent" refers primarily to th e ability to maintai n tension and to be extremely quick.



Th e pictu res on these pages have been se lected f ro m the ma ny received t hi s past m ont h for yo ur analys is. If you wo uld li ke

Bruce McGartlin (Northwestern University, Lou isian a)

Akinori Nakayama (Japan) executes a full tw ist off the ring s.


to see this section conti n ued, p lease let us know. Ed .

John Worthington (Navy) E.I.G.L. SH champion .


continued from page 12 scores . My only resort was to really become obnoxious and stand at the table and demand why I could not see scores before the next vaulter. Mr. Gulack appeared and DePavlo complained to him that I was obstructing the competition. I explained to Mr. Gulack my predicament and desire to see the final score before the next vaulter. I am still trying to understand his answer which was: "The best score counts and is the final score. " My only logical explanation is that Gulack was trying to tell me in a kind , if not cryptic, manner that it was time to sit down again and stay there . So that was the end of my efforts for objectivity while the Cubans were overscored on vaulting, but they did a good job . Finals (Aug. 5) As the finals were essentially a contest for medals between the Cubans and the Americans no " partial" judges were allowed (except the Superiors) and so I got to watch this whole show and here were my impressions . Considering ROV and execution the scores were too high in FX, especially for Garcia (6th) and sagre (3rd) from Cuba. Lindner (5th) was underscored again in spite of a fine routine , but I know the Cubans are hitting him for poor combination and he does move too slowly through many sequences. Crosby (1 st) did a great job, although his double back was a little low for him; but he finished strong on the double twist. The crowd loved him and he had a free ride from then on in the meet. Rodriguez (2nd) was solid except on his press and got the same score as I gave. sagre (3rd) however, was very bad. He had three major breaks (hands on floor after double back mount; bent arms twice during press; and bent legs on full dismount); and did not hold the press (?) handstand. I had him 8.6. He got 9.3 second high to Crosby (9.55)?? But then DePavlo was Superior judge. Lindner should have been third in my estimation .

sincere. Everyone was overscored except Butzman and Elias. Butzman did a great routine and was underscored (9.1 to my 9.3). Worst was the gross overscoring of the Cubans and Simard, none of whom held their hold positions sufficiently long. Our gymnasts held the hold positions 3 full seconds which shows the influence our judging has had in the states. I heard the Cubans were upset with the ring scores and I can 't believe it. They should reread and reread Article 65 of the Code, but then their coach ' is Russian and some of the Russian gymnasts of late have not been holding positions too long either. Elias should have won . Long Horse-1st Cuervo; 2nd Rodriguez; 3rd Crosby

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DePalvo in charge here. This was the only event in which Crosby was shafted. He did great half and full twisting Yamashitas. Cuervo leaves the board like a frog spread and bent legs something I pointed out to DePavlo in the prelims, but he dismissed me as ignorant of vaulting technique on a Yamashita front saito out. Yet I asked Sr. DePavlo to look at Vault # 28 (the one performed) in the Code. Rodriguez deserved 2nd with a fair cartwheel back out (O 'shaw). The crowd was displeased here also about Crosby being 3rd. The Cubans were in for some whistling now. PARALLELs-1 st Elias ; 2nd Crosby ; 3rd Butzman The lone Cuban in this event (Cuervo) seemed a bit shook up by the whistling (as Lindner was earlier) and did a lousy job, but was still overscored. Butzman and Elias did good routines for which both got 9.25 but I gave it to Elias by a 0.1. Crosby was weak and a little overscored for many small breaks and a rather sloppy back with one-half twist dismount. lindner could have been 3rd, but he had a bad break on his back saito overbar to handstand.



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1st Rodriguez; 2nd Crosby; 3rd Elias The judging on sH was good except that Crosby was a little overscored. The big issue came over Rodriguez since he only got a 8.95 . The crowd and the Cubans were displeased, but he had a major part missing for the finals. I saw as Cumiskey and his Mexican assistant : 2C's and 3B's (maybe only 2B's). While the crowd whistled the Cuban coach tried to convince Cumiskey's difficulty assistant (Oliveros) that Rodriguez had full difficulty. The whistling unnerved Lindner who should have waited them out and he had a rough time. Elias and Crosby did great as they did all day - 200% effectiveness, but I would have given it to Elias. Rings-1st Crosby; 2nd Elias; 3rd Rodriguez and Simard In my opinion, the judging was not too good here. Riveros, the Columbian superior, is not very experienced but honest and


HIGH BAR-1st Rodriguez; 2nd Crosby; 3rd Cuervo & Simmons Send today for our free brochure The Cubans were good on this event and perhaps a little underscored except for Cuervo who was overscored after hitting the bar badly with his legs, stooping under the bar for a German and sitting down of his double. Crosby was clean but stock and without good execution (9.3). Simmons was very good - did his triple German and full twisting hecht but scored only 9:15 (I gave a 9.5). Nevertheless, Brent moved into 3rd and tied with Cuervo, but he should have been alone in 3rd. In general , it was a very good meet. The Cubans have a good team. The Americans did a superb job after the compulsories. As usual , the compulsories are our downfall. The team scores should have been closer between U.S. and Cuba. A good meet. A good crowd. And a friend- ' Iy country.





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BOOK REVIEW by Di ck Cril ey

PROGRAMMED BASIC GYMNASTIC ROUTINES by Dr. Marvin Johnson. Available from the author at 1277 Pageant Ave., Ypsilanti, Mich. 48197. Paper. 132 pp. $2.00. INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE FOR GRAMMED BASIC GYMNASTIC TINES. Paper. 42 pp. $1.00.


ILLUSTRATED GRADED GYMNASTIC ROUTINES. Paper. 16 pp. $1.00. Based on Dr. Johnson' s " Il lustrated Graded Gymnastic Rout in es " 3rd Edition, th ese two manuals constitute a most uniqu e approac h to the mass teachin g of gymnastic sk ills t o boys fro m jun io r hi gh to co ll ege. Essentia ll y PBGR seeks, throu gh drawings of 140 stunts on 7 events and spec ial seq uences of directi o ns, ana lyses, and questions, to guide a student th rough a p rogression of st unts. Th e author makes no claim th at the programmed app roach w ill eliminate the teacher b ut suggests th at th e teacher is bette r used as a resource for individual rather than mass in stru ctio n. In the usual gymnastic class all situations revolve aro und the instructor. Th e student becomes dependent upon the instru ctor and looks to him to solve th e least proble m. When confronted with a book in w hi ch he is to read the solutio n to th e p rob lem he is ske ptical of the res ults . Th e key is st ill t he teacher-h is motivation and abi li ty to sti mulate th e stud ent-but th e stud ent can proceed at hi s own pace. I rather doubt th at the expe ri enced coac h will turn to this book in hi s handling of a tea m and yet it co uld be useful in bui ld ing sk ill s on the freshman level. On the other hand the physical ed ucator who is wi ll ing to try something new may be very surprised at the rap idity with wh ich hi s students progre ss . Afte r all , gymnastics is bui lt upon lea rning ce rtai n basic movem ents first, then progress in g to so m ethin g more advanced , and this p rog rammed approach m e re ly sets down o ne person's idea of a logica l sequence. PBGR sho ul d be espec iall y helpful to th e teacher with a limited background in gymnastics. Physical Education major courses in gymnastics will fin d th ese in expensive book s exce ll ent supp l ements t o other gymnastics texts . Ind ee d, the i ll ustrations are路 th e most useful part since so m e texts are not as adequate ly illustrated as IGGR or PBGR. In addition to the bookl ets, th e author has prepared an in structo r' s manual which gives sugges tions o n class o rgani za ti o n, how . to use the p rogrammed tex t, eva lu ation , and safe ty precautions . Super-8 movi e films showing both the moves in IGGR and spotti ng techn iqu es are also avai lable. The author' s own rese rvat io ns on the use of a programm ed text ranged from its limited app licatio n to advanced students to th e need for a minimum of 20 co ntact periods for maximum benefit. Th e latter factor is due to devoting seve ral periods to acc lim ati zat ion . Dr. Jo hn so n ea rn ed his PhD thro ugh co mp aring the p rogrammed approac h to

teaching gymnast ics with more conventional m et hods. He co nc lud ed that it works and can be hi ghl y effective. Th e criti cis m s th is rev iewer has of th e booklets are mainly t hose of typographic erro rs and misu se of term s (fa int fo r fei nt ; bran ni e for barani ). Th e se lect ion of stunts includes most of what I wou ld co nsid er bas ic tricks. Th e descriptions appear adequate alth ough I am su re eve ryone has a sli ghtly different way of exp laining things , any of whic h co uld be m o re m ea nin gfu l in a given situ ati o n. M y advice: Buy it and try it! As a teac her yo u m ay learn quite a bit yo urself.

TRAMPOLINING . By Dennis E. Horne. 1968. Published by Faber and Faber, 24 Russell Square, London WC1, England. Hardbound. 262 pp. 1.5 Pounds (Approx. $3.60 U.S.) I first encountered thi s boo k w hen preparing to rev iew " Trampolin e Tumblin g To day" and wondered at t he tim e if our MG Office had eve r hea rd of it. Obv iously we had not and thanks to the kindness of the author we rece ived a co py to review. Denni s Horne, a former officia l of t he British Trampoline Fede rat ion, has p repared a well-written handbook on trampolinin g which is extre m ely reada ble. Th ere are seve ral aspects of th e book I li ked ve ry much. For o ne th ing , the hi sto ry chapte r is mu ch m ore internati o nal in coverage than A m e ri can-a uth ored wo rks. Fo r anoth er; there are m any many id eas for 8 and 10 bo un ce routin es (a bo ut 100). Th e book has man y photographs but rea l illustrat io ns of stunts ar.e not as good as Keeney ' s " Illu stra ted Trampolining. " Nonetheless, the text descriptions in chapte rs such as Bas ic Mechanisms, Rotation al. Progressions, Twistin g progressio ns and Twisting Somersaults and Fliffes are quite good and w ritten with t he author'S own opin ions freely acknowledged. A n interesting chapter is th e o ne relating trampolining and othe r activities. Accounts of cosmo naut" training ; the use of trampol ining in lo ng jump in g, co mpetitive cycling, diving and swimm ing; and its inclusion in programs for the blind and physically hand icap ped are among th e topics dea lt wit h. Too bad there are not a few more t ips on its use in teaching gymnasticski li s. I think this book wou ld be a wort hwhi le one to add to a coac h or teacher'S co ll ection because of the ideas it gives and th e more-rounded ba ckg ro und it provides . It will not answer eve ry question , b ut then, few books do. It d oes, at least, get into more advanced trampo lining, altho ugh t h is is the section w hi ch w ill be least used by teac hers or coac hes simp ly because th ey w ill not teach tha t far or w ill already feel co mpetent in th ese areas.

NEW WAYS IN FIRST AID, by Joel Hartley, M.D., New York: Hart Publishing Co., Inc., 1971 256 pp. Paperback: $2.45; Cloth: $7.50 Thi s book i s d ivided into two parts . Part I d ea ls wit h Basi c Informatio n relating to directions and procedures in th e handlin g of em ergency situatio ns. Up until now,

fi rst aid books have req uested that the first aid er " check for injuri es " as one of th e procedures in hand lin g an em erge ncy situation . New Ways in First Aid has attempted to take this o ne step furth er. Its presentat io n o n exa minin g the vict im is exce ll ent. Its co ncise and m ethodi ca l d escription ca n be rea dily app li ed by alm ost anyone to dete rmin e the extent and/or type of injury/ ies . Thi s section also provides helpful information o n m ate ri als us ed by the first aider such as spl ints, crutch es, bandages, and first aid kits. It furth er d esc ri bes such basic skills needed by th e first aider as how to app ly artificia l respi ration , how to co ntrol ble edi ng, how to feel for a pu lse, etc. Part" lists and p resc rib es first aid treatm ent fo r 77 em ergency situations. Th ese are li sted in aphabetica l order in bold type letters. Unlike previous books, New Ways in First Aid has elimin ated th e lengthy and elaborate desc ri ptio ns for treatment. Its num erica l, co ncise directives set forth in proper seq uence is very effective. Th e autho r has also included und er each em ergency situation a section entitl ed , "What the Doctor says" w hi ch offers expand ed and pertine nt information relati ng to th e crisis and/ or treatment. New Ways in First Aid has bee n des ign ed t o p resent emerge ncy. treatm ent for em e rge ncy si tu ation s in a clear and to-th e-po int m an ner. Its num erous illustrations are a d ecided asset and m akes for an exce ll e nt read y refe rence book for any first aider.

SCANDINAVIAN GYMNASTIC CLUB 1406 Pacific Aven ue, Ve ni ce Cali forn i a Bo b A nd ersen ann ou nces the opening of his new gymnastic club, stude nts now be ing accepted. M embership includ es q ua li fied instru ct io n in all gymn astic eve nts.











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Profile for USA Gymnastics

Modern Gymnast - October 1971  

Modern Gymnast - October 1971