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1970 60c





MPIA' I ( Delive'red)


"________._ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ·_1

Olympia Gymnastic Mats were used at the final USA Olympic (men's) trials at UCLA. Also Final USA Olympic (women's) trials at Long Beach, Calif. National United States Gymnastic Federation Championships, NCAA finals, Pasadena National Invitationals, California State College Gymnastic Championships, Calif. Women's State J.c. finals, L.A. City High School finals, and the United States Gymnastic Championships and the 1st Annual World Cup at Long Beach, Calif.

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THE MAGIC OF GYMNASTICS is the first contemporary readings text on the gymnastic market! It consists of a compilation of articles submitted by some sixty-five nationally and internationally known teachers, coaches, and physical educators. This classroom text deals with the broad spectrum of the total gymnastic curricula for both boys and girls of all levels.

• • • • •

Designed for Teacher, Coach, and Professional Student! Includes Teaching Methodology for all levels! Kinesiology, Physiology, and Psychology of Gymnastics! Covers the Current Available Literature in the Field! Elementary, Secondary and College level Physical Education Gymnastics! • Competitive Gymnastics at all levels! • Exhibition Gymnastics! • Lists Current Equipment and Supply Companies!



TABLE OF CONTENTS Part I Historical Overview A Hi storical Review of the De velopment of the Gymnastic Apparatus by Brullo A. Jo hllke . .... . .... A Br;ef Histo ry of Trampoline Competition. by Glellll Wilsoll .

Part II Gym nastics in Foreign Lands Gymnastics in the J a panese School Sys tem. by T suyoshi Shimizu . ....... Thought s on Gymnastics in the Austrian School System. by GumerA .lberer. Ph.D. .. Gy mnastic Training in the East German School System. by Brullo Klaus . . Gymnastics in the H ungarian School Sys tem. by J ames A. Fa rka s .......... A n Int e rna tional Gymnastic Sympos ium fo r Ma le Coac hes. by R ichard M. Aronson. ......

14 17 19 21 23

Part III Psychologica l Interpretat ions Psyc ho logy a nd the Gymnast. by Dr. Joseph L. Ma ssimo....... . ...... 32 Mot iva ti onal Fac to rs in Teac hing and Coac hing. by Dr. Richard J. Sm;th .... 35 Ps ycho logical Bas is of Teaching Methodolog y. by Dr. In 'ill E. Faria. . ... 37

Part IV Men's Gym nast ics .... 43 F loor Exercise for the Beginner. by Jamih· A slrmore T .he Pomme led Horse Event. by Robert MallllillK . 45 . ... 48 The Still. Ring s Event. by Fred OrloJsky ..... . T he Pa ra ll el Bars Event. by Kellll"h T. Bartlell. . ................ 50 Long Horse Vaulting. by Armolldo Vega. ..52 An Introduc t ion to the Horizontal Bar Event. by R ORer H . Gedney . ........ 54 The A ll-Arou nd Event. b\' Arthur Shurioek. . .... 56 T he Trampoline Event. b)' Fred B. Sallders . . .. 58 Tu mbling - The Foundation of Gymnas t ic Moveme nt. by Frallk J. Fortier III ......................................................... 60

Part V Wome n's Gy mnastics T he Use of Dance in Wo me n's Gymnast ics. by Ga il Solltgerath. .. .. Exp ression in Women's Gymnas ti c s. by Mimi Murray ... ...... . . ... Wo me n's Gymnast ics at the Coll ege Level. by Edward P. Fran z .... Trends a nd I nnova tions in Wome n's International Gymnastics, by Vanllie Edwards ...............................................................

65 67 69 71

Trends in Judg ing Men's Gymnastics in the United States, by Dr. JOII Culbertsoll. Ph. D . .................. .... ............................. 76 Gymnastic Judg ing o n th e I nt ernational Sce ne. by Dr. Gene Wells tone ... 80

Part V II T he Art a nd Sc ience of Gy mnastics 85 88 91 93

Pa rt V III Ph ys ical Basis of Gy mnasti c Training For Physical Ski ll or F itness. You Ca n't Beat Gymnas tics. by A bie G rossJeld ............................................................... . 98 Tec hni ques for E nh a nc in g Gy mnast ics S tre ngt h . by ROller L. C oUll sil . .. 100 Card io-Respiratory Co ndit io ning for Gym nastics. by Patrick J . Bird. Ph D. . .................................................. 103 Co ndit ioning fo r Gym nastics. by J oseph M. Fodero ...... . . .. 108 Techniques of Ha nd Ca re for the Gymnast. by Ed ...ard J . Serobe ... 114 Spotting a s a Safety Factor in Gymnast ics, by J ack Bell soll .. . .. 116 Pred ic ti ng Po ten tia l Gy mn as ti c Ab il ity . by Jo seph L. Reglla. . 118

Part IX Gymnastic Foundations

145 147 149 151 154 156

Pa rt X I Gy mnas tic Progra mm ing .. 162 Sokol and Turner Init iate Gym nas ti cs Prog ra m. by Ed. Gombos. Supp lies a nd Equ ipme nt Needed to Initiate a Gym nastics Progra m . by Bob Rector. ..................... .. .. 165 A C heck List to A id in Pla nnin g Gymnas ti c Mee ts. by Eric H ughes. PhD. 168 A C urre nt List of Gymnastic Eq uipment a nd Supply Co mpa nies. .. 173 by Waller Zwickd . . ............ .

Part X II Ex hi bit ion Gymnasti cs Exh ibition Gym nastics. by George F. Kramer. PhD .. The Use ofa Living Statuary of Youth Tablea ux as Originated by Professo r Leslie J. Judd. by Frallk A. Wolcoll .

.... 178 . .. 180

Part X III Curre nt Issues in Gym nastics Is Gymnastics Dangerous? A Stati st ical Just ifica tion Co rrecting . .. C urrent Myths. by Ralph A. Piper, Ph .D. Is T rampo li ne Safe? by Bill 50rellsoll ............ . .. .. ... Is Gymnastics Gain ing Pop ul arity? by Jam es M. Sweelley. PhD. ... Gym nastics - A Tea m Sport? by Richard J . Smith. T umbling and Tram poline Re moved from Competition: It s I mpact on Gymnastics Cu rricu la. by J eJJ A ustill. .. ................ T he A ll-A rou nd vs. th e Specia lis ts. by 0 110 R yser. Ph.D. . ............

185 189 192 195 198 200

Part X IV Cont em plati ve Readings Gy mn as tics as I See It. by Russell D. Mitchell . .. ........... 206 The Un ited States Ca n W in in Olympic Gymnastics. by Tom Ma lol/l'y ... 209 Trampolini ng '- Nowa World wide Sport . by George P. N issell... .. .... 2 13

Part XV Overview of Avail able Gymnastic Lite rat ure

Part V I J udging Com petiti ve Gy mn astics

The Art of Gymnastics. by Dall J. Millmall .. .. ............................. Mechan ical Analysis of Gymnastic Moveme nt. by J OSi'ph A. Dorsey. Jr . .... The Twisting Ill usio n in Gym nast ics. by Don T Ollry .......................... Nome nclature of Gymnasti cs. by WilliamJ. Villee", . Ph.D . ...................

The Rol e of Gymnastics in the Seconda ry School C Urriculum. . by W. P. Wortman . . .................... . Co mpe titi ve Gymnastics a t the Seco nda ry Leve l. by Bill R oerzheim . ..... Gymnastic Ability Leve ls of College Students. by J ohn Ramma cher . .... Teaching Me th odology for Advanced Level Skills. . ... by OrwYIl Sampson. Ph.D . .. . . A Backward App roach to Teac hing Gymnast ics. by Erik Kjeldsell . .. .... .. Efficie ncy in T eac hing Co mpeti tive Gymnast ics. by Larry Ballller ..

Gymnastics - The Bas is of Move me nt Educat io n, by Thoma s C. Dunkley 12 1 T he Ro le of Gymnastics in the Intra mura l Sports Programs. by Johll C. Gilmore, Ed.D . ................... . . ...... .. .......... .............. 124 Gymnastics - The Fo undation of All Ph ysica l Education Acti vity C urricu la. by Ali/hOllY J . Canillo. . .... 127 T he U ni q ue Contrib utions of Gymnastic s to Physical Educati on a nd . .. 130 A thlet ics. by H artley Price. Ph.D . ............ ..

Gymnastic Magazi ne s - U.S. a nd Foreign . by Richard Criley . Ph.D .. .... 2 18 A C urrent Bibliograp hy of Available Gymnastic Materia l. .. 223 by Clair W. Jenllell. Ph .D. T he Analysis of Gy mnast ics - A Survey of the Literature. ... 227 by A. Bruce Frederick ........... .. ..


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Part X Gymnastics in th e Schoo ls Tu mbli ng Abi lity Levels of E lementary Sc hool Children. by R ex Davis ... 136 Co mpetitive Gym nast ics at the Eleme nta ry Sc hool Leve l. by G odJrey 5 tych . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . 140 Teac hing Metho dology fo r Basic Level Sk ill s. by Marsha ll R . C laus. ... 142




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notes FROM THE

editor: Gymnastic Schools: In our man y tra vel s covering international events for the MG we have alwa ys been thrilled when we had the chance to visit sport schools in Switzerland, Germany and Scandinavia and have alwa ys hoped we would be able to develop similar separate institutions in America. We do feel there is a definite need for a sport school in America where Olympic and national teams could train , clinics and seminars could be held, extensive film and publication library, resident advanced study in gymnastics for coaches on sabbatical, a training site for gymnasts out of school , a research institute for gymnastic programming of all ages and on and on with idea s unlimited. We would be interested in MG reader response to what YOU think about a national gymnastic school . . . where should it be? .. . how big should it be? ... what should the program cover? How will it be supported? Is there even a need for such a project, or are the local and state schools doing all that can be done for gymnastics? We have many thoughts on the subject and know you do, too .. .. You have heard some of ours ... we would like to hear some of YOURS.





CG Official Publication of the United States Gymnastic Federation




NOTES FROM THE EDITOR ... . .......... Glenn Sundby GUEST EDITORIAL ........ ... ... ... .... .Dan J. Millman CHALK TALK .......... ......... . .... .. ....... ... ..... .. ... . .. . VIEWPOINTS .. .. .. .. .. .... ....... .. .. .... ... Dick Criley MG COLLEGE & UNIVERSITY DATA .. ... .. ... ... .. .. ...... . COLLEGIATE CAPT AI NS ..... .......... .... ... .... ...... ...... JUGGSLAV GYMNAESTRADA LADDERS . .A. B. Fredrick MG CENTER PHOTO ....... .... ... ... ..Steve Klutz, Navy RESEARCH AND FITNESS IN GYMNASTICS A Cinematographic Analysis of the Backward Handspring, by Harold Z. Holmes,Jr. .... .... .... ...... . CONTROLLING SHOULDER PROBLEMS OF THE RINGMAN ..... ...... ..... ... .. .. .M. Mickey Cobb RINGS, The German Rise on Still Rings ... Doug Church JUDGING BY JERRy..... ...... ...... .. ... ..Jerry Wright A YOUTH GYMNASTICS PROGRAM ..Michael R. Bula Mrs. Kathy Stacey.. ....... .... .... .... ..... ... ...... ... .. MG INDEX TO VOLUME XI ..... .... .. .... ... ... ........... ... LETTERS ..... ...... .. .. .... .. ... .. .... ........ . .. ...... ... . ..... BOOK REVIEWS ...... ......... ...... ..... . .A. B. Fredrick MY GYM CALENDAR .... ... .. ..... ..... ... ... .......... ..... .

4 6 8 9 10 12 14 16

18 20 21 22 24 26 28 28 30

NOT ICE: A t ypesetting error in the Janua ry i ss ue li sted it as Volu m e VII , Ja nua ry Numbe r 12 . It shou ld have been set as Volume XII, Janua r y 1970 , Numbe r 1

Ad Rep For M.G. We are pleased to announce our association with Mrs. Jean Davidian, who is now our new advertising representative. Jean has five and a half years' experience in developing marketing programs for trade publications. She is experienced in all phases of publishing, having specialized in production, circulation, and editing, but primarily, in promotional programs. Jean served as Promotion Assistant to the president of one of the largest publishing companies in the south. She also served as Advertising Manager for a trade publication of smaller circulation, but with considerable prestige within the publishing field. Send in your production problems to Jean, and she will insure efficient and professional help in getting your ad prepared on time to meet the advertising deadline. In addition, she is qualified to prepare advertising copy and submit layout suggestions for your approval, should you require assistance in your ad preparation. Along with her marketing efforts, Jean will edit a column about new products and services avail able in the gymnastics field, with comments about them which we think you will enjoy reading. 4

COVER, Captain Ran Rappe r of Coach Newt Loken's Univer sity of Michigan Gy mna stic team. Ron is a P.E. Maior at Michigan, a speciali st on th e P Bars and th e Big Ten and NCAA Champion in th is event ("Michigan Daily" Phot o by Richard Lee).



ASSOCIATE EDITORS - Feature A. Bruce Frederick, Education ; Dr. James S. Bosco, Research; Jerry Wright, Competition; Frank Bare. USGF; John Nooney, Canada; Robert Hanscom, YMCA; Andrzej Gonera, European; Gerald George, Dan Millman & Don Tonry, AA Instructional; Bill Roetzheim, Instructional.

THE MODE RN GYMNAST magazine is pu b lished by Sundby Pu blications, 4 10 Broadway, Santo

Monico , Ca lifornia 90.40 1. Secon d Closs Postage p a id o f Sa nto Monico, Calif. Published monthly except bi- monthly J une. Ju ly, August, and Septembe r. Price $6,00 p e r yea r, 60c a si ng le copy. Subscription correspondence, The MO DE,RN GYM NAST, P.O. BOl( 6 11. Santo Mon ico, California 90406. Copyright 1970Š all rights reserved by SU NDBY PUB LICATI ONS, 4 10 Broa d wa y, Santo Monico, Calif. All photos and manu sc ripts submiHed become the p rop erty of The MODE RN GYMNAST unless a return request an d sufficient postage a re included.

gymnastics apparatus for champions

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ATLAS ATHLETIC EQUIPMENT CO. 2339 Hampton Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 63139


C__gu_e_st_e_d_ito_r_ia_I:_J ON THE (R)EVOLUTION IN GYMNASTICS D AN J. M ILL MAN Gy mn astics Coac h Sta nfo rd U ni ve rsity

" WHEREAR E WE HEA DED ?" T he sce ne (of a ll pl aces) is a n a rt ga ll e ry. Th e eve nt is th e F irst I nte rn a ti o na l Pa in ti ng Co mpe titi o n. A pa ne l of ex pe rt s has bee n se lect ed fro m a s prin kling of kno wledgeabl e a rt critics a nd co nno isse urs. Rules of co mpe titi o n have bee n se t up. .. A pa inting mu st co nvey a clea r message th ro ugh a ba la nce d. a rti c ul a ted j uxta pos itio n of a t leas t six diffe re nt shades a nd co lo rs." (Thi s is how a rt c ritic s ta lk ). "Th e painting sho uld ca pture a rea li stic mo me nt in time , con veye d in co ntras tin g hu es, re n ectin g the e motio na l to ne of th e th e me." I n j udgi ng t he pa intings. the judges , in orde r to co nvin ce the mse lves of the ir obj ec ti vit y , use ma ny impress ive ma th e ma ti ca l too ls a nd a num be r of lo ng fo rmul ae. A mo ng o th e r things, li ght met e rs a nd pro tractors a re used in determinin g the qua lit y of shading and ba la nce of each pa inting. T hese too ls give the j udges ma ny objec ti ve num be rs to w rite dow n. I n t he e nd , a pa int ing is sel ec ted as th e win ne r - the painting w hic h rece ived th e fewes t po int deducti o ns fro m a n a rbitra ry 10. 0 sco re. Th e j udges a re co ngra tul ated o n th e ir obj ecti ve judg me nt s. a nd the y in turn la ud the effi cie nt syste m of co mpetition , in w hi c h " max imum c rea ti vit y is all owed" (w ithin a stri ct fra mewo rk of rul es. of co urse) . T he co mpe tit io n was e xce ll e nt. O ne qu es tion re ma ined to be a nswe red: Whv co mpete at all? Was n' t it e no ugh to loo k a nd e nj oy eac h paint ing for it s unique co ntributi o n ~ H ow can we co mpa re app les a nd ora nges (s imp ly because th ey a re both food ) a nd say whi ch is " be tter?" Whil e most of us would co nside r the a bove "painting co m pe titi o n" a nalogy a bit ludi c rou s , mos t of us bla ndl y acce pt gy mnas ti cs competition as a na tura l. reaso na bl e thing to do. On e reaso n is we a re use d to it , have grow n up with it. I nde ed. in th e pas t, th e s port of gy mn as ti cs le nt it se lf to co mpetition , for th a t was it s main


att rac ti ve ness - th e thrill s a nd s pill s, th e da ring. th e tea m a nd indi vidu a l ide nti fica ti o n thro ugh compe tit ion. Ye t thin gs a re c ha nging. Thi s e vo luti o n of gy mnas tics away fro m co mpe titi o n is th e to pi c of thi s a rtic le. Le t' s look a t th e c ha nging gy mnas tics sce ne from it s in ce pti o n in a nc ie nt G reece. Keep o ne po int in mind as yo u read : s ports a nd a rt fo rm s a re mirro rs, re n ec ting th e soci e ta l a nd c ultura l a ttitudes in th e time th ey a re po pula r. Th e popu la rit y of a co mpe titiv e. ma n-aga in st-ma n sport suc h as foot ball ove r a prim a ril y aes th e tic on e suc h as gy mnas tics, fo r exa mpl e , is a co mmenta ry o n our c ultu re'S pre se nt pri o rit ies a nd proc li vi ties. I n a nc ie nt G reece. th e "gy mn as tes" o r gy mnas t was a da rin g a thl e te who built a lith e . bea utiful bod y (as was th e thin g in th ose d ays) th ro ugh spec ified exe rci ses suc h as jumping ove r bull s . (Y o u ca n keep in good sha pe th a t way.) Mo re signifi ca nt pe rh a ps was th e re birth of mode rn gy mn as ti cs w ith th e O ly mpi c event s a pp rox ima tely as we kn ow th e m today . The time, th e 19th Ce ntury: th e pl ace, G erma n y. Th e G e rma n c ultura l ethos was o rga ni zat ion a nd di sc iplin e thro ugh hard, practi ca l wo rk . It was not a pa rti c ul a rl y afflu e nt c ulture , th e refo re hadn't mu c h time for fri volo us o r leis ure ac ti viti es. Gy mn as ti cs was prima ril y des igned fo r o ne utilita ri a n purpose: to kee p th e nati o n's yo uth fit thro ugh we ll-ro unded exercises o n th e diffe re nt a ppa ra tu s. Gy mn as ti cs was not a n aesth e ti c s po rt the n. I t was a set of bod ybuilding ex ercises . S ince the s po rt does build a we ll -rounded , coordina ted bod y , th e Germa ns gave a n in va lu a bl e contributi o n to the world of s po rt s a nd fitn ess. Howeve r, times c ha nge a nd so do cultures. Gy mn as tic s began as th e a ll-a round beca use it see med point less to build one 's bod y in a lops ided ma nner, a nd th e whol e purpose of gy mnas ti cs again was bod y building. In the U nited Sta tes , speci ali za tio n was bo rn because of the " ha ng loose " e th os, borne, of efflu e nce a nd mo re leisure time , th e rea li zation th a t the s po rt was not simpl y to build a bod y, but for its own sa ke, for th e pure kine sthetic joy ! The purpose of gy mnastics, in th e mind s of ma ny, had c ha nge d a nd is still c ha nging. N ew tre nd s are set in new c ultu ral e nvironme nt s. Ye t we' re so fa r be hind . T o th e pUbli c , gy mnas ti cs is still a set of ex erci ses. Th e mos t commo n view of a gy mnas t is a " mu scl e ma n." We stil l ca ll routines "exerci ses." Loo k up the definition of gy mn as tic s in " Webste r' s Dictiona ry," a nd yo u' ll fin d " ph ys ica l exe rcises perfo rm ed in or ada pted to performa nce in a gy mnas ium." Thi s refl ects the public ' s abys ma l mi sco nce ption of wha t gy mnastics is. T oo man y a re still loo king a t wha t it was. Wh a t is th e new gymnas tics? Wh e re are we headed ? We a re headed for a re voluti o n. So the word wo n' t cause a ny di scomfort ; le t' s defin e it fo r the sake of thi s d iscuss io n. Revolution may be ca lled evo luti o n th at' s ha ppe ning more qui ck ly tha n we a re used to. A nd gy mnast ics is ma king suc h a lea p : it 's cro ss ing a line to ne w direc tions . Th a nks to th e innova to rs of a n in sight ful a nd c ha ll e nging F IG code of points , gy mnas tics is now a n aes th e ti c s po rt. Gy mnas ti cs is a rti stic , a ppea ling to th e se nse of sight , rhythm a nd to th e emotio ns. T he sta ndards a re eve r highe r in te rm s of perfec t execution . Th e ro utine s tha t a re sco red 9.7 today w ill proba bl y fall into the 8.5 -9.5 ra nge tomo rro w, if hi stori ca l precedent is re leva nt. Th e F IG code is excelle nt but not

com pl e te ... a nd never up to da te beca use gy mnas ti cs itse lf is c ha ngin g so ra pidl y. I n th e near future. it will gro w in c reas ingly diffi c ult to rate th e bes t gy mnas ts. If th e in c rease in qu alit y co nt inu es, gy mnasts in c ha mpionship co mpetiti o ns will simpl y not have form breaks. We may have to begin dedu cting for blin king t he eyes o r fo r lac k of drama tic fac ia l ex press io n. Wh e n eve ry move me nt is being do ne with stra ight a rm s, whe n th e legs a re a lways toge th e r. a nd th e toes a re a lways pointed , a nd ev ery mo ve poss ible is do ne ri g ht to the ha nd sta nd: fo r exa mpl e, it may be th a t huma ns int e rpre tin g a writt e n code may be co mplet ely insuffic ie nt as a me th od of eva lu at ing who is "be tt e r. " Th e qu es ti o n will th e n arise, " Wh o cares who's be tter?" "Ca n we co mpare a pples w ith o ra nges?" As gy mnasti cs evo lves fro m exe rcise to s port , to aes th e ti c s po rt. to a rt fo rm tha t's a lso a s port . a nd fin all y to pure pe rfo rma nce a rt , the po int of co mpetiti o n wil l be los t. A t th at time (w hi c h sho uld be within a decade o r so), it will see m as ridicul o us to judge gy mnas tics performa nce us ing rigoro us rul es as it is to judging pa intings w ith a light me ter. Who is " be tt e r" will become subo rdina ted to the e nj oy me nt of si mpl y watc hing so me uniquel y bea utiful pe rfo rma nc es. N a tura ll y, it will take some time fo r th e s port to " give up the ghos t. " Co mpe titi ve d ie ha rd s will try everything to kee p co mpetiti o n going. Wh e n a ll th e good gy mn as ts a re in the 9.7 -9 .9 ra nge, we may ch a nge the hori zo nt a l ba r event to two ba rs on whi c h we fl y back a nd fo rth during a routine , adding difficult y. We may build new a nd s pringie r a ppa ra tu s a nd begin do ing tw isting dou ble sa lt os in free e xerc ise a nd on th e pa ra ll el ba rs. But thi s so rt of thing will o nl y be good for so lon g. Eve ntu all y gy mn as tics is going to leave th e rea lm of compe titive s port a nd be come a perfo rma nce a rt. It wo n' t ha ppen soon, but it will ha ppe n. Wh e n gy mn as tic s fi na ll y leaves the fie ld of co mp e titi ve sport, a number of proble ms will be so lved , a nd so me new o nes will e me rge (as w ith a ny new deve lo pme nt) . First, th e F I G tec hnica l committee, a ft e r perfo rming a n in valu ab le service to th e gymnastics wo rld by giving th e s port a n aesth eti c philosoph y, will hono rabl y re tire , leav ing th e a rt to sma ll e r loca l perfo rma nce orga ni zati o ns. G y mnas ti cs will no longe r need a centra l a utho rit y . Th e re will be no lo nger be a need fo r gy mnasti cs judges. Howe ve r, th e more in sightfu l judging contributors will become critics as in other pe rfo rming arts .

'The Ghost of Com petition Past?"

Second , the all-around vs. specialist co ntrove rsy w ill no lo nge r be so controversial. There will no longe r be a philosuphical commitment to the a ll-aro und. If one yo ung man w ho is ex posed to a ll the events (a good idea) wa nt s to de ve lop a we ll-rounded body a nd receive th e va luabl e carry-ove r benefits from one appara tu s to a noth e r that is well a nd good . But if a no ther yo ung ma n des ire s to work only o ne eve nt. he wi ll be free to do so. a nd if he becomes good e nou gh, he ca n join a pelforma nce gro up . Third , with o ut competitive pressure , coaches will not have to dema nd or pre ss ure towa rds today's rigorou s workout standard s. There will be a more selFmotimtinR atmos phe re. The gy mnas tic perso na lit y is uniqu e. The gym nast is often a creative a rti st who c hoo ses thi s particular ph ys ica l means of exp ress io n. Th e more free-wheeling a tmos ph e re shou ld a ttrac t more yo uth to the gy mn as tics sce ne. At present. th e ascetic , stoic , demanding workouts scare man y talent ed youth away. Instead of being a n organizer. pu sher a nd ofttime ogre , the coach will be ab le to di s regard hi s ulcers a nd become a beneficent te ac her a n expert who will help with mec ha ni ca l a nalyses when reque sted . He will no lon ge r have the tremendou s recruiting pre ss ure s a nd economic burdens. When gy mn as tic s is no longe r a competitive s port , it will no longe r be under the a us pi ces of the a thletic department s in the U .S. Since it would be a cultural acti vit y, the a rt of gy mn astics is likel y to be handled by priva te clubs, university a rt or drama depa rtment s or independent performance organizations. The trampoline would sure ly be included in the perfo rma nces , s ince it is ap pe a ling to the spectators . Many que stion s may arise regardin g the gymnas tics revolution. Perhaps a few pertinent ones can be 'answered here:

" Wh en gymnastics is no longe r a sports competition , wo uldn 't we simply be putting on th e same old circus peljorman ce ? Wouldn 't form degenerate?" No to both question s. First , because gy mn as tics is more than ac robatics a nd has evolved in a different direction . G y mnas tics has irrevocabl y become a n a rti stic form , a nd the pUblic, once educated a bit more , will a ppreciate beautiful form as well as sus pen se a nd excitement.

" Wouldn't the men be competing anyway (to see who ge ts to peljorm in th e exhibitions) with th e coach asjudge?" Definitely not; the coach would never have to (nor be able to) say which man is "better. " Each man would have his own pa rticular styl e and personal elan. I f one ma n has a fairly easy routine but performs with virtuosity a nd a nother has less perfection but a tremendousl y exciting flair , both would perform. Incidentall y, the word "ex hibition " doe sn' t impl y performing for " free. " Gymnastics performances ca n a nd will ma ke moneyl

"Gymnastics has never been a notorious money-making sport. Wh en we take the excitement of competition away, what makes you think anyone will allend?" I n the past, gymnastics has not really offered anything unique to the public. They could see stunts at a circus. They could see more suspenseful competition a t a football game. Now that gymnastics has evolved to a higher aesthetic sta nda rd , there is more to offer. Gymnastics has almost every element of the ballet. It has suspense of the aerialists in the circus. G ymnastics demonstrates in an exciting manner what the human body is capable of in a pure athletic-art form. This combination has to attract a great numbe r of people if packaged properly. And it wi ll be. Gymnastics can and will be a sy mphony of d ra ma tic movement. Gymnastics will be king but only when we look to the new direction s a nd possibilities ; when it sheds it s competitive cocoon a nd step s into the light as a performa nce art.

Gym Master's FIBERGLASS "G" RAILS the "perfect" rails for parallel bars • Gym Master FIBERGLASS "G" RAILS have never warped, broken or splintered under the most vigorous use and extreme tests. • Gym Master FIBERGLASS "G" RAILS have a "built-in" perfection that never varies - each rail is precision manufactured to exacting Olympic shape, strength and flexibility - and every rail is identical, • The outstanding FIBERGLASS "G" RAILS are standard on all Gym Master parallel bars and provide the grip and feel of wood rails.

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c___ HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASTICS LENGTH OF S E AS ON Mention has bee n made in previous iss u es of the M odern G y mnas t w hi c h have f eatured hig h school gymnas tics t h a t th e le ngth of the co mpe titive seaso n in th e h igh school p rog rams of th e co unt ry va r ies con s ider ab ly. A r ecent s t udy , thoug h lim ited t o bu t 4 sta t es, bear s t his out. In Colo r a do , competition b egins M a r ch 1 and lasts 12 weeks , w ith a m aximum of 12 compe tition s plus a s t a t e champions hip. In Califor nia, sectional v aria tions c r eate a season var y in g from 12 to 17 week s , u s ua lly commen ci ng F ebruary 1s t w ith 6 to 10 d ua l meets plus s e c tiona l cha mpions h ip s . California hold s n o s t ate cha mpions hip d espite th e numbe r of particip a ting sc h ools and high calibe r of the ir gymn as t s. In P e nny lv ani a the r e is no s t a t e wide r egula tion conce rning the len g th of the gymnas ti c season but it app ear s to beg in in J a nuary a nd run into M a rch w it h 8 to 10 du a l m ee t s. A Sta t e C h a mpionship is h eld w ith qualify ing me e t s on a r egio na l basis. In Illinois, th er e is no limit on th e len g th of the gymn as ti cs season but dis trict m eets a nd th e Sta t e Champions hip are h eld in Mar ch , and d ual com p etiti on s could be h eld s ubs equent t o th e St a t e m ee t. The over a ll season le ngth w a s a bout 4 Vz mont h s w ith limitations imposed b y th e confe r en ce. Th ere a ppea r to be from 10 t o 16 du a l m ee t s plus the qu a lify ing m ee t s fo r the s t a t e championship. (For other no t es on hi g h school gy mnas tics a bstr a c te d from Murray : A Comp a ris on o f Inte r scholas ti c G y m n a stics on the Hig h S chool Leve l, s ee previou s issu es of Chalk Talk.)

Scholar-Athlete Awards Announced T o give s pec ial recogniti o n to stud e nt s who ex ce l in both a thl eti cs and acade mi c e nd eavo r. AA HP E R's Na ti ona l Coun c il of Sta te Hi gh Sc hoo l Coac hes Assoc iati o ns a nd th e Na ti onal Sc ho lar-Athl ete Awa rd Progra m. Cos ponso red by th e two groups. th e progra m ho nors hig h sc hoo l stude nt s in grades 9-1 2 fo r a thl e ti c ab ilit y. schola rs hip . lea de rship. se rvice and citize nship. Attrac tive ly des igned awa rd ce rtifica tes will be se nt to sc hools for prese nt ati on to awa rd recipie nt s. C rit e ri a for se lec ti on of th e honor stud e nt s a re a c umul a ti ve grade ave rage of B o r 85% . or th e equi va le nt in whateve r grading sys te m th e sc hoo l uses : a va rsit y lett e r fo r pa rti cipati on o n a sport s tea m s ponso red by the sc hoo l: th e co ntri buti on of so me recogni ze d se rvice to th e sc hoo l in additi o n to spo rt s parti c ipati o n: exe mpl a ry c iti ze nship and pe rso na l qua liti es . a nd th e reco mme nd ati o n of coac h a nd approval of th e a thl eti c director a nd th e high sc hoo l prin c ipa l. A ppli cati on forms are ava il ab le to hi gh sc hoo ls e lec tin g to pa rti c ipate in th e progra m from Roswe ll D. Me rri c k. AA HP E R. 120 I 16th SI.. N. Woo Was hin gton. D.C. 200 36.


This Gymnostic figure is part of a set to use in connection with the 1972 Munich Olympics.

Gym Meets Should Be Beautiful By LLO Y D Ll NGEMANN JR. Gy mn ast ics is a n arti sti c s port in whi c h no nobjec ti ve move me nt s of the hum a n bod y a re pe lfo rmed a nd combined. both with and witho ut appa ra tu s . in a way th a t is int e nd e d to be bea utiful. Many gy mn as ti c pe rfo rm a nces are undou btedl y bea utiful. And whil e bea ut y is diffi c ult to defin e. if th ere is orde r in th e uni ve rse th e re a re definit e prin cipl es of des ign a nd co mpositi on whi c h will he lp to ex pl a in th e bea uty of gy mnas ti cs. Primary and o bvious is th e princ ipl e of int eres t. With a n eye to inte rest co nsi de r a lmost a ny gy mn as ti cs mee t. Not hing is ha ppe ning most of the time . O ne mu st be extre me ly dev ote d to th e sp ort to e ndure the bo redom . Us ua ll y th e onl y effort made to im pro ve th e situation is to ru sh th e judging. but with th e rul es beco ming more co mplex j udging time inev it ab ly beco mes lo nge r. So . a lthou gh so me of th e indi vidu a l perfo rm an ces may be bea uti ful . ve ry few meets are. It is ev ide nt why a udi e nces a re a lmost no nex iste nt. why int e res t re maa ins limited. and why pro motin g gy mnas ti cs as it ex ists is ge ne ra ll y futil e. Th e effo rt th at produ ces s uc h an exce ll e nt magaz i ne as Th e Ma d e l'll G y mn as[ res u It s in a s ma ll ci rc ul ati o n. I n case I so un d lik e a n unfri e nd ly c ri t ic I mu s t po int o ut th a t m y v iew is th a t o f a gy mnas t. teac he r. judge. coac h. a nd s po kes man. o n th e c lub. high school , a nd uni ve rs it y leve ls. I arra nge fo r gy mn as ts to a ppea r on two or three nation a l te lev isio n progra ms eac h year. Fro m a ny po int of view mee ts. the e nd produc t of gy mn as ti cs . a re usua ll y unint eres ting a nd defeat gy mn as ti cs ' goa l of be ing bea uti ful. o r a rti sti c.

F ort un a te ly th e re are ma n y poss ib le so lu tions to thi s prob le m. T he y req ui re o nl y a littl e of th e imagin at ion and creativ it y th at are esse ntia l to any truly a rti st ic ac ti vity . With many schools now hav in g both me n's and wo me n's tea ms it is poss ible to ho ld do uble dua l-mee ts. Me n and wo men can pe rform a lt ernately. th e men 's judges hav ing me to fig ure a nd repo rt th e ir scores while a wo man is wo rking, a nd v ice ve rsa. I n s uc h a mee t th e re w ill be so met hing of in teres t hap pe ning almost co ntin ua ll y, a nd th e total tim e sho uld be c lose to th at of co nve nti o na l meets. Probable advant ages are est heti c inte rplay an d co nt ras t. d ec rease d use of fac iliti es a nd costs, la rge r audie nce immedia tely, a nd public re lati o ns va lu e. It is a lso poss ible to a lt e rn ate th e co mpetiti ve re rfo rma nces with va rio us kin ds of ex hibiti o ns a nd unoffic ial eve n ts . So me o f th ese ca n be rore c li mb. Ind ian c lu bs , sw inging rings , tra mpo lin e, ro pe a nd ba ll ro utines, gy mwhee l. ha nd ba lanc in g, and pyram ids. U nde r correct li ghting co nd iti o ns it is a lso poss ible to project slides of gy mn as ts. So me mee t directo rs a re usin g mu sic effecti ve ly durin g intermi ss ions a nd th e brea ks betwee n eve nt s. Eve n more effec ti ve is us ing mus ic thro ug ho ut a mee t. I hav e se en a s killful pi ani st pi ck up eac h gy mnas t's te mpo pefectIy, greatl y e nh a ncin g th e exe rcises as well as prov iding int ere st betwee n th e m. Th ese s ugg e s ted s olution s don ' t int e rfere with rul es, j udging, o r scores. Th ey a re a imed onl y at ma king meets int eresting e nou gh to attract a n a udi e nce a nd as a res ult draw more partic ipant s to the s port. T her e is no reas on not to e x pe r ime nt w ith eve nt s th at mi ght res ult in cha nges. I t was not lo ng ago th at women's eve nt s we re c ha nged to great adva nt age. A new eve nt wh ic h co uld be ve ry effe cti ve is a mi xed dou bles fl oo r exe rc ise. Double s tumbl ing. adagio. a nd ba la nc in g add ed to the ball et a nd stunt s now used might have a bea utiful resuit s imila r to do ubles figure skatin g. A cha ll e nge eve nt in which me mbe rs of o n:: tea m ch a ll e nge me mbe rs of a nothe r to do daring indi vidu a l stunt s mi ght give a mee t so me of th e exc it e ment. int e rpl ay , and ex press ion of perso na liti es prese nt in wo rk out s. Arranging and co mbining a ll th e a ppa ratu s so th at a gy mn as t moves fro m one pi ece to a noth er co ntinu o us ly in one eve nt is a noth e r poss ibilit y. T hi s ma kes rea l choreog raph y poss ibl e. and in trodu ces c re ati vit y a nd freedo m whi ch me n's gy mn ast ics te nd s t o lack. M y s tud e nt s have sho wn great im ag ina tion in mov ing fro m one a ppara tu s to a noth e r. It a lso see ms poss ible to wo rk in thi s way for a lo ng e no ugh pe riod t o produ ce a n aerobic effec t. introdu c in g a hea lth be ne fit whi c h is now abse nt. Eve n if s uc h a n eve nt neve r a ppea rs in co mpetiti on it is va lu able in tra inin g and teac hin g.

Stroboscooic Photos by Dr. Kenneth M. Purdy. Dept. of Heolth, Physical Education ond Recreotion ot LSU.

I n some unive rsit y situ a tions it is poss ible to h ave a n a r c hit ec t or stage d es ig ner help pro duce an arrangemen t of apparatus wh ich is ha rmoniou s and function a l from the audience 's viewpo int. An ything which makes gymnastics more in teresting without violating it s unity wi ll ma ke it more bea utiful a nd give it wider a ppea l.

VIEWpoints 8y /Jick Criley

Abstract: T we" 'e matched pairs of subjects, fed a high protein diet, were trained \Vith weights fo r 6 weeks . In th e fll/al 3 weeks 12 subjects receil'ed 5 milligrams of methal/drostenolon e (Dial/abol) twice daily. Max imum weight lifting, thickness of skil/ folds, oxygen uptake , blood chemistry pro.file , and cOl/cen tration of blood lipids were determined. A lso used were cable tensiom etry and anthropom etric m easurements. Th e strength of treated subjects iI/ creased significantly; their m ean weight gail/ was 2.48 kilograllls with I/O significa nt change il/ skin fold thickness. S el'eral al/thropoll1etric measurem ents iI/ creased significa ntly, as did oxygel/ uptak e ability al/d nitrogen retention by the blood. L.c. J ohnson and J.P. O'S hea 1969 A nabolic steroid: Effects on strength del路eloplll ellt. S cience 164 :957-959. The study abstracted above was run to provi de bas ic information about the ab ilit y of the a na bolic steroid s to increase strength. Becau se gy mna sts a re certa inl y concerned wit h strength a nd bec a use so me of our re aders may be try ing to eva lua te th e use of th ese hormones in their own stre ngth-building progra ms , it is a ppropriat e th a t we take a loo k at thi s practice. While th e medica l use of a nabolic steroid s ha s been ma inl y confined to use on pati e nt s recov ering from illness or s urgery. theory predicted the drugs shou ld stimu la te muscle development a nd strength increases in normal hea lth y men . The a uthors . John so n a nd O'Shea . pointed ou t that littl e is known of poss ible longterm s ide effects on adult s a nd caut ioned against their use by teenage rs a nd ph ys ica ll y immature indi vidu als . Their Science a rticl e does cite some unfav orable side effects. and o th ers may be found in it s litera ture citat ion s.

From a n ex pe rimenta l sta ndpoint , th ei r study has yie lded bas ic data which te nd s to bea r out th e ir th eo ri es. Nonth e less , the y ca ution th a t s till more information is needed on ph ys io logical e ffect s on huma ns. I think th a t still a nother point was made in that stud y, one which is obvious but which is ignored. Not only did their treated indi vidu a ls ga in in strength a nd we ight on a pre sc ribed hi gh protein diet a nd weight tra ining program , but so a lso did th e ir con trol subjects. The ga in of th e controls ce rt a inl y was not as great , but it does show that the simple initiation of a weight trainin g a nd dietary progra m is of be nefit. Recentl y, th e N CAA's Co mmitt ee on th e Co mpetiti ve Safeguards a nd Medic al Aspects of Sports iss ued a warning on th e use of the a na bolic steroid s. The y were pa rticul a rl y concerned with mi sinterpretations of a rticles a ppea ring in popul a r publication s. (notably Sports Illu strated June 23 a nd 30. Jul y 7. 1969) a nd stre sse d their belief that in yo ung. hea lth y males , the drugs do not benefit performance . Such concern is not limited to the Unit ed S tates. At a Sports Ph ys ici a ns Co nference in Munich , Wes t Germany. thi s fa ll . doctors de bated the use of these performa nce boosters. Among the points brought out were: I) that th e dru gs apparent ly do augment the de ve lopme nt o f mu scle ti ss ue during tra inin g, 2) the use of hormone s can - in tee nagers - pre maturel y stop bone growth , pre ve nting a tt a inment of full s ta ture, and 3) the use of hormones is simpl y not in keeping with the precept s of good s portsma ns hip . " We need to clarify th a t s port , e ve n the top sport. s hould contribute to health ," sa id Dr. Geo rge F. Schliche nri ede r. ph ys ician for the German Olympic hock ey a nd cro sscou ntry ski tea ms . "a nd not be used for brea king record s a lone. " I think that a great man y of our gy mnasts who have en tered the medica l profess ion cou ld ma ke the point in eve n stronger terms that drugs a re da nge rou s a nd there is rea ll y no s ubstitut e for we ll -directed . good. ha rd work. Perh a ps some of th e m will direct le tt e rs to th e Ed it or o n thi s ma tter. To this may be added th e thought th a t at hlete s are admired for achi ev ing exce ll ence on their own merit. The who le spirit of compe tition is s ubvert ed whe n a contes ta nt uses drugs to boost hi s production capac ity. Such use of hormones is not consistent with the hi gh standard s of gy mn as tic s a nd it s focus on the in di vidual' s inn a te capab iliti es.

where will you be in



?) 00000

... we know where we'// be! ~

@ 0

years ago we started producing gymnasium equipment of finest quality and long-life. Designs and materials have constantly changed since then but our same, timeless tradition of fin~ quality remains as modern today as it. was 60 years ago and will be just as up-to-date 60 years from now in 2030 . That'sthe way it is with Quality. It has a way of lasting and assuring its buyers the equipment they purchased this year, last year, 10 years ago or 10, 20 years hence will always be current, will always be Quality, and will always have a " home" with someone interested in its condition and ready with parts and serVice if needed .


If you need gymnastic equipment you should look to Porter for these many advantages: Fully Olympic Specs. Best of Materials and Workmanship Safety Engineering Modern Design Experienced Representatives Full Technical Staff Installation Capability

All of PORTER'S floor equipment has the "safety-at-a-glance" Quik Lok .

Write for your FREE, fully-illustrated, colorful catalog today.






Athletic Conlerence


In srat,

out of state

California State College, Fullerton




$30.00 per unit


Fullerton, California

Additional Fees Housing, Etc.

Colleges and universit ies are invited to send in recruitment information, photog ra phs, etc., core of the Modern Gymnast magazine.

Financial Aid

Other Sour ces of Aid

Full schola rships: 2

Job Program Work-Study Program NEH NOEA FISl

Portiol scholarships: 8

Averoge # ovailable each yea r: 5

11 ,000

Central Mi ssouri Sta te

NDA loon, Opportunities Grant, Institutional Scholarsh ips


No in-stote tu ition

Cornell University


Ithaca, New York 14850


Architecture, Arts and Science, Engineering,

Warrensburg, Missouri


FINANCIAL AID, This is administered on the basis of academic achievement and the financial need present in the family. This assistance ranges from small honor· ary needs to full need. Finances should never stand in the way of a student making application to Cornell University.

Room and Boord $1.200.00

Hotel Administrat ion $2.350.00 y.o r


Industrial and Labor Relations

$ 700.00 Resident $1 , I 00.00 non res iden t Agriculture $750.000 Resident $1 , 150.00 non resid ent Ea st Stroudsburg St ate College East StroudsDurg, Po. 2,405 ( 1,034 men, 1.371 women)

North Athletic Gymnastics Conf.

Ea stern Illinois Uni versi ty Charleston , III. 7,800 students


Eastern Michigan University Upsilanti, Michigan 18,000 students


Itha ca College Ithaca, New York





$25.00 per credit

Ot her sources of aid: There are State grants and work study funds available to students as well as Federal schola r sh ips.

$35.00 student activity fee Housing $144.00;

800rd $162.00




NAIA ond



N.C.AA College



NCAA Coli ,g,




Housing - $300.00 per quorter $900.00 per year Service Fees -$ 53.00 per quarter (Activity Fee, 800k Rental, Insurance, etc.)

Some Aid Available for Needy Students.

Room and Boord $497.50/ semester

Tuit ion gr ants for st udents who qualify plus campus work opportunity progrom.

N.Y. State Regents Scholarship (State residents only) N.Y. State Scholar IncentivE Award (St ate resident s anlv) Port-time employment Notional Defense loon N.Y. State Higher Education Assistance Corporation loon College Scholarships, ronging f r om partial to full t uition, are awa rded each year by t he College to st udents on the basis of need and scholar ship.

All off-compus, no dorms Boord & raam-$1.l25 General Fee - $230.00; Linen Service, $30.00; Health and Accident Insurance,


lou is iana State University in New Orleans New Orleans, Louisiana

Independent Conference

NCAA Colleg.



I full scholarship 6 partial scholarships 2 new scholarships each year

Work· study prog ram. Student-work avoilable.

No athletic scholarships. financial aid given through Notional Defense Student Loons and l 1l Work-Study Projects. (The latter is best for athlet ics.)

There are numerous local grants for deserving students.

2 full scholarsh ips each year

Foundation Funds,S Scholarships

Average available per year: 2.

Academic ... t hr ough examina t ion and H.S. r ecord. Alumni, t hrough alumni groups and H.S. record.

Housing (Boord and Room) $275.00 per qua r ter Student Activity Fee per quarter - $ 15.00 Student Union Fee per qua rter - $5.00

$ 1,000 totol, several po rtial schola r ships -no full schola rshi ps. We have work scholar ships for all entering f reshmen and approxi mately fou r partial money scholarshi ps each yea r.

F·ederal work grants, Minority Student Grants, several different types of loons, academic scholarships.

$1 1 00 for Activity card and Student Union building fund. On campus housing runs approximately $1000. per year

We are not permitted to give financial oid because of conference r ules. The only finoncial aid available is from academic schola r ships.

Hous ing - $240.00

M.ols - $175.00

10,000 lowell Technological Institute lowell , Massachusetts

Solid schedule within the area.



Miami·Oade Jr. College Miami, Flo.


per semester

18.000 Oregon College of Education Monmouth, Oregon

Oregon Collegiote Conference


$ 132.00


per/ term

Dorm Singl.-$869 to $936 00ubl.-$742 to $787

4.000 Penn sylvania State Un iversit y University Park, Po.


Saint Cloud Srat, CoII,g,


Eastern Intercollegiate League,

Nationollntercollegiate Conference

NCAA (CoII.g.)


San Francisco St ate College Son Francisco, Calif

For Western Conference


Saint Cloud , Minnesota


per term


$6.75 per

$15.00 per

credit hour

credit hour

$62.00 over 6 $32.00 6 units few

for units for or

Non-resident tuition fee for U.S. citi ien is $30.00 per unit up to $445.00 Non-resident tuition for foreign students is $8 .50 per unit

up to $127.50

State University Agriculture and Technical Colle ge Farmingdale, N.Y. 11735 5,000 students



$400 y.o rly


$25.00 CoII.g. fee $45.00 Student ()c tihity

$ 15.00 Insu rance

$380.00-$550.00 Dorm $580.00-7·doy boord


N.Y. Regents Scholarshi ps; N.Y. Scholar Incentive Work-Study Progroms; College scholarships available.

;oach 10. of years )jck Wolfe ~n d


Jenny Deem


Gymnastic Room

Freshmen Compete

Trampo line

Dual Meet Record

SIeve Koss, Reo Anders





Art, Business. Drama. Education.

Curtis Reams. Terry Locey





Law Enforcement. Safety Educat ion, Teacher Educat ion




46 · 14



~ob Mortin i years

3runa Kious



Engineering. liberal Arts, Music. Physicol Ed ucation.




Undefeated in Ivy League competition -

Cornell has a very diversified program


and every deportment is excellent

Health Sciences an d Physicol Education.


Elementary Educat ion. liberal Arts

sf year

Jr. Robert Hussey

Academ ic Strengths

John E. Schaefer

Yes, 50' x 100'.



56 · 86

Physicol Education Major Teacher Education

3 yea rs

Business leiters & Science


"'orvin Johnson


7 Jordon Eggleston -; yea rs

:oach Loyd Huval f years





Jary Goodson S yea rs high school md college


Currently building new gymnastic room.

Gene Wettstone 32nd year

Ed Isobelle

Yes Average attendance meets 6,000.

Education Business Administration Special education


I J, 35

School of Music, School of Health and Ph ysical Education, Division of Physicol Therapy, Deportment of Ra dio and Television , Deportment of Drama , Deportment of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Deportment of English, Deportment of Chemistry,



Education - sciences - moth

Large faculty and ample lob spoce for all sciences. Major programs in 011 sciences, nuclear engineering , textiles , plastics, business ad ministration and mono ement, electrical engineering ..

New gymnasium with two gyms for gymnastics. THREE to FOUR pieces of gymnastic equipment. Floor exercise mot and all latest spotting rigs and crash pade (4).

Dick Aronson

Bruce A Davi s

3rd in NA t A Notionals






45 ·15


for Training


NJCAA Notional Champions




Arlynn "Andy" Anderson in fourth year

Yes, excellent facilities and equipment (equipment stays up all the time).



26 · I B

Jerry Wright in his 7th year.

Do not have separate Gymnastic Room.



27 · 40

Coach Robert Hess New this yeor

Work-out in Allard Field House _ our own building.



One of the finest Teachers Colleges in the country, Offers: 8.5. & BA : elementary, junior high, senior high school; general studies, medical technology.

8 Olympions, 16 EIGL ond 8 NCAA Championships Team.

One al l-American

The University is academically oriented with eight colleg es comprising the Uni· versity : Agriculture, Engineering, Bio· logical and Social Sciences as its strongest areas. Excellent Liberal Arts and Physical Education College s ... New Medical School. Physical Education, Moth, Sciences, and Elementary Educat ion.

The school is primarily a teache r training institution. Depa rtment s of drama, music and Eng lish; a notionally-known Physical Ed ucation deportment is especially well known throughout the state. Business school and science deportment are among the best as is the Education and Psychol· ogy deportment. Biology is a rapidly growing and recognized. Agriculture, Data Processing , Business, Chemica l Tech., Civil Tech.. Aircraft Operations, Pol ice Science, Recreation Supervision


Southwest Missouri State College Springfield. Missouri 8,500

Missouri Inter· colieglOteAthletic Association


StanfOlllUniversity Polo Alto, Colifornio 11,545 sTUdents



51 10.00


52145 per yea r 3 quarters

Room and Boord 5630.00 per year

Gymnastics isonewspon here and as yet there is no scholarship program. Work opportunities are available.

(room and board): opprox. 51140 per year

Varied number of Scholarships available.

WhileStonfordUniversityisnoT in o position to offer as many athletic grant as tox·supponed State Universities, it i importonltonote:

Because af rhe high academic enlranc, reQuiremenls, v irlua lly any studen accepred 10 Sionford University wh , shows finonciol need will receive fin on c ial a idrolheexlenrofrholneed

The College of William and Mary Wiliiomsburg,Virginia

Southernlnlercollegiole Gymnostic league (S.I.G.L.)

NCAA University

5250.00 per semeSTer

5630.00 per semeSTer

TheColiege offers finoncialossistonce i theiormofscholorships (ocodemic), feliowships,grant·in·oids, loansond studenT employment to deserving students.

Housing-from 5 100.00 to 5225.00 per semester (depends on room) Boord - 5250.00 per semester loundry - 520.00 per semester

United States Air Force Academy Independent (West) 10 miles north of Colorado Springs! 40 miles south of Denver. Colorado Approximotely 4.000 mole students



Total No. Scholorships for Gymnoslin -UnlimiTed. Number of full Scholar· ships-Unlimited. Number of por1iol Scholorships-None. Average Number of Scholorships ovoiloble each yeor TO new gymnosts - Unlimited

Eoch cadeT receives 5171 .60 per monT to pay for supplies, cfothing ond personol expenses. Tronsportotion often mode ovoilobleby miliToryoircroit.

United Statn Nayel Academy. Annopolis. Md.

fJG .L



Scholorships; By Congressionol Appoint· ment, no limiT.

Solory os monTh.

Pacific 8 Conference


A large vorielyof ocodemic scholorships ore ovoiloble to 011 oppliconts. They ore hondled by the Undergroduolecommillee on scholorships ond loons. Appijcotions muslbemode beforeJonuarylS. onnuolly forlheseloonsondscholorships·oidsore ovoiloble for gymnosts. These ore oworded on the rerommendolion by The heodcoochingymnastics.


Midshipman. 5193.50 pe


Unimsityof Calilornia. Bukeley Berkeley. Colifornio


David Ellis

School: Springfield College (Mass.) Coach : Fronk A. Wolcott Captain: David Elli s Major & GPA : Phy sical Education - 2.8 Interests: Swimming, Di ving, Arche ry, Tenn is plu s teaching and coaching Gymnastics Honors & Awards : 1966 Massachusetts State High School Ring Champ 5th on SH and 8th on R 1969 NCAA College Di vision Championships. Member of Springfield College Team placing 2nd in 1968 and 3rd in 1969 NCAA College Division Championships. Candid Comment: "Success in gymnastics is the result of self-discipline ... Without self-discipline, gymnastics is a frivolous pastime."


George Greenfield

School: University of Ca lifornia (Berkeley) Coach : Don Nelson (Hal Fry on sabbatical) Captain : George Greenfield Age : 21 Maior & GPA: Industrial Engineering -2.6 Interests : Marine fish, skin diving High School Attended: John Muir, Pas adena, Cal ifornia Competitive Honors & Awards: USGF, Al l-American, 4th NCAA FX 1969, USA Nationa ls 1969. Events: All -Around Ambition: To Qua lify for Olympic and World Games Team. Capsule Comments: Gymnastics is a tea m sport and the more yo u work together the better you wi ll be individuall y and as a team.

James Betters

School : Universi t y of Southern Ca lifornia (USC) Coach: Jack Beckner Captain: James Bitters Age: 21 Major & GPA: Phy. Ed.-2.5 + Interests : Music High School Attended: Thomas Jefferson, Los Angeles, Ca lif. Competitive Honors & Awards : FX Champ at Western Clinic in 1968, 6th Rings and 15th AA in 1969 AAU Championships. Events: Al l-Around Ambitions: Teaching in Secondary Level Capsule Comments: I have never regretted devoting my time to Gymnastics

Or. Charles "Chic" Johnson New Ihis year DonJ. Millmon 2years

Seth Anderson




ArI - Education & PsychologyPhysical EducallOn-MusicSpeech & The<lIre - Life SCience


Slonford Universily is raled in Ihe lap 3 universilies in Ihe nalron for overall e,,;cellence of all deportmenlS. (Ten years ago. Slonford was rated 13th). Slonford focuily were ranked as "distinguished" in the survey. in 10departmenls: Histol)', Economics. PsycholOl:Y, Chemislry, Moth· emotics. Physics, BiochemistI)'. Zoology, Eleclricol Engineering, Mechanical Engi· neering.


ChriSPolterson 2 years

As of December 1970 we will have our own room.





KoriK . Schwenzfeier, Major. USAF A years

OrYlyn Sampson, Coplain.USAF.



Bruce Wright

SeporateGymnostics Focility: A·5 of eoch apparalus.

Don Nelson (Coach Harold Frey isonsobbolical leave until 1971 )



Craig Ritter

School: UCLA (U ni v. Cal. at Los Angeles) Coach: Art Shurl ock Captain : Cra ig "Dusty" Ritter Age: 21 Major & GPA: Pictoria l Art - 2.75 Interests: Photogrophy High School Attended : R.A. Millikan-Long Beoch, Calif. Event: All-Around Ambitions : To be a World Games and Olympic team member Cand id Quote : Gymnastics is prima rily an AIIAraund sport, everyone should work AA and st udy the basic movements. Only with this attit ude wi ll gymnastics be what we pretend it to be in the USA today.


Physics, Biology. Manne SCience. Education. History. low

Cadet Terry B. Higgins (1966 _ NCAA 3 PB. A HB, A AA; 1966 lillie Olympic: Team; 1966 USAFA MOSI Valuable; Recipient of Alomic Energy Commission and Fullbright Fellowshipsl.

28 Different Moiors (including ENG. PHYS, AERO, INTl AfF., ECON. HIST . PRE·LAW, PRE·MED, PSYCH, ETC.) 11 Rhodes Scholars in II years. 'Whole Man Concept " -Academics. Phys Edond leadership (Ethics). Majors; TwentY· lhree (23) range from Management 10 Aero Space Engr.

The Universily has fielded on inlercol· legiote leom in gymnastics since 1924. The overall dual meel record over Ihe 45 yeor period of lime is 92% wins and 8% losses. The paSI dOlen years has seen Ihe Golden Bears compile a 132 win and 7 loss record. The Bears have 0150 placed in top five of Ihe N.CAA can· sistently and in 1968 finished first .

The University of California 01 Berkeley is generally ranked the Number one institution academically by the United Sloles Council on Higher Educotion The school is outstanding in (('9ord to ils library. Nobelloureoles on Ihe faculty, and the large number of faculty in the notional Academy of Sc:ience. The entrance requirements are 0 Ba overage forin·stoteSluden isandoBplus overoge for oUI·ol·sto ut students. SotisfoctorytestresullsonlheSAT. teslsorenecessory.

Rich Scorza

School : The University of Iowa Coach: Mike Jacobson Captain: Rich Scorza (Co-Captain) Age : 21 Major & GPA: Liberal Arts-2.694 Interests: Recreational Sports High School Attended : Willowbrook, II I. Competitive Honors & Award s: 1966 Illinois HS Horizon tal Bar Champ. 196B USG F Vaulting Champ. Member 1969 Iowa NCAA Championship Team. Events: All-Around

Roger Neist

School : The University of Iowa Coach : Mike Jacobson Captain : Roger Neist (Co-Captain) Age : 21 Major & GPA: Pharmacy-3.346 Interests: Recreationa l Sports High School Attended : (Minnesoto) Competi tive Honors & Awards: 1966 Minnesota HS AA, HB, PB & R Champ. Member 1969 Iowa NCAA Championship Team. Events: All -Around

AcademY~~c :"

School : United States Naval ".Coach: Bill Savering 'I~\" ".'." '. :.;" SEE. Captain : Steve Klotz \ ' c:. E'N.TER Age: 21 Co' \, H oTo Major & GPA: OceanographY-2.95 High School Attended : North Miami Beach, Florida Competitive Honors & Awards: E.I.G.L. place winner as a sophomore, Alternate Maccabiah Gomes Team 1969. Events : AII·Around


Jugoslav Gymnaestrada Ladders


O ne o f th e mos t impress ive a nd inn ova ti ve di s pl ays we saw a t th e G y mn aes t rada in Base l las t Jul y was of la dd e r wo rk by yo un g boys of th e Ju go s la vian Gy mna s ti c Fed e rati o n. Th e boys s howe d a fa nt as ti c numbe r o r wa ys s uch s pec ial ladders mi ght be use d. and th ey a re trul y wo rth y or re pli ca ti o n in o ur o w n gy mn as ti c and ph ys ic a l edu c ati o n prog ra ms. Th e draw ings acco mpa ny in g th is a rti c le s how th a t th e la dd e rs we obse rved a re o f two bas ic types. In o rd e r to do a ll of th e wo rk we sa w demon s trated. it is necessa ry to bu ild a t leas t two o f ea c h kind o r a tot a l of four. Th e ladde rs may be used in di vi du ll y . or co urse . but th e ir s pec ia l conn ec ting d ev ices pe rmit a n unlim ite d numbe r of poss ibiliti es. Th e co nn ec ti o ns a re o f two va ri e tie s. As s ho wn in det a il s ke tc hes "A" and " B" o ne e nd of ea c h of th e ladd e rs form s a uni qu e hinge that loc ks a nd rot a tes a s des ire d. A sec o nd ty pe or

co nn ec ti o n pe rmit s two o f' th e la d de rs to be j o ine d toge th e r to a lm os t do ubl e th e le ngth of th e la dd e r. With ro ur ladd e rs. a c la ss o f boys can ex pe rime nt in ma king their o w n appa ra tu s a nd th e n adapt it ro r s pe cia l move me nt s a nd c ha ll e nges ( 16 boys used e ight ladd e rs in Base l). Py ramid s w ith ladd e rs we re prac ticed a nd ta ught by Rud o lph Lio n before th e turn of th e ce ntury. (Th e picture acco mpa ny in g th e a rti c le is fro m on e or Lion 's guid es.) But th e Ju gos lav boys ha ve go ne One be tt e r o n old H e rr Lion .. th ey ha ve theil' gYllln a s ti c la dd e rs but man y oth e r kind s of a ppara tu s a s we ll. Th e la dd e rs a re a lread y und e r co ns tru c tion at Wi sco ns in St a te U ni ve rs it y (Supe ri o r ). and we s hall look ro rward to re po rt in g ac ti viti es co ndu c ted by rvl r. A la n Rupno w . w ho is d irec to r o f ph ys ica l e duc a tion at WS U 's la bo ratory sc ho o l. A. B. F .




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HOLMES , Jr ., HaroldZ. " A Cinematol!mphic A 11 a Iv .l' i.\路 oIthe B ackward H andsprin g ," Urbal/a, M.S. Thesis , U I/i" ers itv o/ Illii/ ois , 1968.

PURPOSE Th e purpose s of the stud y we re to anal yze th e bac kwa rd ha nd sp rin g a s a basi s for ga inin g ma ximum e leva tion a nd suffici e nt time to execut e diffi c ult stunt s by id e ntifyi ng the c harac te ri sti c s differe nti a tin g hi ghl y effec ti ve from re lative ly in effec ti ve performance a nd to differentiate between th e back ha nd s pring performed se pa ra te ly a nd in a ro utin e. Three gro up s of three eac h expe rt. good a nd fair subjects pe rformed three tumblin g sequ e nc es for a nal ys is. Th e first ro utine was a backwa rd handspring a nd backward so me rsa ult from a sta nd (SB HBS ). Th e seco nd routine was a round-off, backward ha nd spring a nd backwa rd so m e rsa ult fr o m a s ta ndin g s tart (SR BHBS ). A run was add ed before th e roundofr. backward ha nd spring a nd backwa rd some rsa ult in th e third routine (RRBHBS ). PROCEDURES Ci ne ma tograp hy was used to reco rd th e necessaril y hi g h speed move ment. A tripodmo unted Bell a nd Howe ll 35 millim e te r Eyemo mo ti o n pi cture ca mera was pl ace d perpendicula r to a nd fift y-five feet fro m the nea r edge of th e tumbling la ne. a regulation o ne- inch thi ck t.n so lite fl oo r exerc ise ma t. in o rd e r to photogra ph th e backward ha nd sp rings a nd backward so me rsa ult s. Two hundred fee t of Kodak Tri-X film. ex pose d a t f4. a nd one hundred feet of Kod ak Plu s-X. exposed a t f2.8 . we re used a t a ra te of esse nti a ll y thirty fra mes per seco nd. A Standard Electric Co mpa ny Time clock. with a thirt y-inch ha nd a nd face , indica tin g time to .0 I seco nd , a nd a hi gh jump c rossba r with one-foot blac k a nd w hit e stripes we re placed in the came ra fie ld as sca le object s. Th e exposed film was de ve loped by th e U ni ve rs it y of Illinoi s Photographic La bora tory a nd a positi ve print was produced for proj ec tion in a Rek o rda k mi c rofilm reade r so th a t body outlines a nd sti c k figures co uld be made. The backward ha nd s pring was di vided int o foot-contact, first flight. ha nd-c o nt ac t, seco nd fli ght a nd rebound ph ases for stud y. Each time th e subjec t lit o r left th e mat a bod y outline trac ing was made so th a t th e center of grav it y co uld be es tima ted. With th e center of grav it y es tim a ted for th e begi nning a nd e nd of eac h phase the ho ri zo ntal distance and th e time betwee n th e po int s were use d to co mpute th e ave rage horizont a l ve locit y of each ph ase . S in ce momentum equal s mas s times velocity a nd th e mass re ma ined con sta nt throughout th e routine , a ny change in ho ri zo nt a l ve loc it y indicated a c ha nge in ho ri zo nt al mome ntum. Th e pa rabo li c projection of th e center of gravity in the backward somersa ult was estimated to find th e lengt h. lift a nd a ngle of take -off of the ce nt e r of grav it y. 18

Two a ngles were mea sured in degree s clockwi se from th e ve rti ca l (000 degree s ) through a pivot to a bodil y reference point. The bod y a ngle was th e a ngle a t th e pi vot o n th e mat betwee n th e ve rti ca l a nd th e lin e to the ce nt e r of grav it y, I t wa s measured eac h time co nt ac t wa s gai ned or lost to show the bodil y lea n a t th e sta rt a nd fini sh of eac h co nt ac t phase. With th e subj ec ts mov in g from left to right a nd facing left whe n upri ght in th e ha nd sprin g a nd somersau lt. a bod y a ngle of 350 degree s ind ica ted th at th e ce nt e r of grav it y was 10 deg rees to th e left of th e a nkl es . or th a t th e subj ect was lea nin g sli ghtl y forward. Th e ar m a ngle was measured si mil a rl y from the ve rtica l throu gh th e ce nt e r of th e shoulder to the w ri st a t the initi a l position s of the foot-contact a nd rebound ph ase s a nd a t max imum a rm back s wi ng in the SBHBS. Hip and kn ee angles we re meas ured as the a ngle between th e seg me nt s adjace nt to th e jo int. Th ese a ngle s were meas ured w he n co nt ac t with th e ma t was made or lost . whe n the joint a ngle was minimal durin g eac h routine. and at th e time of max imum a rm backswing in th e SBHBS routine. Hori zo nt a l distances be t wee n th e feet a nd ha nd placement s were measured a nd th e rati o of th e feet-to-feet di sta nce to standing he ight wa s co mput ed .

RESULT The le ngt hs of th e backward ha nd sp rin gs . as indi cated by th e ho ri zo nt a l distance s betwee n th e pl ace me nt s of the fee t on th e mat. we re greater for th e expe rt th a n for th e good a nd fair subje cts in all routine s (Tabl e I). The feet -to-fee t measures were 70. 61 a nd 5 1 in c hes for the ex pert. good a nd fair group s in th e SBHBS. In th e SRBHBS the meas ures we re 74 , 67 a nd 70 in c hes for the three gro ups a nd in the RRBHBS th e length s we re 93 . 88 a nd 92 inches. The ratio of th e feet-to-feet di sta nce to th e sta nding height of th e subj ect o rdered th e gro up s in th e S BH BS ro utin e (1.02, .92 and .77) , but fail ed to o rd e r th e g roups in th e S RBHBS (1.09. 1.0 1 a nd ' I.U 7) a nd RRBH BS ( 1. 36 . 1.3 1 a nd 1. 39) routin es. Th e expert subjects required th e mos t tim e ( 1.57. 1. 37 a nd 1.46 seco nd s) to complete the backward ha nd s pring in th e SBH BS routine a nd the least time (.75 , .82 a nd .94 . a nd .65 , .72 a nd .82 seco nd s) in the SRBH BS a nd R R B H BS routines. Nevertheless , the expe rt s ubj ects pe rformed the backward ha nd sp rin g in a ll routines at th e grea tes t average hori zo nta l ve loc it y (43 . 42 a nd 37: 88 , 76 a nd 76: a nd 128 , I 12 a nd I 12 in c he s pe r seco nd), indicati ve of the hi ghes t average horizonta l momentum. For th e foo t co nt ac t ph ase in the SRBH BS a nd RRBHBS routines , the ex pe rt subject s ge ne ra ll y la nd ed in the mo st upri ght position as indi cated by the body a ngle s (00 3, 352 a nd 35 1, a nd 354. 355 a nd 344 degrees) a nd hi gher a rm a ngles (235 , 2 18 a nd 185 , a nd 24 1, 24 1 a nd 198 degre es). In th e SBHBS routine with o ut a preceding round-off, the experts had the greatest a rm backswing (062 . 092 a nd 109 degrees) . the least hip fl ex ion (83 , 75 a nd 79 degrees) , th e leas t knee fle xion ( 116 ,98 a nd 90 degrees) and pl a nt a r fl ex ion at th e time of max imum a rm backswing. Th e la nding and minimum hip and kn ee a ngle s in th e SRBHBS a nd RRBHBS routines did not diffe r grea tl y and ge nerall y did not order th e groups by ab ilit y leve ls. In a ll routines , the ex pe rt s ge nera ll y were lea ning th e farthest bac kwa rd when the feet left (040 , 040 a nd 030: 033 , 030 a nd 025 ; a nd 033 , 034 a nd 025 deg rees) , suggesting th a t the sup erior average hori zont a l ve lociti es of the experts in th e first flight ph ase (83 , 72 and 56 : 124 , 11 6 a nd 95: a nd 18 3, 160 a nd 147 in c hes pe r second) were due to stronger hip a nd knee exte nsio ns whi c h se nt th e bodies into fl a tte r trajec tori es.

In th'e ha nd- co nt ac t phase. the bod y a ngle s on la nding did no t co nsistentl y orde r the gro ups . but th e bod y a ngle s o n leav ing (0 I O. 0 18 a nd 020: 009.014 a nd 0 16: a nd 0 17 . 01 7 a nd 018 degree s ) a nd th e hip a ngles o n leav in g ( 134. 120 a nd 94: 125. 105 a nd 103: a nd III. I 12 a nd I I I degrees ) indicated that th e e xpe rt subjec ts we re th e most nearly in ve rt ed as th e ha nd s pu shed fro m th e mat. T he re lat ive ly hig h pos iti o n of th e ce nt e r of grav it y a nd th e push from th e mat in sured adequ a te tim e a nd co nse rve d ro ta ry moti on to la nd in the o ptimum po s iti o n for the rebound from th e mat. Th e grea te st difference between gro up s wa s in th e rebound from th e mat. Th e mo re s kill ed subjec ts had a n impact ty pe of rebo und w hil e th e less s kill ed subj ec ts te nd ed to land a nd jump . Th e bod y a ngles o n la nding we re esse nti a ll y th e sa me for a ll gro ups in a ll rou tin es . however. th e more sk illed subj ec ts had the hi ghes t a rm pos iti o ns on la nding (232. 20 1 a nd 189: 245 . 22 1 a nd 194: a nd 233 , 234 a nd 2 15 degree s ). a nd ge ne rall y th e gre a te st hip a ngles ( 10 5. 98 a nd 76: I I I. I I I a nd 94: a nd 108 . I I ~ a nd I i 4 degrees) . A s th e expert subj ec ts la nd ed , the ir hips a nd kne es we re extending powe rfull y and th ey cont ac ted th e mat with onl y th e ball s of th e ir feet in a n impact ty pe of rebo und . A s a res ult. th e ex pe rt g roup te nded to have the least additiona l knee fle xion ( II. 28 a nd 34: 8. 14 a nd 33 : a nd 10 , 6 a nd 9 deg re es). excep t in th e R RB H BS routine whe re th e less 'ski ll ed s ubj ec ts lit stiff legged , and th e s horte st tim e on th e ma t (. 13, .16 a nd .20: . 10 .. 12 and . 16: a nd. 10 , .1 I a nd . 12 seco nd s) . In th e SBHBS a nd SRBHBS routines th e les s s killed performers tended to la nd , give a nd jump int o th e backward so me rsa ult , thu s di ssipati ng mome ntum during th e rebound. The backward so me rsa ult s of the expert g ymn asts we re clea rl y superior to those of the o ther groups. Whil e th ere was little diffe re nc e in the ta ke-off angle of the center of g rav it y, th e ex pe rt s had consistently the greatest length (35 , 32 a nd 30: 54, 35 a nd 35 : a nd 62 . 48 a nd 45 inche s) , lift (23 , 16 a nd II: 28 , 20 a nd 14: a nd 36, 28 a nd 23 inche s) a nd time in fli ght (.7 1, .63 a nd .57: .80, .69 a nd .62: a nd .88 , .80 a nd. 73 second s). Th e backward so me rsault as a se pa rate stunt differed from th e backward ha nd sprin g as pa rt of a routin e in the origin a nd di s po sition of the momentum nee ded for th e stunt. I n the sepa ra te backward ha nd s prin g, horizonta l a nd rotary mo mentum were increase d from zero in the stan ding sta rt by unbl a nacing and s pringing backwards a nd then dege nerated to ze ro in the sta nding finish by la nding with the feet behind the projected pa th of th e center of gravity , fl ex ing a t the hips and knees to abso rb momen tum a nd then sta nding s lowl y with control. Th e " in-routine " back ha nd spring began with so me initial horizonta l a nd rotary momentum from the preceding stunt. A following " lift " action required converting so me horizontal momentum to ve rtica l lift and conse rving th e rot a ry momentum for s ubsequent turn s. But a following "whip" action required increas ing , o r at leas t con se rving, the rotary mome ntum whil e converting little or no horizo ntal momentum to ve rtica l lift.

CONCLUSIONS I. Th e ex pe rt subject s clearly exceeded the other subj ec ts in the lift a nd time of fli ght of their backward so me rsault s in a ll routines by co mpleting th eir backward hand springs at th e hi ghest ave rage hori zo nt al ve locit y th at th ey co uld ma nage , and by co nverting so me hori zo nt al mOO1e ntum to ga in addition al vertical lift a nd time in fli ght. 2. The ex pert subj ects left th e initia l foot contact phase w ith the la rge st backward lean a nd a strong pu sh from the mat which increased considerabl y their hori zon tal velocit y and mome ntum in the first fli ght phase. 3. Th e push-offfrom the mat in th e ha nd -co n-

tact pha se wit h a body angle close to vert ica l and before th e hips were deepl y pik ed all owed th e expert subjec ts to ga in hei ght and tim e in th e seco nd flight ph ase. to rotate about their cente rs of gravity in flight and to land in the op ti mum po sition ror rebounding for height. 4. Th e expert s directed their higher horizo nt al momentum int o max imal lift and time in fli ght by landing in the rebound phase wi th an impact ac ti on. charac teri zed by a high arm position on landin g. a rorceful ex tension or th e hips and knees wh ile landing. litt le additional knee fl exion aft er landin g. co nt act on the bal ls or th e reet on ly. and a ve ry short duration. S. Th e backward hand sp rin g as a se para te stunt in vo lved ge nera tin g mo mentum from a

stand by un balancing and sprin ging backward. Com ing to a standing fini sh requ ired placing the ree t behind the projec ted pa th or th e ce nter of gravity. Ilex ing at th e hips and kn ees to di ssipate th e momentum . and th en rising to a standing position. I n a ro utine. th e gy mn as t had ro tar y and horizo ntal momen tum rrom th e prece ding stunt. A follow in g " lift " stunt required co nvert ing so me hori zontal mome ntum to ve rt ical lift and co nserv in g th e ro tary momentum for subse quent turn s. On the o th er hand . a rollow ing "whip" stunt required In creasing. or at leas t con servi ng. the rot ary momentum w hile co nve rting litt le or no ho rizont almomentum to vert ica l li ft.




Foot-Hand - Foo t Placement F to H 42 32 H to F F to F

t o F/ He . Foot Con ta ct Spa ce

Time Vel . Hor . Body Ang le Land Leave Arm Angle Land (or Max.)




41 34 74 1.09

33 34 67 1. 01

41 29 70 1.07

47 45 93 1. 36

45 43 88 1.31

51 41 92 1.39

11 .61 18

13 .17 76

14 .20 70

14 . 19 74

19 .15 121

18 . 17 105

20 .1 9 102

000 040

359 030

003 033

352 030

351 025

354 033

355 034

34 4 025

28 70 1. 02

28 61 .92

21 22

16 . 65 25

3 58 040



26 25 51

. 77









19 8

Land (or Hax.)








79 75


Minimum Knee Angle Land (or Max . ) Minimum Plantar Flexion

75 72

116 77 yes

98 76 no

90 76 no

134 91

138 84

139 93

134 98

137 95

139 103

First Flight Space Tim e Vel. Ho r.


10 .14 72


.18 83

. 26 56

17 . 14 12 4

14 22 .12.24 116 95

23 . 13 183

18 . 11 160

29 .21 14 7

14 .25 56

16 .27 59

12 .28 45

14 .19 72

15 . 25 62

17 . 25 70

19 .17 107

22 .21 102

20 . 20 103

348 010

350 018

358 020

345 009

347 014

345 016

349 017

341 017

344 018










13 . 18 70

10 .16 65

7 . 11 62

15 . 13 109

14 .13 11 0

10 .11 91

15 . 09 162

16 .11 148

15 .11 146






. 13 41

.16 35

.20 42

.10 66

. 12 36

.16 49

9 .10 82 _

. 11 60

5 . 12 48

346 358

345 001

346 009

341 353

340 351

340 000

327 347

333 348

334 347

Hi p Ang le

Hand Contact Space

Time Vel. Hor. Body Angle Land Leave Hip Ang le Leave Second Flig ht Space

Time Vel. Hor .

.......,....,_ _F_IG_URE 2 ' BACK HANDSPRING, SRBHBS

Rebound Space Time Vel. Ho r . Body Angl e Land Leave Arm Ang le Land Hip Ang le Land Knee Ang le Land Minimum

Differenc e

















11 8

11 4

138 127 11

149 121 28

146 11 2 34

140 133 8

151 138 14

154 120 33

143 133 10

149 143 6

149 140 9

58 1. 37 42

50 1. 46 37

65 . 75 88

62 .82 76

71 .94 76

83 . 65 128

80 . 71 112

89 .82 112

65 32 16 . 63

60 30 11 . 57

66 54 28 .80

68 35 20 .69

62 35 14 .62

67 62 36 .88

67 48 28 .80

66 45 23 . 73

Total Back Handspring Space 67

Time Ve l . Ho r .

1. 57 43

Backward Somersaul t

Take- off Angle Length Lif t Ti me

69 35 23 . 71

NOTE --Space , Time and Vel. Hor . , and Kne e Angl e--Land, Minimum and Diff e rence --in the table were rounded to t wo d igits. This resulted in what appears to be error s in Sp ace /Time or Ve L Hor . . and 1n Knee Ang le Land minus Minimum or Difference.

E = expert subject s (N

= 3)

G = good subjects (N

= 3)

F = fa ir sub jects (N

= 3)


Controlling Shoulder Prob Iems of the Ringman by M. MI CKE Y CO BB H ead Trainer Georg ia Southern Co llege States boro . Georgia Working the gy mnas tic appa ra tu s is quite demanding fo r a n y at hlete. T o continu ous ly be exposed to ph ys ical stre ss prese nt s the po ss ibi lit y of a thl et ic injury to the performer. The ring ma n is a good example. Being a ringman requires excep tiona l strength a nd body control. T o e njoy th e possibility of being a c ha mpi o n requires th e a thl e te to engage him se lf in strenu ous wo rk o ut s. The nature of the worko ut s mi ght be in th e form of we ig ht training or just plain wo rking th e a ppara tus. Th e c ha mpion-ca libre ringman wo rk s yea r 'round. A seasonal gym nast cannot be a c ham pion. Naturall y. the goa l of a ll ringme n is to be th e very best in hi s class of co mpe titio n. To ac hi eve thi s goa l, the gy mn as t will wo rk beyo nd hi s fa tigue point. Sometimes an injury w ill occur. Wh e n it does. proper trea tmen t will help de term in e how successfu l the a thl e te will be. I n dealing with th e injured man. an und e rsta nding of a nato m y a nd kine siology is necessa ry. The s ho uld e r joint is quite movab le . It is a ba ll -and- soc ke t joint which is co mpo sed of the scapula. hum e ru s a nd clav icl e. The hum e ru s of eith e r a rm has it s head e nsocketed int o th e sca pul a. It is held in place by various liga men ts. te ndon s a nd mu sc les. Th e cla vicl e or the co ll a rfind s it s loca tio ns forward and upper to th a t of the humerus a nd sca pula. The three bones make up th e acro mioc lav icul a r joint. Th e ac ro mi oc lav ic ul a r joint is wo rk ed by the fo ll owing mu scles: delt o id . tri ceps. su pras pina tu s. subsca pula ri s. tres maj o r a nd minor a nd th e pec tora l mu sc les. The ac romi oc lav icul a r joint is g reatl y in vo lved when a still-ringman begins to perform . To pull him se lf to th e rings a nd go int o a n iron c ross. th e above- me ntioned mu sc les work to mo ve th e bod y in o rder to a llo w th e head of the humerus to be positioned correc tl y in th e gle no id fossa of th e scapul a . The mo ve me nt a nd stress placed on the sho uld er joint as th e a thl e te ass ume s a n ironcro ss form is vigoro us. If the at hlet e is not well conditioned o r not a ttent a ti ve. he cou ld experience injury to the sho uld e r joint. The type inju ry co uld ra nge from a slight ove rstre tching of th e mu sc les to po ss ible ca rtil age damage. The ac tual eva lu ation of th e injury s hould be made by the tea m physician. The team physician w ill dec ide th e imm ediate trea tment a nd let the coac h know whe n th e a thl ete will be a ble to go "full stea m." T he re a re ways of co ntrolling th e num ber a nd seve rit y of th e va ri o us injuries to the sho ul de r joint. Fo r in sta nce. a vigoro us weig ht training program is hel pful. And . with o ut a doubt. ha rd work o n the rings w ill help to develop the gy mna st. Exp lo ring th e two programs takes det ail ed involvement. Co nsider the weig ht training prog ram : th e be nc h press is good for deve lopi ng th e sho ulder mu scles pre viou sly me ntioned. A lth o ug h not me nti o ned before no w. a n exe rcise to deve lo p th e poste ri or portion of the deltoid a nd th e trapezeous mu sc le is helpful. T o acco m-


plish th is the behind-the-neck pre ss will do. The bench press is a lso ve ry he lpful in stre ngt he ning th e sho ulder joint muscles a nd the pectoralis muscles . On the benc h . if t he hands a re placed in line with the sho uld e rs , the pectorali s muscles are no t taxed a g reat amount. If the we igh t trainer w ill mo ve hi s ha nd s further o ut th e bar. th e pectoralis mu sc les w ill co ntract with greate r vigor. Dips o n th e P-bars are helpful in the dev elop me nt of the sho ulder, trice ps a nd pec tora li s mu sc les. To determine how far apa rt the ba rs should be , a pproac h the a ppa ratu s by pl ac ing th e elbow to one bar. The lower a rm a nd ha nd is extended at a 45 0 a ngle to the bar. The fingertips sho uld just touch the bar o ppos it e the elbow-t o uc hing bar. In add itio n to the traditional weight-training prog ra m . pe rhaps o ne of the techniques we use here a t Georgia Southern will help the coac h in hi s we ig ht-tra ining pl a nning : Gy mnas tic s Coach Ron Oertle y, who has guided our cu rren t te a m to a 12-0 reco rd ( 10 win s from last season), has devi sed a weight-training device. Mr. Oertley had three bo lt s with " eyes " faste ned to the ce iling of the we ight room . Then pull eys we re fastened to the eye bolts. Single pieces of nylon rope are att ac hed to eac h ring: pass over the pull eys a re joined a nd attac hed to a cable ha ndl e on a 20-ga ll o n ga rbage can. Single we ight plates a re placed into th e container un til a desirab le we ig ht res ista nce is met. Th e a thl ete is between but under the still rings. He reac hes up to full arm exte nsio n a nd pull s on the rings . The a rm s ass ume hori zo nta l abduction . Holding th e we ig ht s a t thi s position inc reases the mu sc ul ar st re ngt h a nd e ndura nce. If the athlete so desires. he ma y bring t he a rm s pa lm s down to the legs. To re turn the weight ed ca n to the floor , the gy mn as t all ows the a rm s to be returned to the abdu cted hori zo nt al po siti on by controll ing th e weight as it is pull ed by g rav ita l force . The above equipment and exe rc ise wi ll help to develop th e deltoid mu scle gro up which he lp s in the abuction-horizontal act ion. Sinee th e sho uld e r joi nt has a great deal of physical stress placed o n it. periodic phys ic al th e ra py treatment is necessary. Natura ll y . if the coac h or trainer suspec ts any ex te nsive damage to the sho ulder joint. th e n the o rth opedis t sho uld be co nsulted. Perh a ps th e use of th e vario us modaliti es will he lp yo u to improve yo ur a thl e te's physical we ll -being. Co ns ide r th e fo llow ing : U Itra sollnd ma chin e: a device throug h which ultraso und waves travel. Wh e n the mac hine is se t a t it s proper int ens it y and th e time li mit set. so und waves trave l throu gh th e s kin a nd the unde rl ying ti ss ue . While mak ing the journey. the waves prod uce fri ction wit hin th e ti ss ue. Ti ss ue frict io n produces warmt h : th e warm th has a di a lati ng effect on the surroun d ing blood vesse ls, a nd in creased blood ci rc ul a tion is the res ult. H ydro cillator: a devi ce equipped with a co il. when exposed to elec tri ci ty. hea ts surro unding wa ter. Within th e me ta l de vice. a rack to hold canvas cove red "sa nd bags" can be found. When th e wa te r ge ts hot. th e hyd roc ul a tor bags a re satura ted with ho t water. The y a re placed ove r th e ac romiocla vicul a r joint. The hea t from th e hydrocu lato r pad is tran sferred to the should e r, thu s affec ting the at hl e te a nd hi s sho ulder problem . A nalgesic balm rub-illS : Massag ing th e sho uld er joint with a mild a nalge sic ba lm see ms to a id the ath lete a nd hi s sho ulder joint prob le m. C ryokin etics : C ryo kinetic s is a met hod used to in crease blood c irc ul a tio n by e mploying ic e. You mi ght propose th e question: .. Does n't ic e ca use vasoco nstri c tion'J" T he a nswer is " Yes." But aft e r a few mom e nt s

th e body reac ts to the co ld in order to keep the body in ba lance. Th e reac tion is th e de e per vesse ls of the a rea become dial a ted . Thi s phen ome non is ca lled " Reflexvasodia lation." The ice treatm en t is fine for dea ling wit h the va ri ous problems th e gym nast may have with the shou ld e r joint. Ho weve r. eve n afte r ed ucatin g the a thl e te . he will be reluct a nt to th e idea of co ld. So. perhaps , in ma ny cases , th e heat is better. I n co nclu sio n , th e ring ma n is exposed to repeated stress o n th e shoulder joint. The a tt e nti o n give n him must coi ncide wi th that of yo ur ph ys ic ia n. Any of the moda liti es suggested do prese nt positive result s. C heck with your physician a nd give yo ur a thl ete th e best tha t yo u can id e.

PORTABLE PARALLETTES Excellent for the home and gym. Hand stands. presses and levers so essential are mav~s done on these parolielles. Extensively used by gym nasts and Olympians throughout Japan. Mode of ha rdwood and stu r路 dily constructed for long use. Walnut finished and hand poli shed. Price $6.00 per pro Plus Postage So. Col.

W. States


Ea st





OROER FROM: M.G. PARAllmES BOX 777 Santa Monica Calif. 90406

1970 WORLD.GAMES ' COMPULSORIES Just $15.00 for 150 It. SI,er-S Coin film of 1970 Worl_ Games Compulsories. Awailabl. froll Slldb, Plblicatins, P.O. aOI 117, Sub M.nica; Califlmia



rings by Mickey C haplan Asst. Coach, U ni ve rs it y of Oregon " The German Ri se o n Still Rin gs" by Doug C hurch

(Doug Church is a University of Oregon rin gman and a }inalist in th e AA W U conference championships. Sin ce he leal'll ed this particular trick before I did and slI cceeded in teach ing it to me, I asked him to explain th e techniqlle to my MG friends. M.C. ) The Germa n ri se to " L" on still rings is a unique tri ck , ra rely wi tnessed in competition. I t requires a combination of flexibilit y, strength and coordination. The move ment consists of a free swi ng into a deep inlocate hang (sk in th e cat) a nd a co nseque nt ri se throu gh an " L"-

sit. (Thi s trick is to be di stin gui s hed from th e back lever - bounce to cross. - M) CÂť The necess it y for flexibl e shoulde rs as a prerequ isite to th e move needs to be e mph asized because the great a mo unt of force th at mu st be appli ed to reach an " L" create s an in ten se strain on the mu scles not accustomed to the action . The fl ex ibilit y is obtained over a period of time by hanging inlocated (sk in -thecat) and stretching the toes towa rd the ground. Di slocation s from thi s position he lp loosen th e shoulders . C ross strength is also helpful as th e performer mu st pass throu gh th e" L " -cross position . Whe n a deep inlocate ha ng is comfortable a nd cross strength is deve loped , the perfo rmer is read y to begin wo rking the German ri se to " L. " The move start s from any numbe r of position s : hand stand, in verted cross, Ma ltese cross , inverted ha ng, etc., but th e performer mu st be sw inging freely through the back lever pos ition (probab ly the bes t pl ace to sta rt when learning the trick is from a straight body in -

verted hang. - M.C.). Th e pe rforme r lets hi s hee ls drop in a free sw ing, looking at th e ground during thi s swing. Wh en the inloca te hang is reached from th e swing. the performer drive s into a deep pik e, w ill feel him se lf ris ing upward , and s hould th en throw hi s head stra ight up a nd pull dow n on th e rings through an "L "-c ross to a n ;; L" -s it. It s hould be mention ed at thi s point that there a re variation s to th e German ri se to " L. " The performer may do the mo ve to a cross, " L " cross (Meyth ale r of Iowa State Univ. , N C AA co- ring ch a mp , pe lformed the German to " L" and " L" -cross in hi s winning routin e) , to a front leve r (in stead of throwing head up , lea n back to fron t lever aft er drive in inl ocate hang). M y opinion is th at the Ge rman ri se performed to a n " L" is the best aes thetica ll y a nd certallll y th e most difficult. The move in any case wo uld be a we lcome addition to a ny gy mna st's repertoire . Good lu ck and perhaps yo u should stock up on deep heatin g rub s.











"JUDGING by J E RRY ," an MG feature se ries edited by Jerry Wright to help keep our ports based on their technical knowledge and readers up-to-date on N ational and Interna- experience. If yo u are a qualified official and tional (F IG ) judging codes and to subjectively have a point offact you would like to contribute analyze changes a nd problems, is not a one- or a question you would like cla rified , drop a ma n, one opinion project. Jerry will be calling card or an article to : J U DG ING by JERRY , on other qu alified officials to contribute ~.e ~,i ),;~o. Box 611 , Santa ~a~a 90406.



1. Straddl e


KT' [ ~

r \

D sf?


25. Yamashita


~1.00 .. m+ *10.00

,[fj), ~.

18. Squat

26. Yamashita with X turn '* 10.00

~k rl~'

rn ' 9~1l




'1000 tTIITI~

- 'I, 3~~~~))/

27. Yamashita with 2

turn **10.00

L~ tlY~~ ~ 160ii;;.ro

20. Scissors with

X turn


_ - t hO. _.â&#x20AC;˘ ,

28. Yamas hita, follow ed bv Saito forward tucked **lo.od

" 3~j"~

' ' -:;650-I1Im.

12. Yamashita with X turn


5 6$ Y 2~ " i~~{~9 """ " f!=-







t i If,


, 11 ) 10

/' \!

¡ 1;;00 rr.m-ill

13. Yamashita with 'I , turn 10.00 2


(Hollander) 1 .0u~nm-

7. Handspring

+ 9.60






(~~ /!i

22. Handspring


~6ft;;~ turn 10.00



1 ' '/



X turn

3~4~ ~.6

~ **10.00 31. Hec ht va ult with 'I , turn ** 10.00

1. 1


v'll LIJ ~r' ~'-~9 ~L

'~ "VJY)

8. Handspring with X turn "'*10.00

Hand~pring ,.



~1600 mn\ -

30. Hech t va ult with X turn **10.00

,~[H, ~. V~i~OO 15. Hecht vault


"H"ht~jij~OO ~~~, :~r U 1t

16. Hecht vault with


'I, turn**10.00


-1GOOt1Y1"I J

24. Handspring with



turn " 10.00


Hecht vault. followed bv Saito f orward tucked . **10.00

Judging the Side Horse Event by D O N T O N RY , Gy mn as ti cs Coach . Y a le U ni versit y

Mos t judge shudd e r a t the thou ght of judging th e sid e ho rse eve nt. Di ffic ulti es a re ex tre me ly co mpli cate d to recog ni ze , a nd exec ution e rro rs pass w ith th e s peed o f li ght. A ny j udge w ho think s th a t he und e rs ta nd s a ll he sees o n thi s ev ent has e ither no t judged top-fli ght compe ti t io n, or o nl y thin ks he unde rs ta nd s. T he re a re ve ry few. if a ny, to p sid e ho rse s pec ia li s ts w ho ca n wa tc h th e ir fe ll ow s pec ia lis ts a t work a nd neve r beco me baffl e d a t th e s ight o f some new o r compli cated co mbin a ti o n. Ge ne rall y, th ey do not hes ita te to te ll you th a t th ey, in s pit e o f th e ir vas t ex pe ri e nce w ith unu s ua l co mbin a tions , find mo me nt s of bew ilderme nt. A good s id e horse ma n has very littl e bod y flu c tua ti o n as he passes fro m o ne a rea o f th e ho rse to a noth er. H is ha nd s c ha nge pos itio n a nd hi s body turn s. b ut th e re a re ve ry few ex tre me pik es a nd ex ten s io ns. Eve ry do u ble leg sk ill is pelfo rme d as a n exte ns io n o f a c irc le - the degree o f hip fl ex ion va ri es littl e fro m Ke hre to Czec h to trave l to c irc le , e tc. A judge ca nno t me re ly read hi s F. I. G. H a ndboo k to kn ow thi s ev ent. Idea ll y, he s ho uld have bee n a qu a lit y pe rfo rme r. s ho ul d c urre ntl y be teac hing a nd lea rnin g new s kill s. s ho uld be s tud y ing film s and lit e ra ture fo r a ddition a l techni ca l info rma ti o n. a nd mu s t practi ce judg ing quite frequ e ntl y. . I have. on occas io n. mi ssed recogni z ing s uc h things as diffic ulti es (was th a t a C o r a B combin a tion ?), sc isso r co mbinatio n (d id he

have a back sc isso r ?). a rea require me nt (did he cove r th e ho rse w ith hi s ro ut ine?l. e tc. Co mmo n judgin g e rro rs s uc h as th ese ca n be a ttribut e d to ne rvo us ness (th e los ing tea m's coac h is o n yo ur back. th e au di e nce is unh appy w ith t he t re nd of the mee t, it 's yo ur firs t o r seco nd judging ass ignme nt of th e yea r , yo u do n' t kn ow side ho rse wo rk ve ry we ll) a nd/or a ge ne ra l lack o f ab ilit y in thi s a rea. O ne ve ry exce ll e nt me th o d of improvi ng yo ur judgi ng a bilit y in thi s a rea is to reco rd eac h pe rfo rme r' s routin e in yo ur ow n pe rso na l s ho rth a nd . Thi s me th o d re quires th a t yo u never look a t yo ur notes during th e ro utine . Y o u s ho uld d eve lo p a sy mbo l fo r A. B a nd C pa rt s (- I C). fo rwa rd a nd back wa rd sc isso rs (S - 3 l, a nd a reas of th e ho rse (R - LJ. T he ho ri zo nta l, ve rt ica l a nd C a re prac ti ca l beca use th ey ca n be executed w ith a single s tro ke . T he S a nd 3 a re s li ght ly mo re e la bo ra te. b ut w ill prov id e a c lea r indi ca ti o n for th e reade r. T he R a nd th e L a re c um be rso me an d may be s ub stitut e d fo r a no th e r sy mbol. A sid e ho rse ro utin e may loo k so me thin g li ke thi s: BeginnerL-3S S S----- R Th e fo ll ow ing conc lu s io n wo uld be reac hed by th c judge a t th e e nd o f th e ro utin e :

1. Form and execution (let's just soy 1.5) 2. He covered all areas (L路R, no deduct ion) 3. He met t he scissor req uirement (3 S S S , no deduction) 4. He hod on ly ten skills (ded uct .2) 5. He did not have ( or B ports (deduct 22) 6. We know t hat his dismoun t hod to be com mensurate with the exercise. 7. His score is , 1.5 exec ution .2 missing por t 2.2 missing ( and B

3.9 6.1 Tota l Score

Us ing th e sa me sys te m. a n int e rm edi a te ro utin e might look like thi s: Loo p a ro un d le ft e nd (L - ). uphill C zec h ( I ). Ke hre- in (-). o ne c irc le (-l. back sc isso r le ft (3 ). three front sc issors (SSS). o ne c irc le (-). C zec h ( I ). two c irc les ( - - ). sid e trave l. loop a ro und le ft e nd to fro nt va ult di s mo unt ( I -). L - I --3 s ss- I -- I Deduction 1. Execution (let's say I .0) 2. (over area (0.1 ) 3. Scissor s (0.0) 4. Number of parts (0.0) 5. ( and B parts (no C. only three Bs, 1 .0) 6. Dismount is B series (00) 7. Th e score is, 1.0 execut ion 0. 1 area 1 .0 difficulty 2.1 deduct 7.9 Total Score

Wh e n a judge ca n be fai rl y ce rt a in th a t. beca use o f th e high q ua lit y of s ide ho rse wo rk . he w ill no t have to co nt e nd w ith s ho rt ro utin es . he may e limin a te th e sy mbo l for A pa rt s. I n thi s case . it mu s t be ass um ed that a compe tit o r ca nn o t exec ut e a s id e ho rse ro utin e w ith th e re quire d scisso r wo rk. d iffi c ult y a nd a rea coverage wi th o ut hav ing e no ugh A pa rt s. A coac h s ho uld have th e right to qu es ti o n w ha t he co ns id e rs to be a n ex tre me ly poo r dec isio n by th e judges. T he j udge s ho u ld be ab le to s how th e coac h th e bas ic reaso ning be hind hi s judg me nt. The j udge mu s t see eve ry thin g fo r whi c h he d educ ts - if he lowe rs a pe rfo rm e r' s sco re w ith o ut hav in g a n exec uti o n. co mbin a ti o n o r diffi c ult y reaso n th a t re lat es to exac tl y w ha t he has obse rve d . th e j udge s ho ul d no t be o n th e noo r j Udging. The o nl y exce pti o n to the last s ta te me nt wo u ld be a te mp o ra ry loss o f o rie nt ati o n as a res u lt o f ne rvo us ness o r me nt a l fa ti!! ue.


(orloon u!.ed wi th perm iss ion of the Saturday Evening Post.

7. Back handsp ring, back so mersault. (pi ked. tu cked . o r layo ut. A + B = B diffi c ult y ). A ra pid s na pdow n (co m pare th e two tum ble rs ) w ith a slig htly mo re ve rtica l co nt ac t a ngle c ha ract e ri ze o ne of the seve ra l diffe re nt me th od s o f pe rfo rm ing

thi s sequ e nce. No te the a rm a nd body pos ition a t co nta c t : head . a rm . a nd bod y pos iti o n durin g lift -o ff: a nd th e ex te nsio n from th e toes. Beg inn e rs s ho uld be ca uti o ned to kee p th e c hes t hi gh a nd no t to th row th e head a nd a rm s back-

wa rd before th e fee t leave th e gro und . Espec ia ll y impressiv e in th is sequ e nce is th e ve rti ca l ta ke-off pos iti o n w hi c h e mph as ize s th e he ight as pec t" of th e so me rsa u lt. Next. Back some rsault with twist.


AYouth Gymnastics Program



With t he inc reas ing popul a rit y of gy mnas ti cs throu gho ut the U nit ed Sta tes, co mes th e dema nd fo r more orga ni zed prog ra ms. Th e beginning gy mnast is beco ming yo unge r a nd younge r. Today gy mn ast ics a nd tum bling a re ta ught to the c hild nea rl y as soo n as wa lking. In th e De nve r Y.M. C. A. 's , a c hild ca n reg iste r in gy mnas ti c c lasses a t fo ur yea rs of age, a nd beg in compe titi o n a t seve n. A prog ra m which in vo lves tumblin g skill s is a lso avail ab le fo r a child when he is 2 \.1 yea rs o ld. Wh y gy mnas tic s? Through gy mnas tic s a c hild ca n ac hi eve exe rci se in a way whi c h is both be nefi cia l a nd fun . H e can ex pe ri e nce ph ys ica l a nd me nta l stimul ati o n a nd coo rdina ti o n leading to a ha pp y a nd hea lthi er child. H e ca n deve lo p a se nse of achi e ve me nt a nd se lf- co nfide nce throug h th e acq uiring a nd furt he ring of skill s a nd tec hniqu es. H e has th e o pportunit y to wo rk with oth e rs a nd co mpe te w ith himse lf a nd o th e rs. Th e s ma ll indi vidu a l ca n pa rti c ipa te equa ll y with the la rger child. A lth o ugh th ese be nefit s a re no t unique to gy mn astics, gy mn as tics does provide th e o ppo rtunit y for th e reali zatio n of a ll th e above . Th e purpose of th e youth gy mnastics progra m is to provide in structi o n of bas ic s kill s in all a reas of gymn as ti cs . Th e co urse is condu c ted so that each c hild has th e o pportunit y to lea rn th e bas ic sk ill s o n se ve ra l a ppa ra tu s a nd tumbling. A n outlin e a nd c heck c ha rt s of th e skill s to be ta ught a re ava il a ble for each teac he r. Th e child spe nd s a pprox ima tel y 15 minutes eac h tra ining sess ion o n fo ur diffe re nt pieces of a ppa ra tu s. Th e gy mnas ium is a rra nged as fo llows : The c lasse s a re divid ed as fo ll o ws : C lass I 9: 00-1 0: 00 A.M. 4-8 year o ld s C lass II 10:00- 1 1:00 A. M. 9-14 year o ld s II :00- 12 :0 0 Noo n T ea m Practi ce Within th e classes the childre n a re di vid ed : C lass I A . 4 yea r o ld s B. 5 yea r o ld s C. 6 year o ld s D . 7 a nd 8 yea r olds E . 7 a nd 8 year old boys abo ve ave rage abilit y F. 7 a nd 8 year o ld girl s w ith a bove average ab ilit y. C lass II A. Girl s above ave rage a bilit y B. Boys w ith a bov e ave rage a bilit y C. Old e r gi rl s g roup D. Older bo ys group E. A ve rage girl s F. A ve rage boys G. Be low a ve rage girl s H . Be low ave rage boys Afte r a ttemptin g va ri o us groupings it is fe lt th a t th e bes t me th od of grouping C lass II is acco rding to se x, age, s ize, a nd ab ilit y. The g irl s work a t girl s eve nt s , the boys at boys e ve nt s a nd both on tra mpolin e a nd tumblin g. Th e four to eight yea r olds , as a rule , lac k th e strength a nd coo rdm a ti o n to pe rfo rm eve n th e mos t bas ic ro utin es o n th e a ppa ra tus. It is th e refore, necessa ry to adapt th e a ppa ra tu s a nd progra m to meet th e ir capa biliti es , a nd ye t


Jo hn Gilling hom - Physica l Ed ucation Director - Central YMCA - Denver

prese nt a challenge for them. This group spen ds much of its time on th e mat s, low bala nce beams , an d trampoline. They also lea rn to run , jump, land and sk ip. Creative acti vities is a lso part of the program for the four to e ight yea r olds. In the nine to 14 year old group , co mpet iti ve a ppa ra tu s is used and more adva nce d sk ills are ta ught. The gy mn as t now begi ns to deve lop his own routines in preparati o n for co mpetiti on. A t thi s time he begins to work on improving a nd broadening hi s sk ills a nd perFormance. Co mpetition consists of approx imate ly 12 meets a season. These meets a re with other Y .M.C.A.'s, schoo ls, and A.A.U . meets . The gy mn as tic tea m practices one to three hours per week. It is not the purpose of the program to develop a highl y competitive tea m, but to offer competi tion to those who are int erested. Again , the emphasis is on e nco uraging th e individual to bette r his sk ills a nd pelfo rmance for hi s personal sati sfac tion . For the 15 year old and o lder, an o pen gy mnastic training period is offered tw ice a wee k. Team members from the you th gym nastic s a re a llowed to attend a fter completing a fo rm wh ich includes their parent's s ignature permitting the child to participate in the open program. The ope n gy mnas ti cs progra m was first es tab lished for th e high sc hool gy mnas ts, and youth w ho were not involved in a ny sc hool competition, but e njoyed pa rti cipa tin g in gy mnastics. High school coac hes were given Y . M.C.A. me mbers hips and th ey in turn se rved as instructors. It mu st be emp hasized that the " Y " does not stress ha ving a competiiive tea m at thi s level , but to provide an open neutral gy mnast ic training sess ion. These gym nas ts aid eac h ot her and in turn improve their ow n pelfo rmance. A stud ent from one high schoo l may ass ist a n indi v idu a l w ho maY be hi s opponent. The youth gymnast ic team a lso receives instru ctio n from the gym nasts who are present. Th ey a re also give n the opportunity to work on their pa rticu lar eve nt and routine which th ey will use in competition. To e ncourage the interests of parents demonstratio ns a re given at C hris tmas and in May. Th e de mon strat io ns in vo lv e a ll children who wish to participate. No chi ld is forced or required to participate. The demo nstrat ion inc ludes actua l working c lasses with a running co mmenta ry on the work being performed. A time at the end is se t as ide for actu al participation by visiting members of th e a udi e nce. Awards in th e form of ce rtificates a re given to everyo ne at th e end of th e first 12 weeks of the program a nd in May. T hese s impl y state th at the child has co mpleted a beginning c lass in gy mnas tics. The team me mbers a re awa rded badges for th eir un iforms. The s uccess of the you th gym nas ti cs progra m is dependent o n th e staff. Th e director is a ll import ant. This writ er has found th at a qu alifi ed ph ys ical education teacher is the ide al. Th e director nee d not be hi ghly skill ed in gy mnast ics, but sho uld possess strong interes t and adni ini st r ative a nd o rga ni za tion a l ab ili tie s. Reco rd keeping, membership s , fees , atte ndance , groupin g a nd ma inte na nce of ski ll sheets are a ll the director's responsibilit y. The instructors need to be experts in the sk ill which they are teac hing. Co llege, high sc hoo l, and professional gy mnas ts provide man y instructors. The open gy mn as tic progra m has provided seve ra l volunteer instructors for the yo uth program. High sc hool a nd co ll ege team membe rs are not a ll owed to be paid , so pl aqu es, membership s, uniform s , shirt s, etc . provide ince ntiv e for teaching. The instru ctors a lso a re int eres ted in pro moting gy mnastics a nd e nj oy work ing with children . In summary, it ca n be sa id that wi th interested dependable pe rso nn e l, a yo uth gy mnas ti cs program can be organi zed and promoted succes sfu ll y.



_ _ ---1 TUMBL IN&




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5 1D ~ HORSE





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The Modern Gymnast Vol. XI A. B. FREDERIC K, COMPILER The Editorial Stoff of the Modern Gymna st would like to acknowledge the tremendou s efforts of more than 50 contributors of major articles this post year and many others who ha ve submitted reports. In the Index below you will find references followed by, for example, 1 (5-6). Th is simply means that the material will be found on pages five and six of the fir st number of the Volume (January). Volume numerals correspond to the month. The author for most of the articles listed will be fou nd following the title of the article in paren theses. For example ... (C riley). A cross index to major contributors follows the subject index. SUBJECT INDEX ART The Art of Gymnastics (Millman) 3( 18) Ghost Horseman 3(28) Gymnastics in Mahogany 4(7) The Soeciolist's Primer 10(27) A Gymnast's Thoughts While Running (Millman) 1 1(25) BOOK REVIEWS An Illu strated Gu ide to Tumbl ing by J. Boley (C riley) 2( 12) CAMPS Comments on Jr. Training Camp (Hoyle) 1(9) CANADIAN REPORT S (Assoc. Ed. John Nooney) 1(9+ ); 2(18); 3(12-13); 4(9); 6-7(7); 8-9(7); 1O( 11) CLINICS New England Clinic (Massimo) 1(10- 11 ) Eastern Gymnastic Clinic 1(12) 1968 Eastern Clinic - Ft. Lauderdale (Holzaepfel) 2(8-9) Sokol Winter Session in Florida 2(9) The Tucson Clinic 2(10) 1968 California Winter Clinic Report (Peavy) 2(11) The Iowa Notional Summer Gymnastic Clinic Report (Jacobson) 11 (6) Columbus H.S. Gymnastic Clinic Report (Hinds) 12(8) The New England Gymnastic Clinic (Cardinali) 12( 10- 11) COACHI NG The Gymnastic Team and the Individual (lonry) 1(13- 14) Progression lists for H.S. Gymnasts (Murray) 2(22) COLLEGE and UNIVERSITY Request for data from the Editor - Questionnaire 10(4) Gymnastics on the Grow in Texa s (Gurganus) 10(8) Data Repo rt s 11 (12-13) Reporting this is sue St. Francis Xovier- Can.; Ithaca Col lege - N.Y.; Bemid ji State College Minn.; South Dakota State College Brookings and Montcloire State College - N.J. COMPULSORY NCAA All-Around Compulsory Progress? (Sundby) 5(4) Compulsories (Men) - 1970 World Championships 10(22-24) 1970 AAU Jr. and YMCA Nation als Compulsories 12(22- 23) EDITORIALS Gymnastics and Space Flights (Sundby) 1(4) Sports and Gomes; A Substitute for Violence (Perry) 2(6) Gymnastics and the 60s (Sund by) 12(4) But, Coach .. (Aldritt) 12(29) 26

EDUCATION The Analysis of Gymnastics - A Survey of the Literature (Frederick) 3(25-27) Universal Moves in Gym nastics (Wasserman) 12(15) EQUIPMENT Gymnastic Landing Mots and the Knee Joint (Tonry) 1(22- 23) The Coach, the Gymnast and the Safety Belt (lonry) 2(21) The Machine (Hinds) 3( 14) Concerning Videotape Recorders FASHION (Feature by Walter Zwickel) Fitting the Gymnast 2(28) Which is the Best Stirrup? 12(8) FLOOR EXERCISE Some Generalizations about F.X. (Millman) 10(18) F.X. Concepts for Fine Performance (Millman) 11(18) Mechanics and Aesthetics in F.X. (Millman) 12(18) HISTORY Leopold F. Zworg (Patterson) 4(6) HORIZONTAL BAR Illustrations of Nakayama 's Olympic Routine (Frederick) 4(20-2 1) Free Hip Circle (George) 10(20-21 ) Cross Grip GianI. Bock Pirouette (George) 11(21) Teach ing the German Giant (Holmes) 11(22) Stalder Hop (George) 12(21) INDEX Index for Vol. X (Frederick) 2(26-27) INTERNATIONAL Swiss Santo Monico Stopover 3(7) The Swiss Notional Team Tour of the USA 3(8-10) Gymnastics in Ea st Germany (Tuerke) 3(20) Tour Del Norte Americanos En Sud America (Tucker) 4(7 +) An International Gymnastic Symposium for Male Coaches (Aronson) 6-7(2526 + ) Capo De La s Americas (Wright) 8-9 (22-23) Report on the Mocco bioh Gomes (Wasserman) 10(6) 8th Eurapeon Championships (Gonera) 10(14-15) Middle East Tour (Roetzheim) 11 (10-11 +) West German y's Gymnastic Federation School 12(12-13) INl l RSCHOLASTIC GYMNASTICS A Comparison of Interscholastic Gymna stics on the H.S. Level (Murray) 1(6) H.S. Gymnastic Training 2(7) A Showdown (Hinds) 3(6) H.S. Co-Ed Gymnas tics (Su ndby) 8-9(4) Open Letter to all H.S. Coaches (Drain) 8-9(6) The " Big Trick" in H.S. Gymnastics (Murray) 8-9(6) Notes on H.S. Gymnastics (Criley) 8-9(7) M.G. High School Report 8-9(9-18) INVITATIONALS Making the In vitational Scene in Southern California (Criley) 1(6-7) JAPANESE GYMNASTICS The Japanese Gymnastic Workout (Davis) 2( 13) Interviews with Kenmotsu and Nakayama 6-7(15) The Japanese H.S. Championships (Da vis) 8-9(8) Training for Competition in Japan (Sakamoto) 11(9) JUDGING The Computer Tokes a New Look at College Gymnastic Judging 1(21) Quiz 2(7) Notional Gymnastic Officials' Association (NGOA) (Wright) 2(23-25) International Judges Course - Penn State (Wright) 3(22-23) F.I.G. Code Changes (Wright) 4(23- 24) Eastern Division Judges Quiz (Wright) 5(28) Code of Points Interpretation s (Wright) 6-7(27-28) Critique of FIG Difficulty Ratings (Culbert son) 8-9(24-25)

Judging H.S. Gymnastics (Wm. Wright) 8-9(26) Concerning the 1968 Code of Points (Wright) 10(24-25) Judges Corner (Muzycko) 11 (24) Critical Review of Difficulty Ratings (Culbertson) 12(24-25) Gymnastic Judging Comes of Age (Roetzheim) 12(26-27) LONG HORSE VAULTING On Vaulting the Long Horse 10(19) On Beginning Va ulting (Mill man) 11 (l 9) The Handspring (Millman) 11(20) The Stoop Vault (Millman) 12(20) N.A.C.G.C. 1969 NACGC Awards (Price) 5(7) N.C.A.A. College Division Championships (Bottitto) 4(10-12) M.G. - NCAA Report (Wright 5(8-11) Interviews at NCAA Championships (Criley) 5(11-12 + ) Pictorial Report - NCAA Championships 5(13-25) OLYMPICS Olympic Team Comments (Hug) 1(14) 1968 Olympic Efforts (Beckner) 2(14-15) Olympics 1968 (Weiler) 3( 12) Mexico Olympics (Hartley) 3( 12-13) One Coach's Ca ndid Reply to Two Olympians (Wilson) 3(29) PARALLEL BARS Swing Through to Inlocoted Position (George) 10(20) Loy Away Front Uprise (George) 11 (20-2 1) Bock Uprise Handstand (George 12(21) PERSONALITIES Steve Cohen Interview 1(18-19) Menichelli 1(15) Coach Rusty Mitchell (Sundby) 4 (14-15) Steve Hug Interview 8-9( 19) Kieth McCanless Interview (Criley) 10(9) Pau l Vexler Interview (C riley) 11 (15) PSYCHOLOGY Psychology and the Gymnast (Massimo) 3(15 + ) Gymnastic Types (Millman) 8-9(20) RESEARCH AND FITNESS IN GYMNASTICS (Assoc. Ed. James Bosco) Analysis of Peach to Handstand (Plagen hoef) 2( 19) Scoring Behavior of Gymnastic Judges (Ster ling and Webb) 4(18-19) Effect of Instant Replay Videotape on Performance (Butler) 1O( 13) RINGS The Hollowbock Press and Fall or Cost From Handstand (Choplon) 3(24) Straddle Dismou nt (Roetzheim) 8-9 (21) Position of the Head During Selected Ring Skills (Tonry) 10(19) The Quad - On Swinging Rings (Sokodo) 11 (8) Classification of Ring Skills (lonry) 12(19) Cost for Regular Bock Ring Giants (Chaplon) 12(22) SANTA MONICA GYMFEST 7th Annual Santa Monico Gymfest 10(12) SECOND LOOK AT SWING (Feature by Jerry George) Stalder 1(20-21) Eagle Giant 2(20) Overgrip Stalder 3(19) Inverted Giant Swing 4(22) Stoop-In Circle Shoot 6-7(23) See Also - Horizontal Bar SlOE HOR SE The Front Vault Dismount on the Side Horse (lonry) 3(21) The Front Scissors (Tonry) 10(18) Turns in Scissors (lonry) 11(18-19) Side Horse Terminology (lonry) 12 (19) TRAINING What is Talent? (Millman) 6-7(22 + ) TUMBLING A New Technique for Teaching Tumbling (Cap) 11 (23) Analysis of a Reverse Lift Front Somersault (Fortier) 12(14+ )

TUMBLING TOPICS (Feature by Assoc. Ed. Dick Criley) Running Front Somey 2( 12) Russian Front 3(21) Frant Handspring, Front Somey 4(19) Front Roll, Frant Samey 10(25) Round Off Bock Handspring 11 (23) Round Off Bock Somey 12(1 5) U.S.GJ. USGF Congress - 1968 (Bore) 1(8) USGF Congress (Elliot) 1(29) The Not ional Gymnastic Commission 3(11) Report of the USGF 4(8) 1969 USGF National Championships (bo re) 6-7(18- 20) Gymnoestrado Report (Bore) 10(10+ ) list of USGF Publications and Materials 10(10+) USGF Gymnastic Congress - 1969 11(14) VIEWPOINTS (Assoc. Editor Dick Criley) Viewpoints following the NCAA Championships 6-7(6-7) Notes on H.S. Gymnastics 8-9(7) Upgrading Gymnastics (I) 11 (7) Upgrading Gymnastics (II) 12(8) WORLD CUP Editor's Announcement 3(4) Fi rst Annua l World's Cup 6-7(9- 14) YMCA 1969 YMCA Gymnastic Championships (Buffa) 6-7(21) Notional YMCA Gymnastic Survey (Buffo) 8-9(27)

INDEX TOMAJOR CONTRIBUTORS Aldritt, Art But, Coach ... l 2(29) Aronson, Richa rd M. An International Gymnastic Symposium for Mole Coaches 6-7(25-26 +) Bore, Fronk 1968 USGF Congress 1(8) 1969 USGF National Championships 6-7(18-20) Gymnaestrodo Repor t 10(10) USGF Gymnastic Congress 11 (14) Beckner, Jock 1968 Olympic Efforts 2(14-15) Buffo, Bill 1969 YMCA National Championships 6-7(21) Notional YMCA Gymnastic Survey 8-9 (27) Butler, Nelson Effect of Instant Repla y (Videotape) on Performance 10(13) Bottitta, Joe 1969 NCAA College Division Championships 4(10- 12) Cop, AI A New Technique for Teaching Tumbling 11 (23) Cardinali, Jeff The New England Gymnastic Clinic 12(10- 11) Choplan , Mickey The Hollowback Press and Failor Cost from Handstand 3(24) Cast for Regular Bock Ring Giants 12(22) Criley, Dick Making the Invitational Scene in Southern Ca lifornia 1(6-7) Cohen Interview 1(18- 19) Review - Illu strated Guide to Tumbling by Bo ley 2(12) Frant Handspring, Front Somey 4(19) Interviews at NCAA Championships 5(1 1-12) McCanless Interview 10(9) Front Roll, Front Samey 10(25) Upgrading Gymnastics (I) 11 (7 + ) Upgrading Gymnastics (II) 12(8) Vexler Interview 11 (15) Round Off Back Handspring 11 (23) Round Off Bock Somey 12(15) Culbertson , Jon Critique of FIG Difficulty Rating s 8-9 (24-25) Critique of FIG Difficulty Rating s 12 (24-25) Cutler, Sandy

Gymnastics and Recreation, A Proposal 12(6) Davis, Roy The Japanese Gymnastic Workout 2(13) The Japanese H.S. Championships 8-9 (8) Drain, Sid Open Letter to All H.S. Gymnastic Coaches 8-9(6) Elliot, G. USGF Gymnasti c Congress 1(29) Endo, Frank Interviews with Kenmotsu and Nakayama 6-7(15) Fortier, Frank Analysis of Rever se Lift Front Somersault 12(14+) Frederick, A.B. Index for Volume X 2(26-27) Th e Analysis of Gymnastics - A Survey of the Literature 3(25-27) Nakayama 's Olympic Horizontal Bar Routine 4(20-21) Geor ge, Gerold Stalders 1(20-21) Eagle Giant 2(20) Overgrip Stalder 3( 19) Inverted Giant Swi ng 4(22) Stoop In Ci rcl e Shoot 6-7(23) Loy Away Front Uprise 11(20-21) Cross Grip Giant, Bock Pirouette II (21) Back Uprise Handstand 12(2 1) Stalder Hop 12(21) Gonera, Andrzei 8th European Championships 10 (14- 15) Gurganus, Buddy Gymnastics on the Gr ow in Texas 10 (8) Hartley, Sandy Mexico Olympics - 1968 3(12- 13) Hinds, John A Showdown 3(6) The Machine 3(14) Columbus H.S. Gymnastic Clinic Report 12(8) Holmes, Wm. Teaching the German Giant I I (22) Holzoepfel , Dick 1968 Eastern Clinic 2(8-9) Hoyle, Jim Com ments on Jr. Training Camp 1(9) Hug, Steve Olympic Team Comments 1(14) Jacobson, Mike Iowa Notional Symmer Gymnastic Clinic Report II (6) Lerner, Steve Hug Interview 8-9( 19) Massimo, Joe New England Clinic 1(10- 1 I ) Psychology and the Gymnast 3(15 + ) Millman, Dan The Art of Gymnastics 3(18) What is Talent? 6-7(22 + ) Gymnastic Types 8-9(20) Generalizations About F.X. 10(18) Fine Concepts of F.X. II (18) On Beginning Vaulting 11(19) The ~ a nd spring Vault II (20) A Gymnast's Thought s While Running 11(25) Mechanics and Aesthetics in F.X. 12(8) Stoop Vault 12(20) Murray, Wm. F. Jr. A Comparison of Interscholasti c Gymnastics on the H.S. Level (Brief Abstract by Criley) 1(6) Prog r ession Li st s for H.S. Gymnasts 2(22) The " Big Trick" 8-9(6) Muzycko, Ted Judges Corner II (24) Patterson, A. Carl Dr. Leopold F. Zworg 4(6) Perry, Richard H. Sports and Gomes , A Substitute for Violence 2(6) Plogenhoef, Stanley An Analysis of the Peach to a Handstand 2(19) Price, Hartley 1969 NACGC Awa rd s 5(7) Roetzheim, Bill

Straddle Dismount on the Rings 8-9 (21) Middle East Tour II (I 0- 11 + ) Gym nastic Judging Comes of Age 12 (26-27) Sakamoto, Makoto Training for Competition in Ja pan II (9) Sokoda, Ken Cohen Interview 1(18- 19) Hug Interview 8-9( 19) The Quod I 1(8) Sterlin g, Leroy Scoring Behavior of Gymnastic Judges 4(18-19) Sundby, Glenn Gymnastics and Space Flights 1(4) Invitational World Cup 3(4) Coach Rusty Mitchell (Interview) 4 (14-15) NCAA All-Around Com pulsor y Progress? 5(4) H.S. Co-Ed Gymnastics 8-9(4) College and University Questionnaire 10(4) Gymnastics and the 60s 12(4)

Tonry, Don The Gymnastics Team and the Individual 1(13- 14) Gymnastic Landing Mots and the Knee Joint 1(22-23) The Coach, the Gymnast and the Safety Belt 2(21) The Front Scissors 10( 18) Position of the Head During Selected Ring Skills I O( 19) Turn s in Scissors I I (18-19) Side Horse Terminology 12( 19) Classification of Ring Skills 12(19) Tucker, Rick Tour Del Norte Americanos En Sud America 4(7 + ) Tuerke, Werner Gymnastics in East Germany 3(20) Wasserman, Burt Universal Moves in Gymnastics 12 (15) Wasserman, Isadore Report on the Maccabiah Gomes 10(6) Webb, Roger Scoring Behavior of Gymnastic Judges

4(18-19) Weiler, Willy Gymnastic Report - Olympics 1968 3( 12) Wilson, Mike One Coach's Candid Reply to Two Olympians 3(29) Wright, Jerry National Gymnastic Officials Assoc. 2(23-25) International Gymnastic Judges Course 3(22-23) F.I.G. Code Corrections 4(23-24) M .G. - NCAA Report 5(8-II) Eastern Division Judging Quiz 5(28) Code of Points Interpretations 6-7 (27-28) Capo De Los Americas 8-9 (22-23) Concerning the 1968 Code of Points 10(24-25) Wrigh t, Wm. Judging H.S. Gymnastics 8-9(26) Zwickel, Walter Fitting the Gymnast 2(28) Which is the Best Sti rrup Arrangement 12(8)

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BOOK REVIEWS by A. B. Fredrick

LETTERS Beginners' G\'II II/{/ stics

CLEAR UP Dear Glell ll , Elljoyed th e hiKh school edition very milch bllt was sorry 10 see that YO II did 1I0t Ret reports Fom mal/y areas of the cOllntry. Th e pllrpose of this leller is to clear lip a mistake il/ th e report on th e North ern California G\'mlla stics C hampiollship . Encina H igh School is the Northern California Champiol/ , 1I0t Yreka H igh School as pictllred above th e report 011 Northe rn California Gymnastics . Encin o ha s 11'011 th e championship th e last fO llr vea rs. A nother portion of th e report was placed 1111de r th e Wisconsin report 011 page 14 , titled , "NC I individual eve llls. " This was th e results of the Northern California Indi\'idllal Chall/pioll ships , which lI'ere held separa te Fo m th e team cha mpiol/ship. Th e resllit of th e No rthern Ca lifornia T eam Meet lI'as as fo llo ll's: Encina 144.88, D eA nza 141.86, Skyline 12 1. 12 al/d YRna cio Va lley 11 5.62. So th e scores are more m eanil/gful, we compete in th e six O lympic events and allow each tea m to ent er two all arollnds, whose scores are a\'eraged , added toKe th er, th ell added 10 the team score . Th e level of gYII/na stics is improl'il/g in Ollr area al/d will cOl/ til/ ue to do so becallse we lUIl'e dedicated coaches, j lldges alld teachers who walll a good program and are willil/ g to spend th e tim e to develop aI/ e. I hope this lell er clea rs lip th e report so that th e teams in volved ca ll get th e recogn itiol/ th ey deserve fo r afine yea r. Thank YOII R o y Goldba r (Ed. H ope all take note ' as YO llr leller clears lip our mistake.)

COLO ANO BITTER TRUTH Dear Glenn , H al'ing witnessed the CliP (~r A II/ ericas trials at No rtllll'es tern S/(/te College the cold and biller tl'llth hecame e l'en 11101'1' se!/l'l'iden t. There is no slldl thing as a potential speC/ator. Th e lIIeet lI'as pllblici~e d adeqllatel.". H OII'e\'er, onl\' a .I'll/all hancUili of spectators tllrned out to watch the oreatest O\, llInasts in th e co untn路. ,' ,' . th e"'l'ent had heell a high school baskethall ga lll e, people would IUIl 'e heen sit tin g in each others' la ps. The reason being - people understand haskethall and NO T gY II/na st ics. While I lI'as lI1tending Pierc l' College in Woodland H ills, California, Coach 10hn Mu ir staged manv opel/ meets but belore each 1' \'1'111 h e explain ed and had delllonstrated certain skills lI'hich are reqllired for each e\路ent. So, when a compe titor pellorllled, th e specta tors could judge ol<iecti\ 'elv to thelllse!t'es and th en COIlI/}(lre th eir results lI'ith th at of the j udges. thlls stimulating interest and to SOllie deg ree alldience participation. Ma\'be M r. Muir does n't hal'e the ansll'er hec{l/Ise' this approach is both time consllininK l/nd sometimes horin g, but it is a step tOIl'a rd hell{'/' understl/ nding of th e sport and most illlporta nt oIall, this DI D stimu late interest I M.,路 hat is oH to M r. Muir and to OIher coaches 11-//0 rea lize this inadequac." and are doing sOlll ething about itl Sincerelv, Bill Mo rgan, North wes tern Sta te College , N atchitodes. Louisiana



by N il s Bengt sso n Na ti o na l Press Books. 850 H a nse n Wa y Pa lo A lto. C al if. 94304 "Ni ls teac hes boys gymnastics. not just gy mnasti cs to bo ys ." Th ro ugh th e medium of h is book ils Bengt sso n s ha res w ith us a ve ry so und app roac h to th e program o r arti s ti c gy mnas ti cs ro r bo ys. Bo ys who a re e nco urage d to mas te r th e mo ve ment s he s uggest s for eac h o f th e gy mn ast ic eve nts s hould develop int o bette r-than-a ve rage performe rs and moreove r deri ve the benefits of th e a ll -around gymnastic program for beg inn ers. Bengt sso n is we ll qua li ried as a teac he r. A ro rm e r co mpe tit or for the Aa lbo rg C lu b in hi s nat ive Denma rk. he has a lso had th e di s tin c ti o n o f teach in a at th e famed ie ls Bukh Sc hoo l in O ll erup. Denmark. I n hi s book he a tt empts to identify ke y tec hniqu es a nd move me nt s w hi ch w ill lead to a prope r foundation in gymnastics. Early c hapte rs co nce ntrate upo n trai nin g tec hniqu es for s tre ngt h. Il ex ib ilit y a nd ag il it y as we ll as to ide ntify ba s ic 11001' wo rk . La ter chap te rs expose im porta nt key s to pe rfo rmance in eac h of th e majo r appa ratus eve nt s. T hose o f us w ho are seek in g a so und gy mna sti c curric ulum for boys (a nd me n ) w ill find thi s new book of tre me ndous va lu e a t th e beg inn e r' s le ve l. A.B.F.

The Tralllpoline As I See I t by J e ff H e nn essy I nt e rn at io na l Pub licat io ns or Lafaye tt e P.O. Bo x 869. USL. Lafayette . Lou is ia na 7050 I $3.95 Th is book. now in it s se cond ed itio n. is th e be s t boo k a va ilab le o n co mpe titi ve tra mpolinin g. T he a uthor. lo ng assoc ia ted w ith thi s uniqu e A me rica n event. knows th e s port 's in s a nd outs and proves it in hi s book. Tho se who were fortunate e noug h to ha ve a copy of th e firs t edi ti o n quickl y sp read th e word abo ut the book's va lu e. a nd by the time it so ld out it was so much in dema nd bot h he re a nd abroad th a t th e aut ho r was lit e rall y forced to produce a seco nd ed it io n. Fred Martine z has illu s trat ed the book (see illu s trat ion s) wit h actio n sequence s of a ll the major compe titi ve moveme nt s. The ra ti o na le for judging a nd rule s of co mpe titi ve tra mpolining a re a lso included. A complete ind ex a nd glo ssa ry ro und o ut th e conten ts. T hi s book is a mu s t fo r th e se ri o us compe tit or. coac h or teac he r oftrampolin in g. T he book w ill be a dded to the gro wi ng li s t of qua lit y pub lications we have espec ia ll y recommended in th e M.G.'s Go lden Library. A.B.F.

This Is G)'l11nastics by J ac k C harte ri s Stipes Publi s hing Co .. 10- 12 C hes te r St. C ha mpa ign. III. 6 1820 $6.90 Th is new book for gy mnas ti cs is di v id ed in to two sec ti o ns: I . Gymna s tic s in Ph ys ica l Ed ucati on 2. Co mpe titi ve Gymnast ics T he a uthor . Jack C ha rt e ri s. of th e U ni ve rs it y of G ue lph in Ont a ri o has take n tim e to co mbine many or the qua liti es of a fin e gym nas ti c vo lume that thi s rev iewe r has sugges ted from time to time in the pas t. H e s trike s a n intellige nt bala nce between practical knowledge a nd s uppo rti ve resea rc h. He emp loys film draw ing se qu e nces to grea t a d va nt age. H e ha s tak e n th e time to inc lud e much va lu able docume nt a tion

of mat e ri a ls a nd s uggests rea dings from time to tim e. H is c hapte r o n th e b iomecha ni c s o f gy mna sti cs is w ritt e n s impl y a nd rin gs of th e inllu e nce of D ys o n 's wo rk in the la tt er's lvlec/lIIl/ ics (~r Atliletic.,. Ph ys io logy. psyc ho logy a nd soc io logy o f gymnas ti cs a re cove red in three ot her chapte rs. The se top ic s comb in ed wit h the author' s ideas o n curricu lum de sig n a nd the a ll arou nd approac h to th e co mpet iti ve program make th is boo k o ne o f the best ava il ab le ror teacher preparation in gy mna s ti cs. . Th e au th or in c lud es a c hapter o n tra m po lill e and re lated act iviti es (m ini -tra mp a nd tu be tumblina) a nd include s hi s not es o n s peciric tra ini ng tech-nique s ro r eac h gy mn as ti c even t ror men a nd wo men. Th e tota l orientat io n o r the book is more ma sc uline th an femin in e. however. F ilm drawings are use d through o ut the co mpe t iti ve se gme nt o f th e book to s how wha t th e "l! rea ts" are doina. Drawinas a re a lso used to b~ tt e r defin e so m~ conflicti~g te rmino logy. F ina ll y. we no te th e in c lu s ion of the a uth or's views on the e niam as or the F . I. G. Co de o f Poi nt s. The reade r of C hart e ri s' book ca nn ot s impl y pass it 0 1'1' as ju st anothe r gy mna s ti c tex t. It is o ne o f th e better books o n th e s ubjec t produced in this decade. A.B.F.



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BALLET FOR GYMNASTICS Manual # 1000 to accompany Class "C' record (Stepping Tones).. .. .... $3.00 Manual # 1010 to accompa ny Closs " B" record (Stepping Tones).. . .......... .$4.00 Special offer, Both manuals ............ $5.00 NCAA 1968 HIGHLIGHTS Regular $1 .00. Order now for jus t SOc each LET'S TEACH ROUTINES ..... ..... ... ..... .... .$ 1.00

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April 11 , 1970. Central Atlantic Area YMCA Championships. Glassboro State College, Glassboro; New Jersey. April 17·18, 1970. Notional YMCA Gymnastic Championship, Oklahoma City. Oklahoma. April 23, 24, 25, 1970 USGF Notional Championships for Men and Women. Convention Center - Los Vegas, Nevada (World Gomes Compulsories will be used) . . Frontier Hotel will be the Headquarters. May, 1970 Second Annual World Cup, Long Beach, California. InternaUOnil Juages Courses for Men and Women. Tenta· tively scheduled for long Beach. pending approval of FIG Officials involved. Course for all English·speaking women . .. Men from Canada. U.S.A. and Mexico. October 22·27, 1970. WORLO·S GAMES .. . Liubjlana. Yugoslavia.

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GYMNASTICS HAS ARRIVED! Gymnastics is now a full time proiect with our company. We who have specialized in wrestling and weight training for many years, now turn our full attention to gymnastics. To prove that we are gymnastic specialists too. we have just printed our long awaited gymnastics catalog. Need further proof? - Our stock of shoes is now sev· eral thousand and our available gym uniforms, number in the hundreds, twenty five size combi· nations. The ne.w catalog features these products: o 4 different gymnastic shoes, including three of the famous Tiger models and a Swiss ··waffle" slipper. (We are US distributors for Tiger wres· tling & gym shoes). o 7 different gym pants from a $6.00 practice pants to a $30.00 luxury competition pont, and several gym shirt designs in white or col· ors. The top port of our uniform line is American

mode and extremely well tailored as evidenced by being chosen by t he 1968 US Men's Olympic team. o Oress Warmups from Japan, Switzerland, Ger· many, USA o Leotards created for American Women gym· nasts, all stretch nylon. o And all the extras - mot tope, chaulk, palm guards, mot transporters, Vitamins for Ath· letes, Resilite Mots (east only) o And all the extras - mot tope, chaulk, palm guards, mot transporters, Vitamins for Ath· letes, Resilite Mots (east only) All products are in stock except the warmups and colors. Write for a 1969-70 catalog and price sheet. Samples available for schools and clubs.

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March 14, 1970. Southwest Conference Gymnastic Cham· pionship. Texas A&M. College Station. Texas. March 19·21 , 1970. NAIA Gymnastic Championship. Stout State College. Menomonie. Wisconsin. March 19·21. 1970. 8ig 8 Gymnastic Championship. Kansas State Univ .• Manhattan. Kansas . March 26·28. AAWW Gymnastic Championship. Univ. of Woshington. Seattle. Washington. April 2·4 , 1970. NCAA Gymnastic Championship. Temple University. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania.

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(....__M_G_G_Y_m_C_Q_le_"_d_Q_,___ 1970

Box 5374

Shreveport, La. 71105

1968 World


The 1970 Summer Universiade will be held August 26-September 6 in Turin, Italy. These student games were originally scheduled for 1969 but unrest in Portugal caused their postponement. The 1973 Games will be held in Paris. France.



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that way, your best bet is to buy equipment from a company that doesn't. Like Nissen, for instance. Nissen Corporation, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52406 A floating counterbalance is installed inside each upright of Nissen parallel bars to keep the pistons at static tension. Only a slight hand pressure is required to raise or lower the bar.


BOX 11.1




When Performance Counts . .

Profile for USA Gymnastics

Modern Gymnast - February 1970  

Modern Gymnast - February 1970