THE MOPERN GYMNAST P. O. Box 611 Santa Monico, California 90406 Dear Sirs: '\ Please send me a Subscription to the Modern Gymnast magazine: Name _______________________________________ ~
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The American lines are first in quality, performance and design . . . the true marks of a thoroughbred. Only the finest equipment displays the American medallion ... available to your school through purchase or lease. See your American Distributor today. You can always depend on him for unexcelled service because only top distributors sell American. Write now for our new 1966 Catalog and the name of your nearest American Distributor.
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NOTES .. FROM THE EDITOR
VOLUME V III
. JANUARY, 1966
CONTENTS NOTES FROM THE EDITOR ...............Gienn Sundby 4 CHALK TALK ....... ~ ............ _. .. _____ . __ . _. __ .. __. ____ . ____ __ .___ ___.... 6 EUROPEAN REPORT ..__ ....................... Kurt Baechler 7 CANADIAN REPORT ..............•......... .. John Nooney 8 USGF DI RECTOR'S REPORT ................ :.. Frank Bare 10 . RESEARCH AND FITNESS .................James S. Bosco 12 GYMNASTICS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION .................. . A B. Frederick 14 HELPFUL HINTS ....................•..... :......... .J im Farkas 15 1966 RULES .., ............................. : ............ Dick Criley 16 OLYMPIC SEQUENCE ROUTINES ................... -........ 17 T. RAMP.OLl N I NG ..... __ ......... __ ..............Jess Robinson 26 WHAT'S THE SCORE? ......•................. Jerry Wright 28 JUDGING NOTES ........•..~ ........ ~ .•....•........Roy Davis 30 MG INDEX, 1965 .............. __ ............A B. Frederick 32 LETTERS ••.....•......... -.• -................ ............................... 33
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GLENN SUNDBY .............. Ed itor- Publisher ASSOC IAT~ EDITORS A. BRUCE . fREDERI CK ........................... Educotion DR, JAMES S. BQSCO ............................ Research DICK CRILEY ' ................ :................... « ••. Statistics J IM FARKAS .: ...................................... Instruction JERRY WRI.GHT . ........ : ... c.................. Competition FRANK L BARE ...... :...~............................... USGF JESS ROBINSON ..................................:Tra mpoline ROY DAVI S ............., ....................."' ........Judging JACK IE KLEIN UPHUES ~ .......................Women GRACE KAYWELL ......-................................ Ballet KEN LEONARD ............................................ Photo INTERNATIONA!. JOHN NOONEY .•:........................... : .......c.Cana da KURT . BAECHLER .................... :..: .................. Europe J 1M PRESTIDGE .............................. Great Britain HELMUT ROHNISCH · ........... :............ Scondinavio YURI SABIROV .......................................... Russia
THE MODERN GYMNAST is published by Sund· by PublicQtions, 41 0 Broadway, Sant o Mon ica, . California . Second class postage pa id at Santa Mon ica, Ca lif. Published monthly. Price $5.00 per year. SOc single copy: Subscr iption corre· spondence, THE MODERN GYMNAST, P.O. Box 6 tl , Santo Monica, California . Copyright 1966 © a ll right reserved by SUNDBY PUBLICA· T IONS, 4 10 Broadway, Santa Mon ico, Cql ifornia . All p ictures a nd manuscripts submyit ted be· come· the property of THE MODERN G MNAST unless 0 re turn request ' and sufficient postage ore included.
THE BEST We at the MODERN GYMNAST wish you OUR READERS a very HAPPY and PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR and look forward to an exciting and wonderful 1966 for Gymnastics and to serving YOU through the MODERN GYMNAST.
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FORWARD IN SIXTY·SIX Big things are ahead for Gymnastics in the USA for 1966, and YOU can be in on it all . .. THE' MODERN GYMNAST with this January '66 edition ent~ rs its 10th year of publi· cation with a new production schedule of an M.G. every month TWELVE ISSUES A YEAR : .. Also the first edition of MAPEMOISELLE GYMNAST the special 8uarterly Gymnastic publication ju ~t for the ' ladies is already In the ' mail for '66 . . . . And if that is 'not enough Sam Bailie thinks we need a little competition to keep on the beam and has started a new magazine called U. S. GYMNASTIC MAGAZINE pub· lished out of Tucson, Ar i ~ona . .. Goad Luck Sam with your U.S. Gym., we hope many of our readers will subscribe to your magazine also . .. That is, after they make sure their subscription to the MODERN GYMNAST is all ca ught up and in good order ... We feel competition is a healthy sign of Gymnastics growth in America and in the best tradition of free enterprise the American way. . IDEALS, DESIRE ' DEDICATION We are sure t~at as the only publication in the Western Hemisphere over the past ten years devoted to the report· ing and promotion of Gymnastics in America, we have by the very magnitud~ of the job left many things undone, unanswered' and unreported. Ideals, desire and dedication are not enough it takes work . . . MGs such as the January 1965 OLYMPIC REPORT edition which has been acclaimed by Coaches, Officials, Sportswriters and publications around the world as the best Olympic Gymnastic photo statistic report ever to be published, did not just happen, it took ·work, lots of work by many dedicated people. The extensive time in prepar~t ion for the Spe~ial Olympic edition of the MG, extra co~t in tabulated typesetting, color cover painting and photo center spread, extra photos with almost double the amount of pages put us behind in our budget (over two thousand doll~ rs more than a regular tJlG editi(m) and a month behind in our p ro~uction schedllie for 1965. (We never were able to catch up). We like to work and intend to work harder to bring you an even better M.G. in '66. MILESTONE As we look forward to completing a decade of publication ' of the MODERN GYMNAST in 1966 with great anticipation of what lies ahead we would also look to the past for ideas on the good we may have done or where we fell down. Thru . the years there have been many highlights and also disap· pointnients ... The biggest highlight is the fact we are still publishing and growing all the time and the biggest disappointment has been no m'atter how hard we tried for one unforseen re'ason or other our production seemed to get behind from time to time and o~r mailing of the maga· , zine and correspondence has left much to be desired .. . However the wonderful growth in spite of all the setbacks thru the years is the more important fact and it has only been possible b ~ cause YOU the reader and all the wonder· ful people (not just the regul ar feature contributors, who in words I cannot thank en\lugh) that have stood by through the years with material, subscription support and even criti· cism that has helped to make the continuance of the MG possible ... Because of ALL OF YOU we ' have grown from a small bi·monthly (l ess than half this size) to a medium size MG_ on to a full standard size magazine with a f\lur co lor cover . .. And now in '66 we start off with an even greater era with iz issues a year .. . The format of the MG has cha nged from time to time as article sources and departments have come and gone . •. "GYM CHAMPS",
"GYM QUIZ", "GYMNASTIC GYMMICS" a wonderful series by Bud Beyer, "MG PHOTO CONiEST", of past years and editions we hope will return again in future issues along with more planned "ON BALANCE WITH THE EDITOR" articles . .. Let us hear from you by post card 6n what you want the MG to cover, what you might be missing that we covered in the past, or perhaps a suggested series on a subject of Gymnastics we have missed completely ... We will not be able to answer all your cards personally, but we will READ THEM ALL and direct our future editions to reflect your wishes and suggestions. SUBSCRIPTIONS With YOUR HELP the MG subscription drive contest started in the fall of '64 and ended by awarding winners prizes in June '65 we doubled our subscribers (and responsibilities), and we now stand at close to 9,000 ... However as well as we did, we did not reach our goal of 10,000 subscribers . .. We -hope in the coming year the subscriptions will go over the 10,000 mark in order for us to not only publish an MG every month with a four color cover, but to be able to fulfill our promise of a color double page center spread
when we pass the 10,000 mark. We would like very much to include this color center feature which woufd be suitable for taking out of the MG and frame in your home or for bulletin board use (who knows it may be your picture we use), we can with your help, just make sure your subscription is kept up to date and get JUST ONE OTHER PERSON TO SUBSCRIBE TO THE MODERN GYMNAST ... and that will do it.
SUBSCRIPTION CONTEST In 1966 we will again offer a special rate for group subscribers and prizes for the one that sends in the most new subscriptions, also at each subscription that carries over another 1,000 mark plus a grand prize of a complete set of bound MGs Volume I thru VII to the Coach or individual that sends in the group subscriptions that put us over the 10,000 mark ... The group rate will be $4.00 each for groups of 10 or路 more subscriptions and names of all coaches and individuals that send in group subscriptions of ten or more will be printed in the M.G. plus a special award to be presented at the end of the 1966 MODERN GYMNAST contest 5
Miss Bonnie Kilgore performing on the Uneven Parallel Bar with Coach George Gilmore spotting during the evening exhibition.
NEW MEXICO CLINIC
f Mike Sandry
Gym action at New Mexico Clinic
By George Gilmore The recent New Mexico Gymnastic Association Clinic was held in Johnson Gymnasium at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. Approximately 400 participants helped make the clinic most successful. The Coaches meeting at 8 AM began the day followed by Specific Instruction, Supervised workout, Judges Clinic, Coaches critique and discussion period and concluded with a Gymnastic exhibition in the evening. Coaches and assistants from throughout New Mexico instructed and supervised the various events of the clinic. These were: Ross Black, Loleet Speigle, Garland Q'Quinn, Lana Leone, Denny Moore, Don Crockett, Clarence Allen, Tom Massey, John Billing, Warren Garrett, Graham Bartlett, Darlene Schmidt and Bill Schmidt. In addition to this fine staff the varsity members of Eastern New Mexico University and T,he University of New Mexico made outstanding contributions to the success of the clinic. "y" PROGRAM The formation of a gymnastics program at the Bethesda-Chevy Chase Y.M.C.A. in Bethesda, Md., was proved to be successful in the 1965 season. Under the direction of Jane S. Grube (formerly in secondary physical ~Qucation
EU ROPE REPORT By Kurt Baechler FINLAND, 277.30.
Left to right: Jane Burnett, Louise Holliday, Bob Rikle and Margie Sims (Coach Jane S. Grube in rear).
in Montgomery County, Md.,) beginne.rs. intermediate and advanced gymnastics classes were formed for Saturday mornings. Approximately 200 children participated in the program during the year. In addition to this, the first competitive team of 8 members was formed which competed in area and out-of-state meets. The team accumulated 44 trophies and medals. Outstanding gymnasts on the team were all-around winners Margie Sims, 16, and Louise Holliday, 14_ Robert Rikli, 11, began his competitive career by entering 4 events and winning 1st place each time! Members of the team also did exhibition work on TV and at local programs to promote the sport of gymnastics.
John Nooney display table for use at Canadian Gymnastic CI inics and Meets. Listed below are Up and Coming Canadian Gymnastic Competition dates.
DATES OF MEETS (ProvisionaD Eastern Canadian Championships at Toronto, Men and Women, Sr. and Jr., May 28-May .29 . Alberta Provincial Championships at University of Edmonton, Men and Women, Sr. and Jr., Jon. 29. Saskatchewan Provincial Championships at Regina, Men and Women, Sr. Jr. Novice, March 19. Ontario Provincial Championships at Toronto, Men and Women, Sr. Jr. Novice, April 30 & May 1. Sokol Invitational Meet at Toronto, Men and Women, Sr., Jon. 16. Saskatoon City Meet at Saskatoon, Men and Women, All Classes, Jan . 8 . Edmonton City Meet at Edmonton, Men and Women, Sr., Jan. 8 . Toronto City Meet at Toronto, Men and Women, All Classes, March 5 .
For the seventh time Finland won, however, had it not been for the miserable luck of Enenkel 8.75, Banzhaf 8.40 and above all Gunther Lys 7.50 on the last apparatus the H-Bar, a victory of the Germans would have been within the possible limits. The 18-year-old Nissinen and Sappinen showed not only a fine performance but also seemed they have absolutely no nerves_ Olli Laiho is at this time the beit Finn and his side horse routine (9.80) is absolutely comparable with the one of Cerar if not even better. INDIVIDUAL RESULTS 1. J aschek (G) __ .. _. _____ .____ .__.. ___ .__ . 56 _45 2. Kestola (F) _._ .. __ .______ .___________ ._ 56.35 3. Bischof (G) __ .. _._ .. __ .. ___ ._ .._:_.. __ . 56.05 4. Rantakari (F) __ .. _. _____ ._.... __ .. __ . 55_95 5. Laiho (F) __ .. ___ ... _.._...__ .___ .__ _.. _._ 55.80
JACK GUENTHART back in' Switzerland The undoubtedly most successful gym coach Jack Gunhart form er gold medal winner at the Helsinki Olympics, who made out of the Italians one of the strongest gym teams in Europe and the World is back again in Switzerland_ The National Sport School in Magglingen has offered him the job as a chief teacher and the Swiss Gym Federation with the understanding of the National Sport School handed him over the training of the Juniors and the new and fu ture National Gym team. Of course the goal of Gunthart to bring back Swiss gymnasts within the best in the world is very tough, but if one can really "move some mountains" then it is obviously Jack, who of course warned in his take-over-speech not to expect wonder but work, training and again training. Marcel Adatte also a form er top gymnast in Switzerland is still training the present team and will work close together with Jack. The trouble is, that all Swiss gymnast cannot be but just pure amateurs (or this is rather good), for them their job is and has to be No_ 1, but as decentralized training sessions are already in action a much better and more efficient training plan is possible. It is also planned to push gymnastics (again) more in schools, however, it is doubtful is the Swiss will already be "back" by 1968 for Mexico.
fore the start of the competitIOn thlry won with nearly 14 points_ Ind _ winner was this time P eter Strahm with 27.50 pts_ In the Swiss team were Heinz Pauli, Gerhard Brugger, Kurt Baechler, Ueli Urfer and Rolf Maurer.
VIDEO RECORDING for gymnasts and trampolinists The National Sportsschool of Switzerland in Magglingen has now a new VIDEO RECORDING set which allows the coach and the top gymnasts to see their routine or movements immed iately after they have performed it, which is the best help for both coach and gymnasts as we all know that one cannot see the wood in our "eyes as we see all the little mistakes and fault s of the others" and which is a better corrector than a thousand well meant words.
SWISS TRAMPOLINISTS In a hard fight to catch up with Top International Trampolining Kurt Bachler, who has been assigned by the Swiss Gym Federation as a responsible man to push top Swiss trampolinists in order to keep up with top international trampolinists (he has a hard job to do.) The Swiss Gym Federation which handles not only gymnastics but also has as a main goal the synchronized gymnastics by teams among other activities has of course practicalJy no money in order to support the latest adopted sport by the Swiss Federation, trampolining_ But the trampolinists did not hesitate to organize their clinics, trainings and competitions themselves by paying all their expenses for these activities out of their own pocket. Each Saturday they get together in Berne, Switzerland where they are now learning the compulsory routine for the world trampoline championship to be held in the US April, 1966. Even if they should master both, the compulsory and optional routin e they only will be able to participate at the world championships in Louisiana, if the US organizers can make a deal with their national TV which would allow the Americans to pay the travel expenses to far away Lafayette, and as we have heard this goes also for many other nations.
Turnverein Berna again Swiss Team Champion For the fourth time in a row TV Berna again won the team championship, however, by equaling or reaching the same pointage as the combined team Yverdon-La Chaux-deFonds, but as TV Berna had pure team the title went to them again. TV Berna did it with Werner Michel, Fritz Hefti, Hans Schumacher and Heini Dubach. By _the way TV Berna has decided to be a pure gym Turnverein, where only the pure apparatus gymnastics is done. Kurt Bachler will take over not only the presidency of the very active Turnverein but also the kids teams_ His helpers are nobody else than former Swiss Champion Fritz Feuz, form er top gymnasts Max Schmuckli, Werner Michel, and all the other good gymnasts in the Turnverein Berna.
INTERNATIONAL TRAMPOLINE MATCH International Trampoline Match Belgium: Switzerland in Dron gen-Gent (Belgium) 117.20; Switzerland, 131.05 in Drongen-Gent (Belgium) _ Even though the Swiss had bad luck with their cars driving down to Belgium and reaching the meet-city just be-
Assistantship Open NOTICE, please: The Arnold College Division, of the University of Bridgeport, has a graduate assistantship open to a man or woman who has an undergraduate major in physical education and who is seeking a master's degree. The assistantship will start either in the summer of 1966, or the fall of 1966. The candidate will have all tuition fees waived and will receive a salary of $800 for the calendar year_ Included in the person's r esponsibilities would be assisting in gymnastics classes and promoting a coeducational exhibitional gymnastic squad. Interested candidates should write Dr. David Field, Director, Arnold College Division, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut, 06602, for further details_ It is expected that a decision will be made in early March, 1966. Sincerely, David A. Field, Director, Arnold Division
REPORT by Johnny Nooney
1965 NATIONAL CONVENTION A.A.U. GYMNASTIC COMMITTEE Dr. D. Whittle was reelected as the Gym路 nastic Representative on the Canadian Pan American Games organizing Committee. The address of Dr. D. Whittre is University of British Columbia, Vancounver. B.C. Arrangements for the visitation of the Russian Touring Team approved in principle and arrangements to be made by the B. C. Organizing Committee. The New Constitution of the Nationa,I A.A. U. Gymnastic Association was approved in principal, with minor changes. Mr. Geoff Dyson, Canadian Legion Sports Director, addressed the Convention regarding a proposed National Gymnastics Coaching Clinic to be held in 1967. It was decided too that this matter be circulated to all Branches and a vote be taken and submitted to the National Committee no later than April 1st, 1966. Mr. Echlin of the National Fitness Council also addressed the convention. He informed the convention that they should plan ahead so that they may look more organized. Let me quote Mr. Echlin's words. "It is evident that all our National Championships must be determined two years in advance as otherwise the National Sports Chairman can only guess WHERE the Championships might be and welikise the number of athletes attending." The above are some highlights of the Convention, many other Technical and Administrative decisions were taken for the betterment of the Sport. This was an excellent convention. Officers and Committee members attending: Mr. Raymond Gagnier, Chairman; Dr. D. Whittle J . Reilly, J . Confie, Neil Godin, D. McCuaig, Geo. Duthie, G. Bibleheimer, J. Stangrom, W. Lucas, Marjorie Patterson, J. Mowat.
PROMOTION DEPARTMENT At this years National Football Classic "THE GREY CUP GAME" The Toronto Harmonie Senior Gymnastic Group consisting of B. Brooker, D. Sales, T. Krudwig, J. Baxar M. Berent and their Coach J. Tutte, were part of the HALF TIME FESTIVITIES. Top calibre Gymnasts performing in front of thousands of football fans and watched on CBS-TV by millions of Canadians was a tremendous boost for the Sport. Congratulations on a job well done.
COMING EVENTS North American Championships, Montreal, Feb. 12, 1966. Western Canadian Championships (either in Quebec or Ontario) not decided Mayor June, 1966. Canadian Gymnastics Championships and World Games Trials, Manitoba, June 8th and 9th, 1966. C.N.E. International Invitational Meet C.N.E. Toronto, Aug. 19th and 20th, 1966. Pan American Trials (To be open only to Senior Men and Women Gymnasts), May 1967, Montreal. Pan 'American Games, Winnipeg, July 24th - 28th, 1967.
THE NATIONAL CANADIAN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY CHAMPIONSHIPS The University of Alberta, Edmonton is considering the holding of our 1st National College and University Championships, in conjunction with the Centennial Commis路 sion, to celebrate our Centennial year 1967. What an opportunity to link all our Universities and College's in one big National Gymnastic event. This leadership at a National level is most important now, as the Universities and Colleges surge forward to take their place in the overall Canadian Gymnastic scene. For the past few years, arriving on campuses all over the country are boys and girls who already have a love for this great Sport, and often through their dedication and leadership a breakthrough is being made at varsity level. 'This continuity between our high schools and universities is a must if the Sport is to grow. Much of the present growth has been pioneered by the Ontario Schools Gymnastic Coaches Association, who have sent Teaching Kits to over 600 high schools and colleges throughout Canada, and have acted as' a link in promoting the Sport in general in our schools and colleges. Many dedicated educators are coming forward to promote Gymnastics in our educational institutions. This progressive move by the University of Alberta is in my opinion an important contribution to the promotion of Gymnastics in Canada, and wish Geoff Elliot and staff Good Luck.
HERE N THERE The Harmony Club, Toronto will hold there Annual Children's Meet on Dec. 11th. Convener J. Tutte, Head Coach. This is an exceptionally well run meet. The compulsories were put together by the head coach. More meets of this calibre should be held.
Provine of Albert School Meets This meet is sponsored by the University of Alberta, Edmonton, and is based on Compulsories from the Age Group Workbook (U.S.G.F.). These compulsories are used extensively throughout the Ontario Schools. The U.S.G.F. Age Group Workbook is a must for all teachers and is available in Canada through O.S.G.t.A. The sponsoring of school meets by our universities is a big step forward, and this idea is continuing to grow. u'B.C. has done this for many years.
1967 PAN AM GAMES PLANS Plans for the 1967 Pam Am Games are proceeding at an accelerated rate. There are now over 1,500 men and women on the various committees making preparations for the staging of the Games in Winnipeg. Pan American Village will be open approximately July 10, 1967 with most of teams arriving about July 15th. The competitions will run from July 22nd to August 7th. Various organizing committees are most anxious that nothing be overlooked. One of the most often asked questions is have we enough qualified officials for each particular sport. A report on this aspect is now in preparation.
C.A.P.H .E.R. This month I had the distinct pleasure to meet Mr. C. R. Blackstock, Executive Secretary of the Canadian Association fer
Health Physical Education and Recreation. His offer of assistance in the promotion of the Modem Gymnast in ' Canada was gratefully accepted by me on behalf of my editor.
Y.M.C.A. INTERNATIONAL NEWS World recognition came recently to Mr. Wes McVicar National Secretary to the Physical Education Committee of the Canadian Y.M.C.A. in the form of an appointment to the World Committee on Health and Physical Education. A graduate of Springfield College he began his professional career in 1926 as Physical Director of Port Arthur, Ontario, Y.M.C.A. During the next 25 years he served in Galt. St. John, N.B., and the Toronto Central Y.M.C.A. From 1950 to 1952 he was executive secretary of the Toronto West End Y.M.C.A. and for the past thirteen years he has been National Secretary to the Physical Education Committee of the Canadian Y.M.C.A. Wes is an author of note. His books on square dancing, physical education and aquatics are always topical, pertinent and popular. He is one of the real pioneer Canadian physical educators. Dedicated to his profession and convinced of its increasing importance in the years ahead. He is a worthy recipient of this honor.
National Meeting of Provincial School Athletic Associations The meeting of School Athletic Associations representatives which C.A.P.H.E.R. Board of Directors agreed to support was held in Winnipeg, Manitoba. All ten provinces were represented. There was unanimous agreement on philosophy and attitude. There was no desire to set up another national sports governing body. Provincial Associations will continue to work with the provincial branch of each sports governing body. An interim committee of three persons was set up, chaired by Mr. Douglas Barber, Principal of York Memorial Collegiate Institute, Toronto, plus one member to be named by the New Brunswick Association and one by the Saskatchewan Association. The interim committee will draw terms of reference for a standing committee which will be the voice of all Associations in relations with one another, commercial interests and professional sport. The interim chairman was asked to seek affiliation with the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation, and to appoint a person to report to the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation meeting, the national meeting and decisions of the Provincial School Athletic Associations. This was done. The following attended the meeting: Chairman Mr. C. R. Blackstock, Executive Secretary C.A.P.H.E.R., British Columbia; Mr. C. V. Morrison, Alberta; Mr. J . F. Mayell, Saskatchewan; Father F. O'Brien and Mr. Glenn Tuck and Mrs. H. Birnie, Manitoba; Miss A. Jones, Miss J. F. Fromson and Mr. G. Nick, Ontario; Mr. D. H. Barbour, Mr. N. A. Beach and Mrs. 1. Ross, Quebec; Mr. H. Rothels, New Brunswick; Mr. V. Meldrum, Nova Scotia; Mr. H. A. Noble, Prince Edward Island; Mr. C. Ballem and Mr. D. M. Boswell, Newfoundland, Mr. G. Snow.
INTERNATIONAL GYMNASTICS The Idla Ensemble directed by Ernst Idla included Toronto in their North American Tour. These girls performed beautifully and thrilled the large audience who attended the display. It will conclude its tour with a perfor· mance in New York. Its good that so many excellent European Gymnastic Groups include Canada in their tours.
FUTURE EVENTS IN NEW BRUNSWICK Clinics will be held in the following places this coming year. Grand Falls : Campbellton, Devon High School, Marysville School, St. Stephen'9 School in fundamental gymnastics. The dates will depend on the availability of the University of New Brunswick gym team. A judging clinic is also planned for the Teachers College in Fredericton and at Camp Gagetown, conducted by the Anny personnel. A provincial clinic is also planned in womens gymnastics. The New Brunswick championships will be held in Moncton, and the Maritime championships in the Teachers College, Fredericton, some time in March. For further information write to, Mr. George Grig, 170 Canterbury Drive, Fredericton, N.B.
A.A.U. Annual Report A.A.U. New Brunswick Gymnastic Assoc. In general, during the past season, gymnastics in New Brunswick have reasonably improved, although we have to go a long )Vay yet to be able to put New Brunswick on a national level. As all of us know, gymnastics is the father of all sports, and the importance of it is quite significant. I am sorry to say that in all gymnasiums throughout New Brunswick gymnastics has been practiced much less than any other sport. The interest towards gymnastics is growing rapidly every year, and if it would be publicized as most of the other sports are, or the importance of it could be explained to the general public, it could easily be brought to the national level in a few years time, and even beyond it. Here in Fredericton, some improvement has been noticed in the Fredericton High School, here where several boys have displayed an interest and ability. Also in Teachers College interest grows more and more every year. Some local schools reached very good gymnastic standards with very little help from outside the schools. Especially noticeable are in tyro group-Albert Street School, Connaugh Street and Montgomery. U.N.B. has not been outstanding but did their share well. In Oromocto the Army personnel have done reasonably good work in teaching the fundamentals in schools and in the Army gymnasium. Only one clinic of fundamental gymnastics was put on this year and it was held in Saint John. Interest and facilities are there but there seems to be a lack of organization and no coaching of any kind. This year a promising young lady, Sandra Latta, from Nova ~cotia, is taking up teaching in Saint John and there is a hope that the situation will improve, at least for the women gymnasts. The second clinic·display was put on by the Army personnel in the Fredericton Teachers College. The outcome of it I do not know as I was only informed of it afterwards.
Moncton is developing quite an interest in gymnastics, and a few good gymnasts coming along fine. (This was noticed in the N.B. Championships.) Mount Allison Uni· versity has reasonably good coaching. The Fredericton Y.M.C.A. could do well by bringing up young gymnasts-facilities are excellent, instructions could be well arranged, but for some reason there has not been any advertisement for the public. Even prior to the N.B. Championships, which were held there this year, there was no announcement of anykind in, the press, radio or TV. This sort of adver,tisement we badly need. It would not only stimulate interest in gymnastics, but the Y.M.C.A. could have cashed in on it for recruiting more members.
GYM SKETCH Sgt. Wilhelm Frederick Weiler was born in Rastatt, Baden, West Germany on March 1, 1936. He was the second of three children all boys, all of whom were two years apart in age. At the age of nine he joined a sports club in his home town which offered an oppor· tunity in many sports. Although from the start his primary interest was gymnastics, he also became a better than average per· form er in track and field, fencing. swimming, di ving, skiing and soccer. At the age of fourteen he began competing in gymnastics and for the next six years ( until 1956 ) he trained with a training part· ner of about equal ability. His ambition was someday to become a physical education teacher and a member of the German Olym· pic Team. During this six year period he trained the year around, six days a week and from two to three hours a day. Com· petitions took him, as a member of German junior teams, to France, Spain, Italy and Switzerland. His intensive training program and competitive experience paid off when in 1956 he won the Junior Mens All Around Gymnastics Championship of Germany. ' He en tered Canada on July 19, 1957 and without being able to speak a word of Eng· lish immediately got a job as a maintenance mechanic at Acme Farmers Milk Dairy in Toron to where his brother was working. Six weeks after his arrival in Canada he en tered the Canadian Gymnastics Champion· ships representing the German Canadian Harmonie Club and became the All Around Senior Mens Gymnastics Champion ' of Canada. During his first year in Canada, Weiler worked on shifts and had little opportunity either to practice gymnastics or to attend night school to learn English. However, he continued to compete in gymnastics at every opportunity. At One of these competi· tions he met S/Sgt. K. MacDonald from' the Army Physical Training Center Camp Bar· den who spoke to him of the opportunities which the Army provided for employment as a physical training instructor. Soon there· after Weiler applied for enrollment, was accepted, and allotted to RCASC on Sept. 23, 1958. Sgt. Weiler married a Canadian girl in Toronto on Jan. 11, 1959 and has a son Frederick (Rick l. An amazing fact about Sgt. Weiler's prog· ress in gymnastics is that he has reached an International Championship standard of performance without a coach to assist him. Although ' quick to point out that the other members of the APTC staff have given him invaluable assistance, he none·the·less has had to read broadly and to invent and put to gether all his own exercises and routines. In this regard he holds several firsts in
North American gymnastics. He was the first gymnast in North America to perform the Yamashita Vault in competition. This is an extremely difficult hand push off into a piked front somersault over the Long Horse, an' exercise first performed by the ~ apanese World and Olympic Champion of 1960 whose name has become associated with this vault. When he first used this vault in competition in the United States he won the USA vaulting title at Seattle on May 28, 1960. Sgt. Weiler was also the first gymnast to perform a piked back somersault dismount off the Horizontal Bar. This exercise caused considerable excitement when he performed it during a competition at the Gen'nan Gym· nastics Festival at Essen on July 20, 1963. He was asked to repeat his routine and this dismount on the following day and did so before over one hundred thousand spectators. Further Sgt. Weiler is the first Canadian and one of the very few gymnasts in North America to perform a double back somer· sault off the Still Rings as a part of a competitive routine. His greatest day in gymnastics was in Sao Paulo, Brazil, at the 1963 Pan American games when he won 3 gold, 4 silver and 1 bronze medal. I believe of the many na· tional and international competitions he won, this must be considered the highlight of his gymnastics career. Despite his outstanding successes in com· petition Weiler has remained an essentially humble, quiet and pleasant person. He can· siders himself extremely fortunate to have done so well and is very grateful to the Army. Sgt. Weiler considers himself a soldier first and a competitive gymnast second. He displays a high standard of sportsman· ship while competing. an excellent attitude towards other competitors, a cooperative manner towards officials and a pleasant manner towards spectators. These character· istics make him popular and well liked by competitors, officials and spectators alike. On the whole Sgt. Weiler is a fine reo sponsible NCO and an Internationally out· standing athlete. In both his conduct and his athletic performance he has been a great credit to the Canadian Army, and to Cana· dian gymnastics.
Col orado Gymnast ic Coaches Association President presides ov er Coaches Congress and introduces the ' speakers. Pictured here, above and belaw a re same af these coaches . Ed Gag rierfrom Iowa, Sam Bailie fram Arizona, Hal Frey of Ca lifornia, Glenn Wilson from Colorado, Eric Hughes from Wash ington and George Szypula af Michigan. Bel ow at r ig ht : d iscussion sessions at the Coaches Congress.
FRAN K L. BARE Executive Oi rector
end on your calendar right now and take part in specialized discussion groups in men's, women's gymnastics, officiating and trampolining.
USGF GOVERNING COUNCIL
Z' i'te~to't:t 1i:e/to~ THE UNI TED STATES GYMNA STICS FEDERATION P.O . Box 4 699,
TU CSON , ARIZONA .
CONGRESS OF COACHES The First Congress of American Gymnastics Coaches was conducted in Denver, Colorado on November 26-27, 1965. Some 70 of the nations gymnastics coaches attended the two-day event which was hosted at the beautiful Howard Johnson's Lodge in Denver. Two days of group meetings, discussion gro ups and planning sessions were involved and various discussion groups talked on all phases of coaching, officiating and promotion of the sport. Jim Farkas gave a report on his highly successful agegroup program. Eric Hughes, Bill Meade, Charlie Pond . _ . talked on international visits they had made and Jack Beckner reviewed the Gymnaestrada in Viennq which he attended. It was the first such meeting in gymnastics history in America. The reaction was to determine the future of the event. The U.S.G.F. office had intended it to be held every two or three years, however, at the closing session the question as raised as to when to meet again and it was unanimous . .. . 1966 _ . . . again in Denver, and then we'll look to other cities as hosts for the future. Judging from the interest shown in Denver . . . we are looking forward to some 200-300 co aches in 1966 for the two day event slated for November 25-26. Place this week-
While the Congress of Coaches was launched in one area of Denver, in that same area the U.S.G.F. governin g council met for its annu al fall meeting. Elected president for 1966-1967 was Mr. M. R. " Dick" Clausen, director of athletics at University of Arizona. Vice-president for men for one year (remaining on his two year term from last year's election ) . is Gordon Maddux, L. A. State College. Vice-president, women is Jackie Uphues of Evanston, Illinois and the two at-large members for 1966 are Mr. Bill Holmes, coach at East High School in Denver, Colo. , and Mr. Tom Darling, assistant coach at the U.S. Naval Academy_ The council spent one entire day reviewing program and events of the past year, then proceeded to 1966 and 1967. The USGF office h as fi rmed up a site for its National Championship into the year 1968. It is hoped that we will be able to release all the sites in early 1966 and maintain a three year in-advance schedule for the National Meet. Dr. Donald N. Boydston, retiring president of the U_S.G.F. was presented with a plaq ue for his office. It might well have carried thousands of words commemorating his efforts on behalf of this sport of gymnastics, as a director of athletics, involved with many activities and responsibilities, he gave of his time and interest in such a way as to guide the U.S.G.F_ through its first three formative years to the position it enj oys today _ On his plaque, was an outline of the USA, the USGF emblem and it was only three words but they were well-deserved . .. . " An unforgettable effort" . Dr. Boydston remains on the USGF Council as a delegate of the N.C.A.A_ and we'll be calling on him for help again without a doubt.
JAME S S. BOSCO. Ph .D. - SAN JOS E STAT E COLLEGE . Son Jose . Ca illa rnia
RESEARCH AND FITNESS IN GYMNASTICS
Putting on plaster costs for immobi lization of diff e rent parfs of ' the body during tl,e tests.
James S. Bosco San Jose State College This is the third of a series of articles dealing with research on kinesiological and cinematographical analysis of gymnastics activities. Articles for this series are still being accepted. If possible, photographs should accompany writt~n material. Please send all questions, comments and materials to the above address. MOORSE, Asbury C. "A cinematographical analysis of a Full Twisting Backward Somersault," Unpublished Masters Thesis, Urbana, University of Illinois, 1951. Purpose By use of mechanical formulas, analyze scientifically and determine factors pertinent to the execution of the full twistin g backward somersault. Method A Bell and Howell thirty-five millimeter "Eyemo" model moving picture camera with a lens speed of 2.8 to 22 was used. The movies were taken at a shutter speed of fort y-eight frames per second. Three views were taken of the subjects: 1. Side view: The camera was placed sixty feet from the side of the trampoline. 2. Front view: The camera was placed directi y in front of the trampoline. 3. Top view: The top view was taken to show the action of the feet as the y left the 路bed. The camera was held by the photographer standing on the end of the trampoline. The pictures were taken at a 45 degree angle. A Spencer Delineascope (thirty-five mm. hand projector ) was used in prOjecting the film for analysis. This projector allowed the film to be turned by hand, frame by frame without burning the film. The projector was placed at an exact horizontal plane with the screen, the distance from the screen adjusted according to the desired images. Tracing paper was placed directly on the screen and pencil tracings were made of each seventh frame. Eleven key positions for each twist were made. 12
In addition to photographing the normal full twist, mo vies were taken of the twist with body parts immobilized (in plaster casts ) . Conclusions The writer attempted to show that the full tWIstmg backward somersault is governed and can be explained by well defined laws of mechanics. By analyzing and studying the movies taken of a normal full twist and the twist with body parts immobilized, the author made the following conclusions: 1. In order to obtain and maintain maximum height the better performers enter the beef with a well defined cro uch and at the same time swing the arms backward and downward. Abo ut the time the downward momentum is lost the arms complete the descendin g motion. At this time the legs are straightened and the arms started up,Yard . This strai ghtening of the legs, combined with the upward moti on of the arms depresses the bed further than would a simple fallin g motion along. Due to this combination of arm and leg movement the performer is able to obtain and maintain good hei ght. 2. When at the bottom of the bed the legs are straight, arms are forward at ri ght angles to the body and continuing to swing in a sweeping upward moti on. The trunk and head are leaning toward the rear. Other things being equal the increase in the lea n at the bottom of the bed in creases the torque which also increases the rate of chan !!!' of the upward rotation . 3. The twist in the backward somersault is initiated between the time the performer leaves th e bottom of the bed and reaches the top of th e bed. Th e twist as well as the backward somersault is aided b y the momentum of the arms. The extend to which each is aided depends upon the direction of the relative velocity of the arms. The less freedom the performer has of body parts the more the arms are bent at the elbows and the closer the y are brought to the body. Also, as more body parts are immobi lized the greater the lean (rotation ) and twist of the performer while he is in contact with the bed. As th e performer rises in the bed the weight is graduall y shifted to the right foot and the left foot is pushing off with a twisting motion.
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4. Just after the performer clears the bed the left arm reaches the extent of its up ward sweep to the right and its momentum is imparted to the rest of the body, increasing the twist and rotation. The twist is also increased after leaving the bed by drawing the right arm downward toward the body and bending the legs slightly. The action of the right arm decreases the moment of inertia of the upper portion of the body. The leg action increases the inertia of the lower portion of the body. These actions enable the performer to twist the upper portion of his body to the right due to its small moment of inertia relative to the legs. As more body parts are immobilized the motion of both arms is more transverse rather than sweeping upward. This will lessen the rotation resultin,; from the arm action, and also the height obtained and will cause the momentum of the arms to aid principally in the twist and allow it to be initiated early in the motion. The twist is also initiated early in the motion by drawing the arms into the body during their transverse motion decreasing the moment of inertia of the upper part of the body. The remainder of the twist appears to be continuous until the performer sees the bed. At this time he pushes his arms out, increasing his moment of inertia, which gradually slows the twist down. allowing him to re-enter
., . I.I. I. I
the bed straight. While the performer is completin g the twist he is also completing the backward somersault. By drawing his legs up and his arms down he decreases hi's moment of inertia and, therefore. increases his angular velocity. With this co ntrol he can 'be assured that h~ will return to the bed in the proper position. "
by A. BRUCE FREDERICK . 2125 ARMOUR DRIVE WILMINGTON 8, DELAWARE TUCK, PI KE and LAYOUT A Way Te Begin Very youn g children as well as older be· ginners in gymnastics often experience a Ian· guage gap in early training due to a lack of exposure to gymnastic terminology. The use of a few, very sim ple terms can help the beginner to relate the everyday movements he has already learned to those of the gym· nastic world he is enterin g. Teachin g the p.ositions of the tuck, pike, and layout is the con tent for a single lesson. If these term s are learned and applied in later classes, the instructor will have saved some valuable tim e as his students become more gymnastically oriented. What do the terms, "skin·the-cat," " fr ont support" and "cast" mean to a beginner? Except for the fir st of these . . . probably very little. First graders come to the physical educator with many learned movements. Some of these are : 1. The ability to lie down (Front and back) . 2. Ability to sit. 3. The ability to stand in vario us ways and to walk and run . 4. The ability to kneel. 5. The ability to crawl and perform other simple stu.nts on the hands and feet. 6. The ability to j ump. The lesson could begin in countless ways. This is especially true for those fortunate enough to have adequate matting. In the gy mnasium with no mats or on an athletic fi eld it is best to start fr om a sitting position. The following suggesti ons have been worked out for very youn g children who are in kindergarten and grades one and two. In troducing the T UCK (Children sit ) " Bend your knees and pull your legs close to your chest." "A re you pulling hard?" "A boat that pulls hard is a T UG boat." "When w ~ pull our legs hard we are tuggmg. " We are doing a TUCK." "What kind of TUCK?" "A sitting TUCK ." The establishm ent of a relationship between TUG and TUCK may help the chil· dren to remember the position and action desired. Having completed the sitting tuck position, the children might be challenged to do the foll owing:
1. A standing tuck A tuck while on the back A tuck on the side of the body A kneeling tuck A tuck in any of the previous positions without using the hands. 6. A tuck on the front side of the body. (The children will soon realize that" this is not possible.) 7. a jumping tuck 8. A tuck while supporting the body with hands only 9. A rolling tuck (Children will either roll from side to side or front to back.) 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction to the PIKE (Children sit) "Make your legs very straight" "You are doing a pike" "When you do a pike, you bend at the ' belly' but not at the knees." For purposes of recall, the teacher might mention or show pictures of a turnPIKE toll gate, a picture of a fi sh known as a PIKE or PIKE'S P eak. In all of these examples a "V" shape is found easily by chilo dren. The word itself derives from roots which mean the crest of a mountain among other things. Anything which will strengthen the learning process may be introduced. Repeat the suggestions found under the introduction to the tuck with the possible addition of the pike with support of hands and feet or combinations of hands and feet. A pike on one f20t m~r result in something very close to a scale. Introduction to the LAYOUT (Children lying on their backs) " Lie on your back." "You are doin g a LAYOUT." "There is no bend in your body; your legs are straight." Once again, have the children do LAYOUTS while standing, prone and on the side of the body as suggested above. Ask them to layout while sitting so they might discover the impoS5ibility of such a task. The suggestion to layout on both hands and feet will result in some push· ups. The word, " layout," has an 'c:rbvious association with a slI:etched position or straight position so little or no word association activity need be devel«?ped. HOMEWORK Children may go through .old magazines to find examples of people doing all sorts of tucks, pikes and layouts in everyday as well as sporting activities. A collection of each type may be accumulated on a bulletin board. Some children will delight in drawing pictures of themselves in action as they prac-
Standing Pike On One Foot
tice variations at home. This was recently suggested to some second graders of the Poplar Ave. School of the Oak Grove District in Elsmere, Delaware. The drawings of some of the children accompany this article.
FOLLOW·UP As you progress with your classes in basic tumbling you will find many opportunities to take advantage of the lesson on the TUCK, PIKE AND LAYOUT. Combinations of movem ents involving one or more position s will be immediately understood. At the next meeting followin g the one on TUCK, PIKE AN D LAYOUT you might introduce three very common positions of the legs; the legs together position and the straddle and stride. These three may then be used in combination with tucks, pikes . and layouts. What is a skin-the-cat? Of course! It is a moving tuck through the arms while hanging from a bar or other object. A cast becomes a movement in which the body first pikes and then lays out while in support of the hands on a bar. Later on, the more traditi onal language of gymnastics will be easier to use but we suspect that even at the upper levels of skill the concept of the tuck, pike and layo ut will be very useful.
Helpful hints by "lim" Farkas, InstT/tetor 0/ Physical Education,
0/ The Milwaukee . tr isconsin
SPOTTING DOUBLE-REAR-VAULT DISMOUNT Along with the learning of Flank-Circles (double leocircles) the learning of the Double Rear-vault should b~足 gin.
The mechanics of this exercise-element require such body positions which are instinctively avoided by beginners, thus the learning process may be quite lengthy. The length of the learning period, however, can be drasticly reduced by active spotting. The beginner usually approaches this skill with cautious timidity, therefore he will commit two basic errors. He may not generate enough circular swing by the legs to provide continuous momentum throughout the vault; and he may not lean with his shoulder in the direction of the vault The consequence of these errors is a nasty fall with the legs usually up and the body out of control. Physical assistance seems to be difficult because the swinging legs do not allow an initially close spotting stance. Spotting, nevertheless, must be attempted. The illustrated spotting technique, if well timed, is very effective not only at preventing the possibility of falls but, what is more important, it actually leads and helps a performer into the proper mechanical positions, thus it shortens the learning period_ The spotter takes position in rear of the gymnast. Out of reach of the swinging legs. (Fig. # 1.) When the gymnast's legs pass in front of him, the spotter must instantaneously lunge forward and grasp the upper-arm (in this case the LEFT arm) and the upper torso on the other side (Figs. #2 & #3 .) With this grasp the spotter enforces a LEFT-and BACKWARD-leaning positions, at the same time he also twists and turns the gymnast's trunk in the direction of the vault (Fig. #4.) Using this spotting technique the proper kinesthetic sensations will rapidly accumulate, therefore it will encourage a bolder approach which will reduce the chances of failure and will facilitate complete learning.
RULES By Dick Criley NCAA RULES The NCAA rules governing the 1965-1966 gymnastics season have been rewritten and reorgan ized completely. Now they are much longer (18 pages) and cover many points in grea ter detail. The NCAA Rules Committee condu cted a seven·hour for um in which all the college coaches con tributed to the reo writing of the rules. The committee itself represents all areas of the country and their codification of the rules contributes much to the health of gymnasti cs as a sport within th e NCAA. These rules are used nationally as in 1965 and help to overcome the can· fu sion existing prior to 1965 when each region had its own rules and events. It is not possible to list every chan ge in the rules. The complete set may be obtained from the NCAA office. This article is in· tended to provide a brief description of rules of interest within the areas of competition, judging and scorin g, and the NCAA Cham· pionships and to raise some discussion can· cerning them. The trampolin e and long horse vault events are singled out for special com· ment because they do differ from the reo maining fiv e events in certain maj or reo spects. The new rules limit each team to a maxi· mum of four en tri es per event. One man mu.st be designated as an all·around can· tes tant and one man may be en tered in an unlimited number of events. If the all·around man does not compete in an even t the team is held to three men for that event. The other team members are limited, as in the past, to three events per man. The NCAA h as both strenthened and weakened the all· around even t with these rules. The even t is stronger because additional men have the opportunity to work all·around. But unlike last year, there is no additional merit to all· around because no points are awarded to the winnin g gymnast. And what provision is made for a team lacking an all·around man? Are they limited to three entri es only? " In artistic gymnastics, a gymnast must show that he is the master of his body and his movements, and that he can complete his exercise with grace, ease, and sureness. ... An exercise which presents grea t ri sks, originality, and difficult connecting parts ( tran sitions) will be less severely judged for small execution fault s than the exercise which is la cking originality, virtuosi ty and ri sk." The rules consider execution fault s to" be those of poor form and position while fault s of a technical nature are comm itted in the poor performance of movemen ts and transitions. The Rul es Committee is urging routin es of grea ter difficulty and ori ginality but cautions that gymnastics still requires control , and in such exercises which require that th e gymnast exceed his capabilities, a penalty will be levied. Credit is to be ac· knowled ged, however, because attention is drawn to th e eff ort to mak e th e sport more
stimulating to participant and spectator alike. A perfect routin e would be worth 10.0 points awarded on the basis of 3.4 for diffi· culty, 1.6 for com binati on, and 5.0 for ex· ec ution. Because question often arises as to how may parts compose a routine and what their diffi culty must be, the appropriate pas· sage is ci ted: To obtain the maximum score, in all eve nts, except long horse vaulting, a routine must be composed of at least: a) 6 principle pa rts-A parts (each worth 0.2) b) 4 parts of difficulty-B parts (each worth 0.4) c) one part of superior difficulty-C part (worth 0.6) d ) for the difficulty score, the ded uction can not exceed 3.4. In the interpretation of the rules for trampoline competition, the rules committee indicated that the event should be treated as the other events. The exercise shall be composed of one seq uence utilizing somer· saultin g and twisting movements. Somer· sa ults shall be executed both forwards and backwards and twists with both forwards and backwards somersaults. In addition, some part of the body other than the feet shall make con tact with the bed. The last landin g is to the feet, on balance and in a stationary position. The bounces are not counted aloud, and the same minimum dif· fi culty requirements exist. Spotters are reo quired for the ends and sides 'of the ap· paratus. Deductions are made for the touch· ing of anything (incl uding a spotter ) save the bed. For such an interruption, the can· testant receives a deduction of 1.0 points, but after a 30 second rest the performer may regain his height (without penalty) be· fore resuming the routine. It is noted that a performer may participate on trampoline without footwear. The FIG vault ratings are followed in the long horse event. Two different vaults are scored. The difficulty of the vault is the basic mark from which deduction s on grip, preflight and afterflight, and land are made. While the fib erglass board is approved for dual meet use in long horse competition, it has not been approved for the regional or national champion ships. As nearly as possible the NCAA rules are in accordance with the FIG rules for the 6 Olympic events. The rules list at great length the penalties and deductions for var· ious technical and execution fault s. As in the past, a contestant leaving hold of the apparatus or falling does not necessarily terminate hi s exercise. He has up to 30 seconds to remount and continue from the point of interruption but suffers an automatic deduction of 1.0 points. Under the new rules, the judges' raw scores will be used to tabulate the team scores. In the dual meets the three best scores in each event will be added to ar· rive at a team score for that event. At the conclusion of the meet all seven event scores will be added to determine the final team score. A discussion of this system was pre· sented by Mr. Carl Patterson in the March '(is Modern Gymnast, pa~e 7. As mentioned above, scoring is on the basis of 10.0 for a perfect routine. Four judges are used on each event and the mid· dIe two scores are averaged for the valuation of the performan ce. An exception to FIG practice is noted in that consultation, of the judges on the first competitor in each event is not required unless the scores are not justifiable. On the long horse, the judges should be notified of the vault to be attempted but
must evaluate it in li ght of what was actually performed. In practice, this should suggest to the gymnast that his two vaults be sufficiently differen t that they not be confused by the judges and the second one not be scored. There will be an in creased number of teams and individuals qualifying for the NCAA Championship, in contra st with last year in which only two teams met for the championship. This rear, 12 teams, three from each reg ion, wil compete for the team title. The inter· regional meet of last year has been eliminated and the teams qualify directly into the final s. Each region will qualify eight men for the nationals in each event except all·around. In the all·around event four men qualify from each region. A competitor , in ord er to qualify for the na· tionals, must earn on e of the top eight scores in each event or one of the top four all· around scores. H e mayor may not be a member of one of the three winning teams of that region. In the prelimin aries there will be approximately 60 entries per event and eight per event in the final s. Men from teams competin g for the team championship are not eligible for places in the individual championships unless they are also one of the regional qualifiers in the event. An all· around competitor may not compete for a place in an even t in which he did not qualify in his region. The team championship will be determined by adding the top three scores for each team and the team wi th the hi ghest total for the seven events (excludin g all· around) in preliminary competition will be declared the National Collegiate Team Champion. An elaborate and possibly confusin g plan has been drawn up by th e r ules comm ittee for the preliminary session. For the purposes of determinin g the national team champion a team is subj ect to the same limitations as in a dual meet. Each team will compete with its members consecutively on each event and the individuals from an area who are not on a team will compete with the winning team from that region. Several event s will be run simulatneously, somewhat like the Olympic competiti on. Other details may reo quire further clarification and for additional information one is directed to the official co py of the rules. While the likelihood of a tie between two teams for the champion· ship is small, no provision has been written into the rules as to whether it shall stand or a run·off be required. A code of ethics has been added to the -rules to preserve the dignity and growth of the sport of gymnastics. It calls upon judges and coaches to see that competition is can· ducted with full regard for the safety of and justice to all competitors and the edifi· cation and pleasure of the spectators. It is impossible to cover all the rules, the chan ges, and their interpretations. If this article has made the collegiate gymnasts more aware of some of the rules governing their competition on the local and national collegiate levels, it will h ave served a useful purpose. While it cannot be expected that the rules sa tisfy everyone or that every coach and judge interpret them similarly, the NCAA Rules Committee has don e a com· mendable job in their preparation of the Official NCAA Gymnastics Rules for 1966. Acknowledgement is made to Mr. Harold Frey, past NCAA Rules Committee Chair· man, and Mr. Eugene Wettstone, current NCAA Rules Committee Chairman for their kind assistance in gathering the material on whi ch this article is based. Opinions ex· pressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect th ose of Mr. Frey or Mr. Wettstone.
OLYMPIC FINALS - SEQUENCE PHOTO ROUTINES U NEVEN PARALLELS-LARISA LATYNINA (USSR) 19_199 Third Place Individual Championships, 1964 ' Olympic Games, Tokyo, Japan. Run, beat board take-off, squat vault to grasp upper bar, cast one-half turn to mixed grip, swing to back hip circle, throw to immediate half turn ca tch upper bar, snap turn, catch lower bar, glide kip catch upper bar. Pull-up tuck cast out to lea bounce off lower bar to pull-over uppe; bar, cast to kris kere drop cast one路half turn to back hip circle, illusion dislocate grasp lower bar glide kip to stoop thru. kip up, catch upper bar, kip off lower bar to high bar, squat thru on upper bar to stand on lower bar, straight leg sole circle to seat drop, kip up to grasp upper bar straddling legs inside lower bar, immediate catch on lower bar with legs in straddle position to one-leg kip rise, quarter turn and straddle low bar, left hand grasps upper bar, right foot and hand on lower bar, left lea swin as inside lower bar and up with qua:ter tu;n to face llpper bllr, spring to handstand, straddle cut-off dismount.
PARALLEL BARS - VICTOR LISITSKY (USSR) 19.200 Fifth Place Individual Champsionships, 1964 Olympic Games, Tokyo, Japan. Jump to straddle cut on end to high doubles to planche. Cast to upperarm support , forward roll , back uprise, straddle, dip swing to handstand. Back overbar catch, stutz layaway, hop pirouette, cast back uprise, back stutz, swinginj( pirouette, streuli, back somie off with full twist.
First Congress of Am erican Gymna sti c Coaches wa s held in Denver, Colorado , over Thanksgivin g week end and was at· tended by ·approximat ely 70 coa ches from throughout th e Unit ed States. Reason for th e Congress was to give gy mna sti c coach es an opportunity to di scuss probl ems and exchan ge ideas conc ernin g the spot at a time wh en th ey do not have to be co nce rned wi th competition s or competitors. Consid· ering the short notice, it drew a number of fin e coaches and the opinion of tho se at · tending was that it was benefi cial to alL So much so, that they and Cipat e at least 200 coa ches will att end , n ext year's Con· gress which will be held again in Denver at th e same time. Althou gh trampoline was mention ed man y tim es in the two day meetin g there is not a great deal to report. H owever, it is our feelin g from listening to the conversation s that trampoline , as a gymnastic event , is bett er acce pt ed by coaches now than ever before. Greg Weiss' statenlPnt that he felt trampolin e and tumbling should be the first event s taught prospective gy mnasts in ord er to give th em kenes thetic sense mad e us feel that most all coa ches realize the value of this event as a basis for other eveH ts. The Congress not iltlly gave an opportu· nity to learn , but al so an opportunity to throw out idea s, regardless of how wild they were, for discussion. Like brainstorm · in g a problem in business, this is also ef· fec tive in a sport. Alt kind s of so lutions are suggested for a problem and often one very good solution is the end result. The mee ting made us wonder if there ,vasn't somethin g we could contribute that mi ght help coaches in teaching trampoline. We sudd enly realized that there are cer· tain things we believe but we have never bothered to list th em on paper. Following are some of these beliefs and th e reasons for them: Beginners should learn man y fundamen.· tals bejore attempting som ersaults. Once con trol is learned in the bounce and in fundam ental s, control will come much easier in somersaults, Somersaults, particularly backs , codys, double backs, etc., 3hould be learned in the belt. It keeps the st udent safe until he learns wh ere he is in th e somersault and until he learn s how to control th e so mersa ult. Th e belt is very valuable in teachin g as L e performer can concentra te on a parti cUlar portion of his body durin g the so mersault (such as arm s, knees, head, etc. ) wit nou l fear of not makin g the somersault. Student should stay in belt until both he and th e in stru ctor agree it can be don e safely out oj the belt. Naturally a student shouldn ' t perform a stunt out of th e belt without in stru ctor 's OK but on the other hand , in structor shouldn't att empt to force stud ent to try
a stunt out of the belt. Fear of bein g on hi s own may pani c the stu dent res ultin g; in injury, Trampolinists should learn som ersaults and twisting somersaults both forward and backward jrom jeet, stomach and back takeofj to feet, stomach and back landing. On e learns control from these different exercises and the more there is to learn the more interest is maintain ed . Barany and back-with·halj·twist shonld be jirst attempted using a llick somersault with th e t wist coming after the tuck. A stud ent thinkin g about a twist will often twist ri ght off of the tram polin e bed or worse yet, will forge t about the somersault and perform a parti al twi st with only a half somersault. Usin g th e tuck as a signal to twi st, enou gh somer· sault is executed to brin g perform er down ri ght sid e up and there is a good chan ce he will remain in center of trampolin e. Twists should be learned and controlled one half at a time. Aft er learning a half twist and then a full twist , eith er forward or backward , it is fairly easy to add twists, one half at a tim e, on up to a triple. Twists th at end lookin g away from the trampolin e such as ba ck with half twi st, can be used later III doubl e som ersaults with twi sts such as the back·with-half·barany fliffi s. Forward halj twists and back ward fu ll twists should be spotted while twisting. If a trampolinist does not see trampo· lin e bed whil e performing twisting somer· saults he will be at a bi g disadvantage
when it co mes to p uttin g th em in routin es. Th ere sim ply is not enough tim e to sight the tra mpolin e bed and adju st th e somer· sault a ft er th e twist and before the landin g. Poin t rated trampolin e sllinls should be u~d as a teaching aid. Any point ratin g system will probably work but we recomm end the Bollin ger sys· tem of allowin g one po int for eac h qu art er so mersault and one po int fo r each half twist. In order to obt ai n poin ts perform er should swin g int o and out of stunts with ot her point ra ted somersault s. Three rea· sons thi s system works are: L T rampolini sts can compete against eac h other by obtainin g points 2. Man y stunts will be learn ed th at wo ul dn' t ordin arily be attempted and 3. E ach new stunt is immed iately put int o a three boun ce routine. One must log many hours on trampoline to be proficient. Like any other sport, one must spend many hours on th e trampolin e in ord er to be a good competi tor. Even a two week layoff will show a loss of timin g and con· trol. Good judgme nt is th e best saje ty device one can use on the tram poline.
RECORD OF THE MONTH 7 Double Back Pullovers performed by Steve Lerner of Los Angeles, Calif. It is extremely diffi (; ult to perform double back pullovers ( back drop to back drop ) in cen· ter of trampolin e with out traveling back· wards.
PROGRESSION FOR LEARNING FRONT WITH FU LL TWIST Once trampolinist has learned barany, perform baron y fr o m kn ees to stomach drop. Continue second half twist AFTER landing on stomach (on second bounce). Be certain second half twist is same direction a s barony. If no instructor is present tie str ing or rope to Si de of performer and ask someone to hold one end at side of trampoline. After two twists it should be wrapped once around perfo rmer.
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Seco nd step to progression IS to perfo rm barony to stomach and IF HIGH ENO UGH, turn second half tw ist JUST BEFOR E LANDING . After performing this ex ercise sev eral ti m es trampol inist should hav e feeling of full twist.
If fi ~st two steps are successful attempt twist from feet t o fee t , barany and then second half twist . This w ill be quite difficult at first and trampoli n ist may hav e to alternate second and third step of prog ress ion several times before full twi st is perfor med correctly fe et ,to feet .
Midwest Open Ring chomp Jet Jackson of Iowa State
SCORE?/I Uy J erry Wri:;hl Fra IH:i,co Sla le College Calendar af Events Feb. 19, Northwest Open, Minneapolis, Minn . Mar 4-5, Southern Intercollegiate Confe rence Chps., Furman, University; Mar. 1 1-1 2, Washington State High School Championsh ips, Univ. of Wash., Seatt le; Mar. 12, CCAA (Ca lifornia) Championships, Long Beach State; Mar. 18-19, Big Eight conference championships, Univ. of Kansas; Mar. 18-19, NCAA Mid East Reg ionals, Indiana State-Terra Haute. April 15, Long Beacr Invitationa l, Long Beach State. Pasadena National Invitationa l My apo log ies t o Mr. Lyle Wesler gymnastics coach at the Georgia Tech Un iversity for referring to the system of judging used in the southern intercollegiate conference as the " Baue r
" SIGL" system (ie : they are similar but the SIGL came before the Bauer system . . .)
MIDWEST OPEN Report by Bob路 Kreidler The annual Midwest Open was a huge success . We ran the pre l im inaries in one session starting at 9:30 A.M. We hod all 7 events going at once. We followed the enclosed chart t o place the various teams in slots. I figure we had 439 ro utines performed in 3 112 hours . The evening finals were set up just li ke the NCAA finals with the best 8 men per event. We hod about 400 people for the prelims and a bout 1200 for the final s. The routines in most cases were very good . It took a , sco re of 9 .0 in most cases to get into the finals. MID WEST OPEN GYMNASTICS CHAMPIONSHIPS Navy Pier, Chicago-Dece.,..ber 4, 1965 Results All-Around : Rust y Mitchell, SIU, 1T, 54 .70; Dove Thor, Mich. St. IT, 54.70; Glenn Gailis, Hawks, 54.55; Jerry Fontana , Iowa St., 51 .90; Mike Jacki , ISU, 50.85; Fred Roethlisberger, Milw. Tr., 50.45; Bob Dickson , Iowa U., 50.20; Lorry Lindauer, $1U, 50.05; Lon Thompson , Mankato, 48.55; Neil Schmitt, Iowa, 47.95 ; Ted Wilson, Mich St., 46.75; Bill Hladi k, SIU , 46.75; Rick Tucker, SIU, 45.75; Paul Mover, SIU , 45.50; Norm Haynie, MSU , 44 .95. Parollei Bars : Jerry Crowder, ISU, 9.45; Rusty Mitchell, 9.425; Ron Harstad SIU , 9.375; Paul Mo yer, 9.)75; Bob Dickson, 9.15. Long Horse
Vaulting : Fred Roethlisberger, 9.60; Dove Thor, 9.475; Bob Dickson, 9.40; Toby Toryson MSU , 9 .375; Ike Hell er Iowa , 9.325. Horizontal Bar: Jim Curzi , MSU, 9.50; Rick Tucke r 9.225; Rusty 'Mitchell, 9.225; Glenn Gailis . 9.2; Ke n Paulsen , 9.125. Trampoline : Wayne Miller, Unat., 9.625; Frank Schmitz SIU , 9 .60; Dove Jacobs Unat., 9.55; Gory Hol vec k Unat. , 9 .525; Tim Clarke IS, 9.35.Rings: Jet Jackson , IS, 9.50; Mike Jacki, 9. 50; Glenn Gailis, 9.45; Fred Dennis, 9.35; Jim Hopper Unat., 9.325. Floor Exercise: Fronk Schm itz, 9.425; Rust,,' Mitchell, 9: 30; Dove Thor, 9.20; Jim Barbe r, 9.125; Paul Moyer, 9 .05; Mike Jacki , 9.05. Side Horse: Dove Thor, 9. 50; Art Baessler U. Mich ., 9.35; Baumann ISU , 9.125 ; Kinsey, Bmdji, 9.025; Mike Baegler SIU, 9.025 . FRANK HAILAND MEMORIAL Western Open Age Group Championships The first Frank Hoiland Memorial Championships were held at Son Franc isco State College in close cooperatio n wit h the Berkeley YMCA. It was felt by all that the meet turned out to be a very fitting memorial to Fron k due t6 the fact that there were over 300 individual entries, including entries from the powerful Seattle YMCA from Washington where Fron k taught for some time, and entries from Nevada, Utah and California . The prelim inari es and final s fo r girls a nd bays 14 and under were hel d in the morning .
The pr拢.liminaries for the men and women 15 and aver were held in the afternoon. The top 6 men and the top 6 women in each event were qualified to ad vance to the finals in the even ing before 450 spectators. The meet was highlighted by the fine performances of Ray Hadley, Sid Freudenstein , Dan Millman, Ed Clark (Pasadena City Co llege), Rusty Rock (SFVSC), Dan Garcia, and two fine high schoo l g ym nasts from Seatt le , Yachi Hayasaki and Bo Bennett and the fine Seattle women's team led by Dale McClements Flansaas . RESULTS All around: Hadley, 53.65; Freudenstein, 51 .55; Garcia, 50.60; Mike Flansaas, 49.35; Yachi Hayasaki 49 .20. Floor Exercise: Freudenstein 9.35; Garcia 9.25; Gary Diamond, CalFr 9.1 . Side Horse: Hadley 9.2; Field , Cal. 9.0; Anson, PCC, 8.75 . Trampoline: Millman, 9.2; Umbarger, B. YMCA, 8.8; Bailey, Cal, 8 .5 . High Bar: Rock, SFVSC, 9.4; Garcia , 9.2; Morrissey, BYU , 9.1 . Long Horse : Freudenstein , 9.55; Bennett, Stl. Y. 9.45; Millman, Cal 9.4. Still Rings: Clark, Pcc, 9.5; Rack, 9.3; Nicho las, BYU , 9.2. Parallel Bars: Hadley, 9.45; Hayasaki, 9.35; Nicholas, BYU, 9.2. 1 S and over Girls All around: Dale Flansaas, 37.30, Seatt le ; Joanne Hashimoto , Sac. Y.; Joyce Tanac, Stl. Y.; L inda Roddela , Sti. Y.; Jeanne Henderson, Stl. Y. Floor Exercise: Fla nsaas, 9.5; Roddela, 9 .1; Hashimoto, 9 . 1; Tanac, 9 . 1. Balance Beam: Louise Grant, Stl. W. 8-7; Hendersoll,
Hashimoto, 9.3; Tanac, 9.1 ; Roddela, 8.85. Vaulting : Flansaas, 9.35; Henderson, 8.8; Rodella, 8.5. 12-14 Boys Howard Hardie of the Berkeley Y. led teammates Clark Johnson and Robbie McClaren in 1-2-3 sweeps in most events. 12-14 Girls This div is ion was pretty evenly matched with individual event winners including Carolyn Pingatore of the Seattle Y-Unevens; Lea nne McClements, Seattle Y - Floor exercise; Joan Kidder, Fresno gym club, balance beam; and Betty Smith of Sparks g y m club, Reno winner of the vau lti ng. 10-11 Boys Steve Berklund o f the Sacramento Y dominated this divisio n winning 6 of 8 events. Joel Sparger of the Berkeley Y won the remaining two events. 10-11 Girls Lori Foreman of the Sparks (Reno, Nevada) gym club won 3 events and placed 3rd in the other . Peg Rowen of the Seattle Y won the balance beam. 9 and under Boys Danny Bongiovanni of the San Jose Y and Dave Vered of the Berkeley Y split honors here as they won four events each . 9 and under Girls Mary Polak of Vada's was virtua ll y uncontested here as she won all events with rela-
tive ease. SAN JOSE STATE INVITATIONAL In spite of the fact that one of the ba y area's finest g ymnasts was forced to stay out of the meet by the AAU (in viol ation of the Senate Declared moratorium) the San Jose invitational turned out to be an excellent presentation of fine gymnasts. . Also, in spite of the fact that on ly the top gymnasts were inv ited there were still around 25 in each event causing meet director Clair Jennett to add a few more gray hairs but because of good organization did not delay the meet . The University of Cal ifornia and San Fernando Valley State College again dominated the meet as they did a week be f ore at 1he Fran k Hailand Memorial. Sid Freudenstein of Cal. captured the all Dale (McClements) Flansaas
Niles West Gym Team with Caaches John Burkel and John Arm ou r around, FX, and LH with some outsfanding Senior Ed Ra y mond , Niles West, performing performances (including a 路 9.5 in FX, and 9.6 on the side horse, parallel bars, horizontal on LH). ba r, and trampoline, was high scorer of the Rusty Rock and Bob Diamond of SFVSC meet with 27 points . looked good especially Rock as he performed Gold Medal winners were: a routine on the high bar which gives the Trampoline : Richard Crim , Evanston; Side appearance of having nothing but "C" mov es Horse : Ed Raymond , Niles West; Horizontal suffering only minor breaks and muscling his Bar: Richard Scorza, Willowbrook; Parallel reverse stalder and hitting his unique " front " Bars : Richard Swetman, Proviso East; ~till somersault dismount almost perfect! Rings : Steve Rochell, N iles West; Tumblong: Josh Robison of Cal looked like a new mqn Lessie Sergeant. Proviso East. on the rings after just one week hitting for a 9.5 in spite of a weak dismount. Other event w inners included a surprise NEVADA STATE CHAMPIONSHIPS performance by Larry Topping of Sacramento The Sparks-Reno-Nevada g ym club capState on the parallel bars. A good side horse tured the Nevada State Champi onships held performance by Rick Field of Cal-recovering the past summ er at the University of Nevada from an elbow operation, and a wild performover strong entries from Central Junior H igh, ance on the trampoline by Dan Millman . . . Las Vegas YMCA, Henderson Recreation Ce,, ter, and Las Vegas Optimists club. LaCROSSE STATE INVITATIONAL RESULTS It appears as though Bemidji State is one FIRST PLACE WINNERS BOYS of the teams to beat in this section of the 16 and over country after the y won 6 of 7 events in the All around: Baker, Srn; floor exercise: Zol LaCrosse State invitational November 20, lotuchen , LVY;. side horse, Rone y', Unatt; pOfol1965. Leading the powerful Bemidji team wa s lei bars : Zollotuchen; rings: Zollotuchen, Koe:, ler (tie); long horse: Zollotuchen; high bor: T obler with victories on the tram pol ine and Dickson; tumbling: Zoll otuchen. high bar .. Zenk winner o f the FX, Kinse v the 13 to lS side horse champion, Olson and Casawa y the All around : Derrick, HRC; floor exercise: PB and SR champions respectfull y. Stevens, LVY; side horse; La ymon, C; parallel Zaleski of MIT, however , did not let a ll bars: Stevens, LVY; rings : Swinney, HRC; long the blue ribbons get awa y as he grabbed off horse: Stevens; high bar: Derrich; tumbling: one for the all important all around. Stevens. Apparently the long Horse event was not 10 to 12 contested-trul y unfortunate in this day and age . . . EVANSTON INVITATIONAL The Niles West Gymnastics Team captured top honors in the Ev anston Invitational, a meet between the top fi v e Ill inois State High School gymnastics teams. The December 1 1 Invitat ional Meet was the fourth annual event sponsored by the Evanston Township High School, Evanston, III inois. Of the five participants, Niles West took first with 73 points, Evanston second With 71 V2 points and Proviso East. third with . 69 points. Fourth was Arlington With 65V2 pomts and fifth was Willowbrook With 56 pomts. Under the rules of this contest each schoo l is allowed two participants for each piece of apparatus. Since these participants are the top performers, competition is keen and gymnatsics excellent at thi s meet. Rusty
Floor exercise: Petterso n , C; side horse: McKaig, C; parallel bars : Fr y, C; rings: Fore;n an , SRN; long horse, McKaig. 9 and under All around : Vaughn, SRN; floor exercise, Vaughn, SRN; side horse: Vaughn, SRN; parallel bars : Vaughn, SRN; r ings: Vaug hn; long horse : Vaughn; high bar: Vaughn. GIRLS 16 and over
Balance beam : Duffney; floor exercise: Dav unevens: Carlson, vaulting, Goodbow. 13 to lS Balance beam : Barnes, SRN; floor exercise , Barnes; unevens, Barnes; vaulting, Smith , SRN. is;
10 to 12 Balance beam: Foreman, SRN; floor exercise: Foreman; unevens: Foreman; vQulting: Foreman. Sid
JUDGING NOTES by
NOTES FROM NEUROTIC JUDGE (Note. This is the 3rd in a series of articles evaluat in g the FlC Code of Points. Th is arti cle focu ses on themethod of evaluation and duties of the judges_ The American variat ions and related rule changes are discussed with the author's recommendations for improvement and r efinement and additional comments on their relative merit.) " Due to Conditions Beyond Our Control __ ." In this, the Age on Specialization, gymnastics judges have found a hom e. Some unhappy and intrepid Americans have challenged the foreign regime and, in effect have formed small but successful "Congs" of rebellion in effort to more honestly and reliably evaluate gymnastic performances_ The present Kings of the Congs are George Ba uer of Wisconsin and Lyle Welser of -Georgia. Both men contend that a singl e gym nastic judge has too many duties to perform and rules to remember in too short a time to do a proper job of evaluating, using the method outlined by the FIG_ Both men have_succeeded in adopting very similar systems of judging, which sep arate the duties of the judges in an effort to increase the efficiency of the judgin g process_ This philosophy has been seconded by John Nooney of the Ontario School System in Canada with a system including somewhat different regulations, but an identical approach. Many very prominent gymnastics figur e5 have applauded the Bauer and Welser innova tion s; but some very important considerations have been overlooked in some of these endorsement s. Before appraising either, let's try to establish creteria by which the method of judging may itself be judged. The following questions need to be asked: (1) Is it reliable? (i-e. Would the same performance be appraised identically by the same se t of judges if it were exactly repeated?) (2) Is it valid? (i.e_ Does it allow an accurate and consistent application of the rules?) (3) Is it fl ex ible? (i.e. Can it be applied with equal validity to different levels of skill ?) (4) Is it adaptable? (i.e. Is it affected by combining sep arate duties to r educe judges' fees?) (5) Is it practical? ( i.e_ Can it be used without altering the rules?) Now, befor e continuing, let's be careful to appreciate the limitations incumben t upon any system. First of all, we must recognize that the basic and fundamental measure of performance is the rules themselves and not the method of application. No matter how carefully a poor measure is applied, it will still proddce a questionable measurement. The FIG Code itself imm ediately burdens any system because of its ambiguity and lack of clarity. In addition, every system depends upon thc cfficiency of the judge himself. A good system with poor judges will yield 'poor res ult s. It is im portant to recognize in this regard that a simple sys tem of judging demand s less training provided there are no complicating changes in the rules. The real issue in this recent discontent cou ld very well be one of emphasis. Because of th e pressure of international cooperation in competition and our allegiance to the 30
FIG Code, western innovators have focused on the method rather than the rules and requirements. On e can change the method without affecting the competitor's task or preparation, but it is a fact whether intertional or not. I suggest that we get really bold (and Mr. Bauer and Mr. Welser have been refreshingly eager) and compose an American set of rules for the considera tion of the FIG. There is the frustrating major problem of getting the U.S. Olympic Committee and the NCAA to implement whatever action is taken. These bodies seem to be miserably reluctant to initiate any action of this type_ Perhaps the NCAA Rules Committee can take some action or the
V.S.C.F_ THE BAUER OR BIG TEN APPROACHAN IMITATION DIAMOND (l) Is it reliable? In my opinion, Mr. Bauer has put together a highly workable system of judging. The separation of dutie.s allows for more attention to detail and, we hopefully presume, greater reliability in determing the separate parts of the routine score. However, a presumption should not be mistaken for fact. We have no evidence that reliability is increased; we only suspect it. Our suspicions are com plicated by the fact that the judges operate under a slightly altered and certainly more detailed set of rules in the Big Ten System. Some would claim that the specialized judge can defend his score better because he can remember his less complicated task better than the all-purpose judge_ But, I'm not convinced that remembering the routine -except for the immediate time necessary for evaluating it- is of the least importance. It is highly conceivable that a judge possessing a poor memory but excellent judgment and virtually com plete understanding of the rules might very well be more desirable as a judge than one with total recall but a less complete grasp of the aesthetic element of gymnastics. (2) Is the system valid? The age-old question arises-How do wc measure an art? However, the question here is slightly different. The method of judging is not concerned with the determinents of artistry, but with the application of those determinents_ The FIG system advocates the all-purpose judge and composed the rules with overlapping responsibilities_ If the judges' duties are separated, then his responsibilities must be very clearly defined so that no area of evaluation is omitted or duplicated. The interdependence of one area with another becomes a liability which must be removed in order to avoid conflicts. The present FIG Code presumes that some movements are easy to perform poorly and harder to perform welL Thus degree of difficulty depends on excellence of execution_ This same overlapping exists in the determination of the aesthetic value of a routine_ The FIG recognizes this element to exist not only in the execution of individual moves but in the combination and originality of the routine as welL These two areas are rather critical in gymnastics. The judging system which separates the duties of the judges must somehow eliminate this specific interdependence if it is to be valid. It appears that the Bauer System separates the duties and the corresponding rules to permit valid scoring_ (3) Is it Flexible? In this category, the Bauer system scores high. At the lower skill levels where the deductions are greater, routines fa ster, and fall s more frequent, the all-purpose judge
can be somewhat overwhelmed by his many tasks. It seems logical to assume that less guesswork would be necessary with the separation of duties because of the greater attention to detaiL Beneath this obvious strength, however, lies. an unnecessary and harmful fault in philosophy. In his attempt to neatly define and categorize faults to permit instant iden tification by judges, Mr. Bauer has been guilty of the same but greater kind of rigid prescription as the fram ers of the FIG Code_ I am referrin g specifically to inflexibl e penalty deductions. Is it possible that flaw s, such as the omission of a required or "recommended" part, may occur by degrees? I believe that it is_ The necessity for this sort of interpretation becomes more obvious at the lower levels_ P enalties, in this instance should be graduated and fl exible to permit a gymnast to get some credit for partial satisfaction of a requirement. (4) Is it Adaptable? The answer here seems rather obvious. Since the strength of the system lies in the separation of duties, rather than adjusting the number of judges to economize on fees, it would naturally result in a combination of duties. Do not be fooled by the obvious, however. Who has ever demonstrated that four judges can produce a more valid score than a lesser or greater number? This is the very heart of the debate_ How many judges are required to operate with maximum efficiency? Regardless of the real truth, the theoretical truth dictates that the Baue~. system sacrifices efficiency by compromISIng on the number of judges. In actuality no one really knows. Too bad non~ are suspicious enough to test it. (5) It it Practical? Although the issue of practicality is rather trival compared to the issues of quality, any system which is not easily applicable throughout the broad ranges of competition would certainly be questionable since it would adversely affect the convenience and efficiency of the sport from a promoter's and spectator's viewpoint. The Bauer System requires only minor adjustments in the rules, so it answers this criterion affirmatively. "Appraising the Diamond": In summary, the Bauer System does not appear to be a financially economical system, but it does have encouraging potentiaL Let me emphasize that I am here appraising the method of judging-not the difficulty, combination, or execution regulations, but the application of them via the judges. Its reliability and validity are subj ect to debate, but so also is the FIG System_
ANNEX ON WELSER AND NOONEY Canadian System: John Nooney advocates a separation of duties the hazards of which have already been en umerated. Mr. Nooney's recommendations also include a revision of the scoring system and a check sheet for j udges_ It is refresh ing to encoun ter someone who is willing to liberally readj ust the FIG Code; but unless these changes reflect a fundamental philosophical reinterpretation, they will be of little value_ It appears that ]'1'1r. Nooney has constructed a novice level FIG Code for beginnin g and intermediate performers. I would like to see a broader, more fundamental chan ge in the total approach to scoring so that all levels are governed by the same rules and competitors are differentiated by earned points. The present FIG proposes to do this, but it faulters at lower levels and simply abdicates the ex treme upper levels.
This Ontario variation contain s nearly all of the scoring faults of the present FIG. I salute Mr. Nooney's effort , but I cannot yet applaud his product. If he were to concentrate on a more detailed approach to scorin g and classifyin g moves at the lower levels, this would be a worthwhile addition. As for the score cards, I have always found such cards of limited value. A judge cann ot be ex pected to recall faults after a lengthy exercise; he must recognize them as they occur. Score cards of this sort have the rather frustratin g property of often disagreein g with the judge's considered score. Consequently the judge checks off a few more points, adjusts a deduction here and there and then submits for scoring. In these instances the judging may be accurate in spite of not because of the score cards. I agree that these cards can be of value to a beginning judge, but they should be de-emphasized with increased proficiency. As a word of caution, I do not mean to categorically deny the use of such cards; for some duties, they can be of limited value, as we observe under Mr. Welser's clever design. "Lyle 'First in the Country' Welser's System": It is a tribute to Mr. Welser's depth of gymnastics knowledge to witness such a free thinking approach to scoring. Hooray! If we could successfully accomplish that revision alone, many judging headaches would vanish-or be recognized for what they really are: symptoms not causes. Mr. Welser, like Mr. Nooney, also advocates the use of "work sheets" to assist in scorin g. They are admirably well designed with the important deductions itemized neatly. I believe that these cards could serve the combination judge very well; for the difficulty judge, it must be merely a transfer sheet; and, the execution judge, I suspect, has marked difficulty making his score sheet fit his actual award. Perhaps such a score card can have limited value, but I am skeptical of its wholesale usage. If any r eaders have any comments to make for or against these paper assistants, then please drop a line of neurotic criticism or praise to this unbalanced columnist. As for the remainder of Mr. Welser's system, I feel that the separation of duties ideas have been sufficiently appraised as a method of judging in the preceding comments on the Big Ten System. CONCLUSION: There are some good ideas floating around, but very little direction is evident. We are like Nomads hunting for shelter and food- but the mountains restrict our travels and our view. We must communicate more, be more systematic, develop some common and practical goals, and demand more fact and less opinion in our efforts. Bear in mind, however, that all the scientific facts in the world are worthless unless they can be put to use. Unless an official or an organization undertakes to gather and direct our random efforts, they will continue to be small, and separate, and predominantly ineffectual. Next Month : "Needed Improvements in the FIG Code."
BALLET FOR GYMNASTiCS Manual for Class "('i Record # 1000 (Stepping Tones) Send $2.00 to: Ballet for Gymnastics P.O. Box 777, Santa Monica, California
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Ballet For Gymnastics Manual Class "8" for Record 101 0 now available for sale ___ ____ _____ $4.00 BALLET FOR GYMNASTICS Manual for Class "B" Record # 10 10 (Steppi ng Tones) contains 52 pages with over 240 photographs and Illustrations . . . written by Grace Kaywel1 For Your Copy of ... BALLET FOR GYMNASTICS Manual # 1010 Send $4 .00 to: Ballet for Gymnastics (l010) P.O. Box 777, Santa Monica, California 31
COLOR SPREADS Caslavsk a in Gold Meda l Vault Jon. pp. 28-29 East-West Teams and caaches Feb. pp. 20-2 I EDITORIALS Gy mnastic Lessan from Age-Group Swimming Program Robert Freemon March p. 7 Smoking: The Schaol's Responsibil ity April p 4 Smoking and Gymnastics Glenn Sundby Apr il p. 5 SeBa~~so-U.S .G .F. Directar's Reparts by Fronk
INDEX FOR 1965 Volume V II of The Modern Gymnast had eight numbers for 1965. Vo lume numbers are as follows: January-No. I, February-No.2 , March-No.. 3, April-No.4, May-June-Na. 5, July-August-No. 6, September-October-No . 7 and N ovember-December-Nos. 8 and 9. Only articles of major interest to teachers and caaches have been included in this Index. Meet results and campi lotions which hav e appeared during the year are not included. !hose readers who need information regardIng meet results may contact Jerry Wright c/ o THE MODERN GYMNAST. Thus for the annual I ndex has no cross reference to. the authors of articles which have appeared in the MG. Since this infarmat ion is v aluable to. hav e, and so. that you the reader might be encauraged to submit ariginal articles of Y.D.ur own in the future , we are currently campillng anather Index. This Index will include the names af thase who. have cantributed to. the Modern Gymnast during the post decode. FollOWing the names of the writ~ritte~i.1I be a list of the articles they ha ve . After .each categary below, the reader will find a list af appropriate titles. The title af the .article, author (when knawn), month appearing and pages are given in that order. BALLET FOR GYMNASTICS Gym clinics (Groce Kaywell) Feb. pp. 12- 13 See Also-CLINICS BOOK REVIEWS The Science of Coaching and Teaching Gymnastics Pot Yeager July-Aug . p. 23 N.H.S.~ . C. Assoc. H~ndbook July-Aug. p. 23 Portfolio of Gymnastlcs-1964 Tokyo Olympics (Fronk Enda-Distributor) jul y-Aug. p. 23 Olympic Gymnastics-Parallel Bars by George Kunzle Feb. p. 24 Two Man Isometric Exercise Program for the Whole Body by Rabert Spackman Feb. p. 26 Gymnastic Guide-DGWS/ AAHPER Narma Zabka (Editor) April p. 6 "The Golden Librar y af Gymnastics" by A. B. Frederick (Reprints available from the U.S.G .F .) May-June pp. 24_25 Gymnastic Action Cards by A. B. Frederick July-Aug. p. 22 Gymnastic Activities with Hand Apparatus by N. Zabka and Marie Pravaznik July-Aug . p. 22 BOOSTER LISTS March-p. 4, April-p. 35, May/ June-p. 3 CANADIAN GYMNASTICS Canadian Gymnast Honared Feb p 6 Canadian Report Johnny N oa";ey' May-June pp. 8-9; Sept .-Oct . pp. 12- 13 and Nov -Dec p. 12 . . Narth American Gy mnastic Championships in Canada (Feb. 1966) N av.-Dec. p. 17 CLINICS, WORKSHOPS and CAMPS State Clinic (Washingtan) Feb. p. 6 1964 Western Clinic Feb. p . 14 Competition Comments (Western Clinic ) Arthur Shurl ack Feb . p. 15 On Clinics-Their Nature and Nurture A. B. Frederick Feb. pp. 22-24 Utah Workshap Sept.-Oct. p. 7 Bth Annual Summer Gymnastic Clinic ' Nav.Dec. pp. 30-3 I Central Atlantic Area Gymnastic Clinic Dick Taffe Nov.-Dec. pp. 32-33 Eastern Gymnastic Camp-Clinic Don ' Adalph Nav.-Dec. p. 33 Gy m Kamp 1965 Bud Marquette Nav.-Dec. p. 34 Camp Manisan Edsel Buchanon Nav.-Dec. p. 35 Oklahoma 3C5amp-Warkshop Sam Hester Nov.Dec. [),
EQl!IPMENT Make Yaur Own Medals A. B. Frederi ck April p. 28 Folding Pit (Trampoline) B. Sidlinger July-Aug. p. 27 Vaulting Box Jim Farkas July-Aug. p 37 FITNESS . Physi cal Fitness Leaders Honared in Washington May-June p. 6 Tops in Morine Test July-August p. 6 Ten Commandments far Fitness Sept.-Oct. p. 37 FLOOR EXERCISE Dive to Handstand Danald Chestunt july-Aug. p. 37 Analysis of Piked Somey followed by La yaut M. Yessis Sept.-Oct. p. 29 GYMNAESTRADA (Vienna) Turnen Der Weltbesten Jock Beckner Sept.Oct. pp. 16- 19 Notes and Observations J. Beckner Sept.-Oct. pp. 20-25 Ca]3_4iSn Observer Daug Kerr Nav.-Dec. pp. HISTORY Dual Meet Attendance Recard (6800-Penn State) March p. 37 HORIZONTAL BAR Sequence Routine (Lisitsky-Tokyo.) April pp. 23-25 . Analysis of Ono's Dauble German to. Stutz A. Shurlack April p. 26 Free Rear Hip Circle Forward Jim Farkas Nov.Dec. p. 37 INDEX Index for 1964 A. B. Frederick Jon. pp. 48-49 JUDGING Adopting the Olympic System to. Intercollegiate Gymnastics A. Carl Pattersan March
F.I.G. Judging? Tom Darling March p. 12 We Must Have a New Scoring System Sam Bailie March p . 12 Judging Artistic Gy mnastics D. Adolph March p. 13 . Constitution-North California Officiols' Assoc. March pp. 34-35 Trends from NCAA Meet Roy Davis April p. 32 Judging-As I See It Lyle Welser july-Aug. pp. 34-36 System, System Who's Got the System? R. Davis May-J une p. 36 Simplified Approach to. Judging Nooney and Wa rrick May-June p. 36 Analysis of F.I.G. Cade (I) R. Davis Sept.-Oct. p. 28 Analysis 路 of F.I.G. Code (II) R. Davis Nov.Dec. p. 42 MACCABIAH GAMES U. S. Maccabiah Gymnastic Team May-June p. 6 MANAGING Managing: Same Ins and Outs Dick Criley Sept.-Oct. p. 9 NCAA 1965 NCAA Championships April pp. 18-2 I NOMENCLATURE Trampalining Language Jess Rabinsan JulyAugust p. 26 Trampoline Terms Vic Josselyn Nav.-Dec. p. 45 OLYMPICS (January Ed.-Camplete Caverage) Statistics Jon. p. 5 Olympic Caver Artist Jon. p. 5 MG Special Olympic Report Jon . p. 6 Men' s Team Results Jon. pp. 8-9 Floar Ex. pp. 10- I I Side Horse pp. 12-13 Rings pp. 14-15 Vault pp. 16-17 Parallel Bars pp. 18- 19 Horizontal Bar pp. 20-21 Men 's All-Around Statistics Jon . p. 30 Women's Team Results Jon. p. 30 Floar Ex. pp . 32-33 Vault pp. 34-35 Beam pp. 36-37 Unevens pp. 38-39 Women's All-Around Statistics Jon. pp. 4 I -46 Memories from Tokyo Lorry Bonner Feb . p. 7 Olympic Sauvenir March p. 6 1964 Olympic Gymna st ics Means-Modes-Medians D. Criley March pp. 16-17 Winning Routines (Men) March p. 18 Team Evaluatian Statistics D. Criley May-June pp. 23-23 Hi Man-La Man Statistics D. Criley July-Aug.
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PARALLE'L BARS Back Over-Bar Somey Discount J. Wright Feb. p. 35 Sequence Routine (Enda-Tokya) March pp. 20-23 Hop Pirouette to Handstand A. Shurlack March p . 31 Swing Reverse Pirouette A . Shurlock March p . 31 Analysis of Tsurumi's Olympic Optionsal A. Shurlack July-Aug. p. 12 Sequence Rautine (Tsurumi-Tokya) July-Aug . pp . 14-17 PERSONALITIES New Bass (MG Editor Sundby Married) Jan. p. 6 Rod Pack-Trampolinist/ Sky Diver J. Robinson Feb. p. 29 Joe Schabacker-V.P. Arizona State U. March p. 6 Ralph Barelli-Retires May-June p . 7 10.0 for Courage (Fronk Hoiland) Sept.-Oct. p. 6 Miss Delaware is a Gymnast Too! (Kathy Grandell) Nav.-Dec. p. 7 PHYSICAL EDUCATION A Truly Fine School Physical Education Demonstration A. B. Frederick March pp . 14-15 POETRY "What's a Gymn ast?" by Ann Gorman (Adopted from "What's a Girl?" by Alan Beck) Jan . p. 50 "Definition of an Exhibitian" by G. Ragers March p. 31 "So Different a Breed" by S. Wilkes May-June
Association "Bones" Nov.-Dec. p. 17 PUBLICITY Haw to. Publicize Gy mnastics D. Criley Nav.Dec. pp. 22-23 QUESTIONS AND POINTERS Art Shurlack Value of Warking Camplete Routines Jon. p. 50 See also. Art's articles and camments in other categaries in the INDEX RESEARCH (Research Editar-James Bosco ) The Effect of Training in Gymnastics an the Electracardiagram Frederick Raby Feb. p. 25 Effects af Gymnastic Training an the Pragressive Pulse Ratio Test of Bays Robert Wikstram March p. 9 The Effects af Gymnastic Training on the Heartagrams of Yaung Boys, James Wright, April p. 11 The Effect af Gymn astic Routines an Blaod Pressure an Pulse Rate, Rabert Fergusan May-June p. 12 Campa rison af Olympic Level and Varsity Gymnastics on PhYSICal Fitness Characteristics Patrick Bird, July-Aug. p. 24 ' Ballistics af the Mat Kip, R. Spencer, Sept.Oct. pp. 26-27 Research and Prafessianal Laisan Committe~ Pracedure H.' Price Sept.-Oct. p. 36 A ClnematagraphlC Analysis af the Yamashita Vault aver the Long Harse George Vanis RI~(i'S .-Dec. pp. 18-1 9 Wrist Cantral an the Rings D. MacArthur JulyAug. p. 37 Franca Menichelli (Two page photo.) Nav.Dec. pp. 26-27 ROPE CLIMBING It Belangs! Paul Davis March p 8 Mare Abaut Rape R. Bryden Juiy-Aug p 36 Rape Climbing Vic Jasselyn Nav.-Dec.路 . 43 SANTA MONICA GYMFEST p. 3rd Annual Santo Manica Gymfest D. Crile y SO~OL路-Dec. pp. 8-10 Sakal Centennial Nav.-Dec. pp. 28-29 TRAINING Some Suggestians to. Panic-Prone Gymnasts Don Millman Feb. p. 37 TRAMPOLINE Repart an the 2nd Warld' s Trampol ine Champ,ansh,ps-Landan Narman Halzaepfel Feb pp. 10-11 . Kabaams Jess . Rabinsan March Pp. 32-33 N~~~31 Champlanshlps J . Robinsan April pp. Cadys J . Rabinsan May-June pp. 26-27 Trampallne Language J. Rabinsan July-Aug p. 26 . Cradle Bock J. Rabinsan Sept.-Oct. p. 30 Anyane far Rating Trampaline Stunts? J. TU~~L~NG Nav.-Dec. pp. 44-45 Siapes Jim Farkas Feb . p. 34 Platforms J . Farkas March p. 30 The Headstand Ladder A. B. Frederick April p. 29 TURNERS Natianal Champianships in Wilmingtan, Del. May-June p . 7 . IIlinais Turnfest pp. 10-11 Sept.-Oct. UNEVENS Exercises to. Develap Kip Actian Herb Vog el Feb. p. 27 Sequence Rautine (Caslavska-Takya) March pp. 24-27 Exercises far Kip Development H . Vogel March p. 12
Sequence Routine (Astokhovo-Tokyo) April pp. 13-17 Teoching the Dislocation on the Unevens J . Farkas April p . 27 Sequence Routine (Makray-Tokyo) Jul y- Aug. pp. 18-21 Valdez to Stoop Dismount Richard Rigby July-Aug. p. 23 Spotting the Straddle Out to Hang J . Farkas July-Aug. p . 25 U.S.G.F. National Team Tours Mex ico City Sam Bailie Apri l pp. 6-7 Eastern Clinic May-June p . 7 1965 USGF Championships May-J une pp . 16-21 USGF Rules and Policies for Women Jul y-Aug . pp. 10-11 USGF DIRECTOR'S REPORTS Frank Bare Feb. pp . .8-9 (Western Gym CI inic) March pp. 10-11 (The First Two Years) April pp. 8-10 May-J une pp. ' 13-15 July-Aug. pp . 10-11 (Women's USGF Rules) Sept.-Oct. pp. 10-11 10-11 (New Reporting N ovember-Dec. pp. Policy) VAULTING Learning the Yamashita J. Wright May-June p . 27 The Vaulting Continuum A. B. Frederick N ov.Dec. pp. 38 - 41 WHAT'S THE SCORE by Jerry Wright Feb . pp. 30-33; March p. 36; April PP . 33-35; May-J une pp. 28-35; Jul y-August pp. 2833; Sept.-Oct. pp. 32-33; Nov.-Dec. p . 46 WOMEN'S GYMNASTICS Introduction to a New Skill Dev elopment Series (Readiness) H. Voge l Feb. p. '1.6 Sout hern Coeds Capture Women's National Collegiates April p. 12 WORLD REPORTS China National Gymnastic Tournament Jos. Gohler Feb. p. 6 Sensation in Kiev Yuri Sabirov April p . 6 Japanese National Meet Eric Hughes May-J une pp. 10-11 USSR Rep ort Y. Sabirov Sept.-Oct p. 6 1965 Universiade Bob Hall Sept.-Oct. p. 8 USSR Report Y. Sabirov N.ov.-Dec. p . 7 A Y ear in Germany Barry Brookers N ov.-Dec. p. 13 6th European Championships (Coup d ' Europe) Nov.-Dec. pp. 20-21 Mexico City-Pre-Olympic Competition Armando Vega N ov .-Dec. pp. 24-25 USA Trials and International Meet Report Bob Peck Nov .-Dec. p . 25 WORLD GAMES World Games - Dortmand, Germany 1966 Y~~Ampulsories for Men) Feb. p. 35
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