SJDAWC News Number 29—Spring/Summer 2013
SIR JAMES DUNN ANIMAL WELFARE CENTRE at the Atlantic Veterinary College
PROMOTING ANIMAL WELFARE THROUGH RESEARCH, SERVICE, AND EDUCATION
Animal Welfare in Practice 2013—
Companion Animal Behaviour S e p t e m b e r 13 – 1 4 , AVC , L e c t u r e T h e a t r e A Please join us in September to talk about common behaviour issues in dogs and cats, their impact on the welfare of pets, and the importance of positive interactions in the prevention and management of behaviour problems. The keynote speaker for our ninth annual “Animal Welfare in Practice” conference will be Dr. Barbara Sherman, MS, PhD, DVM, and Clinical Professor, Veterinary Behavior, at the College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University. Dr. Sherman is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists and the American College of Animal Welfare. All are welcome to attend the evening talk on Friday—“Help! My dog just tore down my blinds…and other behaviour issues in dogs and cats”—which is free of charge. Topics on Saturday (registration required) will include diagnosis and treatment of behaviour problems in dogs and cats, pharmacology of drugs that modify animal behaviour, an interactive session about specific behaviour problems, and a workshop in the afternoon on positive training approaches for behaviour challenges. This conference will be of interest to veterinarians, veterinary and animal science students, animal health technicians, trainers, and humane society personnel. Please see upei.ca/awc for full programme details and registration information. The conference is co-hosted by the SJDAWC and the AVC Animal Welfare Club, with generous additional support from the Animal Welfare Foundation of Canada.
Also in this issue
positive training at the PEI Humane Society AVC at animal welfare Good bird-feeding practices .....p3 Whale rescue ............................p6 judging contest .........................p8
Coordinatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Desk Welcome to this edition of the SJDAWC News, the newsletter of the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre at the Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island. In this issue, you will find recommendations on good bird-feeding practices that resulted from a recently completed SJDAWC-funded project. You will also find information about the recent and upcoming Animal Welfare in Practice conferences at AVC; SJDAWC-funded projects for 2013; animal-welfare-related recognition of AVC students; recent graduate student activities; and more. Please let us know at email@example.com if you would like to receive the newsletter by email (in full colour!) and be on our email list for upcoming events. To send feedback or learn how you can support the Centre, please go to upei.ca/awc or write to: The Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre Atlantic Veterinary College, UPEI 550 University Avenue Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3
All donations are fully tax deductible.
Completed Projects 2012 Trichomonosis: an emerging disease in Canadian Maritime wild finch populations S McBurney, S Greenwood, W Kelly-Clark Trichomonosis is caused by Trichomonas gallinae, a protozoan parasite that infects the upper digestive tract of birds. This recently emerged fatal disease in Canadian Maritime purple finch and American goldfinch populations occurs during summer and fall and is noted by the public at their backyard birdfeeders. Trichomonosis causes slow death from emaciation and dehydration because large lesions in the mouth and crop prevent affected birds from swallowing. The goals of this study were to collaborate with the Maritime bird-feeding public to determine factors associated with transmission and maintenance of Trichomonas in the environment, including the potential involvement of birdfeeders and water baths, and to compare, on a molecular basis, Trichomonas isolates with those in other geographical locations where the disease has also emerged (e.g., United Kingdom). Detailed methods and results of the study will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, which will be listed at awc.upei.ca/research once available. Based on the study results, the recommendations below are provided to prevent finch trichomonosis deaths at feeding and watering stations.
Recommended bird-feeding practices
3. Provide only clean, clear tap water for birds.
1. Feed only dry birdseed.
Other studies have documented that T. gallinae can survive in water with elevated solute concentrations. This study documented that T. gallinae is unable to survive in clean, clear tap water. Therefore, water sources provided to birds should be emptied and filled on a regular basis (e.g., weekly) with clean, clear tap water.
The study found that T. gallinae is unable to survive in dry birdseed, but can survive for up to 48 hours in moist birdseed, including mixed commercial birdseed, niger seed and black-oil sunflower seed. Therefore, all birdseed should be kept dry through such practices as regularly emptying bird feeders or simply putting in less birdseed with more frequent additions as required. 2. Reduce contact between rock pigeons and other bird species. The study results showed that rock pigeons in the Maritimes are reservoir hosts for T. gallinae because they are infected with the parasite but rarely suffer from the disease. Therefore, contact should be limited between rock pigeons and other bird species, particularly finches. This can be accomplished by using feeders designed specifically for finch species, such as hoppers, tube feeders, and sock feeders, and by avoiding the use of birdseed that will attract rock pigeons (e.g., mixed seed containing corn). Avoid table feeders because all birds, including pigeons and sick birds, are able to feed side by side directly on the feeder’s surface. Individuals infected with T. gallinae may then drop contaminated grains or seeds onto the feeder surface, permitting transmission of the parasite to uninfected birds.
Lastly, this research found that finch trichomonosis in the Canadian Maritime provinces typically occurs in years with higher than average precipitation and average or above average temperature during the months of May to September. Those who choose to feed and water birds during the summer and fall should be mindful of the weather conditions and increase efforts to keep birdseed dry during the summer and fall during extended periods of high precipitation or following episodic high rainfall events. The goal of these recommendations is to protect the health and welfare of wild birds that are attracted to the properties of the public engaged in feeding and watering finch species. The fact that some of the T. gallinae isolates from this study are molecularly similar to the clonal epidemic strain of T. gallinae in the United Kingdom means these recommendations are applicable to that geographic region as well. Information dissemination This study was the basis for Whitney Kelly-Clark’s master’s thesis, which she successfully defended in August 2012. Several scientific articles for peer review are in preparation, as well as a technical report for the Canadian Wildlife Federation. At the request of field researchers, a protocol was developed to test birds for infection with T. gallinae— this is available on the website of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre Atlantic at atlantic.ccwhc.ca.
Completed Projects 2012 Tangible animal parts from 3D files
a blue whale. These printers are becoming commonplace in industry.
If physiological digital files can be transformed into tangible colour models with rigid, intermediate, or flexible characteristics, students may use them to learn anatomy and pathology and to prepare themselves for surgery with minimal or no animal use, e.g., by plating fractured bones or practicing regional nerve blocks.
It is possible to create colour threedimensional digital files of various structures by photography or laser scanning. Whole animals, their skeletons and internal organs, examples of pathology, and even invasive techniques can be modeled with great accuracy. In turn, these models can be viewed using 3D viewers. Once a 3D digital file has been created, it can be transformed into a tangible physical model using photo-polymerization or selective laser sintering, and stereolithography, which takes place in a 3D printer. Such printers range from very small to very largeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in one case, a printer was used to create (in sections) a full-scale skeleton of
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of creating an accurate and useful physical model of a mareâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pelvis and reproductive tract through stereolithographic printing, starting from a full-sized, threedimensional digital file previously developed by Dr. Lofstedt. A small physical model was initially printed,
followed by a slightly larger model using two different materials: polypropylene for the rectum and reproductive tract, and nylon for the pelvis. This was done to make the reproductive tract translucent so that internal structures could be seen. Also, this allowed the two structures to be separated, making the structures more easily accessible for teaching purposes. This model (below) resides in the AVC Large Animal Hospital where it is used during clinical rotations to assist students to form a mental 3D perception of the tract in preparation for the palpation of mares. The next step is to develop a full-scale model. Dr. Lofstedt is exploring other funding avenues with possible partners invested in equinereproductive technology.
polypropylene and nylon model used during clinical rotations at the AVC Large Animal Hospital
Projects Funded 2013 Through the 2013 SJDAWC granting competition, funding was awarded for two new research projects and was renewed for two existing service projects. Funding was also renewed, through the Pegasus Family Foundation, for the Pegasus feral cat neutering programme.
RESEARCH Comparing culture methodology for methicillin-resistant Staph pseudintermedius (MRSP) from unhealthy dogs
Effect of buffers used with fish anestheticsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;pilot project
J McClure, A Muckle, M Saab
Millions of fish are anesthetized every year. The only anesthetic approved for veterinary use in fish is tricaine methane sulfonate (TMS, also called MS222). TMS is administered in a water bathâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the resultant anesthetic solution in fresh water is extremely acidic and should be buffered with another chemical to diminish stress and potential gill damage in the fish. The most common buffer used is sodium bicarbonate; however many research and commercial operations will use an alternative buffer such as Tris or rely on the buffering capacity of the water alone.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common bacterium that can cause skin and wound infections in dogs and cats. The bacterium is an emerging threat to companion animal health because it has acquired mechanisms for antibiotic resistance, leaving very few treatment options. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) is being detected more and more often in unhealthy dogs worldwide, including Atlantic Canada. When affected animals visit veterinary clinics, traces of the bacterium are left behind, increasing the risk of exposure for other animals and of hospital-acquired infections. Even after areas have been thoroughly cleaned, MRSP can still be found.
J Spears, D Stevens
While this may be appropriate when considering pH balance as the only criterion for buffer selection and use, the investigators propose that sodium
bicarbonate may itself have an additive anesthetic effect. Describing this effect, which has not previously been examined, would help clarify the clinical indications for buffer selection when using TMS or other bath-administered anesthetic regimen. The present pilot study is designed to separate the anesthetic properties of bicarbonate from those of the anesthetic (TMS) itself. To test these ideas, different combinations of two buffers (bicarbonate and Tris base) will be used and the standard measures of anesthesia in fish will be recorded. The overall objectives for the full proposal that will result from the pilot project will be to ascertain physiologic benefits or detriments to fish of the different buffers when used with TMS anesthesia. Animal welfare for millions of fish could be improved directly by this pilot study and a subsequent full proposal, by providing solid evidence for implementing best practices in buffering anesthetics in fish.
It is important for laboratories to identify this organism as quickly and efficiently as possible. Current MRSP detection and identification methods can take at least 48 hours to report results after the laboratory has received the sample. This study will investigate the use of more efficient and rapid MRSP detection methods, with preliminary results attained within 24 hours. This will allow for fewer positive cases to be missed and a quicker relay of a diagnosis to veterinarians, leading to an appropriate treatment regime and essential infection control procedures.
a 3- to 4-year old male long-finned pilot whale stranded in the Stanley River, PEI
SERVICE Wildlife rehabilitation, conservation, and clinical research (2013–2015) M Desmarchelier, S Ferrell, H Gelens, P-Y Daoust Funding for this project has been renewed to provide veterinary care for orphaned, displaced, stranded, and injured wild animals in Atlantic Canada. At the same time, veterinarians and students receive training in the care of wildlife patients; the general public is educated about wildlife welfare and conservation issues; and data are collected for clinical research on wildlife health. This project has an impact on animal welfare at many different levels. Relieving pain and suffering in wild patients—now more than 500 animals per year—is the first objective. The training of interns and students in good veterinary practice, enrichment, husbandry, and welfare of wildlife, through taking care of these patients, will ultimately increase the level
of care provided to wild animals among the broader veterinary community. The opportunity to educate the public and students about wildlife welfare issues improves protection for wild animals in their normal environment. Data collected through the project are useful to monitor wildlife health in live animals—this facilitates a quick and effective response when a disease outbreak occurs in the wild, and is also important because wildlife diseases may affect domestic animal and human health. Active cooperation with Parks Canada, the Departments of Natural Resources of the Maritime provinces, and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans to assist locally endangered species, significantly increases the impact on the animals and the public in Atlantic Canada.
young stranded male pilot whale supported on a special stretcher between two pontoons
Pilot whale rescue A 3- to 4-year old male long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) was stranded in the Stanley River, PEI, in late summer. He was seen entering the river with an adult female, most likely his mother, and feeding on the abundant mackerel population. The female, likely scared by human activities over the weekend, left the river, leaving the young one behind. He stranded at least three times at low tide in the river but always managed to leave before the wildlife team could rescue him. Finally, one morning at 5 am, he was reported stranded again and the team was able to get there on time. A thorough physical examination revealed he was in good body condition with a few old wounds but no active problems. Blood was taken for health assessment and serology. He was then placed on a special stretcher between two pontoons that were inflated and hauled by boat (PEI Fish and Wildlife) downriver 16 kilometres, where the whale was released back into the ocean.
AVC Humane Dog Training Programme (2013â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2015)
Pegasus fund neutering programme (2013)
AM Carey, R MacLean
A Crook, T Matthews, K Ling
This programme, initiated by Dr. Norma Guy in 2001 and under the direction of Dr. Anne Marie Carey since 2010, places veterinary students from the AVC in training and counselling positions at the PEI Humane Society. The programme helps the PEIHS to fulfill its mandate to find permanent loving homes for the animals in its care, and to meet its goals, which are to maximize enrichment and welfare, to select animals for adoption, and to optimize adoptions and ensure retention. This is a multistep process involving behavioural assessments, continued training, and education.
Feral cats are neutered on Fridays at the AVC Veterinary Teaching Hospital by senior veterinary students or interns through this project, which is funded by the Pegasus Family Foundation through the Silicon Valley Community Foundation. Under the supervision of Community Practice veterinarian Dr. Kathy Ling, procedures are carried out as established by Dr. Peter Foley in consultation with the PEI Cat Action Team for the SJDAWC-funded project Neutering feral cats on PEI. Since 2001, over 8,000 cats have been neutered through the PEI TNR programmes.
AVC students and cat during TNR clinic
Through this programme, student trainers assess dogs for adoption through behavioural assessments. The dogsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lives while at the shelter are enriched considerably through training, socialization, and contact with the student trainers, who also provide counselling and support to potential adopters. The students also benefit from the experience, as they gain training experience and significant knowledge of shelter issues. They carry this knowledge back to their classmates, and will take it with them into their careers as veterinarians. This proposal funds the continuation and enhancement of the programme under the direction of Dr. Carey and PEIHS shelter manager R MacLean. One AVC student trainer has been hired as coordinator, and will work full-time at the shelter during the summer. The coordinator and three other trainers will continue the programme on a part-time basis during the fall and winter semesters.
Kings county barn cats
AVC student Mary-Claire Sanderson working with Judy at the PEI Humane Society
OTHER NEWS 2012 Animal Welfare Judging and Assessment Contest
2012 Christofor Award in Animal Welfare
Congratulations to the AVC team of Marianne Parent, Jessie Dowe, Nicole Mayne, Laura-Beth Collins, and Shari Raheb (pictured below with Dr. Ian Duncan) who placed second in the 12th Annual Intercollegiate Animal Welfare Judging and Assessment Contest held in November at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario. Veterinary and animal science students from universities across North America and the Caribbean were judged based on their cumulative individual scores in assessing the welfare of two different scenarios of veal calves, laying hens, and companion animals in a veterinary clinic, together with assessment as a team of the welfare of laboratory mice. Nicole Mayne and Shari Raheb tied for fourth place in individual scoring. The AVC team was coached by Dr. Michael Cockram, with additional coaching by Dr. Jonathan Spears. Dr. Crook was a judge at the competition and gave a presentation entitled “Welfare of companion animals in a veterinary clinic environment.”
Fourth-year student Shari Raheb received the 2012 Christofor Award in Animal Welfare at the AVC Fall Awards and Recognition Night on October 4. The depth of Shari’s long-standing and sustained commitment to helping animals is readily apparent from her active volunteer activities since the age of 13, including fostering cats and kittens from the Toronto Humane Society while still living at home; providing enrichment through socialization and exercise of dogs, rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs with Central Animal Services while an undergraduate at the University of Guelph; and, while on a six-month exchange programme in Sydney, Australia, assisting in the day-to-day care and socialization of cats and kittens at the Cat Protection Society of New South Wales. Upon relocating to PEI, Shari began volunteering with the PEI Humane Society and, in her second year at AVC, she was accepted in the SJDAWC-funded Humane dog training programme, which she describes as a “dream come true.” She became the student coordinator of the programme and gained experience through leading the team of fellow student trainers. She has worked closely on behaviour modification with the dogs
Funding for the students’ expenses was provided through the SJDAWC Student Project Fund, the American Veterinary Medical Association, and the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, UK.
2012 Christofor Award recipient Shari Raheb and presenter Dr. Alice Crook at the shelter, provided advice to past and potential adopters about behaviour problems, and visited local schools and community groups to talk to children about responsible pet care, dog safety, and bite prevention. This experience has strengthened her interest in shelter medicine and clinical behaviour (especially as related to shelter animals). The SJDAWC-funded Feral cat neutering programme is also dear to Shari’s heart. She became involved in an organizational capacity in her first year at AVC and has helped out with almost every bi-monthly Saturday neuter clinic since. She says this programme, through which veterinarians, veterinary students, and community members work together to reduce feral cat numbers in a safe and humane way, has taught her that improving animal welfare is a community endeavour but that veterinarians have a very important leadership role to play. Shari was a member of the AVC team that placed second at the 2012 Animal Welfare Judging Competition at the University of Guelph, and she tied for fourth place in individual scoring.
AVC team of Marianne Parent, Jessie Dowe, Nicole Mayne, Laura-Beth Collins, and Shari Raheb (with Dr. Ian Duncan) who placed second in the 12th Annual Intercollegiate Animal Welfare Judging and Assessment Contest
The SJDAWC congratulates Shari on her well-deserved receipt of the Christofor Award and has no doubt that she will continue to promote the best possible mental as well as physical health in her patients, to make their welfare the best it can be.
Recent Animal Welfare Talks at AVC •
Animal welfare issues from the CFIA’s perspective and the role of new grads and other veterinarians— Dr. Nicole Cormier, CFIA (February 2013)
Welfare of companion animals in a veterinary clinic—Dr. Alice Crook, SJDAWC (SCVMA Symposium by the Sea, AVC, January 2013)
Animal welfare, health, and disease, and fitness for transport— Dr. Michael Cockram (SCVMA Symposium by the Sea, AVC, January 2013)
The above talks were hosted by the AVC Animal Welfare Club or the Students of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (SCVMA).
Update—PEI Companion Animal Welfare Initiative (CAWI) CAWI was formed in January 2012 as an initiative of the PEI Department of Agriculture in collaboration with representatives from the PEI Humane Society, Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre, SpayAid PEI, PEI Cat Action Team, and the PEI Veterinary Medical Association. One educational initiative of CAWI is to provide monthly features to The Guardian newspaper and CBC radio to raise awareness about good companion animal care practices, and encourage members of the public to think critically about animal welfare in their communities. Links to all features to date can be found at gov.pe.ca/agriculture/CAWI.
Animal Welfare in Practice: Poultry Welfare (September 2012) The eighth annual “Animal Welfare: In Practice” conference took place September 14–15. About 80 participants attended an evening session on Friday, six Saturday presentations, and a roundtable discussion. Keynote speaker Dr. Ian Duncan, Professor Emeritus and Emeritus Chair of Animal Welfare, University of Guelph, spoke about welfare problems with current broiler production. He also gave a fascinating talk “Mental states, feelings, emotions in chickens—what science can tell us.” Producer John Duynisveld of Holdanca Farms, Ltd, gave a presentation “Challenges of alternative housing.” Dr. Duncan’s and Mr. Duynisveld’s presentations are available at awc.upei.ca/service-projects-and-outreach. Speaker Dr. Michelle Jendral’s research interests include production and welfare issues facing the poultry industry, poultry behaviour, neuroethology and cognitive processes, and the importance of human-animal interaction in animal production. She presented findings that provide compelling evidence for
the production and welfare benefits achieved by providing caged hens with adequate space and amenities to express natural and load-bearing activities. Please see the Executive Summary (awc.upei.ca/dr-michelle-jendral) for more information. Dr. Michael Cockram, AVC Chair in Animal Welfare, and Niamh Caffrey, SJDAWC PhD candidate, spoke about “Potential welfare issues in broiler chicken production” and “Risk factors affecting mortality of broilers during transportation for slaughter,” respectively. Conference attendees included producers, representatives from the poultry industry and animal welfare organizations, veterinarians, animal scientists, and veterinary and animal science students. Feedback from the conference was very positive. The conference was co-hosted by the SJDAWC and the AVC Animal Welfare Club, with generous support from the Animal Welfare Foundation of Canada. While at AVC, Dr. Duncan also gave a lecture for the Animal Welfare Club on “Asking animals what they feel,” available at upei.ca/awc/animal-welfare-club. Please see page 1 for information on this year’s conference (September 2013).
home flock, Morrigan Farm
GRADUATE STUDENTS Ketan Dulal (no photo available) •
Oral presentation: Dulal K. Factors affecting the risk of injury to broiler chickens during handling and transport to slaughter. 21st Annual Graduate Studies and Research Days, AVC, May 2013.
Niamh Caffrey •
Oral presentation: Caffrey NP. Risk factors affecting mortality of broilers during transportation for slaughter. Animal Welfare in Practice 2012—Poultry Welfare. AVC, September 2012.
Oral presentation: Caffrey NP, Cockram MS, Black V. Examples of suffering that can occur when cull dairy cows with clinical conditions are transported. Dairy Cattle Welfare Symposium. University of Guelph, Guelph, October 2012.
Jackie Ellis •
Oral presentation: Ellis JJ. Discriminating between bold and shy cats in a shelter setting. 21st Annual Graduate Studies and Research Days, AVC, May 2013.
Oral presentation: Ellis JJ. Environmental enrichment for shelter cats: temperament, preferences, and welfare. Fiona Papps Colloquium series, Department of Psychology, University of Prince Edward Island, November 2012.
Oral presentation: Ellis JJ, Stryhn H, Spears J, Cockram MS. Evaluation of environmental enrichment preferences of domestic cats using a choice test. Proceedings of the 46th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Vienna, Austria, July 31–August 4, 2012. (ed. S. Waiblinger, C. Winckler and A. Gutmann). pp 86. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Cyril Roy •
Oral presentation: An analysis of USDA owner/shipper certificates to describe the transport of horses from the USA for slaughter in Canada in 2009. 21st Annual Graduate Studies and Research Days, AVC, May 2013.
Dania Villarnovo •
Oral presentation: Avoiding transfusion reactions in dogs: evaluation of a commercially available crossmatching kit. 21st Annual Graduate Studies and Research Days, AVC, May 2013.
Meghan Woodland •
Oral presentation: Pack L, Woodland ML, Crane B, Rist PM. Comparison of digital radiography, ultrasound, and vaginourethrography in the determination of reproductive status of feral and shelter queens. ACVR Annual Scientific Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, October 2012.
Visiting post-doctoral fellow Dr. Radi Ali Mohamed is a lecturer in Animal and Poultry Behaviour and Management, Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt. Funded by the Egyptian government, he is working at the SJDAWC with Dr. Michael Cockram from April to September 2013. Dr. Mohamed’s research interests include the welfare of many types of poultry and of other farm animals such as the Egyptian buffalo. While at AVC, he is working on the project “Identification of risk factors during broiler transportation that influence injury and mortality” (SJDAWC and Canadian Poultry Research Council).
Recent Publications •
Cockram MS, Spence JY. 2012. The effects of driving events on the stability and resting behaviour of cattle, young calves, and pigs. Animal Welfare 21: 403-417.
Cordero M, McFarlane D, Breshears MA, Miller LM, Miller MA, Duckett WM. 2012. The effect of season on the histologic and histomorphometric appearance of the equine pituitary gland. J Eq Vet Sci 3(2):75-79.
Montgomery JB, Wichtel JJ, Wichtel MG, McNiven MA, McClure JT, Markham F, Adams AA, Horohov DW. 2012. The effects of selenium source on measures of selenium status of mares and selenium status and immune function of their foals. J Eq Vet Sci 32(6):352-359.
Montgomery JB, Wichtel JJ, Wichtel MG, McNiven MA, McClure JT, Markham F, Adams AA, Horohov DW. 2012. Effects of selenium source on measures of selenium status and immune function in horses. Can J Vet Res I76(4):281-291.
Riley CB, Shaw RA, McClure JT, Low-Ying S, Somorjai RL, Dolenko BK. 2012. Feasibility of infrared spectroscopy with pattern recognition techniques to identify a subpopulation of mares at risk of producing foals diagnosed with failure of transfer of passive immunity. Aust Vet J 90(10):387-91.
Promoting animal welfare through research, service, and education upei.ca/awc
Many thanks to our supporters! We gratefully acknowledge the sustained financial support of The Christofor and The Sir James Dunn Foundations, without which the SJDAWC would not exist. We also thank the following organizations and individuals who have supported the SJDAWC within the last three years (and some for much longer than that): •
The Pegasus Family Foundation, through the Silicon Valley Community Foundation (Pegasus projects)
AVC Classes of 2011 and 2001 (Pegasus Helping Hand Fund)
Chinook Project: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador; Ann McCain Evans; Rathlyn Foundation; Ms. Dorris Heffron; Zoetis Canada (formerly Pfizer); Iams and Eukanuba (P & G Pet Care); Boehringer-Ingelheim; Vétoquinol; the communities of Nain, Postville, and Hopedale; Dr. Becky Jackson and Valley Veterinary Clinic, Goose Bay; Atlantic Veterinary College; Air Labrador
Feral cat neutering projects: Zoetis Canada; Iams and Eukanuba (P & G Pet Care)
Halifax Veterinary Hospital, Spryfield Animal Hospital, Fairview Animal Hospital, Central Nova Animal Hospital—in memory of clients’ pets
Nutrience Pet Foods
Nova Scotia Veterinary Medical Association
The late David Madren
The late Kay Alexander
We are also grateful to the many generous individuals, veterinary hospitals, and other businesses, too numerous to mention, who have made a donation to a specific project or in memoriam.
All donations are fully tax deductible. To learn how you can support the SJDAWC, go to upei.ca/awc or write to: The Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre Atlantic Veterinary College, UPEI 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3
Photo credits: UPEI Photography, Whitney Kelly-Clark, Rob Lofstedt, Marion Desmarchelier, PEI Humane Society, PEI Cat Action Team, Alice Crook, University of Guelph, Jane Morrigan