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JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ

FINLAND

EXCELLENCE IN SCIENCE


Excellence in Science

UN IVE R S IT Y OF J YVÄ S KYL Ä

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UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ • Established in 1863.

University of Jyväskylä Funding Base (source: Annual Report 2014)

Supplementary Funding, 32 %

Total Revenue 2014 €208 million

• One of the most popular and biggest universities in Finland. • Multi-disciplinary research university with 7 faculties and 7 independent institutions.

Budget Funding, 68 %

• The only Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences in Finland. •

15 000 degree students of which 8 % are international students, and total of 40 000 students, including adult education.

• 2 700 staff members of which 9 % are international staff members.

CORE RESEARCH FIELDS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ

Research Funding in University of Jyväskylä per Faculty 2014 (source: Science barometer 16.3.2015) Mathematics and Science, 32 % Sport and Health Sciences, 7 % Education, 4 % School of Business and Economics, 4 %

Information Technology, 8 %

Research funding per Faculty (%)

• Learning, teaching and growth and learning environments that support development • Basic natural phenomena and mathematical thinking • Languages, culture and communities in global change processes

Humanities, 10 %

• Physical activity, health and well-being • Information technology and human knowledge in society

Social Sciences, 11 % Independent institutions, 23 %


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According to the vision for 2030, the University of Jyväskylä will be an internationally renowned multidisciplinary research university and one of the world’s leading universities in the fields of learning and teaching. The University has strong ties with top national and international research, business and innovation communities. In global rankings, research activity at the University of Jyväskylä is among the top three per cent of all universities. The share of supplementary funding for the University of Jyväskylä is around 30 %. The highly competitive international research funding is very important to the university. National and international funding programs have significant roles when collaboration among research communities is being developed and implemented. With the collaboration of research communities we are able to enhance our international competitiveness. We welcome renowned scientists to our research community and support their close collaboration with international universities.

The University of Jyväskylä attracts partners with a staff of highly talented and creative scientists, an excellent infrastructure, and our commitment to success. The University is sustainably competitive, attractive and innovative. Now and in the future our impact on society will be significant. It is my pleasure to present these excellent multidisciplinary research showcases of the University of Jyväskylä. At the same time I would like to thank our collaboration partners and invite them, as well as new partners to fruitful research collaboration now and in the future.

Professor Matti Manninen Rector

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The University of Jyväskylä is one of the most successful multidisciplinary research universities in Finland.

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EXCELLENT SCIENCE AND RESEARCH NOW AND IN THE FUTURE


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WHAT BELONGS TO EUROPE’S CULTURAL HERITAGE? In her research, Tuuli Lähdesmäki examines the EU’s recently launched cultural heritage projects. While facing one crisis after another, the EU aims at fostering and producing a common European identity with the help of the projects. Lähdesmäki clarifies how European cultural heritage is produced and what kinds of policies are involved. It is hard to imagine a more topical research subject. Docent Tuuli Lähdesmäki examines how the European Union produces cultural heritage as part of its identity and integration policy. A recent example of interest in the EU’s cultural heritage is the European Heritage Label. Similar to the Unesco World Heritage Sites, the project selects and names European cultural heritage sites. - It is not a coincidence that the EU is now putting a strong effort on creating cultural identity and is interested in the stories of Europeanness. Through cultural heritage, the purpose is to create a sense of togetherness and an idea that we have a common past and, as a result, common values that are worth fostering. The goal to create a common cultural heritage is understandable when looking at the situation of the EU: the


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- To define cultural heritage objectively is impossible. It means producing stories and making history meaningful in a certain way, and political objectives often lurk in the background. In our research we aim at understanding the role of the EU in cultural heritage processes. It is also interesting to hear how local stakeholders and visitors understand the Europeanness of cultural heritage. Last year, the EU started to officially grant European cultural heritage labels for 23 EU countries. Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Croatia are currently not participating in the project. There have also been some critical views on the necessity of the whole project. - One question is what kind of culture and whose culture and past are utilised to produce a common European

cultural heritage. European crises and regional division unavoidably affect the discussion on cultural heritage. There are currently 20 European cultural heritage sites, but the participating countries may make applications for new ones. Some of the sites are already familiar, such as the Acropolis of Athens, but most are not familiar to a larger audience. To receive the label, a site must demonstrate how its history is European and how it is important to Europe. Some of the sites are closely linked to the history of the EU, such as the house of Robert Schumann in France and the museum of Alcide de Gasperi in Italy, with both known as founding fathers of Europe.

Lähdesmäki has been interested in cultural identity and its creation for a long time. She previously explored the same theme in her postdoctoral research project in 2011– 2013, when she analysed the European Capital of Culture programme. When taking on a multifaceted topic such as European cultural heritage, it is helpful that Lähdesmäki has doctoral degrees in both art history and sociology. For Lähdesmäki, the best part of research is the possibility to study exactly what you are interested in and find important to investigate. Her creativity and ability to boldly follow her own path have also been acknowledged. In November 2015, she was granted the Academy of Finland Award for Scientific Courage. - What is most rewarding is that your work is constantly producing new insight. Finding new ways to understand the object of your research encourages me in my work.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki • ERC Starting Grant 2015–2020 • Academy of Finland Research Fellow 2014–2019 • The Academy of Finland Award for Scientific Courage 2015 • Researcher at the University of Jyväskylä since 2003 • MA 2001, PhD (Art History) 2007, and PhD (Sociology) 2014, Docent of Art History 2014

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In the ERC project started in September 2015, Lähdesmäki and her research team are interviewing the stakeholders of the EU cultural heritage project and visitors to the heritage sites. The purpose is to study people’s views on what European cultural heritage is. The study also examines how local stakeholders in the field of cultural heritage participate in the production of Europeanness and connect their sites to European cultural heritage.

One question is what kind of culture and whose culture and past are utilised to produce a common European cultural heritage.

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flood of refugees, financial problems, expansion plans, political challenges and the rise of nationalism. For a long time now, the political and financial integration of Europe has run into difficulties. Even though cultural integration is less visible than the other issues, it gets more weight during crises.


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BRAIN RESEARCH HELPS TRACE DIFFERENT LEARNING PATHWAYS For a long time, progress in children’s brain research has stood still. Professor Paavo Leppänen and his colleagues are developing new approaches and analysis methods to improve brain research in children. Their objective is also to find better ways to help children with learning difficulties, such as developmental dyslexia and ADHD. Paavo Leppänen has a big goal. Using brain research, he wants to understand why some children end up having learning difficulties – and what types of support could tackle the difficulties. Professor Leppänen leads the international ChildBrain project and is a partner in Predictable project. Researchers in these projects develop new methods for brain research involving children, for example, for analysing electromagnetic brain responses. - The developing brains of children pose unique challenges for brain research. Current research methods have mainly been developed for adults. The development of child brain research methods has received much less attention until recently. The research themes of the multidisciplinary projects include, among others, early brain development, dyslexia, language impairment, ADHD, epilepsy and congenital


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For instance, dyslexia is a result of slightly atypical functioning of the brain that can be observed already in infancy at a group level. The professor’s research group has revealed that the electrical brain activity signalling the ability to differentiate how babies hear speech sounds was connected to reading speed as late as the age of 14. This is in most cases explained by hereditary factors behind dyslexia – typically a close relative has had similar problems. Professor Leppänen rather speaks about reading difficulties than about reading disorders since the latter term has had negative connotations: people with dyslexia were once considered a bit stupid. Leppänen compares, from the perspective of brain function, reading difficulties to how some people have trouble learning to sing in tune or understand mathematics.

portant. Reading difficulties are strongly connected to success in academic achievement. According to Professor Leppänen, one way to tackle reading difficulties is already known: reading a lot. Ability to convert letters and words to corresponding speech sounds may not become automatic, but diligent practice improves the situation. Therefore, it is good to encourage children to read as much as possible, especially texts they themselves find motivating. Today, digital learning environments and online reading bring special challenges for children with learning difficulties. It is not enough to understand a wellprepared textbook. You must be able to search for and combine information from different sources and evaluate it critically.

- It is important to find out how different reading problems are manifested in the brain level. Then we can consider a suitable chain of case-specific support measures.

- We do not say that unmusical people have a musical or singing disorder.

Professor Leppänen finds that brain research is especially fascinating now because the field is progressing rapidly. From the perspective of a researcher, it is rewarding that the study of learning difficulties may be, and already has been, truly helpful for people struggling with learning problems. On the other hand, he has noticed that the longer one does research, the better one understands how little we actually know.

A person may not suffer that much in life from being unmusical. In the case of reading difficulties, however, support actions are crucial because literacy is socially im-

- New questions arise all the time, and there is so much to explore. But, as one author has said, the landscape looses its prospects if there are no more questions.

Paavo Leppänen • iFuCo 2016–2018 (Consortium, Academy of Finland) • ChildBrain 2015–2019 (Horizon 2020) • PredictAble 2015–2019 (Horizon 2020) • eSeek 2014–2017 (Academy of Finland) • Professor of Psychology at the University of Jyväskylä since 2011 • The chair of ForLearning -network operative team • MA (Psych.) 1992, PhD (Psych.) 1999, University of Jyväskylä

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It is important to find out how different reading problems are manifested in the brain level.

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hearing problems. The projects also train international PhD students in Jyväskylä. Professor Leppänen himself has studied dyslexia during the most of his career. His objective is to find out how the development of linguistic functions and various cognitive difficulties are linked to brain function. The goal is, ultimately, to be able to apply research data in various support measures.


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CATCHING CLIENTS’ ATTENTION ONLINE Professor Heikki Karjaluoto monitors how the digital world changes the way companies do business. “Welcome to our Online Store. How can I help you?” When surfing the web, customer service messages pop up on the screen with increasing frequency. Professor Heikki Karjaluoto can tell us why. He has studied the digitalisation of marketing and sales for more than a decade. According to him, we have moved to a phase in which companies more and more often meet their customers through digital channels, for example, in a chat. Face-toface communication is decreasing in both social relationships and commerce. - People change. That makes our research interesting and surprising. It is difficult to get hold of modern teenagers by calling them on the phone. Once they enter working life, their methods of communication will be very different from the methods of today’s 40–50-year-olds. According to Professor Karjaluoto, many would be surprised to know how much the purchase of, for example, a traditional agriculture machine such as a tractor has changed. Nowadays digital sources play a key role when searching for information, making

comparisons and finding user experiences. It is no longer enough to hear a salesperson’s persuasive pitch or the experiences of neighbours. Instead, information comes from all around the world. In addition, product videos and images affect decision-making. Professor Karjaluoto and his team study the buying behaviour of clients in various fields. He finds it surprising how positively people seem to accept digitalisation. For example, many consumers considered that the more digital channels a bank offers, the better its customer service is. The research results also encourage companies in other fields to develop mobile and chat services.

Heikki Karjaluoto • DIGA – Digital Customer Experience, 2015–2016 (Tekes) • ReDO – Redefining Digital Opportunities, 2015–2016 (Tekes) • Red Queen Effect: Strategies for an Innovative Landscape, 2015–2017 (Tekes) • Professor of marketing at the University of Jyväskylä since 2007 • MSc (Econ.) 2000, DSc (Econ.) 2002, University of Jyväskylä


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After Jukka Lerkkanen became the director of the Open University in autumn 2014, he immediately began to develop the unit’s project and research activities. Staff are offered an opportunity to present at research conferences and encouraged to participate in research projects. The work has already started to bear fruit: the unit is participating in the international @TeSLA project (Horizon 2020), and two development projects of the European Social Fund are in progress. - In my opinion, open university education needs to be based on research just as regular university education is. This is the only way to keep pace with international development. We need project-related research so that we can improve the quality of our teaching even further. The @TeSLA project will start in January 2016 and focus on stronger electronic identification of students. If open university education is increasingly offered outside Finland in the future, it is important to authenticate the person who is completing the studies. Keyboard handwriting is an interesting technology: similar to writing with a pen, each person has a personal style to use the keyboard. The project leader is Tarja Ladonlahti, the pedagogical head of the Open University, who ensures that students’ special support needs are

considered in the course of development. The Open University participates in technology testing with IT Services. In the national AVOT project, the Open University develops education models which can be used to design open university education oriented to working life. In addition, the project Individual Learning Path to Higher Education offers upper secondary students an opportunity to complete higher education. Research is close to Lerkkanen’s heart. Though he has worked in managerial duties for years, he has continued to conduct research alongside his main job. - I see the value of research and want to promote it in my work.

Jukka Lerkkanen • @TeSla project 2016–2018 (Horizon 2020) • AVOT project 2015–2018 (European Social Fund) • Individual Learning Path to Higher Education project 2015–2017 (European Social Fund) • Director of the Open University since August 2014 • MA 1988, PhD (Educ.) 2002, University of Jyväskylä

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Jukka Lerkkanen believes that project and research activities will improve the already high quality of open university education.

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RESEARCH WITH AN OPEN MIND


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A MATHEMATICIAN ON A JOURNEY TO THE CENTRE OF THE EARTH In his ERC project, Professor Mikko Salo found a solution to a mathematical problem that had gone unsolved for 25 years. Professor Mikko Salo is thrilled. In his ERC project, he recently found a solution to a mathematical problem researchers in the field have puzzled for over 25 years. The advancement is related to a mathematical model Salo and his team developed to illustrate the structure of the inner parts of the Earth. - Jules Verne’s vision of a journey to the centre of the Earth from the 19th century has yet to be realised. We still do not know exactly what lies in its depths. Professor Salo is specialised in this kind of challenge, that is, inverse problems. In these problems, the aim is to find out the contents of objects without breaking them. The structure of the interior of the Earth is a good example: researchers cannot dig deep into the hot depths to acquire samples. Instead, they utilise sound waves that move through the Earth after an earthquake. Because there are slight differences in how sound waves travel through different rock types, seismic measurements can provide information on the rock structure. Professor Salo’s other research subject is the human. Similar to the way sound waves travel through the

depths and reveal the structure of the Earth, the movement of X-ray beams through the body reveals the structure of humans. All we need is a computer program and a mathematical model to create the image. The imaging accuracy can be improved to a surprising degree just with the help of mathematics. It is also possible to decrease the amount of radiation received by patients. - The best moments are when you realise you have invented something new that nobody has thought of yet.

Mikko Salo • ERC Starting Grant 2012–2017 • Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Inverse Problems Research funded by the Academy of Finland 2012–2017. • Väisälä Award of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters 2014, Calderon Prize of the Inverse Problems International Association 2013, the Academy of Finland Award for Scientific Courage 2011 • Professor of Mathematics at the University of Jyväskylä since 2013 • MSc 2001, University of Oulu; PhD 2004, University of Helsinki


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Professor in Exercise Gerontology Sarianna Sipilä jumps high in the air. A timer measures how long the flight takes. It is a good result. Nothing to criticize in the professor’s bounce. This is one of the tests Professor Sipilä and her colleagues use when studying, as part of an international EU project, the effects of ageing on muscles. The questions are very current: How can ageing people maintain their functioning with the help of exercise and nutrition? What kinds of changes menopause-related hormonal changes cause in the body of women? More than 1,000 middle-aged women were invited to the tests and the researchers will follow a group of them through menopausal transition. - Our target is to understand what changes the decrease in the production of female hormones causes in muscles. The test persons participate in variety of muscle condition and walking tests and provide blood and muscle tissue samples. In addition, their psychological wellbeing and memory functions are surveyed. Ageing is a particularly relevant research topic. The number of older adults is growing rapidly and the importance of retaining mobility has been recognised. Good mobility is also connected to better memory function.

- Older people are not just a cost item for society; they are also a resource. It is important to understand the mechanisms of ageing. In recent decades, research methods have developed and the need for research has increased greatly. Professor Sipilä remembers how different the situation still was at the beginning of the 1990s when she was starting her academic career. At the time, some of her fellow students wondered what could be interesting in studying older people. - Thinking about it now, this field of research was an excellent choice. The subject has completely captured me.

Sarianna Sipilä • Panini project 2016–2019 (Horizon 2020) • Research Director of the Gerontology Research Center since 2007 and Professor of Exercise Gerontology since 2012 • MSc 1990, PhD 1996, University of Jyväskylä

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Professor Sarianna Sipilä wants to understand what happens in the body of an ageing person.

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FITNESS IS FOR ALL AGES


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IN THE INTERNET OF THINGS EVEN SCREWDRIVERS COMMUNICATE Professor Pasi Tyrväinen is developing a smart city and wants to make good IT companies even better. Professor of Digital Media Pasi Tyrväinen is holding a round sensor in his hand. He says that similar devices can be installed in rubbish bins to measure their fullness. A user can receive a message on a smartphone from the rubbish bin: ‘I am full, please empty me.’ This is an example of the much discussed Internet of Things, Professor Tyrväinen’s research topic. - The idea is to be able to communicate with devices in an information network. For example, Bosch has developed power drills that communicate information on their usage. If it is seen that people use cordless screwdrivers only within a slow speed range, it makes sense for the manufacturer to drop expensive gears and produce a cheaper, slowly rotating model. According to Professor Tyrväinen, the gap between the physical and digital environments narrows when both people and objects communicate online. As a researcher he wants to know which factors affect the introduction of new technologies. He is participating in, for example, the smart city project of the Kangas area in Jyväskylä. The project examines the utilisation of various intelligent applications in housing, such as electronic keys which can easily be encoded upon demand. Let’s say the sauna in your block of flats is reserved. With

electronic keys you can easily get access to the sauna in the neighbouring building. Previously Professor Tyrväinen worked for 13 years in the business world for, among other companies, Nokia. Therefore, it is no wonder that his research topics are often based on collaboration with the private sector. In the N4S project, researchers untangle how to make good IT companies even better by increasing flexibility. The Desi2 project develops an application that enables the easy collection and utilisation of staff ideas for workplace development. - Many researchers focus on narrow research topics. I have always been a horizontalist, interested in a large range of issues.

Pasi Tyrväinen • Need for Speed N4S 2014–2017 (Digile/Tekes) • Entrepreneurial renewal and design thinking in the organizational development Desi2 2012–2015 (Tekes) • Internet of Things 2012–2015 (Tekes) • Professor since 1996, Director of Agora Center since 2014 • MSc (Tech.) 1988, DSc (Tech.) 1994, Helsinki University of Technology


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It sounds strange to hear Professor of Physics Iain Moore say that he is conducting research which will help in the development of a clock. However, it soon becomes clear that this clock is no ordinary timekeeping device: the goal is to make the most precise atomic clock in the world. It would have an insurmountable accuracy of one tenth of a quintillion (10-19). In the future, it could be used as the worldwide standard when setting other clocks. Moore’s study is part of the international nuClock research project, involving experts from the fields of nuclear physics, quantum optics, metrology and laser technology. According to Professor Moore, this is a completely novel method to measure time. The operating principle of current atomic clocks is that electrons around, for example, a caesium-133 nucleus are excited, that is, they are raised to a higher energy state using microwave radiation, after which they are released to their basic state. The action of repetitious excitation and deexcitation of the electron results in the atom behaving as an oscillator. These oscillations, or ticks, are detected and counted. The second is currently defined in terms of this microwave transition in caesium. The professor and his colleagues are developing a new kind of atomic clock that is based on the excitation of atomic nuclei, specifically the nuclei of thorium-229.

This type of atomic clock, or rather a nuclear clock, would be more accurate and less sensitive to the environment. - Usually the excitation of nuclei requires so much energy that it is not possible to produce a clock based on them. This isotope of thorium is an exception because it has a special state whose excitation energy is exceptionally low, low enough for it to be accessible with a laser. The challenge for researchers to date has been actually creating the excited state. In addition, the thorium-229 isotope is not present in nature and must be manufactured. Nevertheless, Moore is ready to take the challenge. - It is extremely exciting to be part of international research groups carrying out fundamental research that may lead to significant applications in the future. I really wouldn’t even call this work. I’d call it a passion.

Iain Moore • nuClock 2015–2019 (FET Open, Horizon 2020) • Professor of physics since 2015, has worked at the University of Jyväskylä since 2004 • BSc 1998, DrSc 2001, University of Manchester

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Professor Iain Moore studies exotic nuclei, one of which has the potential to become the world’s most accurate clock.

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A PHYSICIST MEASURING TIME WITH ATOMS


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UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ’S RESEARCH FUNDING IS ATTAINED FROM MANY SOURCES

European Research Council (ERC) European Research Council (ERC) supports the best of the best scientific efforts in Europe across all fields of science, scholarship and engineering. ERC promotes wholly investigatordriven or bottom-up frontier research. Grant size varies from €1,5m to €2,5m for period of five years. Since 2007, more than 5000 projects have been selected for ERC funding. The ERC counts 8 Nobel laureates and 3 Fields Medalists among grant holders. Over 20 000 articles acknowledging ERC-funding have appeared in peer-review high impact journals in 20082013. Each ERC grantee employs on average six team members, thus contributing to train a new generation of excellent researchers. Under Horizon 2020, it is estimated that around 7,000 grantees will be funded and 42,000 team members supported, offering cuttingedge research training for nearly 11,000 doctoral students and almost 16,000 postdoctoral researchers.

European Commission – Horizon 2020 Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly €80 billion of funding available over 7 years (2014 to 2020). Horizon 2020 aims for more breakthroughs, discoveries and world-firsts by taking great ideas from the lab to the market, and to secure Europe’s global competitiveness. Horizon 2020, a mean to drive Economic growth and create jobs, has the political backing of Europe. The programme emphasizes excellent science, industrial leadership and tackling societal challenges. In addition, the framework includes nuclear research and training, the Joint Research Centre activities and funding for the activities of the European Innovation and Technology Institute.The goal of Horizon 2020 is to ensure Europe produces worldclass science, removes barriers to innovation and makes it easier for the public and private sectors to work together in delivering innovation.


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30 000 000,00 € Tekes – the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation 9 % (source: Tekes) 20 000 000,00 € 2014

EU – Horizon 2020 and ERC 11 % (source: European Commission)

2015 10 000 000,00 € Academy of Finland 80 % (source: Academy of Finland)

Academy of Finland

Tekes

EU – Horizon 2020 and ERC

Academy of Finland

Tekes – the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovations

The Academy of Finland funds high-quality scientific research and contributes to the renewal, diversification and increasing internationalization of Finnish research in the full spectrum of scientific disciplines. The Academy of Finland supports and facilitates researcher training and research careers, internationalization and the application of research results.

Tekes – the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovations is the most important publicly funded expert organization for financing research, development and innovation in Finland. In addition to funding technological breakthroughs, Tekes emphasizes the significance of service-related, design, business, and social innovations.

In 2015 The Academy of Finland funding for research amounts to 349 million euros. Each year, the funding contributes to 8,000 people’s work at universities and research institutes in Finland.

Through its funding and programs Tekes finances yearly 600 public research projects, and 1500 business research and development projects that create in the long-term the greatest benefits for the economy and society.

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University of Jyväskylä’s supplementary research funding from three major funding organisation 2014–2015

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University of Jyväskylä’s supplementary research funding from three major funding organisations (2015)


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layout: PIGME • photos: Iida Liimatainen, Hanna-Kaisa Hämäläinen, PIGME • 2016

JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ

Jyu excellence in science  

UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ, Finland. Excellence in Science, 2016. University of Jyväskylä’s supplementary research funding from the major fundi...

Jyu excellence in science  

UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ, Finland. Excellence in Science, 2016. University of Jyväskylä’s supplementary research funding from the major fundi...

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