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ISSUE 20

APRIL 2021

THE QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER OF THE UK AND IRELAND SPILL ASSOCIATION

COMPLEX REMEDIATION FOLLOWING A KEROSENE SPILL HOLYHEAD MARINA INCIDENT ... AND MUCH MORE PRODUCED BY

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PLAN FOR THE BEST. PREPARE FOR THE WORST.

How prepared are you? The unpredictability of a spill, the impact it can have on the environment, and on the responsible party’s business, calls for a prudent approach to regularly reassess potential risks and their consequences, and to apply commensurate levels of risk mitigation. But navigating through oil spill preparedness and response can be daunting. With over 30 years of experience in oil spill response and preparedness globally, Oil Spill Response Ltd. provides peace of mind and expert support through every phase of preparedness from planning, training and exercising, to identifying oil spill equipment requirements and response services. Managing oil spill risk and meeting regulatory requirements can be left in our expert hands. Strategically positioned in ten locations on six continents, OSRL offers an end-to-end oil spill service and integrated solutions for all of your preparedness and response needs. We’re ready to assist anytime, anywhere. In the event of an incident, OSRL members have access to five oil spill 2

response experts for five days, with one call, ensuring coordination when it’s most crucial.

In good hands OSRL Membership provides expert guidance and support across all tiers of preparedness: • Training of personnel • Range of contingency planning, consultancy and advice • Fully maintained response equipment • Exercises

Contact us Get in touch to speak with one of our representatives about managing your oil spill risk: MyOSRL@oilspillresponse.com

www.oilspillresponse.com


CONTENTS 4 6-8

WELCOME BY LEE BARBER, CHAIR UK AND IRELAND SPILL ASSOCIATION HISTORY OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPILL ACCREDITATION SCHEME

9-10

INDUSTRY NEWS

11-13

MEMBER NEWS

14-15

LLANGENECH UPDATE

16-18

MV WAKASHIO GROUNDING AND SPILL UPDATE

19

INLAND SPILL EVENT 22 APRIL 2021

20-22

CASE STUDY: OIL SPILL AT A GRADE 2 LISTED PROPERTY

23-24

CASE STUDY: A WINTER STORM AND INCIDENT AT HOLYHEAD MARINA

25 26-30 32

NEW PRODUCTS SPILL RESPONSE TO BIOFUELS – GUIDANCE FROM ISAS UK AND IRELAND SPILL ASSOCIATION WORKING GROUPS REPORT

33-34

WELCOME TO OUR NEW MEMBERS

35-36

2018 SPILL STATISTICS

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UK AND IRELAND SPILL ASSOCIATION 2021 EVENT PLAN SPONSORED BY OAMPS

Spill Alert is the official magazine of the UK and Ireland Spill Association. It is published by the Association whose Registered Office is; 39 Chapel Road, West End, Southampton, SO30 3FG. The views in the magazine may not represent the views of the Association if the authors are not employees of it and are therefore individual views. No article may be reproduced without the permission of the Association whose contact details are below © UK and Ireland Spill Association Ltd - 2021

All enquiries for membership of the Association, editorial, advertising or attendance at events should be made to: Mark J Orr, Executive Director, UK and Ireland Spill Association Ltd info@ukirespill.org Tel: 0333 444 1890 Mob: +44 7864 707408 info@ukspill.org www.ukspill.org

All enquiries for marine, shoreline and inland accreditation should be made to: John Dawes, Executive Director, International Spill Accreditation Scheme Ltd info@isasaccreditation.org Tel: 0333 444 1891 Mob: +44 7710 378697 www.isasaccreditation.org

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WELCOME TO SPILL ALERT WELCOME The Prime Minister’s announcement on 22 February gave a clear road map out of lockdown and will hopefully lead to the relaxation of restrictions on movement and meeting. It means that we may be having a face to face event and AGM in September. Let’s hope his plan works!

Lee Barber, Chair UK and Ireland Spill Association

In the meantime, we have now had over 1000 attendees to our webinars since we started, tentatively, in December. That these are drawn from across the globe is a strong argument for these continuing in the future; part of a new way of working and communicating which may not have happened without the pandemic. The Knowledge Base webinar series that was created by the Marine Working Group to replace our Marine Spill Event in June, will provide a library, accessible through our website, to all who wish to learn the tools of the spill response trade to which we will add in the future. The transition to net zero has seen oil companies write down the value of their assets such that of the big five; Exxon, Chevron, BP, Shell and Total all made billion dollar losses last year. As they evolve from oil to energy companies it will be interesting to see the opportunities that open up for our members. We are tracking this closely.

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As the article of the History of ISAS shows, incidents involving the loss of oil have been the source of spill response work since the 1960s. As the use of it reduces how does our industry react? Joining UKIFDA and OFTEC in supporting the use of second and third generation biofuels as drop in alternatives derived from surplus vegetation from food production to reduce emissions may mean tanks and their infrastructure remain and need to be maintained. What happens then? We need to start mapping out a 10 and 15 year plan for the Association and through that identify opportunities for our members – decommissioning redundant fuel facilities must be high on the list. At our recent Board Meeting I was delighted to see the screenshots of www.ukeirespill. org which will go live in April. It looks fresh and gives a crisper, more contemporary and professional look to the Association. Our new branding has been well received and is a solid platform on which to promote the industry and tell of the good work its does across the country. I look forward to seeing www.isasaccreditation.org go live and finish this modernisation and new presentation of what we do to all we work with and for. I look forward to seeing you – face to face – later this year!


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Auditing, diagnostics and testing

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All types of oil, chemical,

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fuel and quality

0800 592 827 adlerandallan.co.uk 5


HISTORY OF THE

INTERNATIONAL SPILL

ACCREDITATION SCHEME bunker oil were washed ashore over 200 miles along the Brittany Coast with some parts being buried by 20 inches of oil. The effect on sea life, shellfish in the Brittany estuaries and rivers was significant as was the aggressive clean-up which lacked environmental sensitivity, leaving once thriving marine environments scoured by chemical dispersants, sand and mud

Mark Orr and John Dawes with input from Roger Mabbott and John McMurtie (ISCO)

removal which was never replaced. These incidents, occurring in relatively close succession, caused Europe to wake up to the risk it carried in allowing lightly regulated vessels to navigate their waters with inadequate maritime

The birth of many oil spill control organisations was the loss of 25-36 million gallons of crude oil following the loss of the SS Torrey Canyon which, due to a navigation error, struck rocks by Seven Stones reef between the Cornish mainland and the Isles of Scilly on 18 March 1967. The inadequacy of the response, the environmental impact and the fact that the loss was close to well populated shorelines led to many changes in international regulations such as the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage in 1969 and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973. In February 1971, SS Walfra ran aground off Cape Agulhas, South Africa, following engine problems and a lack of suitable towing vessels that could pull her to safety. Part of her was towed out to sea and sunk but the loss, estimated to be up to 14 million gallons, caused significant and well publicised harm to wildlife and to the environment. In March 1978, in very heavy weather in the Bay of Biscay the steering on the SS Amoco Cadiz failed. Whilst a tow was established it kept breaking and many attempts were made to re-establish it. The Force 10 winds were too much for the tow and she struck Portsall Rocks, just off the Brittany coast. The cargo of 220,800 tons of crude oil and 4000 tons of

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pollution incident plans as demonstrated by the response to each of these pollution incidents. With legislation in place governments responded by improving national plans and developing some international co-operation and agreements to share resources in major incidents. This promoted early discussions in the late 1970s at the Hamburg Ship & Machinery Exhibition to form a British organisation and thus British Oil Spill Control Association (BOSCA) was formed under the auspices of British Marine Equipment Council (BMEC). BOSCA held its first exhibition at St. Catherine’s Dock in London in 1980. The exhibition incorporated a conference which attracted a considerable audience. Slowly BOSCA became involved in the development of national, regional, and local government spill response plans, using local contracting companies. At about the same time Lt Cdr R G (Geoff) Teasdale was tasked, through the Royal Navy and MOD to set up over a period of years very comprehensive stockpiles of pollution control equipment which were operated by Royal Marine Auxiliary Service (RMAS). With large stockpiles at Portsmouth, Devonport and Rosyth and


smaller response capability at all locations

The oil pollution section of the Maritime

International Spill Control (ISCO) formed in

from which Royal Navy vessels operated.

& Coastguard Agency (MCA) was formed,

1986 and its mission was, and remains:

and this gradually took over responsibility The oil companies, whose oil it was that

from the Royal Navy for dealing with

To raise worldwide preparedness and co-

spilled, were heavily fined and their

pollution in UK territorial waters. It

operation in response to oil and chemical

reputations adversely affected. To mitigate

developed its own stockpile of Tier 3

spills, to promote technical development

further losses, they started to play a more

pollution control equipment and carried

and professional competency, and

active role in developing their own response

out training mostly for Local Authority

to provide a focus for making the

organisations. In the UK British Petroleum

coastal personnel. National contingency

knowledge and experience of spill control

(BP) set up a large oil spill response base in

plans were drawn up and the MCA ensured

professionals available to the IMO, UNEP,

Southampton and also Vikoma – a company

that the UK was fully compliant with all

EC and other organisations.

manufacturing oil skimmers and retention

International Regulations issued by the IMO

booms on the Isle of Wight. Subsequently

which had been ratified by UK Government.

the BP base was syndicated amongst

SS Exxon Valdez various oil companies and Oil Spill Response

In the meantime, BOSCA continued to hold

This activity was timely as in March 1989

Ltd (OSRL) was the result.

regular meetings with Brian Webb acting

the SS Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in

as secretary on behalf of BMEC. The

Prince William Sound in Alaska spilling

The formation of the International Tanker

Chairman for most of the period was Rear

10.8 million gallons of crude oil into this

Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) was

Admiral Michael Stacey who was also head

pristine environment. Exacerbated by

effectively an insurance fund set up by

of the MCA (in those days Marine Pollution

its remote location, the response was

potential marine polluters worldwide to

Control Unit – MPCU). The Deputy

difficult and resulted in slow containment

hopefully cover the costs of any future spill

Chairman was Dr Douglas Cormack – Head

and the contamination of over 200

clean-up.

of Warren Spring Laboratory. The main

miles of coastline. This was the final nail

work of the Association was to provide

in the coffin of lax regulation and the

Warren Spring Laboratory (the Government

a meeting place where manufacturers

IMO introduced various international

Research laboratories based in Stevenage)

could meet with spill responders and new

pollution prevention rules through various

operated a research division and carried out

response equipment could be discussed.

conventions that have led to safer ships

tests on oil spill control equipment under

The meetings were also attended by

and cleaner oceans.

the leading scientist – Dr Douglas Cormack.

representatives from the Environment

They were the only organisation with

Agency, the Northern Ireland Environment

Regulation was tightened again but also

authorisation to spill oil at sea. Allied with

Agency, Scottish Environment Protection

the non-governmental organisations and

the research facility was the provision of oil

Agency and, occasionally the MCA.

the public started to ‘fight locally for

spill control training.

protection of the environment around us’ and the harm that we can so easily do to it,

SS Torrey Canyon

by negligence or lax control. This led to a flurry of new spill response companies to help businesses prevent pollution, to cope with spillages at sea and on land but also in the design and development of improved equipment and technology. Whilst primarily marine focussed in the mid-1990s BOSCA started to reach out to inland response companies as by then there was a growing split between marine and inland response which to a

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lesser extent remains. The IMO introduced internationally recognised marine training courses which were endorsed by the MCA. Several BOSCA members were approved by the Nautical Institute to deliver MCA courses. Inland surface water spill courses were offered by BOSCA and held at the Fire Service College in Moreton in the Marsh. Following a meeting held between Oil Pollution Defence (OPD), spill responder and the then National Rivers Authority to discuss the standard of inland spill response. A further meeting with the newly formed Environment Agency was held in Warrington attended by, amongst others, Lord Peter Simon Rickaby (Braemar Howells) and John Dawes (OPD). As a result of this meeting the BOSCA Accreditation Scheme was formed with financial assistance from the Environment Agency. Support for the accreditation scheme by the EA ended and Brian Webb retired from being BOSCA secretary and Society of Maritime Industries (SMI) appointed Roger Mabbott in his place as Director of BOSCA. Sadly, with no government support, BOSCA closed in the early 2000s. However strong personalities supported by their own active businesses in this area were the catalyst for the formation of new and reasonably vigorous activity. John Dawes had worked in several senior roles in spill response companies and Dr Doug Cormack, a marine scientist and former Chairman of BOSCA, formed the International Spill Accreditation Association (ISAA) in 2004. With some support and encouragement from Lord Rickerby, they continued with accreditation based on the BOSCA scheme. Whilst it primarily focussed on Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland businesses it did attract UK Mainland members. Management of the ISAA Scheme was handled by ISCO for a number of years. Meanwhile in late 2004, BOSCA membership transferred to UK Spill which was formed by Roger Mabbott as a UK oil spill trade association with support from Dave Salt, Operations Director at OSRL and Mark Calvert, then the owner of Adler and Allan, who became its initial Directors. The vision for Accreditation was maintained by both BOSCA and then UK Spill in contracting with John Dawes, as the independent Manager/Assessor, to maintain the scheme in the UK. John Dawes continued in this role until 2007. Therafter Roger Mabbott became Scheme Manager using independent assessors. In December 2005 Adler and Allan were spill response contractor to the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal at Buncefield that had a fire and series

8

SS Walfra of dramatic explosions that eventually

joint venture called International Spill

consumed 20 large storage tanks on this

Accreditation Scheme (ISAS) was

site over one significant weekend in the

formed. They were successful in their

history of UK spill response. The work

bid and subsequently have delivered this

on site consumed much of the UK’s spill

accreditation service with Captain Bill

response industry and activity proceeded

Boyle as the Marine Assessor. John Dawes

on site for the next six months until the site

was appointed as the UK Contractors

was clear.

Accreditation Scheme Manager in late 2018. In this spirit of co-operation, a Heads

This incident highlighted the need for

of Agreement was signed that expressed a

a robust inland accreditation scheme

desire by both Associations to merge.

that the response industry could adopt so that businesses could have common

In 2020, with the retirement of Roger

standards. This would enable them to work

Mabbott, it seemed timely to conclude

together with common proficiency when

this unfinished business. In September

managing inland spills. This was written

2020 UK Spill and ISAA merged to form

by UK Spill based on the standards used

two independent companies, each limited

by John Dawes and was supported by all

by guarantee and each with independent

environmental regulators. It was re-written

Boards:

in 2006 and 2007 by Stewart Ower and Mark Orr. It formed the backbone of the

The Trade Association – UK and Ireland

UK Contractors Accreditation Scheme

Spill Association Limited

that eventually went online in 2010. This scheme, with revisions in 2016, 2017 and

The Accreditation Company – International

2018 carried out by Dr Jon Burton, is now

Spill Accreditation Scheme Limited

being reviewed and updated. In 2021 this is how the businesses currently In late 2017, the MCA introduced a draft

operate – each independent of the other

Standard for Marine Oil Spill Response

but both closely tied by a shared history, a

Organisations. United by their missions but

common mission and each confident that

divided by their history, Roger Mabbott

they are working to raise standards, by

asked if ISAA would join UK Spill in

sharing knowledge, developing expertise

jointly tendering for the accreditation of

and working with national and local

businesses who would need to migrate

governments across the UK and Republic

from their own individual accreditation

of Ireland.

schemes to the new MCA scheme. Both agreed to co-operate, and a


INDUSTRY NEWS Interspill is controlled by the European

Spill industry associations, from Norway,

NOSCA, from France, SYCOPOL, and from

UK, the UK Spill Association, together with IMO, EMSA, IPIECA, ITOPF, IOPC Funds,

Cedre, and Oil Spill Response Ltd and is co-organised by Reed Exhibitions.

STAY UP TO DATE ON THE LATEST INDUSTRY NEWS

INTERSPILL 2022 TO GO AHEAD AT RAI AMSTERDAM 21-23 JUNE 2022

For further information visit: www.interspill.org

READ MORE

OCEAN ORBIT IS ITOPF ANNUAL REVIEW OF ITS ACTIVITIES For those with an interest in maritime activities Ocean Orbit is a very interesting read. Whilst ITOPF is funded by the oil tanker owners, their expertise in handling incidents and the strength of their environmental team means that they are well respected. Ocean Orbit reports that they are also requested by IMO, impacted

Interspill Limited is delighted to announce

the turbulence caused by the COVID 19

that it has contracted with iConex to

pandemic it is great to look forward to

organise Interspill 2022 at RAI Amsterdam

Interspill 2020 in Amsterdam.

on 21-23 June 2022.

nations and P&I clubs to advise affected parties in the steps they can take to protect the environment from the effects of an oil spill.

This will be the first face-to-face major oil Interspill was supposed to be held in

and gas industry event to be held and we

Amsterdam in 2021 but the Management

are aware of our responsibility for this to

Committee agreed to delay due a year to

be a COVID safe event and will run it as an

COVID 19 to June 2022.

example for others to follow.

iConex is experienced in organising

We are delighted to contract with iConex

technical exhibitions and events across

for this and the following two editions of

the globe. Interspill will be managed by its

Interspill. This event will have a significant

specialist subsidiary, T8C, which organises

role shaping the industry approach to

technical and energy events in the Oil &

spill response in the energy transition and

Gas Industry. It currently organises RECSO

will include marine litter and managing

EnviroSpill Conference & Exhibition in

the impact shipping has on our marine

the Middle East and India Clean Seas

environment.’

Conference.

The scope of the event reflects the strength and breadth of the organising Committees,

Now that the contract has been signed

which included the European Spill industry

and the venue confirmed, the future of

trade organisations, the European Maritime

this important face to face conference and

Safety Agency (EMSA), IPIECA, the

exhibition is assured. The Management and

global oil and gas industry association for

Conference Committees have met to start

environmental and social issues and Oil

planning the detail of the event.

Spill Response Ltd., with support from the International Maritime Organization (IMO),

An event website will follow shortly but

International Oil Pollution Convention

news will be posted on Interspill.org from

Funds (IOPC), the International Tanker

next week.

Owners Federation (ITOPF) and France’s Centre of Documentation, Research and

Richard Proctor, Chairman, Interspill

Experimentation on Accidental Water

Ltd commented; ‘After dealing with

Pollution (CEDRE).

ITOPF have attended and advised on 18 new incidents between March and December 2020, including the nickel mine storage tank spill in Russia, the power barge incident in the Philippines and a potential spill from an FSO off Venezuela and the fire and risk of a fuel spillage on the MV New Diamond off Sri Lanka. The MV Wakashio spill was a major deployment Continued ...

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INDUSTRY NEWS and ITOPF are currently supporting Israel on the effect of the tar spreading on their Mediterranean shores, the cutting up of the grounded car carrier Golden Ray, to South Africa to advise on clean-up of a plastic nurdle spill. ITOPF advised on the MV New Diamond incident. This was an anxious fortnight for all in the Indian Ocean. An explosion followed by an intense fire in the engine room resulted in the loss of some fuel to the sea but at one point looked likely to overcome the whole vessel with the significant consequence of the loss of the 270,000 tons of crude oil it carried. Swift action by the Sri Lankan and Indian Navy and the bravery of the crew saved the

READ MORE

casualty which was eventually towed to Khor Fakkan in the UAE where the load was to be transferred to another tanker

https://www.itopf.org/fileadmin/data/Documents/Company_Lit/Ocean_Orbit_2021_lo_

and will be delivered to Paradip, India.

password_protected.pdf

CONTINUING CONTAINER LOSSES AT SEA MAY RESULT IN REDUCTION IN LOADING LIMITS Since November 2020 there have been a series of incidents where significant numbers of containers have been lost from large container ships caught at sea in heavy weather. Most significant was the loss of 1816 containers from One Apus on 30 November. On 31 December the MV Ever Liberal lost 36 containers about 20 miles off Kyushu, Japan. In mid January the 13,092 teu Maersk Essen, en route from China to Los Angeles, lost approximately 750 containers during heavy seas. Israeli carrier ZIM reportedly lost 76 containers in early February from the chartered ship E.R.

READ MORE

Tianping. The incident also occurred in the Pacific as the container ship was making its way from South Korea to North America.  This was followed the same week by MSC Aries that lost 41 containers in the Pacific and then in mid February, the Maersk Eindhoven, was near Japan sailing from China to Los Angeles when the vessel’s engine stopped in heavy seas causing the ship to be unable to manoeuvre and it therefore experienced a severe roll during which it lost 260 containers overboard. Propulsion was restored and the vessel diverted to the nearest Asian port. Very large container ships seem more vulnerable to the sea state than smaller

vessels. Container ships are rolling 30 – 40 degrees imposing significant pitching and rolling loads which exert powerful forces that are breaking snap lashing and the locks on high container stacks causing their loss overboard or collapse of whole stacks of containers.   There is the myth existing that containers that fall overboard sink to the sea bed. Recently up to 100 containers were found drifting north east of Honolulu in a partly submerged state. They present a serious hazard to shipping as well as being an environmental hazard.   At present it seems the sea is being treated as a dustbin to over ambitious design that may hopefully result in reduced loadings until a better solution is found to keep container onboard these vessels. It also poses the question of what happens to these containers. Now over 3000 in the Pacific alone! Of those lost we know that around 7% were carrying dangerous cargos. https://www.hellenicshippingnews. com/what-happens-to-containers-lostoverboard-how-long-do-they-float/

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APRIL

MEMBERS NEWS

NEW BASES AND NAME CHANGE AT CTSL Delivering expert environmental claims, tank and site services throughout the UK since 2006, CTSL Group is an industry leader in the innovative management of safe fuel and liquid clean-up, fuel storage and distribution. Last year CTSL carried out some restructuring across the group to better align our products and services with our trading companies. As a result of that all of our mainland UK remediation operations are being delivered under the banner of CTSL Spill Specialists Ltd. This gives us one galvanised brand and we’ve opened up a 4th depot in Cambridge along with our existing bases in Preston, Bathgate and Barnsley so we now have greater geographic coverage than ever before as well.    Complete Tank Solutions Ltd., which was renamed CTSL (England) Ltd. a couple of

ADLER AND ALLAN ANNOUNCE CHANGES TO SENIOR LEADERSHIP TEAM TO DELIVER AMBITIOUS GROWTH STRATEGY

2021

The changes follow the recent announcement that Adler and Allan has a new financial partner, Sun European Partners, and is the continuation of a period of growth for the company, which had a strong performance in 2020 despite the global pandemic.

Environmental risk reduction specialist, Adler and Allan, announced in March

More details at: www.adlarandallan.co.uk

changes to its Senior Leadership Team effective 1 March 2021. This supports its

READ MORE

ambitious growth plans as the UK’s leading provider of environmental risk reduction services, covering both emergency response and scheduled maintenance across a wide range of critical asset infrastructure and contaminants.

AMBIPAR RESPONSE ACQUIRES ENVIROCLEAR SITE SERVICES In February Ambipar Response Limited

Henrik Pedersen will become Group

strengthened its integrated environmental

Managing Director, having previously

response and waste management

held the role of Group Commercial

capabilities with their latest acquisition of

Director. He will provide a clear focus on

Enviroclear Site Service Ltd.

commercial growth based upon the depth of the Group’s technical expertise and track record of exceptional service to its customers.

years ago, now operates as a specialist engineering contractor and no longer provides remediation services.   CTSL has had a busy start to the year undertaking fuel and remediation work and has been involved in fuel tank decommissioning in Halifax, two tank installations to provide 130,000 litre capacity for stand by generator plant at a hospital as well as the usual run of spill

Henrik Pedersen

response work across the UK.

Mike Willink will become Group

‘The restructure has helped the group to focus it teams on providing more focussed product delivery and better client management whatever the project. This becomes more important as the projects get larger in scope and value but also ensures that our clients get the best support whatever the job!’ Eve Muirhead, Managing Director. CTSL Spill Specialists Ltd.’s 4 operating depots instead:

Development Director having previously held the role of Group Managing Director. He will manage the integration and success of acquisitions, together with retaining responsibility for group supporting functions. The Group also welcomes a new Group Commercial Director, Mark Bannister. Mark is an experienced Commercial Director having worked at a number of successful companies including RS Electrocomponents and Travis Perkins.

Ambipar Response has earned a worldwide reputation for quality in environmental services and consultancy, with 70 years of experience responding to incidents. Our services include pollution response, accredited training, consultancy and project management, effective solutions, and experienced personnel. Our call centre is open 24/7 which forms a part of our global network for incidents. Ambipar entered the UK market with the acquisition of Braemar response in 2018 and now they have strengthened their representation in this market by this acquisition which adds a strong industrial servces business to its UK business and its

Head Office – Preston, Lancashire

large tanker fleet. These are both resources

Ambipar have lacked in the UK.

Yorkshire – Barnsley; Cambridgeshire – Waterbeach; Scotland – Bathgate.

“The acquisition of Enviroclear is a tremendous step forward for Ambipar in

More details at: www.ctslgroup.uk

the UK. As part of our growth strategy, Enviroclear closes the gaps in our service

READ MORE Mark Bannister

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MEMBERS NEWS MEMBERS NEWS MEMBERS NEWS MEMBERS

handling capability. Bringing our operations together allows us to provide a complete,

ADLER AND ALLAN ANNOUNCE TRIO OF ACQUISITIONS

integrated solution for our members and customers. These are exciting times for us

Adler and Allan, has announced the

all. I am truly delighted to welcome Team

acquisition of three companies into

Enviroclear to the Ambipar Family.” said

the group: electrical specialists AMGS

Zäl Rustom, Ambipar Response CEO.

Electrical, hazardous material specialist Flotech Performance Systems Limited

Enviroclear Site Services offer a total

(Flotech) and industrial sewage

waste management service for all waste

specialist and underground infrastructure

streams. Other services include waste

specialist Oneline Surveys.

recycling, tank cleaning, spill & pollution control, skip hire, effluent recycling, drain

The acquisition announcement follows

cleansing services and CCTV surveys. As

the recent changes to Adler and Allan’s senior leadership team and supports its ambitious growth plans to solve more customer challenges in a broader range of sectors with a joined-up approach to

Mike Willink, Group Development Director,

“With our already extensive capability in hazardous materials, this acquisition helps us to handle an even greater range of substances in a broader set of situations and environments, including those that will become more important in the future, such as hydrogen. By combining this acquisition with our existing environmental services, we are now able to be a much more strategic environmental partner to our customers.” Adler and Allan, said:

capacity and strengthens our waste

its services.

Oneline Surveys provides highly specialised

station, Enviroclear provides environmental solutions 24 hours a day 7 days a week. With ongoing investment in the latest Vacuum Technology, they operate a large fleet of vehicles Bulk Tankers for both hazardous and non-Hazardous materials, Disabs, Super-Sucker’s for powders and heavy sludges and many other specialised vehicles to provide a total waste

management solution.

well as cleaning, handling and uplift of

and specialise in design, installation,

hazardous liquid waste from industrial

commissioning, and maintenance

tanks and sewers.

particularly in the evolving forecourt sector. With an expert team of highly

Oneline has over 30 years combined

accredited electrical engineers, it will

experience in planning, mobilising and

provide outstanding technical support to

successfully completing large scale

Adler and Allan’s customers particularly

surveying and cleaning projects, including

in retail forecourts. This acquisition

tank and siphon cleaning and confined

complements its existing electrical

space entries.

services offering.

“The acquisition allows us to further execute our strategy, helping clients maintain and decarbonise their energy infrastructure and install new electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure, as the world transitions to a mixed energy future. By combining this with our other energy and forecourt services, we are now able to be a much more strategic environmental partner to customers.”

of companies. This acquisition is a key step in their continuing mission to develop sustainable environmental solutions throughout the UK. Having achieved the latest accreditations ISO 45001 occupational health and safety in addition to ISO 9001 Quality Management, ISO 14001 Environmental Management, ISO 18001 Health and

Safety Management and UK Spill

accreditation held you can be assured

that all staff and operatives are trained

become part of The Ambipar Group

Robert Evans, Environmental Services

Andrew Clarke, Energy Infrastructure Director, Adler and Allan, said:

Enviroclear Site Services Ltd have

“This acquisition will allow us to offer a more extensive environmental risk audit of our customers’ underground infrastructure so they can better manage and mitigate risk. It will also position us as the go-to leader in emergency response to sewerage pollution incidents. Combined with our other environmental services, we are now a more strategic environmental partnership to our customers.” Director, Adler and Allan, said:

Adler and Allan is the UK’s leading provider of environmental risk reduction services,

in all related fields to the highest

Flotech provides design, fabrication,

covering both emergency response and

industry standard

consultancy, project management,

scheduled maintenance across a wide

planned and reactive maintenance for

range of critical asset infrastructure and

the storage, transfer and distribution

contaminants.

said David Short Enviroclear Site Services Ltd Managing Director.

More details at: www.ambipar-response. com and www.enviroclear.co.uk

READ MORE 12

surveys of underground infrastructure as

range of electrical services nationwide

an addition to their licensed waste transfer

AMGS Electrical undertake a wide

of industrial liquids, gases and waste. Its highly specialised services cover;

More details at www.adlerandallan.co.uk

additive and blending, fluid transfer, access solutions, storage tank equipment, and vapour recovery.

READ MORE


S NEWS OSRL’S WEST AFRICA SURVEILLANCE PLATFORM (WASP) SUPPORTS THE GABONESE NAVY IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATION OSRL has recently supported the Gabonese Navy in a fantastic collaboration between multiple agencies to save lives at sea. On Sunday 24th January, a mayday Capitaine De Corvette IGOUWE Abdoulaye

a French fishing trawler in distress

Prince (Operations Commander of

approximately 200 nautical miles south

the Gabonese Navy) said “Action Air’s

of Libreville. Shortly after the initial alert,

Cessna aircraft was indispensable in our

communication with the vessel was lost.

intelligence gathering during the assistance

With one of WASP aircraft now based in

mission to the trawler Marie Alexandra on

Libreville, OSRL was in an ideal position

January 24, 2021.

to help. The Gabonese Navy quickly requested deployment of the WASP aircraft by OSRL partner, Action Air Environment, the WASP operator. OSRL and the Gabonese Navy had recently completed an exercise to demonstrate the aircraft’s surveillance capability, so it was evident how the plane could help rescue efforts. Primary mission - complete a search and rescue mission on behalf of the Gabonese Navy.

After a 2h30 flight, the Action Air plane allowed us to enter in visual and radio contact with the vessel in distress, and thus to know more precisely what the situation of the boat was (engine damage, drift). Its contribution guided the command’s decisions in order to carry out this SAR mission successfully.

Action Air Environment quickly contacted the OSRL Duty Manager to request approval for deployment. Permission was swiftly granted and the aircraft soon airborne, racing to the last known coordinates searching for the vessel in distress. The aircraft located the vessel shortly after take-off and made radio contact via the marine band Very High Frequency (VHF) radio. Thankfully the crew were all safe, but the ship had lost power and was floating adrift. The aircrew could relay information from the scene to the Naval Incident Command who organised a vessel to rescue the stricken crew. Crisis averted and lives saved. A fantastic team effort, congratulations to all involved.

- Its availability in real time; - its projection capacity (fast);  - Its multitude of means of communication (HF/VHF/ chat software specific to the aircraft)”  Robert Limb CEO of OSRL said 

The primary role of the two OSRL West Africa Surveillance Platform aircraft operated by Action Air and based in Libreville, Gabon and Lomé, Togo is to support the Oil Spill Preparedness and Response for the subscribing members. We are pleased that these very capable assets were able to assist the Gabonese Navy during the recent SAR incident.

message was sent by the ‘Marie Alexandra’,

Capitaine De Corvette IGOUWE Abdoulaye Prince Its effectiveness was pronounced in:  

More details at: https://www.

oilspillresponse.com/news--media/news/

- Its availability in real time; - its projection capacity (fast);  - Its multitude of means of communication

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(HF/VHF/ chat software specific to the aircraft)” Its effectiveness was pronounced in:  

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LLANGENNECH DERAILMENT AND SUBSEQUENT FUEL SPILLAGE RAIL LINE REOPENS for environmental contaminants, including oil, indicate levels continue to be well within regulatory limits. Incident recovery manager Stuart Thomas, of Natural Resources Wales, has been at the heart of the recovery effort.

Considerable efforts were made to recover the lost diesel. – Adler and Allan

Contaminated soil from 150 metres of railway at a depth of two metres and width of 20 metres has been excavated during the 24/7 operation. The soil has been replaced with new, clean material from quarries in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire that match the chemical and physical properties of that already on site. Contaminated materials have been removed by lorry and taken to a licenced waste management facility near Merthyr Tydfil. Monitoring of the site and the wider environment is ongoing to ensure the safety and quality of shellfish harvested from the area. Latest laboratory results from the analysis of cockles and mussels

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Stuart Thomas said:

This is the most challenging recovery operation we’ve seen since Pembrokeshire’s Sea Empress disaster 25 years ago. A phenomenal amount of work has been carried out at the site to safely remove the contaminated soil and reinstate the ground. Contractors have worked around the clock, and have had to overcome many challenges, including flooding of the site during recent severe weather.

Environmental contractors Adler and Allan have been working around the clock to complete the complex remediation work at the site where a freight train pulling 25 wagons each containing up to 100,000 litres of diesel derailed near Llangennech in Carmarthenshire on 26 August 2020. The derailment and the subsequent damage to the wagons resulted in a significant spillage of diesel and a major fire.

The physical works are now nearing completion with just the Coal Authority land to treat, replanting to take place and of course the reopening of the railway line. Monitoring of the site and surrounding area, which includes four Sites of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation, will continue for years to come. “I’m very pleased to see the latest shellfish monitoring results continue to be well within regulatory limits. Local shellfish producers have been informed.

The ongoing clean-up of the Llangennech freight derailment and diesel spill site has been the most challenging recovery operation since the Sea Empress disaster 25 years ago, according to the Natural Resource Wales, Incident Recovery Manager.

The Sea Empress ran aground in Milford Haven with the loss of 72,000 tons of crude oil in February 1995 – Copyright PA The final part of the remediation is now taking place on Coal Authority land. This work includes the removal of the top layer of ground where contaminated fire water was pumped during the incident in an area of woodland to the north east of the


incident site, as well as deeper excavation work at the incident site itself. Jacobs, acting on behalf of Network Rail have provided design support for the new railway line with work beginning to lay a new track, signalling, power and telecommunication work commencing as planned on 4 January. Work is progressing to plan despite some recent weather related challenges. Bill Kelly, Wales route director at Network Rail, said: “This is one of the largest scale environmental recovery operations

About 580yds (530m) of new track has been fitted and signalling that had been damaged in the fire has been reinstalled. Bill Kelly, Wales route director, told BBC Wales Breakfast it was one of the biggest environmental recovery operations the company had been involved with. The site is riddled with underground coal mines, it runs alongside a river that runs into the main estuary and we had to deal with a harsh winter where the site became flooded,” he said.

“It has taken a tremendous amount of work from all involved and is an example of the strong collaboration between TfW, Network Rail and a wide range of partner agencies.” She added: “While we are pleased to mark this important milestone, passengers are reminded public transport is currently open for essential travel only and a reduced Covid-19 timetable is in place across the network.”

The ongoing investigation into the cause of the freight train derailment is being led by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch.

Network Rail has ever been involved with and it’s thanks to the quick thinking of our frontline railway colleagues, and our partners at Natural Resources Wales, that an environmental disaster was averted.

Martyn Evans, who chairs the recovery co-ordination group at Natural Resources Wales, said there had been far-reaching impacts on the environment, “particularly the shell-fisheries, tourism and industry”.

Over the last two months, around 45,000 tonnes of contaminated soil has been removed from site – a massive operation designed to protect the local environment for future generations.”

He added: “Happily, most of these impacts have now been overcome and activities restored, although our work and support for some of these groups is ongoing.” Alexia Course, of Transport for Wales (TfW), said the reopening was “fantastic news”.

READ MORE

ISSUE 19 ISSUE 19 ISSUE 19

A more detailed article on the incident, drawn from publicly available sources, was published in Spill Alert issue 19 and may be accessed here:

“We are working closely with Transport for Wales and our freight operating partners to get services back up and running. The final stage of our work is now underway, and we’re making great progress installing brand new track and repairing damage to the signalling system.

Adler and Allan completed remediation works at the end of February 2021, with ongoing monitoring and ecological restoration over the next two to five years.

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MV WAKASHIO INCIDENT UPDATE In Spill Alert 19 we had reached the stage when the post spill clean-up was going well and some tourism areas had reopened for swimming and the contract to remove the stern had been let. Three months on quite a lot has happened most of which has been positive! We have had a fascinating Webinar on 24 February with Polyeco’s Mauritius Country Manager, Kostas Chatzatoglou, who took us through the initial clean up, the collection of the oil held behind booms, the disposal of the booms and the absorbents. You can view the webinar through this link:

WATCH WEBINAR HERE It was detailed information and we all learned a lot from the webinar. This update deals with the strategic, operational, socio-political, legal and financial compensation issues surrounding the incident.

STRATEGIC LEVEL

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gathering of 150,000 Mauritians in Port Louis. These protests continued weekly for 2 months. The latest protest was a well-attended “Marche Citoyenne” on 21 February 2021. This was joined by opposition parties all saying much the same “This Government must go!” It has since responded with a reshuffle of ministers with two being sacked. It is still the largest party so holds a majority. However, their weakness has built a coalition of parties against them so with a narrow majority now have to be more accountable than they have been to date. On a more positive note, a Comprehensive Economic Co-operation and Partnership Agreement with India was signed in Port Louis on 22 Feb 21. This gives Mauritius a $100M line of credit and free trade access between nations for certain lines of products.

The political fallout of COVID and the poor response to the MV Wakashio grounding placed a lot of pressure on the Mauritian Government who were then in their first year in government.

On 1 Jan 21 the Mauritius-China bilateral Free Trade Agreement came into effect. This gives Mauritius free trade access to 8547 Chinese products with a complete free trade agreement on all other products evolving over a 5-7 year period.

The Mauritian economy suffered greatly with no tourism as a result of COVID and the fallout from the MV Wakashio incident. There had been increasing dissent amongst the population against the government which started on 29 August 2020 with a

Mauritius and China have also agreed to collaborate in 10 areas, including industrial development to increase competitiveness; to develop manufacturing based on innovation and research; to conduct exchange of specialists; to have an

The Government have been taken aback by the level and frequency of protest marches against them. This has unified the opposition parties which is making governing harder


exchange of researchers for disseminating know how and for support in technology and innovation and to cooperate in the financial sector. It is felt that Mauritius may be used as a clearing and settlement facility for Chinese investments in West Africa. These lift the gloom and maybe shine some light at the end of the economic tunnel. There is also tension in the Mauritius–UK relationship as the UK has reasserted its right to sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago despite the UN and the International Court of Justice voting in Mauritius’ favour. This tension will continue as the US are likely to support the UK position due to the strategic location of the archipelago. This will limit the support the UK government will give to Mauritius in the future.

OPERATIONAL LEVEL Polyeco have been established in Mauritius since 2017 and were present from the grounding of the MV Wakashio and were appointed for the shoreline clean up, with le Floch Pollution and to manage all waste management. In Mauritius the Minister of Environment is responsible for the impact but the Minister of Shipping is responsible for the grounding and the wreck. Polyeco were working for both. Over 250 locals were appointed by Polyeco to assist in the clean up. They were local fishermen, divers and skippers drawn from a list of registered fishermen affected by the oil spill provided by the Fisheries Authority. Boats and Truck were subcontracted. Training was provided and the teams were organised to ensure work was properly supervised. Polyeco used its own staff as well as staff provided by Polyeco Group from their operations worldwide. Not surprisingly, there was a lot of waste comprising the following waste streams:

The local community manufactured nearly 55km of home-made booms comprising redundant vegetation from sugar cane and other crops, plastic bottles and drums for floatation, hair and an outer material; plastic sheeting, cotton, polypropylene. They may have been hard to recover but held spilled oil at sea which enabled it to be recovered BEFORE it got to shore.

This continues to employ the following resource: 2 hazardous waste experts 4 waste management supervisors 6 foremen and 55 staff The artisanal booms were difficult to manage as once wet they were heavy to handle and manage. The vegetation, which absorbed the lost oil meant that as they dried there was, in some cases, spontaneous combustion. This necessitated a fire watch to supervise them whilst they were drying and then the contents of them had to be separated and repackaged for disposal. The last visible evidence of the spill is the stern section. A contract was let in November to a Chinese company, Lianyungang Dali Underwater Engineering to remove it. Their staff deployed to the island in December and a huge crane was built and deployed to the wreck site in mid February.

WASTE FROM THE MV WAKSAHIO SPILL AS AT 24 FEBRUARY Types of Waste

How it is now packaged

Destination

Oily Sludge Contaminated Absorbents Empty Containers and IBCs Contaminated soils and sand Other contaminated materials (booms, PPE, plastics, debris, vegetation, plastic bottles, hair used in the bagasse booms) Hazardous materials

2714 tonnes of waste. 4045 big bags of waste. 241 IBCs containing waste. 5108 sealed 205 litre drums of waste.

By sea to Polyeco Greece

Booms Used

Meters

Conventional oil spill booms from stockpile

3500

Bagasse booms made by local volunteer population with NGO support

56,600

Whilst there is unlikely to be a large volume of fuel and oil on the vessel there is likely to some release of product so the wreck area has been boomed as well as the Blue Bay Marine Park and some other local RAMSAR sites. Polyeco have staff attending on a 24/7 basis to ensure that should there be a product release it is

captured as close to it source as possible using skimmers. Weather permitting, it is hoped that the wreck will be removed by the end of March. As the wreck moves on the reef it grinds away the coral leaving a plume of dust to float downwind of the wreck limiting light which is necessary for the reef to recover. Polyeco are still working in the RAMSAR sites and in the mangroves and this work will continue for a few more months until the Government’s marine scientists are happy to sign off this work as complete.

Home made boom deployment As we heard in the webinar the waste disposal effort continues with the waste due to be shipped to Polyeco in Greece in April for processing, recycling where possible and disposal.

THE SOCIO-POLITICAL AND LEGAL LEVEL From late August 20 there were weekly protects in Mauritius and some abroad protests The people united to protect their nation against the oil spill and as we have seen built over 50km of bagasse booms to ‘defend their nation’. It was a considerable social effort. Local people felt let down by the government on handling of COVID, MV Wakashio, the economy and its lack of

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effective leadership with the country facing tough times. The sense of ‘outrage’ expressed against the government manifest itself in its failings in the MV Wakashio spill and its lack of leadership in responding to the spill, leadership through it and support to those affected. Its international reputation has been affected by this. It is only now recovering some of it external relationships as described above.

Japan P&I could cover up to as much as $1 billion, because it can count on support from more than a dozen other shipowner insurance unions around the world, according to Koshiro Emura, an analyst at S&P Global Ratings. Work to remove the stern section has started and is due to finish late March The Court of Investigation continues and bail has again been refused.

There is likely to be a clearer picture of costs once the stern has been removed and the waste disposed of. Liability will be settled once the court case concludes.

The stern section of the MV Wakashio is the last evidence of the incident The Captain and First Officer were charged with “unlawful interference with the operation of a property of a ship likely to endanger its safe navigation,” bail was refused pending a court case. They lost a second application for bail on 20 Oct, after which Acting Senior District Magistrate Neeshal K. Jugnauth said in Port Louis:

Given that the applicant may be charged with a serious offense and if found guilty a severe penalty may be imposed on him by the trial court, I am of the view that the risk to interfere with witnesses and the risk of absconding are real and plausible

At a court hearing on 22 Feb 21 Captain Sunil Kumar Nandeshwar appeared for the third and final time before the Court of Investigation set up to investigate the accident, where the 59-year-old Indian national again testified that he decided to manoeuvre the ship close to land to pick up cell phone signal as a gesture to the ship’s crew, who were working beyond the initial scope of their employment agreements. However, according to the captain, fault lies with the first officer. However the Chief Officer said that the Captain was on the bridge at the time of the grounding using his phone. It was also reported that ballast pumps were not working so inhibited the opportunity to move ballast that may have assisted in re-floating the vessel.

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The sandy area is the reef breaking up through the grinding of the hull on it. This plume inhibits light getting to the aquatic life on the reef that keeps it alive

FINANCIAL COMPENSATION

OTHER MV WAKASHIO EVENTS

Japan’s Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd said on Friday 11 Sept, it would spend about 1 billion yen ($9.42 million) on measures to help Mauritius, including the clean-up of the island’s mangrove forests and contribution to an environmental recovery fund. A small part of this has funded this container to help with a Plastic Pollution project which was launched in February 2021:

We will be holding the following webinars so look for information on linked in, twitter and on www.ukeirespill.org/www.ukspill. org

April TBC MV Wakashio Part 4 – Review of progress, the Remediation following the spill and cleaning the sensitive areas incl the mangrives Mark Orr – UKEIRESpill Nikos Vlachos - Polyeco

May TBC According to Toda Law Office in Tokyo, Mauritius has ratified the 1976 version, which limits payments to 2 billion yen ($18.7 million) while Japan has signed the 1996 document which has an upper limit of 7 billion yen. In addition the Wakashio was insured by Japan P&I Club, a spokesman for Japan P&I said it was “trying to make internal estimates” for how much the clean-up would cost.

MV Wakashio Part 5 – The environmental impact of the spill Mark Orr – UKEIRESpill CEFAS

June TBC MV Wakashio Part 6 – Lesson to be learned from the incident TBC


SPONSORED BY OAMPS HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES

This is our first Inland Event of the year and will be virtual being run on Zoom. The programme is shorter than that originally released to ensure that the key talks are held but we do not all end up with screen fatigue at the end of the day!

The programme is as follows: 1000 – 1015

Welcome to Inland Spill Live – Lee Barber Chair of UK and Ireland Spill Association (UKEireSpill) and Stewart Ower, Chair of International Spill Accreditation Scheme (ISAS)

1015 – 1045

CIRIA 736 – explanation of progress of this and other regulatory updates and why this is an opportunity and not a threat – Shirley Miles

1045 – 1115

LCRM – reason for and explanation of Land Contamination Risk Management Guidance and feedback on how it’s going - Environment Agency Groundwater Protection Team

1115-1130

Break

1130 – 1215

Dr John Burton PhD BSc - Spill Response to Biofuels

1215 – 1245

ISAS update, new accreditation strategy – Stewart Ower, Chair of ISAS Ltd

1245 – 1400

Lunch Break

1400 – 1445

The decision tree for land contamination – dig and dump or in-situ remediation Dr Mark McKinney

1450 – 1540

A complicated multi environment spill – Holyhead Marina – Adler and Allan

1545 - 1600

Closing address and thanks

There is NO CHARGE for this event. Please register for it on Eventbrite following the link:

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/inland-spill-tickets-141807290423?aff=ebdssbonlinesearch - OR CLICK HERE 19


INLAND OIL SPILL CASE STUDY

COMPLEX STRUCTURAL REMEDIATION AFTER A KEROSENE SPILL Introduction Dealing with inland spill incidents is often not as straightforward as you might think, with input required from numerous parties to ensure the safe completion of remediation works in compliance with a wide range of legislation. This case study highlights how complex inland spill incidents can be, and how when dealing with these types of incidents, you need to ensure you seek expert advice. Oracle Environmental Experts Ltd were appointed to remediate a devastating heating oil (kerosene) spill that occurred in a 16th Century Grade II Listed property set in the West Sussex countryside. Internal kerosene impact was identified in the kitchen and hallway at the property requiring extensive excavation works. Additionally, the kerosene had migrated vertically and impacted two stone walls of the cellar located below the kitchen and dining room. A combination of detailed intrusive investigations, deep excavations and highly complex structural replacement were undertaken over the course of 4 months to restore residential amenity to the property.

odour. Based on delivery and consumption records, it was estimated that over 1000 litres of kerosene had been lost as a result of the spill incident.

Initial Visit and Emergency Mitigation Oracle Environmental Experts initially attended the property to assess the extent of kerosene impact and to install an air mover to reduce the elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations within the dwelling. The VOCs recorded in the ambient air of the property reached a maximum concentration of 51 parts per million (ppm) in the cellar prior to installation of an air mover. Lime plaster on the stained wall was removed to reveal a concrete block construction. It was evident from the VOCs released from the wall that it was saturated with kerosene, and the wall was subsequently covered and sealed with membrane to contain the vapours. Following OEE’s initial visit, it was clear that further intrusive investigation was required to delineate the extent of kerosene impact to the soils below the property and to the structures within the property.

Incident Summary At the start of the summer in 2019, the homeowner noticed strong oil odours in her property, particularly within the kitchen. After contacting her local OFTEC registered engineer, an oil leak was discovered from a failure on the oil feed line where it entered the Aga in the kitchen. The homeowner then noticed that a large ‘damp’ stain had appeared on a wall in the hallway which emitted a strong oil

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Investigation 5 no. trial pits were progressed through the floor of the kitchen to establish the extent of kerosene impact and the nature of soils below. The first trial pit (TP-1) was progressed at the spill origin in the kitchen adjacent to the Aga. A corehole was initially progressed through a 0.1 m thick concrete floor slab and was screened


that several challenges would be faced in order to complete the necessary remedial works safely. Factors including the requirement to undertake deep excavations in a property with minimal foundations and the removal of retaining structures, meant that the works would not be possible without detailed input from an experienced structural engineer. OEE appointed a structural engineer to provide a detailed method statement specifying every step required to facilitate the scope of remedial works. OEE subsequently commenced remediation works at the property at the start of June 2020.

for VOCs and revealed a concentration of 1104 ppm. The concrete slab was underlain by a 0.05 m layer of screed, sand and brick fragments which returned a VOC concentration of 1419 ppm. The soils were then hand dug to 0.25 m below floor level (bfl) where a clay soil was encountered allowing a soil bore to be progressed through the base. At over 1 m bfl the soils were still found to be heavily contaminated with 1253 ppm recorded at this depth. A soil sample was recovered from a maximum depth of 2.5 m bfl where the VOCs were found to decrease to 444 ppm (Table 1). A further 4 trial pits were progressed through the floor of the hallway. Much of the floor cover comprised of parquet flooring which when lifted, revealed a black adhesive layer that had been degraded by the kerosene. The cellar located below the kitchen and the dining room of the property was found to be constructed of four solid stone walls and a natural flagstone floor. Laterally drilled probeholes were progressed into the walls directly below the spill origin. A maximum VOC concentration of 472 ppm was recorded from a probehole through the stonework. From the extent of impact observed, it was evident that two of the stone walls in the cellar would need to be removed and replaced in their entirety.

authority building control department were consulted and appropriate building notices placed to enable the works to proceed. Prior to intrusive works commencing, a surveyor was commissioned to provide a schedule of condition of the property. Owing to the extensive nature of the works required, the homeowner moved into temporary alternative accommodation the duration of the works. The contents of the building were removed entirely including all furniture and personal belongings which were placed into temporary storage. All units and worktops in the kitchen and utility room were stripped out and disposed of. The Aga was removed from the kitchen and the boiler removed from the cellar by an OFTEC registered engineer. This also included the removal of all associated pipework which was clipped to the cellar walls. Water pipes and electric cables were isolated where appropriate. The stained concrete block dividing wall between the kitchen and hallway was broken out over an approximate 2 m length and was removed from site for disposal. The wall was found to be non-load bearing but with no below ground blockwork supporting it.

Site Preparation Owing to the Grade II listed status of the property, listed building consent was required to complete the remediation works. On 15 January 2020 listed building consent was granted to allow the remediation works to be undertaken. Given the extensive internal remediation works required and the age of the property, there was potential for asbestos to be present and a refurbishment survey was commissioned which identified the presence of asbestos containing materials in the work area. These were removed by a licensed contractor prior to any remediation works commencing. The local

Remediation Works After establishing the extent of kerosene contamination at the property, it was clear

To carry out the deep excavations required, a wall in the hallway was underpinned with a mass concrete pad footing installed to support the wall. A series of acrow props were laced together and laterally braced under a timber beam in the kitchen. Steel beams were then laced together to allow the soils in the kitchen and hall to be excavated safely. The concrete floor slab in the kitchen was broken out over an approximate 13 m2 area and the soils below were excavated to a maximum depth of 2.6 m bfl. The floor slab was broken out in the hallway over an approximate 6.26 m2 area and soils below were excavated to a depth of up to 1.4 m bfl. With the kitchen excavation at 1.35 m bfl, temporary works were constructed to support the cellar walls. This included 2 no. concrete pads installed into the kitchen and the cellar to allow 2 no. steel beams to be slotted through the cellar wall. The flagstones upon the cellar floor and clay drainage gullies were lifted and set aside for later reinstatement. The soils below were excavated over an approximate 3.52 m2 area to a depth of 0.5 bfl. An approximate 2.2 m length of the stone cellar wall was broken out and replaced with new stone. Select stones considered suitable were individually broken on site to create a like for like appearance with the existing stonework. The method provided by the structural engineer included the construction of concrete block piers to support the cellar walls. A second stone wall was also removed over an approximate 1.5 m length. An approximate 0.5 m length of the oak sole plate exposed on top of the cellar wall located below the spill origin, was found to be impacted with kerosene and was subsequently replaced with clean oak by a skilled carpenter. All excavations were backfilled with clean MOT Type 1 compacted in appropriate layers to minimize settlement. A hydrocarbon gas barrier membrane was installed across the excavations in the kitchen and hallway. A new concrete slab was cast in the kitchen and hallway. A new chimney surround for the Aga in the kitchen was rebuilt with clean bricks to

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TEMPORARY WORKS TO BE CHECKED A MIN. TWICE DAILY TO ENSURE TIGHT AND ROBUSTLY CONNECTED.

200x75 PFC BOLTED TO LACE BEAMS. BOLTED WITH M16 (8.8) BOLTS. PACK TO MASONRY AND FIX @ 400 C/C WITH M12 S/S STUDDING FIXED WITH EPOXY RESIN

INSTALL UNDERPINNING JACKS BETWEEN UPPER TEMP BEAMS AND LOWER TEMP. BEAMS, ENSURE PINCHED TIGHT. 200x75 PFC BOLTED TO LACE BEAMS. BOLTED WITH M16 (8.8) BOLTS

PACK JOISTS ONTO BEAMS 200x75 PFC BOLTED TO LACE BEAMS. BOLTED WITH M16 (8.8) BOLTS

BEAMS INSERTED INTO FORMED SLOTS, AND RUN THROUGH BASEMENT WALL

203x203x46 UC

MIN. 50mm CLEARANCE TO ALLOW BEAM DEFLECTION WHEN LOAD TRANSFERRED 120x120x10 SHS KNEE BRACE

120x120x10 SHS

PACK MASONRY ONTO BEAM TO DEFLECT / LOAD BEAM

B-B 1:25 m a r k

match the existing specification. Through the remediation works, a total of 55 tonnes of kerosene contaminated soils and structures were removed from within the property for off-site disposal at a suitably licensed facility. The remedial works were completed by mid October 2020.

Reinstatement and Verification On completion of the remediation works, the site was handed over to the homeowner’s building contractor to complete final reinstatement works inside the property. This included a new kitchen and new carpets where required. All furnishings were replaced, and the property was redecorated in its entirety. The insured subsequently moved back into the property in February 2021.

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l o v e l l

d e s i g n

e n g i n e e r s

A total of 10 no. verification soil samples were scheduled for independent laboratory analysis which returned TPH concentrations from <10mg/kg to 96 mg/ kg. The concentrations of the contaminants of concern in soils were compared to Generic Assessment Criteria to assess the potential risk to health from residual soil contamination. None of the concentrations of the contaminants of concern in soils exceeded the relevant assessment criteria. Ambient air samples were collected from the kitchen, dining room, upstairs landing and bedroom and were assessed against relevant air quality values. None of the concentrations of the contaminants of concern were reported at concentrations in excess of relevant air quality values. On completion of works a qualitative risk assessment confirmed that all of the originally identified risks had been reduced to an acceptable level. Ultimately the investigation and remediation of the site was completed for approximately £140,000 plus VAT, but this figure excludes final reinstatement costs and any alternative accommodation costs.

Key points to remember Always complete a sufficiently detailed investigation to establish the full extent of kerosene impact to soils and building structures

Ensure you have the appropriate listed buildings consents and permissions required for working on listed buildings Ensure you commission a condition survey of the building prior to intrusive works commencing Ensure you have the appropriate local authority building control notices and approvals Ensure any asbestos is identified at an early stage and removed by appropriately licensed contractors Seek advice from an appropriately qualified structural engineer where expert advice is required on removal and replacement of structures Ensure appropriate verification through the collection of sufficient laboratory analysed samples

Author: Becky Wadley – Environmental Consultant – Oracle Environmental Experts Ltd Correspondence email: bwadley@oracleenvironmental.com Website: www.oracle-environmental.com

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CASE STUDY

MARINE EMERGENCY RESPONSE HOLYHEAD MARINA THE CHALLENGE When Storm Emma crashed into the Welsh coastline in March 2018, Holyhead Marina suffered unprecedented devastation. The community looked to Adler and Allan to oversee a far-reaching incident response, clean up, containment and recovery operation to protect and restore Anglesey’s fragile marine environment – and vital maritime-based economy. Following days of hurricane force winds, more than 3,000 litres of fuel from 80 stricken or sunken vessels clogged the

marina. Nearby waters and beaches were littered with wreckage, refuse, and over 30 tonnes of polystyrene debris from damaged pontoons. Continuing storms threatened to circulate the pollutants over a wider area and further endanger coastal residents and wildlife. The Adler and Allan team faced an urgent, complex and hazardous challenge to stem the spread of two major contaminants – amid some of the most testing weather conditions our country has ever experienced. Copyright Yachting Monthly

vacuum tanker, dedicated marine lighting, and high-capacity booms provided additional reinforcements, helping to efficiently capture pollutants close to their source, both under and over the water.

Aerial view of the extent of the damage, the marina destroyed and the boats within it driven onto the shore, barely afloat or sunk

Our response Within hours of the first alert call from a Wind Farm Support Vessel Company, Adler and Allan’s Marine Response team were actively uplifting fuel and oil from incapacitated boats. Initial containment efforts quickly evolved into a wide-scale, round-the-clock recovery operation following additional support requests from Holyhead Marina and Stena Line Group, a long-standing Adler and Allan client.

With a Tier 2 oil spill emergency now declared, the team tapped into Adler and Allan’s nationwide fleet of specialist leading-edge equipment. Two marine Rapid Response Vehicles (RRVs), carrying hundreds of metres of oil absorbent and fence booms, were deployed to work alongside the Tier 1 trailer located permanently on site as part of our existing Stena Line contract. An Ali workboat high-suction DISAB

The co-ordinated land clean-up procedure also ranged from the hi-tech to the handson, with field teams washing individual pieces of seaweed by hand and using rakes, shovels and modified leaf blowers to clear polystyrene and other debris from affected shorelines at a rate of 60m3 per day.

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THE OUTCOME Despite a second severe storm, the three-month recovery project delivered measurable results within the immediate containment area and the wider Anglesey community. Our swift, targeted response reduced costs and downtime for Stena Line and Holyhead harbour, while returning the

Andy Billington, Group Operations

environment to a better condition than

Manager, Adler and Allan

before the crisis. In total, the operation A really good view of the extent of damage

recovered:

the storm caused is on this drone video

3,000 litres of oil and fuel

link below: https://youtu.be/Lm9w0dllYfM

1,000m3 of polystyrene from the sea and surrounding beaches

and from this link https://youtu.be/1m-UD7y2j7k

28 vessels from the shore and seabed Adler and Allan dedicated 13,000 working hours to the Holyhead project, following

THE ADLER AND ALLAN DIFFERENCE

up their focused relief effort with forwardlooking guidance to tackle future incidents.

Adler and Allan is recognised by the

A comprehensive drone survey and full

International Spill Accreditation Scheme

debrief exercise identified recurring themes

(ISAS) as an accredited Tier 2 Oil Spill

and areas for improvement, as well as key

Response Organisation (OSRO) for

milestones and successes.

sheltered / enclosed waters, coastal & large estuary and shoreline clean-

In turn, a series of recommendations –

up demonstrating our preparedness

across co-ordination, insurance, planning,

to respond to marine spill events with

pollution control and waste management

multiple deployments.

– were communicated to all stakeholders

Our breadth of expertise, nationwide

and the programme was later studied by

presence and fleet of specialist equipment

the United Nations as a blueprint for best

– from rapid responder vehicles to a fully

practice.

fitted boat – allows us to mobilise at a

moment’s notice to minimise environmental

COMMENTS

damage, economic impact, and corporate

From day one, agencies have been working tirelessly on the cleanup operation and I want to thank them for their hard work and efforts.

500+ dedicated professionals Uniquely validated pollution services to 50+ ports, harbours and oil terminals

Lesley Griffiths, Welsh Government

Experienced on-scene experts, all

minister and Cabinet Secretary for Energy,

fully trained and qualified in every

Planning and Rural Affairs

pollution response discipline

The Holyhead operation was a textbook emergency response to a potentially disastrous marine fuel spill. Our Marine Response teams are in a state of permanent readiness so they can react immediately to this sort of situation. It was a great relief to get the fuel out before it was too late.

24

liability claims.

As the UK’s leading marine spill contractual responder, we’re trusted by more than 250 organisations to safeguard life and livelihoods in pollution emergencies on any scale, anywhere in the country.


VIKOMA UPGRADES ITS VIKOSEAL AND PIER SEALING SYSTEMS

VikoSeal pier sealing systems provide an efficient solution for primary containment of oil spills on open piers. Legged piers can provide a challenge when it comes to oil containment of spills during bunkering and transfer operations. In the system installed in the picture above, a neoprene sentinel boom is combined with an integrated VikoSeal together with a slider system to accommodate the rise and fall of the tide.

solution as an alternative to surrounding vessels with oil containment boom. VikoSeal can also be used as a standalone solution without pier sealing in ship to ship or ship to shore transfer operations. VikoSeal has just been upgraded and is now expandable with interchangeable mid sections for the perfect fit, giving the user greater flexibility and availability on short lead times. More details from www.vikoma.com

The flexibility and strength of neoprene works perfectly and provides a long term

OPEC WORKING WITH BALFOUR BEATTY It turned out that they required something to cope with 80 tonnes of oil. We decided it was necessary to make something more substantial as it would not cope with a big spill. OPEC were approached by Balfour Beatty earlier this year to supply a bund for a ‘temporary installation’ of a transformer for National Grid at Magnox, Wales.  

Commissioning the bund water control unit

The complete mega bund installation

We designed this with a ribbed steel structure to help reduce deflection as well as sloping it outwards to encourage any force against it to be pushed down to the ground not out to the side. It would actually make a good flood barrier.  

Step access into the bund

We welded the membrane on site and erected the steel in a modular format. Finally, we installed two bund water control units (one either side). More details from: www.opec.co.uk

25


GUIDANCE ON SPILL RESPONSE TO BIOFUELS A detailed analysis and response guidance was released as a Technical Bulletin to all ISAS Accredited Contractors in January 2021- this is an abridged version – for the full version, and other Technical Bulletin join ISAS – info@isasaccreditation.org

sustainable renewable source is 5% in petrol and 7% in diesel. This will increase to 10% ethanol in petrol from September 2021. There is no doubt that further increases will follow. The Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation Order (RTFO) compel owners of transport fuel who supply at least 450,000 litres a year or more, to make sure the mix is at least 12.4% biofuel by 2032. This has an environmental benefit, in 2018 the use of biofuels saved 3,727 kilotonnes of CO2, the equivalent of 1.5 million average car emissions per year.

Introduction International Spill Accreditation Scheme (ISAS) were asked by the Environment Agency to provide guidance on the appropriate spill response to biofuels. A biofuel is a fuel that is produced from biomass (e.g. vegetable oil, animal oil/ fats, waste cooking oil) rather than fossil fuels. Biofuels offer a more sustainable energy source than petrol or diesel and they can produce significantly lower emissions and toxins than fossil fuels, however, these environmental benefits will depend on how the biofuels are produced and used. Biofuels can be used in their pure form but are commonly blended with existing products such as petrol and diesel, in order to reduce emissions. Biofuels are increasing in usage across a range of sectors from bulk transport to commercial and home heating and mobile power generation, and their use will further increase as we strive towards a net zero carbon world. In the UK transport sector currently the percentage of biofuel derived from a

26

With respect to liquid fuel heating, OFTEC have completed research on the use of biofuels, and the research revealed that biofuels, both 100% pure biofuel and a 30% blend of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) and kerosene, provided the best carbon reducing routes for the least financial outlay. OFTEC state that renewable liquid fuels manufactured from waste material could provide a ‘drop-in’ replacement for heating oil and that these fuels can quickly be brought to market and have the potential to virtually remove emissions from the UK’s 1.5 million and RoI’s 686,000 oil-heated homes. It is clear that the use of biofuels is going to increase dramatically in the coming years and owing to the


What are Biofuels?

The table below compares various biofuels with their fossil fuel counterparts.

Fuel

Fossil Fuel

Differences

Ethenol

Gasoline/Ethane

Ethanol has about half the energy per mass of gasoline, which means it takes twice as much ethanol to get the same energy. Ethanol burns cleaner than gasoline, however, producing less carbon monoxide. However, ethanol produces more ozone than gasoline and contributes substantially to smog. Engines must be

Biodiesel

Diesel

Has only slightly less energy than regular diesel. It is more corrosive to engine parts than standard diesel, which means engines have to be designed to take biodiesel. It burns cleaner than diesel, producing less particulate and fewer sulfur compounds.

hydrocarbons and is principally comprised of aliphatic C12-C21 hydrocarbons. HVO is a potential replacement for kerosene in domestic heating installations and owing to its reduced aromatic content it has the potential to pose a much lower risk to health, building structures and services and the environment following a spill incident. Soon to arrive are third generation biofuels which are algae-based fuels and no doubt many others in the necessary drive to

Methanol

Methane

Methanol has about one third to one half as much energy as methane. Methanol is a liquid and easy to transport whereas methane is a gas that must be compressed for transportation.

reduce harmful emissions. Previously, algae derived biofuels were grouped with second generation biofuels. However, it became apparent that algae are capable of much

Biobutanol

Gasoline/Butane

Biobutanol has slightly less energy than gasoline, but can run in any car that uses gasoline without the need for modification to engine components.

higher yields with lower resource inputs than other feedstock, and many suggested that they be moved to their own category.

Source: http://biofuel.org.uk/

differing chemistry of the pure and blended biofuels, once released to the environment, they behave differently to fossil fuel derived products and therefore present a challenge to spill responders. Biofuels are often broken into three categories, 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation biofuels.

jatropha and miscanthus. This generation of biofuel ensures that its production is not prioritised before food production in a world that is already short of food.

Second generation biofuels fall into various categories: Paraffinic diesel produced from coal,

UK GHG emission savings from the use of renewable fuels 2018 ENC0503

First generation biofuels are produced directly from food crops and include, for example, ethanol and FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters). Ethanol is derived from plant-based material, like palm oil, oilseed rape, sugar cane, cereals and reprocessed vegetable oil. FAME is produced from vegetable oils, animal fats or waste cooking oils by transesterification. In the process a glyceride reacts with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, forming a mixture of fatty acid esters and an alcohol. Using triglycerides results in the production of glycerol. Rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, palm oils and animal fat are the most common raw materials being used for the production of biodiesel. Whilst ethanol and FAME are now in general use, a

grown for this production like grasses,

second generation

of biofuels is being introduced that are promoted as being cleaner, more stable in storage and can be mixed with the host fuels at higher % than currently used and deliver improved emission savings. These second generation biofuels are produced more sustainably using materials consisting of the non-food parts of current crops, such as stems, leaves, husks that are left behind once a food crop has been extracted as well as other non-food crops

natural gas or biomass - Shell GTL is a such a fuel. It is similar to fossil diesel regarding energy content, density, viscosity and flash point; however, it is characterized by higher cetane number and near zero sulphur and aromatic content. CO, HC, NOx, and smoke emissions from an unmodified diesel engine operating on DME (Dimethylether) type diesel were lower when compared with those of conventional diesel. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) is a paraffinic bio-based liquid fuel originating from many kinds of vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, and palm oil, as well as animal fats. However alternative non-food oils such as jatropha as well as waste cooking oils are being preferred in production. It can be used in conventional diesel engines, pure or blended with standard diesel. This technology is a modern way to produce high-quality biobased diesel fuels without compromising fuel logistics, engines, or exhaust aftertreatment devices and storage stability is high as water solubility is low though not unlimited. Recent analysis of an HVO product completed by UK & Ire Spill Members confirms it has a very low aromatic content with negligible concentrations of mono-aromatic and polyaromatic

Biofuel releases to the environment The biodegradation potential of a compound is affected by several factors, including the concentration, complexity of the chemical structure, the presence of suitable electron acceptors, and bioavailability (ITRC, 2011). Most hydrocarbons in conventional fuels are characterized by branching, saturation, and high hydrophobicity and these can all negatively affect biodegradation rates. In contrast, biofuels, such as FAMEs, ethanol, and butanol, have simple structures and are readily biodegradable under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Therefore, dilute concentrations of biofuels in groundwater exhibit smaller plumes with shorter longevity than plumes associated with conventional fuel components. However, spills of blended biofuels will present a challenge owing to the mixture of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components. The release of a readily degradable biofuel to soil or water results in the rapid consumption of oxygen in the receiving media. This can be particularly detrimental in surface waters where low oxygen levels can adversely affect biological communities. The impact of a highly biodegradable fuel on surface waters or groundwater is strongly dependent on the ability of the receiving water to dilute the load. In spills where a highly soluble and highly biodegradable biofuel reaches groundwater, rapid biodegradation induces anaerobic conditions. Near source zones, added oxygen demand can reduce biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in saturated and unsaturated environments, which can potentially allow petroleum vapours to migrate further, both

27


Examples of some of the different types of biofuels Fuel

Feedstock

Energy Density

Greenhouse Gas

(megajoules/kilogram)

CO2 (kg/kg)

Notes

First Generation Bioalcohol

By Type

By Type

30

1.91

Propanol

34

N/A

Butanol

36.6

2.37

Ethanol

Starches from wheat, corn, sugar cane, molasses, potatoes, other fruits

/

Biodiesel

Oils and fats including animal fats, vegetable oils, nut oils, hemp

37.8

2.85

/

Green Diesel

Made from hydrocracking oil and fat feedstock

48.1

3.4

Chemically identical to fossil fuel diesel

Vegetable Oil

Unmodified or slightly modified

By Type

By Type

/

Castor Oil

39.5

2.7

Olive Oil

39

2.8

Fat

32

N/A

Sunflower Oil

40

2.8

Bioethers

Dehydration of alcohols

N/A

N/A

These are additives to other fuels that increase performance and decrease emissions, particularly ozone

Biogas

Methane made from waste crop material through anaerobic digestion or bacteria

55

2.74 (does not take into account the direct effect of methane, which is 23X more effective as a GHG than CO2

Same properties as methane from fossil fuels

Solid Biofuels

Everything from wood and sawdust to garbage, agricultural waste, manure

By Type

By Type

16-21

1.9

This category includes a very wide variety of materials. Manure has low CO2 emissions, but high nitrate emissions.

Dried Plants

10-16

1.8

Bagasses

10

1.3

Manure

10-15

N/A

Seeds

15

N/A

Wood

Second Generation Cellulosic ethanol

Usually made from wood, grass, or inedible parts of plants

Biohydrogen

Made from algae breaking down water.

Hydrogen compressed to 700 times atmospheric pressure has energy density of

Does not have any greenhouse effect.

Used in place of the hydrogen produced from fossil fuels

1.37

More toxic and less energy dense than ethanol

123 Methanol

Inedible plant matter

19.7

Dimethylfuran

Made from fructose found in fruits and some vegetables

33.7

Fischer-Tropsch Biodiesel

Waste from paper and pulp manufacturing

37.8

Energy density close to that of gasoline. Toxic to respiratory tract and nervous system

2.85

Process is just an elaborate chemical reaction that makes hydrocarbon from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

See specific fuels above

More expensive, but may yield 10100X more fuel per unit area than other biofuels

Third Generation Algae - based biofuels

Multiple different fuels made from algae

Can be used to produce any of the fuels above, as well as jet fuel

Source: Adapted from http://biofuel.org.uk/ 28


horizontally and vertically.

relatively small quantities of hydrocarbons.

entire water column or that, in the case of

For higher hydrocarbon fractions (e.g.

relatively insoluble biofuel such as

Where biofuels are rapidly metabolized by

>50%), LNAPL and/or sheens are expected

biodiesel, can coat shorelines and

aerobic and anaerobic organisms, ethanol

to result from the turbulent mixing of the

vegetation. In general, alcohols may impact

releases to shallow groundwater are

ethanol fuel and surface waters, as long as

larger volumes of surface water than

likely to produce dark-coloured microbial

the amount of water exceeds the amount

equivalent petroleum releases due to their

slimes near the water table. These slimes

that can be held within the fuel. Since

higher solubilities and the inability

have been noted in soil cores following

butanol has a vapour pressure of 7 mm Hg

to capture separate-phase product.

Denatured Fuel Ethanol (DFE) spills and

and is highly volatile, loss by vaporization

may encapsulate high concentrations of

from the LNAPL phase is significant. In

Biodegradation is an important

ethanol in the capillary fringe, preserving

addition, because the vapour density of

fate process for biofuels in aquatic

them for several years. The presence

butanol is 2.6, the vapours are heavier than

environments. Compared to aquifers,

of biomass indicates a high density of

air and can accumulate in low-lying areas.

surface water environments have a

organisms growing in the source zone,

Because the explosive range for butanol in

greater capacity to rapidly decrease

likely leading to reduced transport of

air is 1.4%–11.2% (as compared to 5%–15%

concentrations of dissolved organic

ethanol and degradation products in

for ethanol), vaporization from surface

compounds through biodegradation and

groundwater.

spills could quickly result in conditions

dilution. Sudden large biofuel releases can

favourable for combustion.

result in surface water zones with large

At very high concentrations (30%–70%,

BOD loadings, resulting in enhanced and

depending on the biofuel), highly water-

Unlike ethanol and butanol based biofuels,

rapid bacterial growth. The increased

soluble biofuels

spills of biodiesel blends typically behave

biological activity is due in part

with solvent properties (e.g. ethanol)

similarly to standard diesel at first (i.e. they

from exposure to sunlight, wind, and

can dissolve other separate-phase

remain on the surface and spread very

atmospheric oxygen. DO drives microbial

hydrocarbons that may already be present

quickly to a thin film). However, biodiesels

processes, resulting in rapid biological

in the ground and mobilize these dissolved

contain mild surfactants, and blends will

transformation. The rate of DO depletion

components as a migrating bulk phase. For

naturally ultimately disperse much more

depends on the rates of biodegradation

example, for ethanol-water hydrocarbon

than standard diesels. The rate of natural

and volatilization. For example, the half-life

mixtures >70% ethanol, the mixture exists

dispersion can increase droplet formation

due to volatilization of butanol in streams

as a single phase with properties very

and slow the rate of droplet resurfacing,

(2.4 hours) and lakes (125 days) may

similar to neat ethanol. Therefore, for

and when released to water they form

result in DO depletion as great or greater

a spill of considerable ethanol volume

than that following an ethanol release of

that encounters residual nonaqueous-

similar size, and DO depletion can cause

phase liquid (NAPL), the hydrocarbons

significant fish kills.

are dissolved by the ethanol and migrate with the bulk fuel until the ethanol dilutes

Pure ethanol and blended fuels can easily

to <70%. At this point, the hydrocarbons

infiltrate into the subsurface. The liquid will

phase-separate from the bulk fuel.

then percolate through the unsaturated zone soils, moving through the gas filled

The initial fate of biofuel spills at the

pore spaces, until it ultimately reaches the

ground surface is largely controlled by

water table. Due to its affinity to reside

vaporization of the product, consumption

in the water phase, migrating ethanol will

by fire (if appropriate), infiltration, surface drainage, and surface water dilution. Ignition of vapours can be catastrophic and are the greatest concern for first responders at large alcohol-based biofuel release sites. Unless precautions are taken, biofuel not consumed by fire may be more rapidly transported to nearby lakes, rivers, and streams due to firefighting efforts. When low-density biofuels such as ethanol and butanol are released into surface water bodies, their lower specific gravities initially cause them to be buoyant as they mix in the upper water column. However, this buoyancy is not expected to last, as dilution and mixing (e.g. by waves and currents) are likely to be rapid. Hydrocarbons from the petrol fraction quickly phase-separate, generating LNAPL on the biofuel’s contact and dilution with water. For low hydrocarbon fractions, such as the 2%–5% in DFE, LNAPL is not likely to be observed due to rapid dispersion, spreading, and the evaporation of the

Milky white emulsion resulting from biodiesel spill (Source: USEPA, 2009) a white, milky emulsion. Biodiesel is slightly more viscous than standard diesel, especially at lower temperatures. Biodiesels are slightly soluble in water, with a water-soluble fraction of typically 13-60 milligrams per litre (mg/L) for pure biodiesels, but as high as 110 mg/L; whereas biodiesel blends (5% and 20% have a water-soluble fraction of 20-30 mg/L). Standard diesels have a watersoluble fraction of 20-40 mg/L. However, the water-soluble fraction of pure biodiesel lacks the acutely toxic aromatic components and volatiles that drive the toxicity of standard diesels. Releases of biofuel can have immediate short-term impacts on aquatic ecology; this impact can be due to highly watersoluble biofuels (alcohol biofuels) that can potentially disperse throughout the

partition into soil moisture; this partitioning can slow the downward migration of ethanol. Dissolved ethanol present in soil pore water typically is subject to biodegradation, which can further attenuate the rate of ethanol migration to the water table. The mechanisms controlling the entry of a biofuel to groundwater under different site conditions are not well understood; however, laboratory and field investigations have provided some insight into important properties and variables that influence downward transport. For large releases of DFE, ethanol has been detected in source zone groundwater soon after the release except in cases where deepsoil excavation occurred immediately following the release. In shallow groundwater areas, large DFE releases appear capable of creating sufficient head pressures to quickly transport 1%–5% of the ethanol beneath the water table. These releases have an immediate impact

29


on the geochemistry and biodegradation reactions in the source zone. The figure below illustrates the relative behaviours and NAPL distributions of conventional gasoline, gasoline with 10% Ethanol (E10), and DFE for approximately equal-volume releases. Darker red shading indicates greater NAPL pore saturations; yellow indicates the extent of detectable ethanol prior to dilution and attenuation. Hydrocarbon constituents are slowly released to groundwater according to their solubility and

Source: ITRC (2011)

mass fraction in the hydrocarbon phase if a sufficient mass of hydrocarbon from the fuel mixture remains as a residual LNAPL source near

Conclusion

the water table. The longevity of residual LNAPL as a source of hydrocarbons (e.g.

Biofuels are reducing the greenhouse

A key challenge to responders will

BTEX) to groundwater is on the scale

gas and other harmful emissions

be the tendency for some biofuels

of years to decades. Because biofuel

from the use of hydrocarbon-based

to readily dissolve once released to

blends have lower fractions of petroleum

fossil fuels. The first generation

hydrocarbons than conventional fuels,

water rendering the traditional use

biofuels (e.g. FAME and ethanol),

of some techniques (e.g. floating oil

helped to reduce annual emissions

absorbents) of limited application.

concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons are expected to be lower, and the longevity of LNAPL as a continuing source to

by the equivalent of 1.5 million family cars in 2018. However, as they readily

The response should focus on

absorb water they pose problems

stopping the source, contain and

when stored through microbial

recovering the lost product and

adsorbed to soil organic matter in the

contamination, phase separation

then remediating any residual

unsaturated zone. The log Kow values

and biofilm which can allow acidity

contamination using an ISAS

for some biodiesel FAMEs are higher

to attack the infrastructure used to

Accredited Contractor.

than those for diesel, suggesting that

store and deliver fuel.

groundwater is expected to be shorter. Biodiesel is predicted to be highly

groundwater impacts will mostly be

An International Spill Accreditation

limited to large releases on excessively

Second generation biofuels are

well-drained soil with a shallow depth to

Scheme (ISAS) accredited responder

being introduced and further

should be mobilised to ensure that

developed to enable their use as a

the spillage is comprehensively

total replacement of diesel or their

cleaned up and any impact from its

use as a high % drop-in substitute.

loss is properly remediated.

groundwater. Ethanol in groundwater has been investigated at several experimental sites and a few DFE

At a financial cost, they represent the opportunity to considerably

A guide for an initial immediate

concentration of ethanol in groundwater

reduce harmful emissions with no

response, specific product hazards,

ranged 220 – 55,000 mg/L

performance deficit.

flash points, PPE and how to make an

The most frequent release scenarios are

Whilst some are said to be

containing biofuel is presented at

small releases of fuel with low percentages

biodegradable, this takes time to

Annex A.

of ethanol

be achieve and any loss of product

biofuel (e.g. <10% ethanol). These are not

should be treated as if it is a loss of

If the spillage presents a risk

petrol / diesel.

to controlled waters it MUST

release sites. At these sites, the

initial response to a spillage of fuel

expected to produce a detectable plume downgradient of the source zone due to retention of ethanol above the water

be reported to the relevant Response to spills of biofuel must

environmental regulator (e.g. EA,

consider the chemistry of the pure

SEPA, NRW, NIE, EPA) using the

biofuel or the blend which has been

emergency hotline, providing site

influence the biodegradation potential

released to the environment, and

address, details of product lost and

of coexisting hydrocarbons as discussed

must also consider how the biofuel

any likely environmental impact.

above, but these effects are

will partition in the environment

The ISAS accredited contractor can

expected to be minor.

and the health and safety hazards

assist in liaising with environmental

associated with the response to

regulator visits or follow up

these fuels.

thereafter.

table, rapid biodegradation, and low initial ethanol concentrations. Ethanol that does reach the saturated zone may temporarily

30


Providing expert advice and support on the assessment and mi�ga�on of environmental impacts� ris�s and lia�ili�es.

www.oracle-environmental.com

To find out more t: 01684 252858 e: info@oracle-environmental.com

31


UK AND IRELAND SPILL ASSOCIATION WORKING GROUPS and how best to use them Absorbents: Danny Matthews, Darcy and Hugh Netherway, RSK Response (Need to add link to recording later this week) Late last year we formed several sector-

There are further webinars planned and

specific working groups to help target the

are listed in the event plan later in the

Association’s activities to directly support

magazine.

member interests: The next phase of work is to discusses The following have been formed:

and possibly originate some standard for marine spill equipment. Whilst members

Marine Working Group (MWG)

accept there are ASTM standards members

This group comprises all marine focussed

version of these. The goal of this will be

members drawn from the following groups

to produce a British standard that covers

to collaborate together to create events,

commonly used products and ensure

networking and promotion opportunities

compatibility between manufacturers.

feel that there is a need for a British

It will be involved in the work we are initiating on Marine Litter/Plastic Pollution and Recovery British Disaster Management Association (BDMA) The BDMA is the certifying body for damage management professionals, setting standards and providing training and accreditation for practitioners and others across the wider insurance industry who are involved in the recovery and restoration of changed properties.

for all members: Many of the marine members are likely to Manufacturers

be involved in the work the Association will

Distributors

be doing on marine litter/plastic pollution.

Marine Spill Response Organisations Marine consultancies

Insurance Working Group (IWG)

Marine service companies who also This group comprises all inland focussed

undertake spill response

members drawn from the following groups So far this year we have met once at

to generate a communication strategy for

which we agreed that the planned face-

the insurance industry that highlights the

to-face Marine Spill Event in June should

importance of best practice and the use

be cancelled and moved to Feb 22. The

of accredited contractors to manage and

members agreed it would be replaced with

execute the clean-up of pollution incidents.

a series of Martine focussed Knowledge Base webinars of which the first three have

These groups are:

been held (at the time of writing):

Corporate Members

10 Feb – Skimmers; what is available,

ISAS Inland Accredited Members

where they should be used and what to consider when using them. Marc van

At our well attended January meeting

der Zwan, Zwanny and Gareth McCorkill,

we agreed an approach to the Insurance

Ambipar

industry advising them of the issues of

https://www.ukspill.org/

under skilled, non-accredited contractors

home/2021/02/12/spill-knowledge-base-

undertaking work that was not adequate

skimmers-webinar/

for the environmental risks involved.

18 Feb – Marine Booms

Marine Booms,

This approach is ongoing and will be

the types available, where they can be

reported badck at the next group meeting

sued and how to use, maintain and store

in April.

them. Paul Rayner, Vikoma and Mark

Manufacturers Working Group

home/2021/02/19/spill-knowledge-basemarine-booms-webinar-live/

The Group has not me this year but will in April but is directly involved in the Marine

24 Mar 21 - Absorbents – what are they

32

practitioners working in the damage management industry, to facilitate education, training, technical support, advice on standards and representation of members’ interests in the public, industry and commercial domains. There is therefore a clear crossover between the pollution work that we do and the flood/fire/disaster management work that BDMA members undertake. To recognise this we have each become corporate members of the other’s association. Our collaborating on some awareness training and will be talking at each other’s annual conferences. We hope to encourage local networking so that our members are encouraged to use BDMA members when called to incidents that involving flooding and the need for restoration and likewise BDMA members

Shepherd, NRC https://www.ukspill.org/

The BDMA represents the interests of

Working Group reported above.

will use ISAS accredited members when fuel/chemical and hazardous pollution losses occur. More detail on BDMA can be found at www.bdma.org.uk


NEW MEMBERS

OVER THE LAST FEW MONTHS WE HAVE WELCOMED THE FOLLOWING NEW MEMBERS

After a 5 year absence Cleansing Service Group (CSG) return to UK and Ireland Spill Association

industrial and domestic waste management

work in hazardous, oil, chemical and non-

groups in Britain.

hazardous spills.

Their national network of specialist waste

CSG prides itself on its unique model of

transport vehicles alongside their in-house

locally managed businesses backed by

hazardous waste treatment centres make

national resources, alongside a family

them perfectly placed to offer safe and

business mentality and people focussed

sustainable spill response services. Their

ethos.

experts also deliver training courses for

businesses in the handling of spill response

The business works on the goal of diverting

scenarios.

waste from landfill, recovering and

recycling as much material as possible.

As they rebuild in this area they will be training new staff and gaining accreditation, through ISAS, to ensure this service is delivered to the highest standard by competent and proficient staff. Watch this space for news on CSG’s spill response activities   More details at: https://www.csg.co.uk/ industrial-commercial-waste/emergencyspill-response

A well know brand with its distinctive red tankers with the red and white CSG logo

Contact: Dean Frampton, 0800 048 0622

on their sides, they are ever present across the country. CSG was founded as a one-man sewage

collection business in rural Hampshire

For many years CSG were UK Spill

more than 85 years ago and now employs

members but this lapsed as their emphasis

a workforce of almost 550 people. The

on spill response reduced.

company has 27 sites across the UK, and

is one of the largest privately-owned

CSG has seen an increase in activity and is now rebuilding this business area with

NEW MEMBERS Respond, Service and Maintain (RSM)

expert advice on how to safely manage large quantities of stored fuel. Our knowledge and experience mean we are able to offer our customers bespoke maintenance programmes; typically, our contracts include tank testing, fuel testing, fuel polishing, pipework maintenance and environmental risk reports. In an emergency and reactive space, we offer a UK wide spill response service.

RSM are a fuel maintenance services provider with national coverage. We offer bespoke preventative maintenance contracts to both public and private sectors customers throughout the UK. Our aim is to mitigate the risk of failure due to fuel quality and to support customers effectively manage situations and environments where stored fuel is a critical asset. Our customer portfolio is made up of hospitals, prisons, data centres

We support customers in this space by having our own highly trained team of engineers, a fleet of response vehicles as well as access to both tankers and bulk storage. We offer a 24/7 spill response service and are going through accreditation currently. Further details can be found on our website: www.rsmbusiness.co.uk Contact Adam Pritchard on 01422 291277

and generator service providers who want

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NEW MEMBERS Commercial Fuel Solutions Ltd Commercial Fuel Solutions Ltd are specialists in the design, development, manufacture and distribution of fuel storage and transfer systems. Formed in 2007 they became the leading distributor for A1 Ad Blue product and associated

Modification and Decommissioning

defence customers include the US Airforce,

equipment and currently 1 in 40 HGVs on

of Filling Stations (also known as the

the Royal Navy and British Aerospace

the road use their product.

Bluebook).

Engineering.

Providing a range of professional solutions

Beyond the conventional solutions which

AA, The BBC, Chevron Texaco, The British

to suit all areas of industry. Their systems

they offer as a company, they are also

Antarctic Survey, Perkins Engines, Jaguar

are recognised for durability, performance

recognised for bespoke design and

Landrover, Caterpillar Inc, McDonalds, BT,

and reliability. They hold a large stock and

engineering of custom  fuel transfer and

Johnson Matthey, Yara, Freightliner, Travis

distribute equipment all over the UK.  

storage systems which are suitable for Rail,

Perkins, DAF and Volkswagen Audi.

Other high profile clients include; Shell, The

Quarry, Marine, Aviation, Motorsport and Over the last decade, their technical

Commercial Fleet applications.

expertise has helped shape the industry,

Rob Futcher, their energetic MD is keen to engage in our work on improving standards

their principal engineers are actively

Their customer portfolio includes several

and promoting best practice across the

involved in a number of working groups

Formula1 teams where they have designed

industry and is particularly passionate

including a position on the PEIMF’s

and supplied custom engineered fuel

about DSEAR.

technical committee and they have

transfer pumps and precise oil dosing

made significant contributions to writing

systems. Beyond this they can boast

https://www.commercialfuelsolutions.

technical guidance which is used at

that their level gauging and monitoring

co.uk/about_us.html

a national level, including the Energy

equipment is used by NASA at their White

Institute & APEA’s Design Construction

Sands Test Facility in New Mexico and their

SPILL RESPONSE INDUSTRY INSURANCE SPECIALISTS Our policies have been evolving since 1986 and can provide cover for: • Bespoke tanker/vacuum units with values up to £500,000 and beyond • Business Interruption losses if your vehicles are unusable after being damaged at your premises • Pollution both on and off the highway arising from your own vehicles • Defence Costs for Directors in respect of Pollution claims against them

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OAMPS is part of Pen Underwriting Limited which is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA number 314493). Registered Office: The Walbrook Building, 25 Walbrook, London EC4N 8AW. Registered in England and Wales. Company Number: 5172311

Contact Rob Futcher on 02380 118670

Insurance Managers for UK and Ireland Spill Association Ltd & International Spill Accreditation Scheme Ltd

CONTACT US 01372 869 700 team@oamps.co.uk www.oamps.co.uk


SPILL/POLLUTION STATISTICS – 2018 I am often asked what do UK and Ireland Spill Association members do? I say well – a lot! However statistically just want do we do?

This data has been gathered from publicly available sources and complied here for ease of reference.

1.Inland Pollution Incidents by Type 2018 A. Where there was a possible or probable impact on water quality

B. Where there was no impact on water quality

Comment: The statistics have been drawn from a variety of different sources. The accuracy of statistic depends upon the accuracy of reporting, hence we have agreed the adjustment factor with the EA for under reporting to try to present a reasonably accurate picture. From those I have discussed the statistics with they wouyld agree that there are more pollution incidents reports than represented in these statistics. Is this fact or fiction? I would urge accredited contractors to submit monthly or quarterly spill reports (which are anonymous) so that we get a true picture? Our data, being compared to these statistics will enable a more accurate picture to be presented from which EA/MCA and our own member resources may be allocated. We welcome feedback on this data! You may reply well statistics can tell two stories

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C. Total incidents where an Environment Agency officer had been involved.

D. Likely number of incident with an adjustment factor for under reporting

E.Incidents categorised as being Oil, chemical and other pollutant incidents

F.Based on the above Likely number of incident with an adjustment factor for under reporting

G. Report to Environment Agency hotline in 2018 – 74280 2.Offshore and shoreline pollution incidents

Credit: Stuart Evans – Fuel Specialist Services (SW)

A. Oil rigs and offshore installation reported hydrocarbon releases 2018

B. Coastal Marine Pollution Incidents 2018

C. Shoreline Pollution Incidents

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2021 EVENT PLAN Knowledge Base 14 Apr 21

UKEireSpill Knowledge Base: Marine Dispersants what is available and where to use them

Darcy OSRL and BP

19 May 21

UKEireSpill Knowledge Base: Storage Tanks for use in spill response

FAST Tanks

16 Jun 21

UKEireSpill Knowledge Base: Marine Special Equipment what is available and how should it be used

Elastec

TBC

UKEireSpill Knowledge Base: Modelling and data gathering in marine spills

Chelsea Technologies OSRL

Other Webinars April TBC

MV Wakashio Part 4 – Review of progress, the Remediation following the spill and cleaning the sensitive areas incl the mangrives

Mark Orr – UKEIRESpill Nikos Vlachos - Polyeco

May TBC

MV Wakashio Part 5 – The environmental impact of the spill

Mark Orr – UKEIRESpill CEFAS

June TBC

MV Wakashio Part 6 – The lessons learned

TBC

April TBC

Marine Plastic Pollution – it is increasing so what is being done and what more can we do

Mark Orr – UKEIRESpill TBC DEFRA Uni Soton and Plymouth

Event (other than webinars) 22 Apr

Inland Spill Event – virtual event run on Zoom - see below https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/inland-spill-tickets-141807290423?aff=eemailordco nf&utm_campaign=order_confirm&utm_medium=email&ref=eemailordconf&utm_ source=eventbrite&utm_term=viewevent

- OR CLICK HERE 7-8 Jul 21

UKIFDA Expo – online

Sept TBC

Spill Conference, AGM and Awards Dinner Midlands

16 – 17 Feb 22

Marine Spill Event Southampton – no marine demos

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Profile for UKEireSpill

Spill Alert - Issue 20  

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