U The Caribbean Health Digest - Issue 38

Page 1

JAN - MAR 2018


TT$35.00 US$5.99







9 772218 501006



Winning Cancer. is the first step in

the fight against

Cancer is often unpredictable but there is always something you can do to help reduce your risks. The Trinidad and Tobago Cancer Society recommends and promotes screening for early detection of certain cancers. Our screening services include:

Our Mobile Clinics:

• • • •

The TTCS also operate Mobile Clinics which provide screening services throughout Trinidad and Tobago.

Mammograms Clinical Breast Examinations Pap Smears Ultrasounds: Breast, Abdomen, Pelvic, Obstetric, Doppler, Thyroid

• Biopsies • Prostate Examinations: DRE (Digital Rectal Examination), PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)

• Blood Tests • Consultations • Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) - A new way to test for colon cancer

These mobiles are available by appointment to business institutions for the benefit of their staff and/or sponsored public health fairs. These are fully equipped to conduct Pap Smears, Clincal Breast Examinations and Prostate Examinations, PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) testing.


For more information on our screening services or to make an appointment

call us on 800-TTCS or message us on Facebook.


Sherine Mungal Stuart Fraser


Eidetic Publishing

Editorial Director

Sherine Mungal

Managing Editor

Roslyn Carrington


Our Intention candles are hand-poured purposefully crafted to inspire your senses. We use blends of only one hundred percent pure therapeutic essential oils in combinations that have been researched and proven to soothe, calm and relax. Assembled using all natural soy wax which are free for all toxins and wicks constructed from natural, cotton threads and contains no lead, zinc or other metals.

Healing Blend Lavender • Eucalyptus • Sage Purify your mind and body with the healing candle. The essential oils of lavender and refreshing eucalyptus soothe the body while reducing physical and mental fatigue. Combined with sage, the “sacred herb,” anxiety can be relieved and euphoria can ensue. Detoxify, energize and release what doesn’t serve you any longer. Prosperity Blend Cinnamon • Bergamot • Petitgrain The prosperity candle will release negativity to create and receive abundance with the aromatic blend of cinnamon, bergamot and petitgrain essential oils. This spicy blend is grounding and powerful to welcome success and a sense of stability. Inspiration Blend Lavender • Spearmint • White Spruce Restore yourself to a place of restoration and calmness with the cooling floral blend found in the inspiration candle. Combined with the essential oil of spearmint, this candle will revatilize your mind and body while increasing your energy and mental clarity. Let your creativity flow and be

p: 1 (868) 464 2134

Gratitude Blend White Spruce • Rosewood A comforting blend of white spruce and rosewood essentials oils. The gratitude candle is a great gesture of giving thanks to someone special or to light when one wants to honor their blessings in their own life. Take a few moments every day to feel what you are most grateful for and it will shift your energy immediately to a place of peace and joy.

Creative Director Design Project Coordinator Traffic Photography

Medical Advisory

Serah Acham Tian Watson Candida Khan Dr. Asante Vanwest-Charles-Le Blanc BSc MD CCD Roslyn Carrington Michelle Ash Carol Quash Staff Writer Stuart Fraser Eidetic Cindy Singh Lorraine Biran Shutterstock iStockPhoto Bigstock AdobeStock Dr. Neil Singh


Healthy Blend Eucalyptus • Basil • Lemongrass These inviting smells of basil and refreshing orange will delight your sense of health and well-being. Feel confident in your healthy decisions in life to stay energized and focused with this invigorating blend of neroli, basil and lemongrass essential oils. Clarity Blend Litsea Cubeba • Peppermint The cleansing fragrance of this clarity candle will clear your mind while stimulating and energizing your mood. The essential oil of litsea cubeba, combined with refreshing peppermint oil will increase your concentration and help uncover solutions in times of fatigue or stress.

e: info@tortugahills.com

w: tortugahills.com

This information is of a general nature only and is not intended as a substitute for professional health advice and no person should act in reliance on any statement contained in the information provided and at all times should obtain s p e c i f i c a d v i c e f ro m a h e a l t h professional. Eidetic Publishing has made reasonable efforts to ensure that the health information contained herein is accurate and up to date. To the extent permitted by law, Eidetic Publishing, their employees, agents and advertisers accept no liability

(even if negligent) for any injury, loss or damage caused by reliance on any part of this information. U also contains information supplied by third parties. This information is identified with the name of the source and has been chosen for publication because we believe it to be reliable. To the extent permitted by law, Eidetic Publishing, their employees, agents and advertisers accept no liability (even if negligent) for any injury, loss or damage caused by reliance on any part of this information.

U The Caribbean Health Digest is published 4 times a year by Eidetic Publishing, Gaston Court, Gaston Street, Lange Park, Chaguanas, Trinidad & Tobago. Distribution is handled by Eidetic Limited.

Entire contents are copyright. Reproduction in part or whole is prohibited. Eidetic Publishing is in no way affiliated with companies or products covered in U. Produced and printed in Trinidad & Tobago.


CANCER CARE Led by renowned cancer surgeon and researcher Michael J. Zinner, M.D., Miami Cancer Institute at Baptist Health South Florida brings world-class cancer care to the region. The Institute’s new leading-edge facility combines the most advanced technology with world-renowned cancer experts, surrounding patients and their loved ones with a team dedicated to their physical and emotional well-being. The Institute is home to one of the world’s most comprehensive and advanced radiation oncology programs, including South Florida’s first proton therapy center, opening later this summer. As Florida’s only member of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Alliance, Miami Cancer Institute brings unparalleled discoveries and cutting-edge research to South Florida. With its doors now open, the Institute provides hope and healing to patients and their families.

For more information call 786-596-2373, contact us at International@BaptistHealth.net or visit MiamiCancerInstitute.com



SPONSORSHIP AND GROUP PACKAGES AVAILABLE! Call (868) 665-6712/665-4428 or E-Mail projects@cancer.tt

12 Clean Water We have the right to life, freedom, safety and security…but did you know we also have the right to clean, potable water? Yet, two billion people worldwide are denied this right daily. How does this affect health on a global scale, and what’s to be done?

16 Impact of Climate Change on Human Health Some will deny it until they are blue in the face, but climate change is real, and it can have serious impacts on human health and well-being on a global scale. Want to know how? Check out Tian Watson’s article here.

20 Colposcopy In this article we briefly explain this procedure, learn how it is performed and the when it is recommended.

22 Recipe Microgreens are said to contain more nutrients than mature leaves, So we are happy to share this simple but nutritional recipe with you.

24 The Truth Behind Physical Activity and Health Being in motion is good for you; your heart, your muscles, and your emotions. But hey, we know you’re busy. You don’t always have to “buss a sweat” for your movement to matter. Exercise in your car at a traffic light? Yeah, its possible.

28 Can Contemporary and Herbal Medicines Co-Exist? We Caribbean people swear by our “bush medicine”, and it’s no surprise that modern science is discovering that traditional methods do have proven medical benefits. But do we have to choose between western medicine and granny’s shining bush tea? Dr. Asante VanWest-Charles-Le Blanc says no.

30 Diabetes and its Link to Cardiovascular Disease We think of epidemics as diseases that pass from person to person, with a sneeze or a cough. But that’s not the case. Non-communicable diseases, also known as “lifestyle diseases”, can also be considered epidemics, and we in the Caribbean are facing an alarming escalation in cases of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Even more disturbing, these two conditions are closely linked.

34 Environmentally Friendly Eating — How Eating Habits Can Help Save The Planet What we put in our mouths can save our lives, as long as we choose wisely and eat healthy. But did you know that what we eat can also save our planet? Michelle Ash explains how making wise, sustainable choices can help you take a stand in the face of environmental degradation.

38 Top 20 Healthiest Fruits If your definition of heaven is a bowl of mangoes and nothing to do all morning but tear into them, this article is for you. Whether you like them crunchy and tart, firm and fleshy, or melt-in-your-mouth-candy-sweet, there’s a fruit for you. Here’s a round-u of some of the best fruits for your health.

We are happy to bring you another one of our inspiring creations. This year marks 10 years of publishing U The Caribbean Health Digest. We have managed to stay true to our readers and to ourselves by consistently bringing you the best publication that we can, uncompromised in quality and content since our very start in 2008. Producing U for 10 years didn’t come without its challenges and although the last couple of years took us down a road of simple survival, in these times of great economic downturn, we manage to keep our heads above water and power through. We are truly grateful for the support of everyone and every company that has been a part of this journey over the last decade, and look forward to a bright future ahead where we can explore newer and brighter methods of communicating our message of health and wellbeing. We are pleased to announce that as of this issue, U The Caribbean Health Digest will be available for free download from our website uhealthdigest.com, so now you can have your very own digital copy to take with you on your smart devices. And to our advertisers, now there’s added value through a much wider reach for your advertising spend! Our cover story addresses a global issue as we take a closer look at how climate change affects many aspects of our health. This and so much more in this issue. Stay Healthy!





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Water is the most basic element of our survival. We need it to nourish our bodies and to clean ourselves and our environments. It keeps us healthy. It keeps us alive. Access to water is one of our most basic human rights. In 2010, the UN General Assembly officially recognised this, acknowledging that “safe and clean drinking water and sanitation [are] a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights.” Therefore, everyone has the right “to sufficient, safe, acceptable and physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses.”

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Yet, today, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO),

WHO reported that, in 2015, at least 2 billion people were

more than 2 billion people worldwide lack safe and easy access

ingesting water taken from sources contaminated with faeces,

to clean water — that’s almost 29% of the global population.

ingesting water riddled with bacteria, parasites and viruses,

These are mainly people who live in underdeveloped countries,

either by directly drinking the water or by eating food prepared

from low-income households, located in slums or rural areas.

with it. Therefore, contaminated water can be very dangerous,

Some live in such crowded conditions, in unsanitary

transmitting diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid,

environments, that their water becomes contaminated easily and

polio, hepatitis, gastroenteritis and leptospirosis. These diseases

disease spreads quickly. Some live far from cities and have to

are often fatal and, according to WHO, “are linked to significant

travel for at least 30 minutes every day to find a source of clean

disease burden worldwide.” A 2015 report in the International

water and bring that water back to their homes. Others travel for

Business Times states that, in Kenya, more than 250 thousand

much longer, and there are still those who have absolutely no

children under 5 years old are killed by diseases contracted

access to clean water for their daily personal and domestic purposes,

from contact with unclean water. WHO states that, globally,

including sanitation, food preparation and drinking. WHO states

diarrhoeal diseases, which make-up the majority of waterborne

that, in 2015, 423 million people collected their water from

diseases, contribute to an estimated 2 million deaths each year ,

unprotected wells and springs, while 159 million people used

more than half of which occur in children under the age of 5.

untreated surface water from lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. Waterborne diseases are also contracted when people Simply put, clean water — also called drinking water or potable

exercise unhygienic practices, like neglecting to wash their

water — is safe for ingestion. In their joint 2017 report on the

hands after using the bathroom, cleaning up after children,

Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, WHO and

dealing with animals or touching raw meat and eggs, and this

UNICEF explain that clean water is collected from improved

often happens because of a lack of water. When water is scarce,

drinking-water sources, i.e. water sources “which, by nature of

people may not prioritise washing their hands. Poor hygienic

their design and construction have the potential to deliver safe

practices can also be the result of “absent, inadequate, or

water.” WHO explains that improved water sources include water

inappropriately managed water and sanitation services,”

from domestic or public taps and standpipes, protected wells and

explains WHO. For example, a lack of water and soap in

springs, as well as collected rainwater.

school or public bathrooms means that people cannot wash their hands after using them.

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Water becomes contaminated when raw sewage and industrial waste infiltrate water sources, also called unimproved water sources.

Health care facilities are particularly affected. According to WHO,

Of particular concern is faecal contamination. According to the

worldwide, “15% of patients develop an infection during a hospital

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), just one gram of faeces

stay, with the proportion much greater in low-income countries.” In

can contain 10 million viruses, 1 million bacteria, 1 thousand parasite

low- and middle-income countries, “38% of healthcare facilities

cysts and 100 parasite eggs. UNICEF also shares that, “Excreta is the

lack an improved water source, 19% do not have improved

main cause of childhood diarrhoeal diseases.”

sanitation, and 35% lack water and soap for handwashing.”


Following the devastation caused by the 2017 hurricane season, we can’t ignore the impact that natural disasters and climate change have on the transmission of waterborne diseases. Flooding, heavy winds, droughts and earthquakes, and the resulting power outages, water shortages and destruction of property, all affect water quality and access. Clean water



In its article, Why Climate Change is Worsening Public Health Problems, the medical news website, Medical Xpress, states that just 58% of Haitians have access to safe water, while only 28% have access to basic sanitation. As a result, the country has experienced “spikes in cholera and other waterborne diseases.” Diarrhoea is now the second leading cause of death among Haiti’s children.

becomes more easily contaminated and disease is spread quickly.

When Puerto Rico was hit by Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017, the island was ravaged and infrastructure was severely damaged, resulting in people having little or no access to clean water for weeks. According to a Kaiser Family Foundation article titled, Public Health in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria, as of

Waterborne diseases are dangerous and, under certain circumstances, can quickly become prevalent. They are preventable with access to clean water and proper water management and sanitation infrastructure. It is incumbent on all governments to provide these facilities for their citizens. It is also essential that we protect ourselves from waterborne diseases. Here are a few simple ways in which we can prevent contracting and spreading waterborne diseases:

November, many Puerto Ricans “without access to safe water, have been using natural fresh water sources such as ponds, lakes, and streams.” The result was that, by the end of October, there were 121 reported cases of leptospirosis and 4 confirmed deaths from the disease, “compared to about 60 cases in total in a regular year.” The article also states that, though “no official case numbers are available,” various media are reporting on “an increase in conditions related to unclean water, ranging from vomiting and diarrhoea to conjunctivitis (pink eye), scabies and asthma.”

• Use properly treated water for drinking, food preparation and sanitation. • Thoroughly wash hands with clean water after using the bathroom, cleaning up after children or sick people, dealing with animals and handling raw food and produce. • Wash hands with clean water before and after handling food and sanitise all kitchen surfaces and utensils before and after using them. • Flush toilets and properly dispose of all other waste. • Educate yourself on waterborne diseases, their causes and symptoms, and more ways you can prevent them.

Eight years after Haiti was devastated by the massive 7.0 magnitude earthquake and three years after Hurricane Matthew hit the country, the island is still recovering. The temporary taps and toilets put in place to deal with the direct aftermath of these disasters are now breaking down. With many Haitians unable to afford bottled water, they are drinking contaminated water, reports Aljazeera.

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Climate change is intrinsically linked to public health, food and water security.... It is a moral issue. It is an issue of social justice, human rights and fundamental ethics…. – United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon 17 | u



Climate change is proving to not only negatively impact the synchronization of our planet, but also our health. Its impact encompasses variances in global temperature; precipitation; extreme weather events; and sea levels. This directly affects the food we produce/consume, water quality, the air we breathe and the weather we are exposed to. When assessing the severity of this impact, critical factors to consider should include • Age • Gender • Economic status • Location • Level of exposure • Sensitivity to health threats To varying degrees, this will apply both to developed and developing countries. We must also be cognizant of the fact that in any society, groups such as children, pregnant women, the elderly, and persons from lower income brackets will be at higher risk.

Impact of Temperature Change An increase in global temperature will inevitably result in hotter days and more frequent, intense heat waves. The resulting complications could include heat stroke, dehydration, cardiovascular/respiratory/cerebrovascular diseases and death. Studies conducted by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), have predicted that by the mid-21st century, the coldest night of the year will increase by 10°F, with the warmest day of the year to increase by 6°F. The longest consecutive dry day spell in the U.S. is predicted to increase by 3 days. Precipitation is also due to increase in the U.S. by as much as 15%.

Impact of Air Quality Climate change and erratic weather patterns affect air quality, leading to increased asthma attacks and respiratory/cardiovascular complications.

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Recently, we have been experiencing a significant increase in bush fires; studies have linked this to global warming. These fires contribute to poor air quality through smoke and other unhealthy pollutants.

Ground Level Ozone and Smog Studies conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have predicted that climate change will increase the number of days with unhealthy amounts of ground-level ozone; this is a harmful air pollutant and an element of smog. Its levels are increased with the presence of warm, stagnant air. Cities in the US with high pollution levels, such as Los Angeles, have been experiencing a noticeable increase in smog. Exposure to this increases the risk of respiratory problems and reduced lung function stemming from damaged lung tissue and inflamed airways. This can foster asthma, other lung diseases, and even death. Children, the elderly and persons already suffering with asthma will particularly be at risk.

Increased Particulate Matter These are micro-particles and liquid droplets suspended in the atmosphere. Some occur naturally in elements such as sea spray, bush fire smoke, and dust. Some are created by burning fossil fuels, which react with gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Inhaling these particles can lead to lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other cardiovascular complications. These particles can travel by wind and affect persons considerable distances away from this pollutant’s source. Elderly persons tend to be particularly sensitive to particle exposure. Persons working/spending considerable time outdoors would also be at high risk.

Asthma and Allergies Conditions such as asthma, and allergic reactions like hay fever, could become more prevalent. The spring pollen season in the US, for instance, is already occurring earlier and lasting longer. Climate change also leads to increased carbon dioxide levels, which can promote faster growth in some plant species. As a result, highly allergenic pollen plants such as ragweed have become more abundant.




Impact of Adverse Weather Climate change has brought with it increased levels of precipitation, flooding, droughts and storms. Our health and quality of life can be affected in the following ways • Consumption of contaminated food and drinking water. This can lead to stomach and intestinal complications. It can take the form of gastrointestinal illnesses like diarrhoea and even impact the body's nervous and respiratory systems. It can also lead to liver and kidney damage. • Infrastructural damage to roads and bridges will restrict access to already compromised hospitals, clinics and pharmacies. • Diminished food supply and distribution could lead to malnutrition. • Compromised communication media; particularly those of the health care and emergencies services. • Vulnerability to carbon monoxide poisoning from improper use of devices such as portable electric generators in confined, overcrowded spaces. We recently witnessed the catastrophe of hurricane Katrina as a case in point. Katrina was estimated to be responsible for at least 1,000 deaths.

Vector-borne Diseases These are diseases caused by the transmission of infectious pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa, from animals to humans. The medium here being vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and fleas. Climate change can increase the geographic range and spread of these diseases. Take for instance Lyme disease, which is transmitted by ticks but restricted by temperature. As temperature increases, these ticks become more active for longer periods over a wider geographical area. Situations such as this will impact more heavily on poorer countries, with less capacity to prevent, monitor and treat these diseases.

More on Contaminated Water Climate change can directly lead to an increase in waterborne pathogens, such as harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms in our water supply. The level of harmful industrial chemicals being expelled into our water is also steadily increasing.

With Earth’s water temperatures increasing, humans are now more susceptible to harmful bacteria and toxins found in water, shellfish and seafood. Increased flooding/runoff also escalates water contamination levels. Lesser developed countries would be more vulnerable to this impact due to fewer public heath safeguards, or monitoring systems and treatment protocols in place to reduce risk of exposure. Developed countries are, however, not exempt from this threat.

Integrity of Food Global warming and increasing carbon dioxide emissions can jeopardize the integrity of food and its nutrition levels. Salmonella and other bacteria in our food supply can reach critical levels, for warm environments are more conducive to rapid growth of these organisms. This can cause gastrointestinal complications and even death. Chemical contaminants are also triggred by climate change. For instance, higher sea surface temperatures can lead to higher mercury levels in seafood. While high levels of carbon dioxide may promote faster growth in some plant species, it can also lower the protein level and vital minerals in produce such as wheat, making it less nutritious.

Mental Health Changes in one’s physical wellbeing, or experiencing an environmental disaster, can foster mental health issues such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We can become particularly vulnerable to such conditions if we experience the loss of loved ones or our homes. Research conducted by the USCGRP indicate that persons with mental illness are also more vulnerable to the effects of increased heat levels. Findings suggest that persons with pre-existing mental illnesses have a three-time greater chance of dying during heat waves. This has been linked to prescribed medication, or not effectively regulating body temperatures of these patients. Cases have also been evidenced where just the perceived threat of climate change can provoke physiological stress responses in some of us. It is therefore certain that tackling climate change should be on everyone’s agenda.

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What is Colposcopy Colposcopy is the examination of a woman’s cervix with a special microscope called a colposcope. Colposcopy is usually performed to evaluate an abnormal cervical smear. Colposcopy can more accurately determine if you have precancerous changes on the cervix and if further testing or treatment is needed. HOW IS COLPOSCOPY PERFORMED


Your physician will first explain the procedure to you. Your legs then will be placed in stirrups. After the speculum is placed in the vagina, some acetic acid is applied to the cervix. This can cause some brief, mild burning. Abnormal tissue may turn white, and can be seen with the colposcope. Iodine solution may also be used to help identify any abnormal tissue.

Biopsy results can take up to 4 weeks. Subsequent management plan may be discussed at this visit.

If the tissue appears abnormal, the physician may take biopsies are carry out a tretment. Your doctor will inject some local anaesthtetic (to relieve pain ) if a treatment is to be performed. A brown 2 solution may then be applied to the cervix to stop any bleeding that may be present. Your colposcopy appointment may take up to 30mins. Some of this time is spent setting up and reviewing your history. The procedure itself usually takes 15-20 minutes.

PREPARATION Do not have sexual intercourse, use tampons, or place anything in your vagina for 72 hours prior to your colposcopy appointment. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant.

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We recommend that you take 800mg ibuprofen 1 hour prior to your appointment to help decrease cramping.

WHAT TO EXPECT AFTER THE PROCEDURE? NORMAL Some cramping or discomfort similar to menstrual cramps. Almost always this can be controlled by taking ibuprofen 400mg 3 times a day with food. Dark vaginal discharge, with or without clumps, for several days Vaginal bleeding, with or without clots, for a few days.

ABNORMAL (Call offiice) + Heavy vaginal bleeding + Severe lower abdominal pain, unrelieved by ibuprofen as above + Fever/chills + Vaginal discharge

ADVICE + Do not have sexual intercourse for 4 weeks after your colposcopy. + Do not use tampons, douche, or place anything in your vagina for 4 weeks. + No Swimming for 4 weeks after.

Advanced Laparoscopic Gynaecology Surgery Benefits:

Other Services Include:

1. Shorter recovery periods. Patients are routinely discharged on the same day or following day of procedure.

1. Hysterectomy.

2. Lower rate of complication.

2. Treatment for uterine bleeding.

3. Less blood loss and potential for the need for transfusion.

3. Hysteroscopic biopsies for diagnosis of endometrial cancer.

1. Hysteroscopic resection.

See Your Obstetrician And Gynaecological Oncologist To Discuss If This Option Is Right For You. For more information and over the phone appointments, please call 285 GVMC (4862) Follow us on

715-716 McConnie Street, Gulf View, La Romain, Trinidad T 868 285 GVMC (4862) F 868 652 0053 E info@gvmctt.net www.gvmctt.net





Prep Time 10 minutes Servings 6




Microgreens Radishes

1 Pack 6 halved or sliced 2 Tbsp. 1/8 Tsp.

1. Place the microgreens and radishes into a serving bowl and reserve in the refrigerator until ready to serve.

Lime juice Dry mustard powder Salt Olive Oil Sea salt Ground pepper

1/4 Tsp. 4 Tbsp. to your taste. to your taste.

2. Whisk together the remaining ingredients, cover and refrigerate until ready to serve. 3. At the last moment before serving, dress the salad lightly with dressing, sprinkle with sea salt and fresh ground pepper. Enjoy!

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Recipe By Everydaydishes.com http://everydaydishes.com/simple-foodrecipes/micro-green-salad-recipe/

Don’t be shy, talk to us!

Call: 1-868-782-9940 adaquafarms@gmail.com We’re on Facebook too!





There are many definitions of health and wellness. Some people view it as one and the same, while others, like the staff at The Restore Health and Wellness Centre, view it as a multi-dimensional journey in which one aspect takes you to the next. According to the centre’s manager, Vidia Doodnath, “Wellness is the action you take to get to health—a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.” The Valsayn South-based centre offers a wide range of services that contribute to optimal health and wellness. “The body is a three-dimensional being where body, mind and spirit are woven together as one,” Doodnath tells U. “Restore Health and Wellness Centre focuses on helping persons to thrive in their environments by helping them deal with stress, understand proper nutrition and exercise for their bodies, and advising them on general health and well-being.” Although the centre only opened its doors in January of this year, Doodnath says it offers a range of services that contribute to a complete health and

wellness experience. “It is a one-stop shop for health and wellness.” It offers fitness classes such as yoga, Tai Chi, Zumba, kickboxing and belly dancing; mind and body healing such as life coaching and Thai yoga massages; medical services such as checkups and blood tests for common ailments; surgical and aesthetic dermatology services; and clinical and psychological therapy. “The health and wellness of the clients’ minds and bodies in an atmosphere of confidentiality and respect.” Doodnath says although the centre is still very young, she has seen an increase in the number of people who use the facility for one reason or another. “Classes have been increasing. The number of classes are growing because the instructors are more than willing to do what they were trained to do. We are on Facebook - the page is "Restore Health & Wellness", but I have realised that word of mouth is what gets people here.” She says the medical personnel are well qualified and all instructors are certified, “so, people know they are in good hands when they come to the centre.”

Doodnath retired from the company for which she worked two years ago and decided to partner with the centre’s doctors and instructors to offer the people of east Trinidad a holistic health and wellness experience without having to go very far from their homes. “I own the building and they see their patients and have their classes here. The idea behind The Restore Health and Wellness Centre is that the morning classes are for women after they drop off their children at school, etc. The evening classes are meant to facilitate the working people.” She says other services will gradually be added to encourage even more people to focus on their health and well-being. “At the end of the day, it is all about you and how you look and feel about yourself. We want to help people to be at their best.” She assures that the centre’s prices are competitive with that of similar services. “We also offer membership and packages that help you save.”

The first Health and Wellness Centre in East Trinidad #11, Igneri Road, Vaslayn South. Call 727 5551 or 223 5537 23 | u



MODERATION FOR Once again, the Christmas season has wooshed past and another year is upon us. Some of us are met in good physical shape. Others have again been caught off-guard, having not yet started their New Year’s resolution to get in “tip-top” shape.

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Making matters worse is the Carnival season coming around the bend at full speed. Now we stress further about our physique.







Traditional fete food pack on average 1/3 more calories than a day’s caloric requirement, and this is on top of the 1 – 3 pounds the average person has gained over Christmas, according to the Calorie Control Council. These factors should incline us to wage a battle against seasonal weight gain. A key strategy for victory here would be to exercise in moderation. Opting for this strategy when faced with tempting Trinbagonian party food and drink could also contribute toward curbing lifestyle-related diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and diabetes. Attempting to outright resist temptation is an admirable approach, but could prove futile and unrealistic. It could leave us defeated in the Carnival Moderation Battle. Let’s consider some simple tactics which could lead us to victory. 25 | u





Your mind will register these smaller food portions as full ones,

Whatever dish you are preparing, explore the option of substituting

regardless of the size. The same principle can be applied to high-calorie

herbs and spices for creams or butter. Your taste buds may be

drinks. Opt for the tall, thin glass as opposed to the short, stocky

pleasantly surprised with the outcome.

one; you will now consume less per serving. Research also shows that people tend to pour less liquid into tall, thin glasses than short, stocky ones. So ‘walk wit yuh glass to d fête’!

SERVE FRESH FISH OR SEAFOOD Other than shark and bake, fish or seafood does not seem to be


one of the more popular options at all-inclusive fêtes, but try opting

Be cognisant of this hectic time and keep well nourished while

making things easier on your digestive system. Today there is the

doing your errands. Failure to do this will cause intense hunger

option of fish “ham”, which is available locally.

for it this Carnival. This could effectively reduce red meat consumption,

later in the day; inevitably fostering binge eating from the food tent. The impact would be exponential if you plan to attend a show or party later that evening and arrive famished.

DON’T PREPARE A LOT OF FOOD This will lead to overconsumption, simply because it’s there. Be

Why put yourself in that predicament? Eat at least a serving of

realistic and practical in your catering and prepare accordingly.

fruit, yoghurt or nuts while on the go. While at the lime, choose your options sensibly.

AVOID MORNING-AFTER FOOD If hosting a get-together, make it a point to prepare “doggie bags” for


your guests with the excess food. Lauren Slayton, M.S.,R.D;

During the season, ensure your potassium intake is high. This nutrient

Sports Nutritionist and founder of Foodtrainers (New York City)

counterbalances sodium (salt) which is quite prevalent in dishes

stresses that "It's the leftovers that do you in."

like Panorama pelau. In essence, your body would retain less water. Excess “water weight” contributes directly to you feeling and looking overweight. Fruits such as bananas and papayas are


good potassium sources. Also consider natural diuretics like cucumber.

This may more often than not prove to be an unrealistic approach, given the variety of tasty treats on offer. It may also lead us to binge during

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a weak moment. Rather, we could implement the “three-bite rule”,


keeping our sweet tooth cravings well managed. According to Dr

Make this a core focus when prepping your appetizers, “cutters”

Zuckerbrot, “You'll get that amazing first taste, a satisfying middle

and main dishes.

one, and then a lingering third bite…”. Exercise self-control!




EAT TO SAVOUR Consider simply changing the way you eat; mindful eating aids weight loss. So chew slowly; yes, this may prove challenging when party options are unending, but exercise self-control. Pace yourself; wait before grabbing seconds; go for a stroll; “lime” with friends.

act of socialization your focus, not the buffet. Even standing or walking around will contribute to your cause, as opposed to sitting and guzzling. Volunteer to help clean up after and burn even more calories…. Operation Moderation in full effect!

The faster you consume, the less time your body has to register satisfaction. It takes about 20 minutes for your brain to process nourishment levels. So slow down and take time to savour each bite!


RESTRICT TV EATING Coming together to watch Carnival shows is indeed a tradition. However, this activity can directly lead to overeating/poor eating choices. It makes it easy to totally lose track. Again, be cognizant of this and pre-determine your portions.

Chances are during the season you may not readily make it to the gym, spin or yoga class! Don’t let this defeat you. According to fitness advisor, Dr Church, "Even 15 minutes can help you maintain your fitness level…". He highlights that skipping for 15 minutes eradicates about 190 calories, and a quick yoga sequence at home can maintain flexibility. A good strategy is to execute this first thing in the morning. A study published in the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise indicated that morning exercise is linked to more positive behaviour during the day. Using brain scans, researchers found

ALCOHOL IN MODERATION It’s a given that alcohol contains a lot of calories. Another reason for moderate drinking is that it can lead us to let down our guard around food and start eating irresponsibly.

DRINK WATER Drinking water helps you feel full and hence consume fewer calories. It is also a much healthier option than juices and sugar-filled fizzy drinks. These contribute to body fat and high blood pressure.

that when women worked out in the morning, they moved more during the day and responded less to pictures of tempting food as compared with the days they didn't do a morning workout.

For every glass of alcohol or soft drink, adopt the habit of chugging a glass of water. This would dilute these substances in your system and allow for easier processing and flushing.

Also, according to the Calorie Control Council, this is quite an effective weight-control strategy, with the underlying principle being, you earn the food you consume. A labour-intensive household chore can also be substituted here.


GET YOUR SLEEP Sleep routines tend to get derailed during Carnival, but persons who maintain regular sleep routines have less body fat than those who don’t. This being said, don’t be bashful to say goodnight to old friends and family if your sleep routine is being severely compromised.

When in full combat mode, don’t be coerced to eat high calorie food. Learn to politely say no and stick to it. Make the calorie-free


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Contemporary and





Herbal medicine is nothing new. In the Caribbean, many local herbs have been used by our ancestors for centuries for various illnesses and symptoms. Examples include orange peel for gas, neem and cascara for a “clean out” (detox or purge), soursop leaf to sleep, and ginger for pain or gas. Most modern medicines were derived from herbs and medicinal plants. These days, however, many people still prefer herbal medicine to conventional medicine. Everywhere you turn, you hear about this herb or that herb, and “Dr. Oz says ...”. While this is great, I believe that modern and herbal remedies can work together in a complimentary and integrative approach to health care. It all depends on various factors, which can include the symptom or complaint; the reason for experiencing it; how long it has been felt; and what other conditions the individual is experiencing.

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The key to successful herbal health care is knowing what is wrong and understanding the symptom or complaint and what it represents. Traditional Chinese medicine has a history of being successful in understanding and supporting all the systems of the body.

In Cuba, a country renowned for its medicine and medical education, practitioners incorporate natural remedies, including local herbs, acupuncture and cupping, alongside modern western medicine to produce synergistic effects in patients. However, some important questions are: are all herbal supplements and raw herbs safe? Are there side effects? Can one take herbs with medication? The bottom line is that there is still a lot about herbs that we do not know, but this does not mean herbal medicine is a hoax. More studies are being done on the active components of herbs. Many say that there is no evidence that herbs work, but I respond to those nay-sayers that the evidence is demonstrated by the improvement in the health of the patients. In the same breath, I must say that there should always be caution when using herbs. Herbs are very potent substances and the effective dose of each herb is not always the same. Each herb is different, and, most importantly, the patient’s body is also different and individual. This is where we have to define the difference between herbalism as a culture and herbalism as a science. Your grandmother always knew which bush to pick for each ailment, and she knew how much; it was a genuine “feel”. So how do we translate or convert this age-old tradition into one of modern, effective healing? Do we have to? That is a loaded question. There does need to be some regulation of the herbal medicine field, but it cannot be graded or measured with the same stick as allopathic (conventional) medicine. Owing to the changing times, some care has to be taken with the quality of herbs that we ingest, as this in itself can determine the presence or absence of side effects. We need to ensure there is a standard to the quality, in terms of being pesticide free, certified organic, heavy-metal free, and tested if possible for any contaminants, etc., as the environment has changed, and this has resulted in the soil being affected. Whereas long ago the soil had fewer pollutants and the plants grew pesticide- and pollutant-free, we now have to take measures to ensure that this occurs, so that when we ingest these herbs they do not harm our bodies.


It is not recommended that someone with a complex health issue just go to a pharmacy and begin to buy the latest supplement they saw advertised on TV. They should, instead, find a certified practitioner to dispense it. There is also no reason herbs can’t be used alongside pharmaceutical drugs; it doesn’t have to be either/or, but, again, this has to be done carefully and with the guidance of a certified medical herbalist or certified integrative medical practitioner, one recognized by their physician. There must be open communication between both professionals. A very holistic approach is needed to ensure true balance and health. Ask your questions and ensure that you know what you are being given, just as you should when you are given medicine by your doctor. Herbs are powerful and have chemical constituents that can be harmful if not administered correctly. Herbal medicine—true herbal medicine—is not a fad. Each herb has its energy, flavour, taste and action. Each herb works at different levels upon its targeted organ or body part, and, depending on the dose, has different effects. The common thought is that anything that is “natural and herbal” is good for you, but as much as it can help, it can harm, if there is misuse and abuse. Herbs are powerful medicine, and they have been proven to work, but there is a science behind them. There is no need for a battle between conventional medicine and herbal medicine. There is a place for both in the arena of healing. Herbs can work with medicine if the latter is needed. But be aware that there



are proven drug-herb interactions. The bottom line, the end result, is health. This synergism, togetherness between herbs and drugs, can be achieved. Herbs are very powerful medicine, and yes, we do need to regulate them to some degree, but like many things in life, sometimes we need to accept the results rather than try and tear them down and downgrade them. We cannot and should not turn our backs on years of tradition; these two branches of medicine, of healing, can work together. It is not all about the money; it is about the health of our society. Complementary or integrative medicine is about society on a constant quest for that goal of health. Techniques such as acupuncture, cupping, moxibustion (the burning of moxa herbs on or near the patient’s body), herbalism, yoga, tai chi, qi gong and Reiki have a place in the history and future of healing and health care. In the Caribbean, the epidemic of lifestyle diseases is growing rapidly; emotional stress, the economy, and social issues all impact on national health. To achieve that healthy balance, that balance of body, mind and spirit (the definition of health in a nutshell), integration of eastern and western approaches to medicine, or the integration of the allopathic (mainstream) and the homeopathic branches of medicine, can truly help all individuals achieve optimum health—the balance of the mind, body and spirit. 29 | u






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Many of us think of an epidemic as a disease that can be passed from one person to another, like influenza, or from a disease carrier to a human, like chikungunya. But the term can be expanded to include any illness or condition that proliferates rapidly and disproportionately, affecting large sectors of a population.




If we use this definition, it’s easy to see why diabetes is said to have reached epidemic proportions in Trinidad and Tobago and the rest of the Caribbean. An article published in the Trinidad and Tobago Newsday on September 19, 2017 claims that there are approximately 200,000 people living with the condition in this country, 25% of whom are unaware that they have the disease. In other words, almost 1 in every 7 of our citizens are affected by a disease that now ranks as the second most lethal in T&T. The first? You guessed it: cardiovascular disease. A coincidence? Far from it. In fact, there are many clear and well documented links between the two.

DIABETES: A RECAP But before we examine that relationship, let’s quickly remind ourselves about diabetes and its risk factors. The United States Center for Disease Control puts it very simply: diabetes is a condition in which one is unable to properly process food for use as energy. This happens when the body is unable to make enough insulin, or cannot efficiently use the insulin that it does make. Insulin, remember, is a hormone produced by the pancreas. This inefficiency causes glucose (the simple sugar that results from the body’s breakdown of the food we eat) to build up in the blood. Some of the symptoms or warning signs of diabetes include

Far more prevalent is Type 2 diabetes, which used to be called “adult-onset” or “non-insulin-dependent” diabetes. Though most people with this condition are diagnosed as an adult, the disturbing trend of diagnosis among juveniles has led to a change in the age-based terminology formerly used to differentiate between Type 1 and Type 2. Also, as pointed out by Professor Paul Teelucksingh, who lectures at the University of the West Indies, many patients with Type 2 diabetes eventually do require insulin, so, once again, the old classifications have been discarded. Many patients demonstrate risk factors such as obesity; physical inactivity, impaired glucose tolerance, or a history of gestational diabetes (a form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy but goes away after the baby is delivered.)

excessive hunger or thirst; frequent urination; constant tiredness; blurred vision; tingling in the hands or feet; increased vulnerability to infection; or sores that are slow to heal, especially in the feet. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, formerly called “juvenile” or “insulin-dependent” diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the body produces inadequate insulin — or even none at all. A very small percentage of diabetics, between 5% and 10%, have this type.

Another risk factor that is particularly worrying to us, given the multi-ethnic composition of Caribbean territories, is race. People of African descent are at significantly higher risk for diabetes than Caucasians, as are Hispanics/Latinos, First Nation Peoples, and people of Asian descent. The risk of developing the disease is also connected to family history, that is to say, if a close family member such as a parent or sibling has the condition. The presence of certain genes also makes you more vulnerable.

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Now that we’ve had a reminder of the basics, let’s take a look at the connection between diabetes and cardiovascular health.

You can’t change your genetics, and you can’t undo the fact that Mom has diabetes or Sis is insulin-resistant, but there’s a reason diabetes is considered a lifestyle disease. Many of these risk factors can be managed, through self-education and conscientious effort.

According to the American Diabetes Association, more than two thirds of people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. They are two to four times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease or have a stroke than people without diabetes. Diabetes is even listed by the American Heart Association as one of the six controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. But what’s the connection?

Increased physical activity, frequent exercise, and moderate eating habits can prevent obesity and help the body process foods more efficiently. If you notice several of the warning signs mentioned above, your doctor can run a few simple tests, such a glucose tolerance test, which shows how efficiently your body is managing its glucose levels.

The story starts with sugar. One of the roles of insulin is to circulate in your bloodstream and help sugar to enter your cells, providing them with a source of energy. In so doing, it also lowers the levels of sugar in your bloodstream.

Another test, called the glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test, measures the amount of blood sugar attached to the haemoglobin in your blood, and can indicate the average blood sugar level over the past two or three months.

But, remember, a key characteristic of diabetes is elevated levels of sugar in your bloodstream. Over time, the continued presence of this sugar causes stiffening and hardening of arteries. It’s also linked to atherosclerosis, or the build-up of fatty material on the inner lining of blood vessels. This dangerous condition impedes — and occasionally even stops — the free flow of blood, including to vital organs such as the brain or heart. This can result in heart attack or stroke, which can lead to debilitation or even death.

If you are diagnosed with diabetes, or even deemed pre-diabetic or high risk, your doctor will advise you on lifestyle changes that can help you prevent worsening of your condition, so you can continue living a full and productive life. Your treatment may also include medication or insulin. However, equally important are the things you can do to mitigate against doing further damage to your body, particularly — you guessed it — eating well, maintaining an appropriate body weight, and getting frequent exercise.

But there are other reasons diabetes and cardiovascular disease go hand in hand. One is high blood pressure. There is a clear connection between hypertension and insulin resistance, and the presence of both conditions doubles your chances of heart problems.

Because almost every one of us in the Caribbean probably knows at least one person with diabetes, we seem to have begun taking it for granted. But it’s not a forgone conclusion, and the power lies within us to prevent it before it starts, or gain mastery over it if it already has. It just takes a savvy combination of information, determination, and action.

Obesity, too, is an obvious risk factor, which is why patients who have either diabetes or cardiovascular conditions — or both — are encouraged to maintain a healthy weight. Increased physical activity is therefore recommended to mitigate against these factors.

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Abnormal levels of cholesterol, namely high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides, are also associated with both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

If you’d like to learn more about diabetes, contact the Diabetes Association of Trinidad and Tobago at (868) 672-0864, 10 – 12 Success Street, Chaguanas, or at info@diabetesassociatontt.org. Their website is diabetesassociationtt.org.




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Fruits are a must in any balanced diet, and while each has its nutritional benefits, all fruits were not created equal; some provide additional and unique health benefits. Here’s a list of 20 of the healthiest fruits on the planet, eleven of which are grown in the Caribbean.

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The saying "an apple a day..." is certainly not wasted on this fruit. The Vitamins C, B and K, potassium, antioxidants, pectin, polyphenols and fibre found in apples provide many benefits, among them a promotion of a healthy heart and teeth, and reduction in the risk of Type 2 diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. They also increase bone density, and help improve digestion and metabolism.

AVOCADOS: Unlike their peers (pun intended), avocado pears are low in carbohydrates and made up mainly of oleic acid, a healthy, monounsaturated fat that improves heart health and reduces inflammation. They are also a rich source of potassium, fibre and magnesium.



Green or ripe, bananas are well known for their high potassium content, but also contain pectin, carbs and fibre, and have little salt or fat. Green bananas contain a large amount of resistant (or indigestible) starch. Including bananas in your diet helps to control blood sugar, improve digestion, maintain normal blood pressure and heart function, and increases energy.



BLUEBERRIES: High in vitamins C and K, fibre, and manganese, but it is their exceptionally high level of antioxidants that puts them on the "superfruit" list. Because antioxidants support nerve function and brain health, regular consumption of blueberries may boost brainpower and reduce the risk of dementia. These tiny fruits may also reduce the risk of heart disease and diabetes.


Cherries are well known for their high content of Vitamins C, potassium and fibre. But they also contain the antioxidants — anthocyanins and carotenoids — which help reduce inflammation. Cherry juice contains melatonin, a hormone that sends a sleep signal to the brain, enhancing sleep quality and duration.

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Small but powerful. They are an excellent source of Vitamins C and K, manganese, fibre and antioxidants, help reduce inflammation and aging of arteries, and protect against cancer and heart disease.






Small and red with a sweet tangy taste, strawberries are highly nutritious. Best known for their richness in vitamin C, manganese, folate and potassium, these berries protect against oxidative and inflammatory damage. They are low on the glycaemic index and high in antioxidant capacity. Strawberries help control blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases.

The grapefruit is one of the healthiest of the citrus clan. It is a super-rich source of vitamins C and A, contains high levels of fibre and potassium, as well as retinol. It’s reputed to be a go-to fruit for weight loss, helps reduce bad cholesterol and insulin levels, alleviates arthritis symptoms, repairs damage to the skin and staves off fine lines and wrinkles. However, remember that furanocoumarins, found in grapefruit juice, can interact with certain medications. If you are on medication, check with your doctor before consuming grapefruits.

DATES: These sweet fruits have been around forever and contain a variety of vitamins and minerals, and are a rich source of natural sugar and fibre, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc. They help lower cholesterol, keep muscles strong, improve bone health, strengthen the nervous system, keep your teeth healthy, are great for blood purification, promote good digestion, improve skin condition, and can assist with weight gain.

GUAVAS: This tropical fruit is loaded with vitamins A and C, and is an excellent source of manganese, folate, potassium, fibre and copper. It also has its fair share of antioxidants and pectin. Sometimes sweet, sometimes tangy, it improves digestion and reduces the risk of oxidative damage to cells, inflammation and certain types of cancer.

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GRAPES: Grapes are reputed to be a favourite of the gods. Very high in the antioxidants quercetin and resveratrol, they stand tall when it comes to healthy eating. They’re rich in potassium and iron, and help prevent anaemia and muscle cramps. They also reduce the risk of inflammation, and plant compounds found in them help keep heart, eye, joint and brain diseases at bay.

LEMONS: Everyone knows that lemons are rich in Vitamin C. But did you know that they contain other plant compounds that can help prevent kidney stones, help with weight loss and blood pressure, and promote heart health? Or that they are a source of the plant pigment, flavonoid, which can lower the risk of cancer?



Mangoes are a tropical favourite, and not just because of their variety and taste. With their high level of vitamin C, antioxidants, beta-carotene, and soluble fibre, what's not to like? They’re also known for promoting a healthy immune system and bone growth, and can protect against diabetes.




While for some people paw paw (or papaya) is an acquired taste, the health benefits are worth it. They are high in vitamins A and C, potassium, folate and the anti-cancer antioxidant lycopene. They also contain papain, an enzyme that assists with the digestion of protein. Paw paw also helps reduce the risk of cancer, heart attacks and strokes.


Rich in vitamin E, iron, copper and calcium, olives, like avocados, also contain antioxidants and oleic acid. They are known to assist in the prevention of heart disease and liver damage, and reduce the risk of cancer and osteoporosis.


In a popularity contest among fruit, oranges just may emerge the winner. Known around the world, oranges are famous for their vitamin C and potassium content. They are also rich in the B vitamins thiamine and folate, and contain flavonoids, carotenoids and citric acid. Consuming oranges can reduce the risk of kidney stones, and help with the absorption of iron, thus reducing the risk of anaemia.


Like blueberries, pomegranates have an extremely high antioxidant level — two to three times higher than the antioxidant content of red wine or green tea. They are also rich in potassium. Research suggests they can help with erectile dysfunction, reduce the risk of cancer, control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol and improve cardiovascular health. But like grapefruits, pomegranate juice may negatively interact with certain prescription drugs, so talk to your doctor before consuming pomegranate juice.


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This tropical fruit contains lots of vitamin C, manganese and bromelain — a protein-digestive enzyme. The sweet and tangy pineapple helps reduce the risk of cancer, strokes and heart attacks, reduces inflammation and can increase fertility.

Watermelon is the most hydrating among the fruit fraternity, as it is made up of 92 percent water. But there is more to this fruit than preventing dehydration. It is rich in vitamins A and C, and the antioxidants, lycopene and cucurbitacin E, which reduce risk of cancers in the digestive system and hampers tumour growth respectively. Lycopene-rich foods also reduce cholesterol and blood pressure.

THE NEXT U April to June


Fibroadenoma Learn more about these breast lumps, which are mostly harmless. Signs That You Are Socially Awkward and How to Fix It. This article can shine a light on a few characteristics of socially awkward people to help you understand if you are one of them, and tips on dealing with the awkwardness. Raisins, Sultanas and Currants Meet the family of dried fruits that are all packed with health benefits.

Article submission guidelines U strives to provide informative, educational articles emphasizing health and lifestyle in the Caribbean. We select articles that will appeal to our Caribbean audience that are uplifting, informative and pertinent to health and wellness. Policies You must submit only original and unpublished work. By submitting to us, you are giving U permission to publish your work both in a single issue and in any future publications that feature items from U. This may include compilation works, web page summaries of the magazine, etc. Although we are retaining the right to use your work, we do not take complete ownership of it. This means that if we publish your work in U, you retain the right to submit the work to other publications. All articles are accepted on speculation. Publication of any article cannot be guaranteed. U reserves the right to edit all copy.

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