U The Caribbean Health Digest - Issue 34

Page 1

JUL SEP 2016


TT$35.00 US$5.99



Is The Paleo Diet Right For Everyone? Fad diet or not, early humans may have had the answer to good health and long life! The Immune System: Sworn To Protect And Serve How do we keep our immune system intact? Abi & U Introducing our newest feature, lifestyle Chef Abigail transforms local produce and ingredients into exquisite gourmet meals. uhealthdigest.com


Sherine Mungal Stuart Fraser


Eidetic Publishing

Editorial Director

Sherine Mungal

Managing Editor

Roslyn Carrington


Our Intention candles are hand-poured purposefully crafted to inspire your senses. We use blends of only one hundred percent pure therapeutic essential oils in combinations that have been researched and proven to soothe, calm and relax. Assembled using all natural soy wax which are free for all toxins and wicks constructed from natural, cotton threads and contains no lead, zinc or other metals.

Healing Blend Lavender • Eucalyptus • Sage Purify your mind and body with the healing candle. The essential oils of lavender and refreshing eucalyptus soothe the body while reducing physical and mental fatigue. Combined with sage, the “sacred herb,” anxiety can be relieved and euphoria can ensue. Detoxify, energize and release what doesn’t serve you any longer. Prosperity Blend Cinnamon • Bergamot • Petitgrain The prosperity candle will release negativity to create and receive abundance with the aromatic blend of cinnamon, bergamot and petitgrain essential oils. This spicy blend is grounding and powerful to welcome success and a sense of stability. Inspiration Blend Lavender • Spearmint • White Spruce Restore yourself to a place of restoration and calmness with the cooling floral blend found in the inspiration candle. Combined with the essential oil of spearmint, this candle will revatilize your mind and body while increasing your energy and mental clarity. Let your creativity flow and be inspired.

p: 1 (868) 464 2134

Gratitude Blend White Spruce • Rosewood A comforting blend of white spruce and rosewood essentials oils. The gratitude candle is a great gesture of giving thanks to someone special or to light when one wants to honor their blessings in their own life. Take a few moments every day to feel what you are most grateful for and it will shift your energy immediately to a place of peace and joy.

Creative Director Design Project Coordinator Traffic Photography

Medical Advisory

Michelle Ash Maia Hibben Carol Quash Dr. Claudette Mitchell Tian Watson Stuart Fraser Eidetic Cindy Singh Lorraine Biran Shutterstock iStockPhoto Bigstock AdobeStock Dr. Neil Singh


Healthy Blend Eucalyptus • Basil • Lemongrass These inviting smells of basil and refreshing orange will delight your sense of health and well-being. Feel confident in your healthy decisions in life to stay energized and focused with this invigorating blend of neroli, basil and lemongrass essential oils. Clarity Blend Litsea Cubeba • Peppermint The cleansing fragrance of this clarity candle will clear your mind while stimulating and energizing your mood. The essential oil of litsea cubeba, combined with refreshing peppermint oil will increase your concentration and help uncover solutions in times of fatigue or stress.

e: info@tortugahills.com

w: tortugahills.com

This information is of a general nature only and is not intended as a substitute for professional health advice and no person should act in reliance on any statement contained in the information provided and at all times should obtain s p e c i f i c a d v i c e f ro m a h e a l t h professional. Eidetic Publishing has made reasonable efforts to ensure that the health information contained herein is accurate and up to date. To the extent permitted by law, Eidetic Publishing, their employees, agents and advertisers accept no liability

(even if negligent) for any injury, loss or damage caused by reliance on any part of this information. U also contains information supplied by third parties. This information is identified with the name of the source and has been chosen for publication because we believe it to be reliable. To the extent permitted by law, Eidetic Publishing, their employees, agents and advertisers accept no liability (even if negligent) for any injury, loss or damage caused by reliance on any part of this information.

U The Caribbean Health Digest is published 4 times a year by Eidetic Publishing, Gaston Court, Gaston Street, Lange Park, Chaguanas, Trinidad & Tobago. Distribution is handled by Eidetic Limited.

Entire contents are copyright. Reproduction in part or whole is prohibited. Eidetic Publishing is in no way affiliated with companies or products covered in U. Produced and printed in Trinidad & Tobago.

12 Is the Paleo Diet Right for Everyone? To many it’s considered another fad diet, but there’s no doubt that ancient diets contained foods that could still do our bodies good today. We take a look in this article, written by nutritionist Michelle Ash, on how unprocessed foods can work for us.

16 Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Oxygen... there’s plenty of it, so why would anyone need to have more from sources other than nature? Well, the reality is that certain medical conditions prevent people from getting sufficient oxygen into their bodies, and hyperbaric treatment becomes necessary. Learn more about this treatment, and the centre that provides it, right here.

24 The Immune System Fighting infections and viruses doesn’t just happen by chance. Charged with this responsibility is our body’s immune system, our own internal army of cells, tissues and organs, working together to protect us from infection.

30 Food Choices for the Kidney Diet There is one thing consistent with many different health conditions or diseases: the right diet, i.e. the food choices you make, can impact on your health and wellbeing. This is especially so for people with kidney or renal disease. Dr. Claudette Mitchell discusses solutions in this in-depth article.

40 Abi & U U welcomes a refreshing addition to our pages from here on with a series of recipes from health and lifestyle chef Abigail Bodington. Learn how you can transform local and Caribbean staples into exquisite gourmet meals using the finest and freshest ingredients, all prepared with your health in mind.

42 Cycle Trinidad for Dynamic Health and Fitness When we were children, a bicycle was all about fun, speed, and for some, the tricks you could do on them. For adults, tricks and speed may not be the motivating factor anymore, but health and fitness are. This article takes us on a little trip on exactly how you can make the most of a fitness program and explore your environment at the same time.

When we first considered the concept of this publication, long before it became reality, we imagined what would happen if we ran out of content. What if we covered everything there was to talk about related to health and wellness, diseases, etc.? What would happen then? In a perfect scenario health would not even be a consideration; we’d all be as healthy and happy as can be. Until such time, there is so much that we can all continue to learn, and believe it or not, after 33 issues and hundreds of topics covered, we have only just touched the surface. Take, for example, our feature story. Oxygen is free to us all; it’s the element that keeps much of life on earth alive. But certain medical conditions can prevent us from getting enough, and that’s where oxygen therapy comes in. Our cover story discusses the uses and procedures associated with the Hyperbaric Treatment Centre right here in Trinidad. Seems like every week there’s a new diet out there, each claiming to be the best of the lot. While we are not qualified to confirm any of this, we feel obligated to at least share what we have learnt so that you can decide on which is best for you. In this Paleo Diet article, we take you back to ancient times to look at what people back then ate, and we analyse the health benefits of the foods of that era. These are just two of the many articles in this issue that will surely pique your interest. As always, we hope you have an enjoyable read and look forward to bringing you more in the next U. Cheers!



12 | u








MPH, RD, Dip., PG Cert.

13 | u



WHAT EXACTLY IS THE PALEO DIET? According to the Oxford dictionary, the word Paleo originates from the Greek word palaios; which means 'ancient'. The Palaeolithic period extended from approximately 2.5 million to approximately 10,000 years ago. The Paleo diet (also known as the Caveman diet or Stone Age diet) is based on what is believed to have been the diet of humans during Paleolithic times. It is assumed that common foods eaten were meat and fish acquired through hunting and fishing, as well as nuts, roots, fruits, and vegetables. The modern update to this way of eating also includes those foods, but particularly and preferably grass-fed meat, game, poultry and eggs (preferably pasture-raised), wild seafood, seeds, certain oils such as olive, coconut, and walnut oil, and for some Paleo followers, honey and maple syrup in moderation. A large majority of Paleo experts disagree with the use of grains (e.g. oats, rice, wheat, corn), legumes and dried beans, potatoes, dairy foods, refined sugar, salt, processed foods, artificial ingredients. This way of eating has been recently endorsed by many Hollywood celebrities since author Loren Cordain, Ph.D., published his book on the subject. The author stated that the book was originally intended to help combat the chronic diseases of the modern world. This concept, however, is not a new one, as versions of this diet existed since the 70s and 80s.

14 | u

The Paleo diet seems to hinge on the Nutrition Transition theory, which was originated in the late 1990s by researcher, professor and author, Barry Pompkin, Ph.D. This theory sought to explain notable dietary shifts that occurred throughout various periods of history, from the hunter and gatherer era, all the way leading up to industrialisation and the advent of Westernised eating patterns.

THE HEALTHY ADVANTAGES OF THE PALEO DIET The diet includes: 1. Whole and unprocessed foods: this makes the diet very nutritious. 2. High-quality animal protein: grass-fed beef, pastured chickens, and wild seafood. These foods tend to be higher in nutrient content and gentler on the environment than conventionally raised beef and poultry, as well as farmed fish. 3. High intake of fruits and vegetables: this contributes to a lot more fibre and natural sources of vitamins and minerals that can be readily absorbed and used efficiently by the body. 4. No refined sugar or added salt: this is an excellent approach for persons with pre-diabetes/diabetes or high blood pressure respectively. 5. Diets such as the Paleo, which is rich in lean protein and plant-based foods, can tend to make you feel fuller for longer periods, control blood sugar levels, and help you lose weight.

SOME DRAWBACKS AND CONSIDERATIONS 1. The Paleo diet is expensive for those with modest budgets — eliminating affordable ingredients such as grains and beans, and prescribing grass-fed meat and pasture-raised chicken makes this diet an expensive proposition for some. 2. There is not enough evidence to support claims that all grains and grain-based foods should be excluded from the diet. Such foods are rich in B-vitamins. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, and reduced risk of being overweight. Also, a diet high in whole grains and legumes can help reduce weight gain.


3. There is no reason that most people should exclude legumes and beans from their diets. Aside from vegetables and fruit, legumes (e.g. lentils and chick peas) are also an excellent source of fibre; they are high in protein and have great satiating value. 4. There is insufficient evidence to support claims that all dairy foods and alternatives should be excluded from most diets. Such foods are very good sources of calcium, vitamin D as well as some B-vitamins. 5. Many animal proteins are high in saturated fat, which is closely linked to high cholesterol and heart disease. 6. Eating large amounts of red meat is also simply not compatible with a healthy planet. Dr. S. Boyd Eaton, an early adopter of the Paleo diet since the 1980s, advocates a more eco-friendly version of the diet — one that’s high in protein but primarily from plant-based sources. There is evidence for Dr. Eaton's argument and these foods were indeed available to, and consumed by cavemen and therefore there is no need to exclude them from the diet. 7. For those who don't have the time to always shop and cook from scratch or possess cooking skills, the Paleo diet can prove to be a challenge to keep up with in the long term for both themselves and their families. 8. While there are some existing studies on certain aspects of the Paleo diet, there simply aren't enough good quality studies to suggest the Paleo diet is beneficial to various populations around the world. Thus far, the diet fails to provide all nutrients as per current recommendations, and excludes many single-item foods and also whole food groups.



PALEO MEETS CARIBBEAN STYLE Caribbean cuisine often involves the use of starchy fruits, roots and tubers in many dishes, therefore it's an easy adoption for many islanders wanting to experiment with the Paleo diet with a hint of Caribbean flavour. Below are a few examples of items to inspire budding chefs: • • • • •

Cassava bread Breadfruit fish cakes Plantain and minced chicken-veggie casserole Pineapple chow Coconut-curry steamed fish

Feel free to email the author of this article at michelle.ash.tt@gmail.com with any of your nutrition questions or concerns. REFERENCES Wolf, Robb, and Loren Cordain. 2010. The paleo solution: the original human diet. Caballero, Benjamin, and Barry M. Popkin, eds. The Nutrition Transition: Diet and Disease in the Developing World. New York: Academic Press, 2002.

Until conclusive scientific proof is shown, unfortunately the Paleo diet will remain in the category of "fad diet". However, the good advice from Paleo includes shifting to a diet that includes less processed foods and empty calories and more whole and nutrient-dense foods. Additionally, it may be wise to adopt an approach that fits your lifestyle, budget, beliefs and priorities.

15 | u

16 | u










At first glance you might think, as I did, that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (or HBOT) is something to do with scuba diving, and it is indeed used to treat decompression sickness (the bends). But as I learnt from meeting the team at the Hyperbaric Treatment Centre in St Clair, Port of Spain, it can also be used for a vast array of medical conditions, with incredible effect. This treatment can quite literally mean the difference between life and limb.

WHAT IS HBOT? HBOT is a simple, non-invasive, painless treatment. It involves breathing 100% pure oxygen in a specially designed chamber. The pressure in the chamber is 2 – 3 times greater than normal atmospheric air pressure. This combination of increased air pressure and increased levels of pure oxygen allows the oxygen to dissolve into your blood, cells, tissue and fluids at 20 times higher concentration than normal.

17 | u




BUT WHY IS INCREASED OXYGEN IMPORTANT? Oxygen is necessary for sustaining life. In fact, it is the primary ingredient that the body requires to enhance healing. It is the essential bodily requirement for the stimulation, preservation and growth of all tissues and cells. But we breathe oxygen every minute of every day, so what is significant about this treatment? Normally, we take in about 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen when we breathe. This oxygen is transported by red blood cells. When you receive HBOT with 100% pure oxygen, it dissolves straight into all the fluids in the body: your plasma, central nervous system fluids, the lymph, bone, as well as your blood. This means your body receives concentrated amounts of oxygen at a faster rate, and this oxygen can be carried to areas it would not normally reach, areas where circulation may be damaged or blocked. Dr Ahmad Rahman, Medical Director at the Hyperbaric Treatment Centre, explains, “Essentially, the oxygen acts like a drug – HBOT provides a ‘therapeutic dose’ (as opposed to a dose that just sustains life) – and this dose dramatically increases the body’s ability to heal itself”.

BENEFITS OF HBOT HBOT directly promotes healing because it: • • •

Increases the ability of white blood cells to kill bacteria and remove toxins Decreases swelling and inflammation in the body Reduces hypoxia (an inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue) and repairs damaged tissue

• • •

Promotes growth of new blood vessels (capillaries), which allows the body to create new blood pathways, increasing the reach of oxygen throughout the body Improves the body’s immune system and its ability to fight infection Saves limbs and relieves pain Recovers marginally functioning/dormant cells, including brain neurons

WHAT IS HBOT USED TO TREAT? The list of conditions is surprisingly diverse. Currently, there are 14 official conditions or indications that HBOT can be used for that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). • • • • • • • • •

18 | u

Chronic non-healing wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers Carbon monoxide poisoning Air or gas embolisms (bubbles of air in your blood vessels) Gas gangrene (clostridia myositis and myonecrosis) Crushing injury, compartment syndrome and other acute ischemias Decompression sickness Severe anaemia Brain abscess Necrotizing soft tissue infections (infection of skin or bone that causes tissue death) Skin graft or skin flap at risk of tissue death

• • • •

Delayed radiation injury Acute thermal burn injury Sudden deafness Sudden and painless vision loss

This list will continue to grow as a result of research. The implications of this therapy are far reaching, and in other parts of the world it is being used to treat conditions such as autism, stoke, cerebral palsy, sporting injuries, and increasingly for cosmetic surgery. HBOT is used exclusively to treat some conditions, such as decompression sickness (the bends), arterial gas embolism, and severe carbon monoxide poisoning. With other conditions it used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan and administered with other therapies and drugs that fit your individual needs.




WHAT ARE THE RISKS? Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is performed under medical supervision, but there are very few risks and it is considered an extremely safe therapy; even on a global level complications are rare. Sometimes there are minor temporary side-effects, such as fullness in the ears or sinuses due to the change in air pressure in the chamber. Patients are taught techniques to help clear their ears to relieve any discomfort. Patients can also experience light-headedness or blurry vision, but again it is usually minor and temporary. In short, the benefits can far outweigh any of the potentially minor side-effects.

WHAT ARE THE ISSUES FOR TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO? The team explains that there are four conditions they commonly treat in T&T:

team emphasises that the earlier their patients seek HBOT the better.

Dr Dale Maharaj, Medical Director of the Caribbean Vascular and Vein Clinic in St Clair, and a leading vascular and diabetic surgeon, who works closely with the team, praised the Hyperbaric Treatment Centre, stating that “there have been fantastic results seen thus far in the patients treated, and the centre has been able to save many limbs that would have been otherwise lost.” He explains that “HBOT is useful in circumstances where the blood supply to the lower limb is compromised and cannot be restored by surgery or angioplasty. In some instances, HBOT can be used in conjunction with successful revascularization to improve the oxygenation of the blood supplying the foot and toes. We have had an 80% success rate in these patients." However, like all other wound care treatments, HBOT will only be useful in selected cases, and a thorough evaluation of the patient by a qualified medical professional in this specialty is important.

• • •

Chronic non-healing wounds, such as diabetic wounds and ulcers Acute necrotizing skin/soft tissue damage Chronic deep-seated bone infections Delayed radiation tissue damage (a conditions that can develop 2 – 3 yrs after having radiation treatment).

There is an obvious link between the high rates of diabetes in T&T and the number of diabetes-related injuries/conditions that they see. The team also tends to see very serious cases — injuries and conditions that are at such a late stage that the treatment literally can mean the difference between the loss of a limb or life and death. This corresponds directly with the high rate of amputations in Trinidad, which could be as high as 400 amputations a year. What does this mean? It means that the general public needs better sensitization about these types of conditions and they need to seek medical attention at an earlier stage. The

HOW DO YOU ACCESS HBOT TREATMENT? Established in 2012, The Hyperbaric Treatment Centre in St Clair is Trinidad and Tobago’s first medical facility specializing in hyperbaric medicine. It specializes in delivering state-of-the-art oxygen therapy via its top-of-the-line equipment and through its certified, highly qualified and knowledgeable staff. Speak to your healthcare provider or GP if you are suffering from an approved condition that can be treated with HBOT. Call the Hyperbaric Treatment Centre in St Clair on 628-9261, or visit their website at oxygenhealingtt.com, or visit their Facebook page for more information. If you have a HBOT-treatable condition and you call the centre, they will arrange a consultation with the Medical Director, Dr Ahmad Rahman. He will assess your case and suggest a course of treatment. Treatment usually consists of a course of sessions which last 60 – 120 mins each; these will be administered back to back or consistently over a period of time.

19 | u


BLUE WATERS CRAN+ Cran+ is a Cranberry flavoured beverage that comes in four flavours - Cran, Cran/Grape, Cran/Lime and now Cran/Apple! CRAN+ has the added benefits of Low Calories (only 45 calories), Low Sugar (Only 9 grams of sugar per serving) and contains Antioxidants, Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Ginseng. Vitamin A contains retinol, which is essential to the formation of visual purple in the retina, which allows vision in dim light.

Ginseng provides an energy boost, lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels, reduces stress, and can promote relaxation.

Vitamin E protects against toxins such as air pollution, premenstrual syndrome, eye disorders such as cataracts, neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes. In fact, cranberries have been proven to have more naturally-occurring antioxidants per gram than most other common fruit.

CRAN+ is a refreshing beverage and a great choice for anyone who is health conscious or someone who wants something a little sweet but doesn’t want all the calories of a full sugary drink. Cran+ is great for the whole family and is a great choice for your kid’s lunch kits.




Manager - Sales, Guardian Asset Management

T: (868) 632 6000

E: Stacy.Hosam-Israel@myguardiangroup.com

When you picture your life, does it just seem like one long ‘rat race’, living paycheck to paycheck, trying to reach for your ‘cheese’ that always seems out of reach, or perhaps like a hamster in a ball, working, earning a salary, paying the same bills and loans, in the same job or position, and getting nowhere fast? Do you have friends or family who seem to have gotten the hang of saving, but you can’t seem to figure out how they do it? I have a secret for you! Did you know that success in savings and investing depends less on the amount of money you earn and more on having the right mindset and discipline to save consistently? It’s not about waiting until you start earning a bigger salary, or have fewer bills. The reality is if you can’t manage the salary you currently earn, chances are you won’t be able to manage having a larger salary either, as you become a slave to ‘Lifestyle Inflation’ — Increasing your spending when your income goes up, always able to justify your next discretionary purchase, because you think you can afford it.

POWER: Is social status and social power important to you, do you wish others to acknowledge you because of your perceived superior wealth. Do you like the idea of controlling your friends and associates with money? Investing may be even more important to you because you want to ensure that your wealth continues to grow and grow.

I’m sure you may know of someone who earns a larger salary than you do, yet always seems to be struggling, perhaps even turning to you for a loan. That’s a clear indication of possible mismanagement of his/her funds. One of the life lessons you are sure to learn, hopefully sooner than later, is “your financial success in life will be determined by the choices YOU make”. It all boils down to having or not having good money management habits. But where does this start?

Think about the last argument you may have had about money with your parents, spouse, children or even business partner, and you will observe it’s rarely about the money and more about the deep seated feelings around that money, whether it is security and safety or freedom and flexibility.

Our financial choices are largely shaped by our values, our lifestyle and how money makes us feel. Our early life experiences lend to the phrase “Children live what they learn and learn what they see”.

Our lifestyle choices dictate how we want to feel, either now or in the future. Perhaps we see the need to live each day as if it were the last, with no thought for tomorrow, “tomorrow will take care of itself, I will spend as I want, go where I want, I can always pay it off later, I have time!”

Was your household one where you observed sticking to a budget, prudent spending and savings, one where delayed gratification was encouraged? Or, do you recall your family living paycheck to paycheck, never having enough or perhaps just the opposite, money being no problem at all? Our life experiences dictate our attitude to money now. You may associate money with: SECURITY: Money enables you to satisfy your daily needs for food, healthcare, housing, transportation and clothing. When money is perceived as limited you become stressed and anxious and feel inclined to save even more. This may inhibit your investing because you never want to chance losing any money. The downside is your money remains in hand but does not grow. LOVE: Perhaps in your household your loved ones either had limited time or didn’t know how to express themselves emotionally and believed they gained your love and acceptance by buying you things to express this love, which you in turn mimic now. If you don’t have the financial capacity this pattern can eventually place you in debt.

FREEDOM: The power to live life on your terms, debt-free, independent to choose whatever lifestyle you desire. This is the Zen state most desire. Living your life on your terms!

Our lifestyle goals are influenced by our friends, family, circles of influence, social media, even movies and music, advertisements or perhaps desire for a certain reputation.

Or I want to enjoy a decent enough lifestyle while I work today and I am willing to forego my instant gratification (the newest electronics, car, travelling every year, etc.) for the delayed gratification of knowing that I will have more than enough and be comfortable enough to retire debt free, live the life I want and pass on some to my loved ones. It all starts with taking control, understanding where you are and where you want to be. You can experience great breakthroughs when it comes to your financial decisions, if you understand and master your own feelings about money and choose to develop and maintain a disciplined and positive mindset. This will place you on the path to success. Just like other habits and skills, poor money management habits can actually be passed from generation to generation and lead to a never-ending cycle of debt and even poverty, which you in turn can pass on to your children. The great news is that you can put an end to this cycle of bad habits! Start today; seek the advice of a trusted Investment Advisor like those at Guardian Asset Management and live the life you deserve.





24 | u






25 | u




For as long as I can remember, every year I nurse a bad cold from the Christmas into the Carnival season. “That is because your immune system needs a boost,” my doctor always tells me when I go to see him for the unbearable sore throat and high fever, along with the uncontrollable coughing. His prescriptions almost always include antibiotics “for the infection”, some immune-boosting supplements, and an admonition to increase my intake of fruits and vegetables and get plenty of rest.

The immune system is the body's natural defence against diseases and infections that can cause damage to the body. It identifies the threat, attacks, and eliminates it from the body. The system is made up of a network of cells and organs that work in tandem to ensure that the body is protected from infection and disease-bearing germs, viruses and bacteria. The white blood cells include B-cells, which produce antibodies to fight against bacteria and toxins, and T-cells, which assist in the destruction of cells that have been infected or are cancerous. These blood cells can be considered the foot soldiers, as they are the ones that actually launch the attack and take out the invaders, while the organs work to provide a support system that ensures the cells are ever present and healthy enough to perform their duties.

The system is made up of a network of cells and organs that work in tandem to ensure that the body is protected from infection and disease-bearing germs, viruses and bacteria.

• The spleen, the largest of the lymphatic organs, which also houses white blood cells • The bone marrow, which produces white blood cells • The thymus, which creates a safe place for the T-cells to mature While the immune system may be the body's natural defence, it can suffer casualties and fatalities if it is neglected, much like soldiers in a war. According to an article posted on sciencedaily.com; “Defects of the immune system lead to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune diseases (e.g. inflammatory rheumatism), allergies, and sometimes even cancer. An intact immune system, on the other hand, ensures physical health and well-being.” But how do we keep our immune system intact? An article published on www.health.harvard.edu explains, “Your first line of defence is to choose a healthy lifestyle. Following general good-health guidelines is the single best step you can take toward keeping your immune system strong and healthy,” especially as we grow older. “The aging process somehow leads to a reduction of immune response capability, which in turn contributes to more infections, more inflammatory diseases, and more cancer,” the article continues.

These organs include:

26 | u

• The lymph nodes, which are responsible for producing and storing the white blood cells

One of the biggest immune system boosters is proper diet. An increased intake of fruits, herbs and vegetables, especially those that are rich in


antioxidants, Vitamin C and E, zinc, and beta-carotene, such as citrus fruits, red grapes, apples, kale, fresh garlic, onions, spinach, sweet potatoes, and carrots, work wonders in helping the system to fight off diseases and infections. There are also a number of supplements available on the market that can help boost the immune system. And research has shown that cutting back on sugar intake aids the foot soldiers in their battle. “Eating or drinking too much sugar curbs immune system cells that attack bacteria. This effect lasts for at least a few hours after downing a couple of sugary drinks,” reports an article in

While the immune system may be the body's natural defence, it can suffer casualties and fatalities if it is neglected, much like soldiers in a war. webmd.com. Regular exercise too has been found to be a good place to start in maintaining a healthy immune network. “Try to get regular, moderate exercise, like a daily 30-minute walk. It can help your immune system fight infection. If you don't exercise regularly, you're more likely to get colds, for example, than someone who does,” webmd.com says. Research has also shown that exercise increases endorphins, a chemical that triggers a positive feeling in the body. Another important immune booster is getting enough sleep. It is recommended that adults should get between seven and nine hours of sleep per day, while children should get between ten and eleven hours. “You may have noticed you’re more likely to catch a cold or other infection when you’re not getting enough sleep. Studies help bear out that well-rested people who received the flu



vaccine developed stronger protection against the illness. Although researchers aren’t exactly sure how sleep boosts the immune system, it’s clear that getting enough — usually seven to nine hours for an adult — is key for good health,” the article points out. Stress is unavoidable because it is a part of everyday life. But if not managed it can lead to a breakdown in the immune system. “Everyone has some stress; it's part of life. If stress drags on for a long time, it makes you more vulnerable to illness, from colds to serious diseases. Chronic stress exposes your body to a steady stream of stress hormones that suppress the immune system,” webmd.com explains. So how do you manage your stress levels? Studies have shown that yoga and meditation are excellent stress management tools. Taking a break for some 'me time' every now and again has been found to be a great stress reliever, as is socialising. “People who feel connected to friends — whether it’s a few close friends or a large group — have stronger immunity than those who feel alone, studies show. Although there are many other things that affect your health, making meaningful connections with people is always a good idea,” webmd.com advises, especially if there is laughter involved. After all, laughter is supposed to be the best medicine. “Laughing is good for you. It curbs the levels of stress hormones in your body and boosts a type of white blood cell that fights infection.” And if your stress level becomes overwhelming, it may be time to consider seeking professional help. So with the beginning of the Christmas season just a few months away, and Carnival band launches already going on, maybe it's time I start giving my body's homeland security personnel the boost they need to help me avoid a trip to the doctor's office and to keep a few dollars in my pocket during this guava season.

27 | u


THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The immune system works by first identifying alien bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites lurking in the body, and then sends its troops — white blood cells — to destroy the invaders and the tissues they affect.

1 2

Each part of the immune system has a unique function in protecting the body. For example, lymphocytes, a specific type of white blood cells, work to allow the body to remember the invading microbes, to fight them faster in future infections. Other parts of the immune system include the bone marrow, where the white blood cells are produced; lymph nodes, which produce and store infection-fighting cells throughout the body; and the spleen, which helps control the amount of blood in the body and cleans out old or damaged blood cells from the body.


Vaccines play an important role in educating your immune system. They work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against a foreign invader without actually infecting the individual with the disease. As a result, when the body encounters that infection in the future, it knows how to fight it off.


One of the first responses by the immune system is inflammation. Common symptoms of inflammation in the body include redness, swelling, pain, and even heat at the site of inflammation. It can also occur inside the body, where we can’t see it.


The immune system benefits from laughter. It is estimated that 20 minutes of laughter each day helps to keep the immune system healthy, because laughing releases hormones that decrease stress.



Sleep is very important for person’s immune system. If a person does not get enough sleep every night, their immune system becomes tired and it cannot do its job.

7 8 9 10

Stress can damage a person’s immune system. Some stress is good, but too much of the bad stress can make the immune system unhealthy. This leaves the person more vulnerable to all types of illnesses. Some people are born with almost no immune system and must live in an environment that is completely sterile to avoid becoming sick. Your immune system works hard to protect you every day, but there are things you can do to help it out. Practice good hygiene; washing your hands can prevent infections. Eating nutritious food and staying active will also help your body fight off infections.

30 | u










Ph.D., RD

Assistant Professor, University of the Southern Caribbean, School of Education and Humanities

Finding a solution for making mealtimes enjoyable is sometimes a task for persons on a kidney (renal) diet. But mealtimes are happy times for all members within the household. Therefore, as the meal manager, having knowledge of food and nutrition as it relates to therapeutic diets, using your creativity, and being willing to try new recipes can go a long way. The aim should be to prepare tasty meals that can aid in improving or maintaining health.

31 | u




NUTRITION THERAPY GOALS For the kidney patient/client, the medical nutrition therapy goals are to maintain nutritional status; provide a palatable diet customized to meet his or her nutritional needs and lifestyle; prevent and/or delay complications related to the disease state, such as renal osteodystrophy, by regulating calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes; control oedema and maintain electrolyte balance by monitoring sodium, potassium, and fluid intakes; and promote health and well-being, working towards improving the quality of life. The diet should provide adequate calories and protein to aid in maintaining nitrogen balance; other nutrients such as carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals are also essential in the diet. Overall, the key point is to consume meals and snacks that are nutritious and balanced.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW Generally, the kidneys have excretory, metabolic, and endocrine functions. They maintain homeostatic balance of fluids, electrolytes, and organic solutes; control blood pressure; maintain calcium-phosphorus homeostasis; regulate sodium, water, and solutes in the body; excrete metabolic end products and foreign substances; and participate in the production of enzymes and hormones, e.g. produce the hormone erythropoietin. Also, the formation of urine is a key function of the kidney, which aids in the maintenance of homeostasis. From this brief overview, you can see the significance of the functions of the kidneys; however, kidney disease, which can be described as debilitating, negatively impacts the quality of life for many persons. During kidney disease, the kidneys do not function properly to remove the waste products from the body. Risk factors include: uncontrolled blood pressure, diabetes mellitus (uncontrolled blood sugar levels over a period of time), heart disease, family history of chronic kidney disease (CKD), hereditary factors – polycystic kidney disease, and damage from a direct forceful blow to the kidneys or prolonged consumption of over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers.

32 | u

Moreover, as kidney function decreases, the meal plan must be adjusted to aid in maintaining one’s nutritional status. But there are some compounding problems that might impact dietary intakes, as well as the health of such individuals.

These include and are not limited to physiological factors — nausea and vomiting, diabetic retinopathy resulting in impaired vision, taste alterations, fatigue, anorexia, emotional distress, unpalatable diet, and food-medication interaction. There are also social barriers — inadequate or no income, inability to prepare meals and snacks, living alone, depression, skipped meals due to busy schedules, and lack of motivation and family support; and endocrine disorders associated with uraemia, e.g. hyperparathyrodism, hyperglucagonemia, resistance to the action of insulin; undesirable food choices; and non-compliance with diet prescription.




WORKING WITH THE KIDNEY DIET Good nutrition helps in providing energy, preventing infection, building muscle, maintaining a healthy weight, and preventing/minimizing complications of kidney disease. When planning the menu, remember that the kidney diet may differ at times based on treatment, e.g. for persons diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and not receiving dialysis treatment, the diet should comprise less protein compared to those receiving dialysis. Minerals (sodium, potassium, and phosphorus) and fluids within the diet are usually less, but can be adjusted to suit the patient’s needs . The diet can vary based on the kidney function and any other disease state; e.g., if the person was previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, elevated cholesterol levels, etc. Then a combination diet is recommended (renal/diabetic diet or renal/low-fat diet). Having just the right amount of calories, protein,

vitamins and minerals can be somewhat difficult at times. However, a registered dietitian nutritionist can provide the appropriate nutrition education and assist with meal planning; hence, the patient and his/her spouse, significant other or family member should attend the planned education session. This level of emotional support is critical in helping individuals achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle in the midst of adjusting to treatment and trying to manage the disease state. The meal manager should consider the food preferences of all persons within the household and encourage them to not only share their ideas, but also to include some favourite local cuisines. For the kidney patient, knowledge of protein choices and foods that are low, moderate and high in potassium, phosphorus, and sodium are essential. You should also monitor your fluid intake.

POINTS TO NOTE When working with special diets, meal planning becomes easier if the meal manager/chef/cook has knowledge about the role of the aforementioned nutrients in the body. Protein, a macronutrient, is required for growth, repair, and maintenance; aids in the formation of antibodies, hormones, and enzymes; and acts as a transporter for other nutrients. Good sources include meat, poultry, fish, egg, cheese, milk, yogurt, and meat substitutes (legumes and soy products). Minerals such as potassium manage blood pressure levels; activate muscles and nerves; and aid in the regulation of acid-base balance in body fluids. Excess potassium, or an insufficient quantity in the blood, may result in problems. It is critical for persons with kidney disease to monitor their potassium level, and adjust the diet accordingly; sometimes medication is prescribed for this specific purpose. Phosphorus works with calcium in the unique role of building strong bones and teeth; best sources include milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, peanut butter, nuts, dried peas and beans, cocoa, bran and bran cereals, etc. High phosphorus levels in your blood may contribute to the build-up of calcium in your blood vessels, heart, joints, and muscles. Calcium is required for the formation of bones and teeth; essential for muscle and nerve activity, and blood clotting. Good sources of calcium (milk, cheese, and yogurt) are also high in phosphorus. Management of blood pressure is also very important. Be mindful of your salt intake. You can choose to take steps like omitting seasoning salt (e.g. garlic salt, onion salt, and celery salt), canned foods, dehydrated soups, bouillon cubes, salted chips, salted nuts and snacks, and processed meats. Instead choose fresh seasonings such as onion, garlic, pimentos, spices, and green peppers to flavour your meals, frozen or fresh vegetables, unsalted crackers and snacks. Also, take some time to read the food label, checking for the amount of sodium in the product.

33 | u

Health Care

On The Go There’s no question about where most people spend their time today… that’s right, on their mobile phones or smart devices. Statistics reveal that right here in Trinidad and Tobago we have over 700,000 smart phone users, so it’s no surprise that mobile apps are quickly becoming one of the most sought-after marketing tools for many companies, including even healthcare providers. St. Augustine Private Hospital (SAPH) was one of the first private hospitals in Trinidad to launch a mobile app, integrating technology of the day with convenience and placing it in the hands of its customers. The SAPH app allows its patients to interact with the hospital community and to access all the services and benefits offered. Available for free download on Google Play and Apple Stores for both Android and Apple devices, the functionality of this app is intended

to transform the traditional understanding of “patient satisfaction”, while increasing patient accessibility in the most engaging and interactive way. Globally, smartphone users are using medical apps more and more every day. It’s refreshing to know that here in Trinidad and Tobago we are part of a movement for mobilization, convenience, and, most important, improved health care for our citizens.


Complete Storage Solutions introduces the next level in storage management facilities. Whatever your storage needs are, be smart about the choices you make and put it in the hands of the experts. We can simply and securely manage your every storage need, while providing you (the N-USER) with web access to your files at your finger-tips 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Call us today for a free consultation.







CALCIUM While you have heard the term “calcium deficiency” quite often, you probably have never heard it referred to as a “disease” before, but it is, in fact. Calcium Deficiency Disease, also known as Hypocalcemia, occurs when you don’t get sufficient calcium, a vital mineral that our body needs to not only build strong bones and teeth but also to stabilize blood pressure. When there is a calcium deficiency in your body you can be at a greater risk of developing conditions such as chronic diarrhoea, vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis (a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile). Since our bodies do not produce calcium, we are encouraged to consume the right foods to ensure that we get our daily recommended dose. Sometimes that’s not always possible and in those instances where our diet falls short we have to look at calcium supplements as an option. It’s important, however, to understand exactly how much calcium you need, and the pros and cons associated with calcium supplements, as they may not be for everyone. In the chart below, the Mayo Clinic reveals the recommended daily allowance for calcium for adults, stressing that if the daily upper limit is exceeded it may result in problems related to excessive calcium.


Daily RDA

Daily Upper Limit

19 - 50 years 51 - 70 years 71 and older

1,000 mg 1,000 mg 1,200 mg

2,500 mg 2,000 mg 2,000 mg


Daily RDA

Daily Upper Limit

19 - 50 years 51 and older

1,000 mg 1,200 mg

2,500 mg 2,000 mg

36 | u

Like many other things in life, striking the right balance is key, as the risks associated with both low or high calcium intake can be equally damaging to one’s health. Preventing the occurrence of calcium deficiency is the best way of treating it, and, as always, we recommend a visit to your doctor, who would perhaps be the best guide to you on your calcium intake.

The Of The

Matter Cardiovascular disease is a complex of conditions associated with injury to or illness of the heart and blood vessels throughout the body and within the brain. A small portion of heart ailments may be caused by genetics or a pre-existing health condition. But read the list of risk factors associated with heart disease — inactivity, obesity, high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol and diabetes — and you quickly understand that this condition is largely preventable. “I’m stunned by the reality that, contrary to popular belief, cardiovascular disease kills more women (30% of all deaths) than men (28% of all deaths).” Herein lies my professional challenge. I believe in the natural health and healing powers of the human body. My practice reflects my enthusiasm — zeal even — about our individual ability to be well, to manage our health and to lead vital, vigorous lives. I also understand that in a busy world, super-keener healthy habits are sometimes easier said than done. But if I have one message to share, it is that cardiovascular disease is largely preventable if you choose a heart-healthy lifestyle. In fact, take charge of your health now and by age 50, your risk of developing heart disease drops by 92%.

Use It or Lose It Exercise is a beautiful thing. Physical activity in your daily life helps reduce stress, boost mood, increase energy, improve sleep and optimize digestion. A study of 73,000 post-menopausal women found that brisk walking and intense exercise substantially reduces the incidence of heart disease compared to the increased risk associated with prolonged sitting. Starting may be hard, but the rewards will keep you hooked. For optimal heart health, the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend adults get 150 minutes of moderate to

vigorous physical activity per week. I tell my patients: “Get your heart rate up and sweat for 20 minutes every day!” If your budget or schedule won’t allow you to join a gym, go low-tech by walking to work, walking your dog or riding a stationary bike at home.

skin and appearance of your complexion.

Eat Right, Live Right

Diet or Supplements?

Healthy eating can change your life. Your diet should prominently feature fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fibre, lean protein and healthy fats found in fish oil, olive oil, avocados and nuts. Saturated fat, refined sugar, salt, alcohol and processed foods are the items you want to limit. These foods won’t boost your vitality or improve your overall wellness. Many offer empty calories that won’t nourish your body or improve your cardio health.

I always recommend diet first for nutrition. That said, it’s difficult to achieve a therapeutic dose of Omega-3 from food alone, especially when fish contains a toxic cocktail of environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs and organochlorines.

New research shows that healthy eating can literally extend your life. A ground-breaking study published recently in Hypertension found that women who ate little to no fish had 50% more heart problems than those women who regularly included fish in their diets. Fish is rich in polyunsaturated Omega-3 essential fatty acids, which influence several molecular pathways in the body and have a significant impact on your health. Omega-3 essential fatty acids lower triglycerides, heart rate and blood pressure. This essential nutrient also improves heart function and efficiency. Fish oil also supports the health of blood vessels and reduces blood viscosity, thereby lowering the risk of platelets clotting and sticking to artery walls. As a bonus, Omega-3 oils decrease inflammation (associated with arthritis and eczema) and improve the texture of your

“Omega-3 essential fatty acids lower triglycerides, heart rate and blood pressure. This essential nutrient also improves heart function and efficiency.”

Flax is an option for Omega-3, but it is less effective. Studies consistently show that animal-based Omega-3 sources, such as fish, are better used by the human body. So my recommendation is to limit dietary fish to one or two servings per week and to supplement your Omega-3 intake with a pure and potent fish-oil supplement. Jamieson’s family of omega supplements are made using EFA-rich fish oil from small, plankton-feeding species — sardines and anchovies — that are captured by Peru’s world-leading sustainable fishery. These smaller species are naturally lower in contaminants compared to larger carnivorous species, such as salmon and halibut. Before Jamieson encapsulates these oils, they undergo a patented “stripping” procedure to remove the impurities that contaminate our oceans. Whether you choose a liquid or softgel formula, Jamieson gives you the best of Omega-3 nutrition. It’s the ultimate, simple act of prevention that will reward you with good health for years to come.




40 | u

his issue of U marks the start of a new relationship, as Lifestyle Chef Abigail and U launch the first of a series of healthy recipes using all local and Caribbean grown produce and ingredients. The flavours that we are about to explore will have your taste buds asking for more, and without wanting to reveal too much too early, there is a lot more that we have in store from Abi and U.


ABIGAIL BODINGTON’s love of fresh food prepared well began as a young girl growing up in Trinidad — from helping her grandmother plant and pick home-grown herbs and vegetables, to shopping with her in the local markets, to being right in the middle of the kitchen with her fingers in the pot, sneaking a taste or making a mess, but always watching and learning and making suggestions to add to the mix. Her keen interest in cooking was enhanced while she was a student of the Italian Culinary Academy of New York, and her love of the culinary arts later took her on a journey to over twenty-five countries, where she explored the local cuisines, visited their local street markets, and infused each country’s culture into her personal style of cooking. Abi leads a healthy lifestyle through eating well and staying fit. The endurance required to run marathons is matched by her desire to prepare nutritious food using fresh local ingredients, and her passion to present meals that are also pleasing to the eye. As a private chef she is able to create bold and unique flavours that are highly personalized yet satisfy her clients’ tastes through healthy, flavourful and beautifully-presented food options.



Oven Roasted

Preparation Time

Cook Time


15 Minutes

15 Minutes

4 People




Portobello Tomatoes Cilantro Garlic Feta cheese Sea salt Black pepper Olive oil Spinach

2 medium 2 small ¼ cup, chopped 2 cloves ¼ cup 2 tbs 1 tbs 2 tbs 4 cups

Preheat oven to 400°F. Remove stem from mushroom and take a spoon and scrape the gills from around the inside. Lay mushroom on baking tray with smooth side facing down. Add fresh spinach to mushroom. Chop tomatoes, garlic and cilantro, add sea salt, black pepper, mix together in a bowl and scoop on top spinach, sprinkle sea salt, and bake for 15 mins. When done, add feta cheese and chopped cilantro on top.

A single Portobello contains more potassium than a banana.

41 | u

42 | u










Cyclists see considerably more of this beautiful world than any other class of citizens. A good bicycle, well applied, will cure most ills this flesh is heir to. – Dr. K.K. Doty Quite frequently, people intending to jump on the fitness train are at a loss as to what option/s to choose. This dilemma may also be faced by those opting to add some variety to their workout schedule.

If you find yourself in this category, cycling in Trinidad could be a viable and invigorating option when structuring your journey toward achieving dynamic health and fitness.

43 | u




The safety concern Having cycled in different parts of the world, I do share the sentiment that some of our country’s vehicle drivers, do not possess proper “sporting etiquette” when it comes to cyclists. Respecting cyclists and giving them deserved priority on our nation’s roads seems to be lacking. We are, however, making progress in this department. This is evidenced in the recent Share the Road campaigns, the cycle lane allocation around the Queens Park Savannah, and the Sunday morning closing of the Diego Martin Main Road for the purpose of running and cycling. In addition, cycling as a form of fitness and recreation is rapidly growing in our country; this in itself will contribute to raising awareness levels.

Options for cyclists in Trinidad This point has been highlighted early: cycling and road safety is a factor many persons consider when embarking on this activity. Fortunately, in Trinidad, athletes have a few options, which drastically reduce the safety concerns for this sport and hence give ample room to reap the invaluable benefits on offer. Firstly, there is the option of the Asylum Cycling Center located at the Asylum Fitness and Training Center, Manning St., Diego Martin. Here, cycling enthusiasts can ride to their heart’s content, on visually simulated cycle routes around the island. Secondly, one can join one of the many police-escorted weekend rides to various destinations around the island. Details of these can be obtained at any of the prominent cycling stores thought the country. Bicycles can also be rented from some of these stores.

44 | u

Thirdly, one can plunge directly into mountain biking and ride many of

the well-maintained trails. A good variety of entry-level trails can be found thought the Chaguaramas area.

Some benefits and attractive characteristics of cycling Cycling, like a lot of other physical activities, can play a major role in guarding us against serious conditions such as heart disease, obesity and diabetes. There are, however, some unique benefits that cycling brings to the table, which sets it apart from other forms of exercise. Cycling can be considered a low-impact form of exercise, meaning it fosters less strain and injuries brought on by other modalities, such as running. People of all ages can participate in this activity; it can be done individually, as a group of friends, or as a family activity. It takes you through constant changes along your chosen route; this could reduce the monotonous nature that can be characteristic of other forms of exercise. This also promotes fun and adventure, if that is part of your objective. Coasting down hills, riding on trails, and just being in the natural environment could be an encouragement in itself and lead you to participate on a more regular basis. If you are experiencing severe time constraints, you can integrate cycling with items on your ‘to-do’ list or with aspects of your daily routine. That way you can ensure some form of exercise is undertaken, even if you are just fulfilling your minimum requirement. These activities could include going to the shops, riding to work, or visiting friends in your vicinity;

Choose your level of intensity. This activity can be done at a very low level of intensity, or you can make it as physically demanding as you desire. Experts in the field of physical and mental fitness suggest that it only takes 2 – 4 hours weekly of cycling, to have an overall enhancement in one’s health and fitness. This is mainly because, as you pedal, all major muscle groups are engaged. It is also an excellent way to increase endurance, strength and cardio fitness. Further to this, various articles sighted in medical publications, such as The Medial Journal of Australia, British Medical Journal and The Health Promotional Journal of Australia, seem to hold to the consensus that the cardiovascular workout that can be accomplished by cycling, as it stimulates the heart, blood vessels and lungs. There is a lot of discussion revolving around the effectiveness of cycling in making participants breathe deeper and experience desired levels of perspiration and body temperature increase. The articles in these journals also suggest cycling as an excellent medium to increase muscle strength and flexibility; increase joint mobility; help with posture and coordination; strengthen bones; reduce body fat; prevent and manage diseases; and even play a role in reducing stress levels, anxiety, and depression.

A sneak peek into cycling and disease prevention Cardiovascular disease This disease category includes stroke, heart attack and high blood pressure. Through improved blood circulation, conditioning of the heart and lungs, and reduced blood fat levels gained from regular cycling, the risk of suffering from a disease in this category can be reduced. This has

been evidenced in a recent study conducted in Denmark. Based on a sample size of 30,000 people, it was concluded that persons who cycled regularly were less prone to heart disease. In the US, studies conducted at Purdue University evidenced that regular cycling reduced the risk of heart disease by up to 50%. In this field of study, we also see the British Heart Foundation stating that approximately 10,000 heart attacks could be prevented by increased fitness levels. The organisation states that cycling a minimum of 20 miles per week could achieve that fitness level. More cycling, less cancer There have been studies in Finland which have linked regular cycling with lower susceptibility to bowel and breast cancer. Diabetes These Finnish studies have also proposed direct links between cycling and the reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes, based on 30 minutes of cycling per day. Arthritis and bone injuries Based on the low impact yet increased strength, balance and coordination characteristic of cycling, it can be considered a viable exercise option for persons suffering from arthritis.

So get pedalling… With these benefits highlighted, ample opportunity and world class terrain available in T&T, the setting is ripe to embark on a cycling campaign. Jumping on that saddle and pedalling that bike seems, beyond a doubt, a win/win situation!

THE NEXT U October to December


Dropsy Might be an old term but the symptoms may suggest that there are serious underlying conditions such as Edema. Viral Croup How to protect your little ones from this infection.

Article submission guidelines U strives to provide informative, educational articles emphasizing health and lifestyle in the Caribbean. We select articles that will appeal to our Caribbean audience that are uplifting, informative and pertinent to health and wellness. Policies You must submit only original and unpublished work. By submitting to us, you are giving U permission to publish your work both in a single issue and in any future publications that feature items from U. This may include compilation works, web page summaries of the magazine, etc. Although we are retaining the right to use your work, we do not take complete ownership of it. This means that if we publish your work in U, you retain the right to submit the work to other publications. All articles are accepted on speculation. Publication of any article cannot be guaranteed. U reserves the right to edit all copy.

Specifics All accepted articles will be accompanied by the byline and monetary compensation as set out in our writers’ contract. Letters to the editor We encourage Letters to the Editor commenting on recent articles published in our magazine. They are not peer reviewed as such, but are assessed in-house to make sure they are factual and non-inflammatory, etc. Submit all comments, letters and/or subscription requests to: U The Caribbean Health Digest, Gaston Court, Gaston Street, Lange Park, Chaguanas, Trinidad & Tobago or email us at info@uhealthdigest.com www.uhealthdigest.com

Advertising. P: 868-665-6712 + 5994 + 4428 F: 868-672-9228

Turn static files into dynamic content formats.

Create a flipbook
Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.