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The 90th Congress of the South African Sugar TechnologistsĘź Association International Convention Centre Durban, South Africa 15 - 17 August 2017

ABSTRACTS & EXHIBITOR DIRECTORY

www.sastacongress.org.za


Zungu-Elgin Engineering (Pty) Ltd (“Zungu-Elgin�) is a company offering innovative engineering solutions to the following industries: SUGAR

MARITIME

CHEMICAL

MINING AND MINERALS

PULP AND PAPER

STEEL

PETROCHEMICAL

GENERAL ENGINEERING

ENERGY

Zungu-Elgin specialises in the design, fabrication, repair and refurbishment of engineering equipment through its well-equipped 25 000m2 facility, situated close to the Durban Harbour and is just a 45-minute drive from King Shaka International Airport. The workshop is serviced by overhead cranes with a maximum combined lifting capacity of 50 tons. Facility capabilities include: areas for material preparation, fabrication, welding, medium to heavy machinery, CNC drilling and machining, dished end forming, heat treatment, industrial painting and a foundry capable of casting sugar roll shells up to 20 tons in weight. Manufacturing expertise are backed by in-house, front-end design and drawing, planning and quality systems that are all computerised using state of the art CAD software programmes.

Physical Address: 10 Bremen Road, Bayhead, Durban, 4000, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Telephone: +27 (0) 31 274 0000 Email: enquiries@zunguelgin.co.za Website: www.zungu-elgin.co.za


3

SASTA COUNCIL 2016 – 2017

President: Gavin Smith

(Process Specialist, Sugar and Milling Division, RCL Foods) Council portfolios: Chair of Council, Finance SubCommittee, Chair of FCAC SubCommittee, Factory Industry Liaison, Special Projects Fund

Keith McFarlane

Vice-President: Carolyn Baker

(Director, SASRI) Council portfolios: Vice-Chair of Council, Finance SubCommittee, Publicity, Agriculture Industry Liaison, Special Projects Fund

Paul Schorn

Deborah Sweby

Treasurer: Adri van der Nest (Extension and Biosecurity Resource Manager, SASRI) Council portfolios: Treasurer, Chair of Finance SubCommittee

Alana Patton

(Crossing Officer, SASRI) Council Portfolios: Workshops and Field Trips, Agriculture Industry Liaison

(Refinery Operations Executive, THS) Council portfolios: Factory Industry Liaison, Congress Organising Committee – Head of Exhibition and Sponsorship portfolio

(Molecular Biologist, SASRI) Council portfolios: Congress Organising Committee – Head of Scientific portfolio, Agriculture Editor-inchief, Publicity

Crop Scientist, Agronomy, SASRI Council Portfolios: Publicity, Congress Organising Committee – Head of Delegate Events, media and promotions portfolio

Natasha Sharma

Gonaseelan Naidoo

Richard Nicholson

Poovie Govender

(Production Manager, Maidstone, THS) Council portfolios: Congress Organising Committee - Scientific portfolio, Factory editor–in-chief

(General Manager: Cane Testing Service, SASA) Council portfolios: Factory Industry Liaison, Lab Manual

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

(Manager: Economic Research, Canegrowers) Council portfolios: Agriculture Industry Liaison, Workshops and Field Trips

(Knowledge Product Specialist, SASRI) Council portfolios: Website Manager

David Sutherland

(Agricultural Manager SA MCP, Illovo Sugar Limited) Council portfolios: Workshops and Field Trips, Agriculture Industry Liaison

Shaun Madho

(Group Leader of Adaptive Research, SMRI). Council portfolios: Factory Industry Liaison, Publicity, Lab Manual

COC Chair: Sumita Ramgareeb (Resource Manager: Breeding and Field Services Resource Unit, SASRI). Council portfolios: Congress Organising Committee Chair, Finance SubCommittee

Warren Lawlor

(Senior Manager: Projects, RCL Foods) Council Portfolios: Finance SubCommittee, Factory Industry Liaison, Special Projects Fund, Congress Organising Committee. Exhibition & Sponsorship portfolio and Head of Finance portfolio

Kathy Hurly

(Corporate Executive: Canegrowers) Council portfolios: Agriculture Industry Liaison, Special Projects Fund


5

CONGRESS ORGANISING COMMITTEE 2017 Dr Sumita Ramgareeb (Chair), Dr Deborah Sweby, Dr Alana Patton, Mr Warren Lawlor, Mr Paul Schorn, Mrs Natasha Sharma, Mr Gavin Smith, Mrs Danile Macdonald, Mrs Gill Slaughter (Turners Conferences) and Mrs Catherine Taylor (Turners Conferences) CONGRESS EDITORIAL PANEL 2017

Dr Deborah Sweby

(Editor: Agriculture)

Mrs Natasha Sharma

(Editor: Factory)

Dr Annegret Stark

(Reviewer: Factory)

Mrs Venilla Yoganathan

(Technical Editor: Factory)

Mrs Dorothy Carslow

(Technical Editor: Agriculture)

Mrs Danile Macdonald

(Administrative)

CONGRESS REFEREES AND REVIEWERS 2017 Baker, Carolyn Barker, Bryan Barnard, Annelie Bernhardt, Herbert Wolfgang Bindoff, Allan Botes, Willem Botha, Johan Brouckaert, Luke Bruggeman, Edgar Cutts, Michela Dairam, Narain Davis, Stephen Dlamini, Ephraim du Preez, Chris Essop, Reza Foxon, Katherine Gielink, Andrew Gravois, Kenneth Haggie, Leon Harrison, James Hill, Martin Hirawan, Ranjeetha Hughes, Jeff Hurly, Kathy Inman-Bamber, Geoff Jensen, Craig Jumman, Ashiel

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Kader, Musthakeem Labuschagne, Maryke Langton, Steve Lawlor, Warren Lecler, Neil Loubser, Richard Lyne, Peter Madho, Shaun Meyer, Eddie Mhlaba, Sifiso Modi, Albert Moodley, Mano Mpofu, Leo Munsamy Stanley Nadasen, Tony Naidoo, Lola Naidoo, Rishen Naidoo, Seelan Nixon, David Norris, Chris Nothard, Brendon Olckers, Terry Paraskevopoulos, Aresti Patton, Alana Rambakus, Zyven Redshaw, Kerry Reinders, Felix

Rhodes, Ruth Russell, Paul Schorn, Paul Shah, Shaista Sharma, Natasha Sibomana, Milindi Singels, Abraham Singh, Ishwar Sithole, Phillemon Smith, Gavin Smith, Leon Snyman, Sandy Sobratee, Nafiisa Stark, Annegret Stolz, Nico Stranack, Rowan Thompson, Ingrid Titshall, Louis Tweddle, Peter van Antwerpen, Rianto van den Berg, Johnnie van den Berg, Maurits van der Laan, Michael Walford, Stephen Walthew, Dennis


6

CONTENTS

SASTA Council 2017 Congress Organising Committee 2017 Congress Editorial Panel 2017 Congress Referees and Reviewers 2017 SASTA Awards 1962-2016 Congress 2017 Abstracts and Speaker Biographies Exhibition Floorplan Exhibitor Key Exhibitor Directory SASTA Officers 1926-2017 Exhibitors & Sponsors Opening Session Keynote Address: GM sugarcane: Super Pain or Super Cane? Plenary Session Review of South African sugarcane production in the 2016/2017 season: light at the end of the tunnel? Ninety-second annual review of the milling season in Southern Africa (2016/2017) A financial estimation of the mill area-scale benefits of variety adoption in South Africa: A simplistic approach Closing the loop: Making fuels, chemicals and materials from biomass as an opportunity for the South African sugar industry Agriculture Session 1: Entomology Cacosceles (Zelogenes) newmani (Thomson) (Cerambycidae: Prioninae), a new pest in the South African sugar industry The effect of an improved artificial diet formulation on Eldana saccharina Walker rearing, growth and development Estimating the potential economic benefit of extending the harvesting cycle of dryland coastal cane by chemically suppressing eldana levels A cellular automaton model for simulating Eldana saccharina infestation in sugarcane Timeframe for the development of borer resistant genetically modified sugarcane Towards optimising crop refuge areas in transgenic sugarcane fields Agriculture Session 2: Soils and Nutrition The fertility status of soils of the South African sugar industry – 2012 to 2016: an overview Mass and composition of ash remaining in the field following burning of sugarcane at harvest Effects of surface-applied lime and gypsum on soil properties and yields of sugarcane ratoon crops Prediction of soil nitrogen mineralization to crop fertiliser nitrogen requirements Factors controlling the solubility of phosphorus in soils of the South African sugarcane industry Agriculture Session 3: Agronomy Analysis of long term rainfall in the Felixton Mill supply area and investigation of Derivatives as a hedging mechanism against drought An experimental and crop modelling assessment of elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on sugarcane productivity The investigation of a suitable summer breakcrop after Imazapyr application for integrated management of Cynodon dactylon Nitrogen use efficiency of selected South African sugarcane varieties A web-based decision support tool for analysing monthly sugarcane growth rates in South Africa MycanesimŽ Lite: A simple web-based sugarcane simulation tool Optimum harvest age of sugarcane at Kilombero Sugar Company under high minimum temperature

3 5 5 5 9 17 104 105 106 113 116 Chair: Gavin Smith Dr Hennie Groenewald, Executive Manager Biosafety South Africa Chair: Carolyn Baker Singels A, McFarlane SA, Nicholson RJ, Way MJ and Sithole P

17

18

Madho S, Davis SB and Bhyrodeyal L

19

Kadwa M, Ramburan S, Nicholson RJ and Redshaw KA

20

Dr Annegret Stark, SMRI Sugarcane Biorefinery Research Chair at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Chair: Des Conlong Way MJ, Conlong DE, Rutherford RS, Sweby DL, Gillespie DY, Stranack RA, Lagerwall G, Grobbelaar E and Perissinotto R

21

22

Ngomane NC, Gillespie DY and Conlong DE

23

Ducasse GG, Kadwa M, Lagerwall G and Rutherford RS

24

de Wet PD and Potgieter L

25

Snyman SJ and Rutherford RS

26

Human DJ and Potgieter L Chair: David Sutherland

27

Mthimkhulu SS and Miles N

28

van Antwerpen R, Miles N and Mthimkhulu SS

29

Elephant D, Miles N and Mthimkhulu SS

30

Miles N, Rhodes R and Weigel A

31

Poswa L and Miles N

32

Chair: Sanesh Ramburan Howes RE, Ducasse G and Funke T

33

Hoffman N, Patton AB, Malan C, Baartman J, Berner J, Singels A, Paraskevopoulos A and van Heerden PDR

34

Campbell PL, Rutherford RS and Drew K

35

Patton AB, Makhubedu ITR and Weigel A

36

Jones MR, Khambule S and Singels A

37

Paraskevopoulos A, Mashabela ML and Singels A

38

Munsamy SS

39

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


7

Agriculture Session 4: Plant Breeding I The effect of Eldana saccharina damage on sugarcane breeding populations and the implications on sugarcane breeding Identifying elite families for the Midlands sugarcane breeding programmes in South Africa Molecular phylogeny of sugarcane: Discovering a new species Effect of self-trashing on Eldana saccharina Walker damage in sugarcane and implications for resistance breeding Agriculture Session 5: Plant Breeding II Performance of imported genotypes and implications for utilisation in SASRI breeding programmes The agronomic performance of tissue culture (NovaCane®) versus conventional seedcane under rainfed conditions An investigation into stored seed viability A new origin of sugarcane: The undiscovered species Agriculture Session 6: Engineering Modified "Twin-stacker" cane loading system PBS vehicles in the South African sugar industry: opportunities and limitations A simple spreadsheet-based irrigation electricity cost calculator Yield variability mapping for a cut and stack system Agriculture Session 7: Crop Management Irrigation scheduling demonstration trials are an effective means of promoting adoption: Pongola case study Positive influence of Demonstration Plot Extension Methodology in a rural sugarcane community Here, there or everywhere? An investigation into nematode trial sampling The Internet of Things (IoT) and how IoT can benefit the sugarcane growers in improving productivity and profitability Agriculture Session 8: Economics Determining the cost of post-harvest deterioration in a South African sugarcane supply chain CaneTEC®: An economic conversion tool for sugarcane experimental and commercial production scenarios A new decision-making framework for developing variety-specific chemical ripening recommendations Cost benefit analysis of a herbicide tolerant and insect resistant genetically modified sugarcane variety under coastal conditions Biogas from sugarcane - a system for sustainability A time-series analysis of large-scale grower input costs in the South African sugarcane industry: 2000/2001 - 2014/2015 Factory Session 1: Energy A strategy for monitoring and reporting continuous energy consumption in a typical raw sugar mill Experiences of reducing the steam consumption in sugar plant Solar live steam generation and solar bagasse drying for South African sugar mills Factory Session 2: Milling and Diffusion "Sleeve-Kamal" an innovative three piece sugar mill roller for high performance and lower operating cost Monitoring juice holdup in a cane diffuser bed using electrical conductivity evaluation on a laboratory scale Monitoring juice holdup in a cane diffuser bed using electrical conductivity evaluation on a plant scale Experiences with the millability of drought-affected cane varieties for the 2016 season Factory Session 3: Commercial New manufacturing requirements - How material selection plays a key factor! Insights into dextran analysis and dextran affected processing problems

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Chair: Kerry Redshaw Lichakane M and Zhou M

40

Mbuma NW, Zhou MM and van der Merwe R

41

Lloyd Evans D and Joshi SV

42

Nxumalo PD and Zhou M

43

Chair: Derek Watt Zhou M

44

Shezi SN, Ramburan S and Modi AT

45

McFarlane K and Walton AD Lloyd Evans D and Joshi SV Chair: Peter Lyne Lecler NL Tweddle PB and Lyne PWL Jumman A Tweddle PB, Harris A, Makhaye A and Rapson B Chair: Rowan Stranack Adendorff MW, Jumman A, Olivier FC and Paraskevopoulos A Gillespie WA, Way MJ, Masondo RT, Webster T and Mitchell FJ Pillay U and Ramouthar PV

46 47

Hart-Jones T

55

48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Chair: Kathy Hurly Harris AJ

56

Ramburan S and Tweddle P

57

van Heerden PDR and Hoffman N

58

Nicholson RJ, Ducasse G, Rutherford RS and Campbell PL

59

Funke TB, Littely GD and Howes R Nicholson RJ and Kadwa M Chair: Nico Stolz

60

Masondo LL and Foxon KM

62

Arunaprasad A, Babu R, , Srivastava AK and Rao GSC

63

Krog W, Hess S, Hoffmann J and Dinter F

64

61

Chair: Warren Lawlor Shaikh MM and Sabnis D

65

Love DJ

66

Angel DM, Love DJ, Jensen PS and Seleghim P

67

Kunene TM, Voigt I and Gama ME

68

Chair: Craig Jensen Geyer I and Lehnberger A Abraham K, Schlumbach K, Thiesing D and Flöter E

69 70


8

Factory Session 4: Rawhouse An investigation into the viscosity of c-massecuite using a pipeline viscometer Dynamic simulation on a spreadsheet as a tool for evaluating options for mixed juice flow control Are gums produced in the factory? Quantification of gums isolated from mixed juice and final molasses Factory Session 5: Posters Can NIRS detect quaternary ammonium compounds in refined sugar? A benchmark energy indicator Analysis of sulphites in sugar by ion chromatography An effective viscosity modifier for improved production output Analysis of Vitamin A in fortified sugar Factory control using NIRS: Are we there yet? The effect of rotoclone bacterial slime on the refined sugar turbidity increase experienced at the Noodsberg refinery Parallel Session: Sugarcane Biorefinery and Downstream Products Lignocellulose biorefineries as extensions to sugar mills: Sustainability and social upliftment in the green economy The development of a partial equilibrium economic model of the South African sugar industry in a biorefinery scenario An economic analysis of the potential bio-polymer industry: the case of sugarcane Economic recovery of biobutanol - A platform chemical for the sugarcane biorefinery Reactive extraction and reactive distillation: A new recovery process development for levulinic acid from fermentation broths Nitrogen-doped carbon nano-tubes synthesis from biorefined sugarcane bagasse Organic acid treatment of sugarcane residues for the production of biogenic silica The development of a screening tool to identify new products for the South African sugarcane industry Inclined perforated drum dryer and separator for cleaning and drying of sugarcane bagasse Conversion of sugarcane bagasse into carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Preparation and characterisation of cellulose nano crystals (CNCs) from sugarcane bagasse using ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyllimidazolium hydrogen sulphate)-DMSO mixtures Sugar cane juice concentration and separation with hydrate technology Factory Session 6: Refinery I Energy footprint and operating costs, a comparison of ion exchange resin and activated carbon in the application of sugar decolourisation Automation of white pans at the Tongaat Hulett refinery Powdered activated carbon (PAC) with membrane filter press for secondary decolourisation system to produce refined sugar in backend refinery Where do you go to (my saccharides)? A preliminary saccharide analysis of refinery streams Factory Session 7: Refinery II The transfer of non-sucrose species into sucrose crystals: can it be useful? Optimisation of white sugar colour management through the utilisation of online colour cameras Learnings from the 2015 Pongola silo failure To bee or not to bee (stung): Hulref's intervention in reducing bee stings Factory Session 8: Commercial Cail and Fletcher E-Crystal: Innovation never stops Quality determination of sugar inside continuous centrifugals Sugar mill multi-drives

Chair: Paul Schorn Shah S, Lokhat D and Peacock SD

71

Love DJ

72

Foxon KM and du Clou H

73

Chair: Dave Love Walford SN Stolz HNP du Clou H and Walford SN Sigwinta L and van Zyl MJ Naicker A, Naidoo Y and Walford SN Barker B, Madho S and Rahiman S

74 75 76 77 78 79

Naidoo K and Moodley M

80

Chair: Anne Stark Haigh KF, Mandegari MA, Farzad S, Petersen A and Gรถrgens JF

81

Mafunga W, Ferrer S and Stark A

82

Thomson WA, Kohler M and Stark A

83

Chikava FK, Ramjugernath D and Stark A

84

Inyang V, Ramjugernath D and Stark A

85

Mugadza K, Nyamori VO, Ndungu PG and Stark A

86

Maseko NN, Schneider D, Wassersleben S, Enke D, Pocock J and Stark A

87

Booysen KC, Foxon KM and Davis SB

88

Lokhat D and Bernhardt HW

89

Makhanya FM and Deenadayalu N

90

Mdletshe GP, Deenadayalu N and Ray SS

91

Doubra P, Naidoo P, Nelson W and Ramjugernath D Chair: Steve Davis

92

Hardwick JG and Hardwick EK

93

Mncube FS, Love DJ, Sikhakane P, Ogle D and Mtembu T

94

Babu R, Srivastava AK, Chandrasekar R and Rao GSC

95

Walford SN and Moodley M Chair: Stephen Walford Lionnet GRE and Moodley M

96 97

Bouche C, Duc N and Gaillac B

98

Lawlor WK Moodley M, Narotham A and Dawson G Chair: Dennis Walthew Dhaussy P, Defreyne J and Desvignes R Diringer T and Nielsen BC Inskip S

99 100 101 102 103

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


9

SASTA AWARDS 1962 - 2016 SASTA GOLD MEDALISTS 1968

AE RABE

2002

K SCHAFFLER

1970

CGM PERK

2002

AB RAVNO

1974

JL DU TOIT

2005

E MEYER

1977

PCG BRETT

2005

JH MEYER

1981

JB ALEXANDER

2005

PG MOREL DU BOIL

1988

IA BELL

2008

KM HURLY

1990

GD THOMPSON

2009

TG CLEASBY

1998

SW UPFOLD

2010

GRE LIONNET

2000

PW REIN

2012

BS PURCHASE

TALBOT-CROSBIE AND KYNOCH/TRIOMF PRIZEWINNERS 1962-2016 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

1962

Talbot-Crosbie

T COVAS

1972

Talbot-Crosbie

JP MURRAY

Kynoch

JR ANDERSON

Triomf

FE RICHARDSON

Talbot-Crosbie

EJ BUCHANAN, K DOUWES-

1963

1973

DEKKER and A VAN HENGEL Kynoch

GS BARLETT

Talbot-Crosbie

AE RABE

Kynoch

RT BISHOP

1974 1964

1975 1965

1966

Talbot-Crosbie

EJ BUCHANAN

Kynoch

JM GOSNELL and GD THOMPSON

Talbot-Crosbie

Prize shared by:

Talbot-Crosbie

B ST C MOOR

Triomf

H ROSTRON

Talbot-Crosbie

No Winner

Triomf

JPM DE ROBILLARD and GA IGGO

Talbot-Crosbie

EFA ROUILLARD

Triomf

1976

RC TURNER and

Talbot-Crosbie

LMSA JULLIENNE

Triomf

JR PILCHER and

RJ JENNINGS Kynoch

G VAN DER MERWE

AJM CARNEGIE 1977

1967

Talbot-Crosbie

A VAN HENGEL

Kynoch

J GLOVER

Talbot-Crosbie

J BRUIJN and RP JENNINGS

Kynoch

G ROTH

1978 1968

1969

1970

1971

PGC BRETT, RL HARDING and RH PAXTON

Talbot-Crosbie

RCS ROBINSON and RP JENNINGS

Kynoch

PK MOBERLY

Talbot-Crosbie

IA SMITH

Kynoch

ME SUMNER

Talbot-Crosbie

GG ASHE

Kynoch

JM GOSNELL and AC LONG

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Talbot-Crosbie

RP SCOTT

Triomf

J BURROWS

Talbot-Crosbie

PG MOREL DU BOIL and K SCHAFFLER

Triomf 1979

1980

1981

DB HELLMANN

Talbot-Crosbie

MR KEDIAN

Triomf

PR ATKINSON

Talbot-Crosbie

A KOEN

Triomf

NG INMAN-BAMBER

Talbot-Crosbie

RG HOEKSTRA

Triomf

KE CACKETT and JJ RAMPF


10

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

1982

Talbot-Crosbie

LMSA JULLIENNE

1994

Talbot-Crosbie

VC STONE

Triomf

E MEYER and B WORLOCK

Kynoch

BL SCHROEDER, JB ROBINSON PET TURNER and M WALLACE

1983

1984

Talbot-Crosbie

BS PURCHASE

Triomf

TMC BOEVEY and TJ MURRAY

Talbot-Crosbie

GPN KRUGER

Kynoch

PET TURNER

1995

Talbot-Crosbie

PG MOREL DU BOIL

Kynoch

NB LEIBBRANDT

DC WALTHEW and LM TURNER

Kynoch

DB HELLMANN, GG PLATFORD and M WALLACE

1996 1985

Talbot-Crosbie

Talbot-Crosbie

DC WALTHEW and PW WHITELAW

Kynoch

R VAN ANTWERPEN, MG McGLINCHEY, NG INMANBAMBER and ATP BENNIE

1986

Talbot-Crosbie

GRE LIONNET

Kynoch

KM HARBORNE-RUTHERFORD,

1997

RA BAILEY and JB DA GRACA 1987

Talbot-Crosbie Kynoch

PW REIN, MGS COX and

1998

Talbot-Crosbie

KJ SCHAFFLER and MTD DE GAYE

Kynoch

M KEEPING

Talbot-Crosbie

Prize shared by:

G MONTOCCHIO

DM MEADOWS, GT SCHUMANN

TMC BOEVEY and JP FOURIE

and S SOJI; SB DAVIS, M MOODLEY, I SINGH

1988

Talbot-Crosbie

MJ REID

Kynoch

BRF GEORGE

and MW ADENDORFF

Talbot-Crosbie

GRE LIONNET

K McFARLANE;

Kynoch

JH MEYER, RA WOOD and

E MEYER

Kynoch

Prize shared by: CPR CRONJE, RA BAILEY and

1989

RL HARDING 1999 1990

Talbot-Crosbie

CMJ DAY-LEWIS and

Talbot-Crosbie

None

Kynoch

MJ PARSONS

KJ SCHAFFLER Kynoch

NG INMAN BAMBER and

2000

BA STEAD

Talbot-Crosbie

PG MOREL DU BOIL

Kynoch

EJ SCHMIDT, G NARCISO, P FROST and C GERS

1991

Talbot-Crosbie

SJ MADAREE, PW REIN and

Kynoch

RA BAILEY and SA TOUGH

Talbot-Crosbie

Prize shared by:

FC BOTHA and J ROHWER;

MGS COX and P SAHADEO;

MK BUTTERFIELD, A D'HONT and

D MEADOWS and S WADLEY

N BERDING

CM WENMAN

2001

Talbot-Crosbie Kynoch

1992

Kynoch

N MAGASINER, C VAN ALPHEN, M INKSON and B MISPLON Prize shared by:

SJ SNYMAN, KG BLACK BI HUCKETT and MP WATT

2002

Talbot-Crosbie

PB DEVNARAIN, DR ARNOLD and

Kynoch

Prize shared by:

SB DAVIS 1993

Talbot-Crosbie

M MOODLEY

Kynoch

NG INMAN-BAMBER,

E MEYER and N GOVENDER;

TL CULVERWELL and

PJ THORBURN, R VAN ANTWERPEN,

MG McGLINCHEY

JH MEYER and CN BEZUIDENHOUT

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


11

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

2003

Talbot-Crosbie

BM SCHOONEES

2010

Talbot-Crosbie

V KOCHERGIN, C GAUDET and

Kynoch

S GUYON, JL VOGEL, J OMARJEE,

M ROBERT

T VAN ANTWERPEN, P CADET and

Kynoch

J BALANDREAU 2004

Talbot-Crosbie Kynoch

DJ LOVE, SD PEACOCK and GT SCHUMANN

O DE HAAS 2011

PJ THORBURN, HL HORAN, IM BIGGS

Talbot-Crosbie

Y NAIDOO and R SIMPSON

Kynoch

V HARRACA, J DU PISSANIE,

and SE PARK 2005

Talbot-Crosbie

L SMITH Prize shared by:

Kynoch

PWL LYNE, E MEYER and

S RAMBURAN, DM McELLIGOTT and

RS RUTHERFORD and DE CONLONG 2012

Talbot-Crosbie

PS JENSEN

Kynoch

S RAMBURAN, T WETTERGREEN,

R HERBERT;

SD BERRY and B SHONGWE

M VAN DEN BERG and MT SMITH 2013 2006

Talbot-Crosbie

PS JENSEN

Kynoch

Prize shared by:

Talbot-Crosbie

L ECHEVERRI and PW REIN

Kynoch

OL KVEDARAS, MG KEEPING,

S RAMBURAN;

F-R GOEBEL and MJ BYRNE

PV RAMOUTHAR, R RHODES, T WETTERGREEN, U PILLAY,

2007

Talbot-Crosbie

No Congress held

Kynoch

No Congress held

MR JONES and R VAN ANTWERPEN 2014

2008

Talbot-Crosbie

R SIMPSON and J OXLEY

Kynoch

SJ SNYMAN, GM MEYER,

Talbot-Crosbie

PS JENSEN, SB DAVIS, DJ LOVE and

Kynoch

PDR VAN HEERDEN, MW ADENDORFF,

A RASSOL

M BANASIAK, TL NICHOLSON,

G LAGERWALL, P BOTHA, CPR CRONJE

T VAN ANTWERPEN, P NAIDOO and

J VAN DER MERWE, N NEL, P SMITH,

JD ERASMUS

E HÖLL, G HYSLOP, V SMITH, A HARRIS, W HARRIS, JB MHLONGO, DM HARRIS,

2009

Talbot-Crosbie Kynoch

BM MUIR, G EGGLESTON and

J DHEOPURSAD, T MATTHEWS and

B BARKER

P NAIDOO

A SINGELS, MA SMIT, M BUTTERFIELD,

2015

PDR VAN HEERDEN and

Talbot-Crosbie

RC LOUBSER and PS JENSEN

Kynoch

S RAMBURAN;

Talbot-Crosbie

M STARZAK and SB DAVIS

Kynoch

D ELEPHANT and N MILES

M VAN DEN BERG 2016

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


12

ANNUAL CECIL RENAUD AWARDS 1977-2016 Year 1977

1978

1979

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year 1991

Factory

B ST C MOOR

Agricultural

RT BISHOP

Factory

RD ARCHIBALD and C MACK

Agricultural

OP LANDREY

Factory

GG ASHE

Agricultural

No Winner

1992

1993

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Factory

B ST C MOOR

Agricultural

PJB GARDINER and J CAZALET

Factory

RR SANDERS

Agricultural

CG SPALING

Factory

DJ TAYFIELD and EW ANDERSON

Agricultural

OP LANDREY, GG EICHLER and J CHEDZEY

1980

1981

Factory

DCM KEIR

Agricultural

AN MILLS and ER RINGELMAN

Factory

S NORTH-COOMBES, K TAYLER

Agricultural

JG HARDY

and K KOSTER

1982

1983

Factory

P GLAUM and A LANDMAN

Agricultural

PC WISE

1994

1995

1996

Factory

C CREBO, L BACHAN and V PILLAY

Agricultural

PC HENRY and W RHEBERGEN

Factory

M MacNAUGHTON

Agricultural

D McARTHUR and VW SPAULL

Factory

B MISPLON, H VERBANCK and P McINTYRE

Agricultural

PA DONOVAN

Factory

Prize shared by M MOODLEY,

Factory

RAH CHILVERS

Agricultural

JE LONSDALE

Factory

DJ CARLIELL

R PILLAY;

Agricultural

PG BRAITHWAITE

M MOODLEY and PM SCHORN;

1997

DJ BEKKER, PJ PIENAAR and 1984

I SINGH, NJ COETZEE and 1985

Factory

MA GETAZ

E BURMEISTER;

Agricultural

J CHEDZY and JBR FINDLAY

I SINGH, R RILEY and D SEILLIER

Factory

RAH CHILVERS and DJ LOVE

Agricultural

DJ NIXON, M WORKMAN and

Agricultural 1986

1998

PJ GLENDINNING 1987

Factory

GF MANN

Agricultural

CPM SWEET, PW WHITE and

1999

Factory

None

Agricultural

JB CHADWICK

Factory

T DALE and TD KNOETZE

Agricultural

HR ROSTRON, DWF BUTLER and

GH GODWORTH 1988

1989

Factory

RP SCOTT

Agricultural

DAG RALFE

Factory

PM SCHORN, J BECKETT and

Agricultural

TL PEARSE

Factory

DM VAN DEN BERG

Agricultural

RN STATHAM

MD ZWANE 2000

2001

WS GRAHAM 2002 1990

A PRINS, JJ BORNMANN and

Factory

CRC JENSEN and G GOVENDER

Agricultural

N LECLER

Factory

M DEBWE

Agricultural

M HUMM

Factory

I SINGH, H JONES and S GAYAPERSAD

Agricultural

M ISYAGI and DMW WHITBREAD

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


13

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

2003

Factory

Prize shared by:

2009

Factory

PM SCHORN, L SMITH, SD PEACOCK,

Agricultural

AT WYNNE, TJ MURRAY and

LJ MELROSE;

DJ LOVE and DJ MUZZELL

M MOODLEY, M PILLAY, PM SCHORN, G MITCHELL and

AB GABRIEL

R GELLING Agricultural

Prize shared by:

2010

GW MAHER and L SCHULZ;

Factory

DJ LOVE

Agricultural

JJ MURRAY

Factory

None

Agricultural

J DLAMINI

C PFOTENHAUER 2011 2004

Factory

None

Agricultural

D ARMSTRONG

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

2012 2005

2013 2006

Factory

Factory

R GENT

Agricultural

KE MATHIAS

Factory

A RAGHUNANDAN, CRC JENSEN,

Prize shared by :

T MTEMBU and FEA AHMED

M REIN, L SMITH, B STRACHAN and

Agricultural

R WIRMINGHAUS;

JJ MURRAY, HNP STOLZ and JL BOUWER

M NINELA and N RAJOO Agricultural

Prize shared by:

2014

Factory

Prize shared by:

MI LANGTON, JC SMITHERS,

M NDLAZI, RI SINGH and S NDLOVU;

CN BEZUIDENHOUT and PWL LYNE;

M MBUYAZI and S MHLONGO

RR FORTMANN, PG BRENCHLEY and

Agricultural

CPR CRONJE and P SAHADEO

AK MATHEW 2015 2007

Factory

None - No Congress held

Agricultural

None - No Congress held 2016

2008

Factory

S RAMA and SS MUNSAMY

Agricultural

JJ MURRAY

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Factory

A MDAKANE and T NDHLALA

Agricultural

None

Factory

EM DLAMINI

Agricultural

None


14

SASTA POSTER AWARDS 2000-2016 Year 2000

2001

2002

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Factory

None

2010

Agricultural

SA McFARLANE and RA BAILEY

Factory

None

Agricultural

SA McFARLANE

2011

Factory

None

Agricultural

CN BEZUIDENHOUT and C GERS

2012

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Factory

None

Agricultural

A JUMMAN and NL LECLER

Factory

None

Agricultural

CN BEZUIDENHOUT

Factory

WK LAWLOR

Agricultural

WA GILLESPIE, FJ MITCHELL, MJ WAY, TM WEBSTER and JH WITTHOFT

2003

2004

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

Factory

Y NAIDOO and R SIMPSON

Agricultural

DJ NIXON

2013

Factory

None

Agricultural

MT SMITH, A SINGELS and J NEEN

H du CLOU and SN WALFORD

Agricultural

B BHENGU, T MASONDO, S HLELA, V DLAMINI and S MNOGOMEZULU

2014 2005

Factory

Factory

RC LOUBSER

Agricultural

SA McFARLANE, LA MARTIN, D WILKINSON, AC KOCH, T VAN ANTWERPEN, N PILLAY and

2006

Factory

None

Agricultural

M JONES and M VAN DEN BERG

RS RUTHERFORD

Factory

None - No Congress held

Agricultural

None - No Congress held

2015 2007

2016 2008

2009

Factory

WK LAWLOR

Agricultural

P SITHOLE and A PARASKEVOPOULOS

Factory

SN WALFORD

Factory

B BARKER and J WESLEY-SMITH

Agricultural

SA McFARLANE, T VAN ANTWERPEN,

Agricultural

P TWEDDLE;

Prize shared by:

P GOVENDER and GF BUCHANAN

PL CAMPBELL, A PARASKEVOPOULOS

Factory

SN WALFORD, S EGLI and B MARTINCIGH

and S HURIPURSHAD

Agricultural

PL CAMPBELL, GW LESLIE, SA McFARLANE, SD BERRY, R RHODES, R VAN ANTWERPEN, RS RUTHERFORD, T VAN ANTWERPEN, DM McELLIGOTT and DE CONLONG

JUBILEE AWARDS 2000-2015 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

2000

Factory

CRC JENSEN

2006

Factory

None

Agricultural

EJ SCHMIDT

Agricultural

None

2003

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

2009

2011

2015

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

Factory

Y NAIDOO

Agricultural

V HARRACA

Factory

PS JENSEN

Agricultural

S RAMBURAN

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


15

INNOVATION AWARDS 2000-2013 Year 2000

2001

2002

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year 2007

Factory

L HELFRICH

Agriculture

D DINKLEMANN

Factory

B GOVENDER

Agricultural

None

Factory

S CHINSAMY

Agricultural

2008

2009

NOODSBERG CANEGROWERS’

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Factory

None

Agricultural

I HILLERMANN

Factory

None

Agricultural

A SINGELS

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

Factory

None

Agricultural

None

ASSOCIATION (Proposed by GW MAHER) 2003

2004

2005

2006

Factory

D DENNIS

Agricultural

None

2010

2011

Factory

None

Agricultural

WH REDINGER

Factory

None

Agricultural

C GARNETT

Factory

None

Agricultural

E ALBERTSE

2012

2013

ROBIN RENTON MEMORIAL AWARD (PGBI PRIZE) 2003-2016 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

2003

LJ MELROSE

2010

A JUMMAN

2004

None

2011

T NDHLALA

2005

None

2012

PS JENSEN

2006

S RAMA

2013

S SHAH

2007

None - No Congress held

2014

DN BOOTE

2008

P SHARMA

2015

None

2009

Z RAMBAKUS

2016

S HESS

SASTA STUDENT THESIS AWARD 2004-2007 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

2004

Agricultural

MH GRAHAM

2006

None

None

2007

None

2005

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Prize/Award

Author(s)


16

SASTA STUDENT AWARD 2008-2016 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

2008

Agricultural

A HARRIS

2013

Agricultural

RL ROSSLER

2009

Agricultural

G DITTRICH-SCHRODER

2014

Agricultural

MS SIBOMANA

2010

Factory

H DU CLOU

2015

Agricultural

BJ VAN VUUREN

2011

Agricultural

P MUDAVANHU

2016

Agricultural

AJ SERFONTEIN

2012

Factory

SN RAHIMAN

Agricultural

TA GOBLE

AGRICULTURE SUCCESS STORY AWARD 2010-2013 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

2010

D SUTHERLAND

2012

None

2011

None

2013

None

FACTORY OPERATIONAL PAPER AWARD 2011-2013 Year

Prize/Award

Author(s)

Year

2011

Q MASEKO

2013

2012

S GARTNER

Prize/Award

Author(s) B SKINNER

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


ABSTRACTS & SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES

17

GUEST PRESENTATION

GM SUGARCANE: SUPER PAIN OR SUPER CANE? DR HENNIE GRONEWALD Executive Manager Biosafety South Africa hennie@biosafety.org.za www.biosafety.org.za Hennie Groenewald studied human biochemistry and molecular biology before he obtained a PhD in plant molecular physiology and biotechnology. He has worked in the public, private and academic sectors and has more than 25 years of experience in research and development, teaching, biosafety risk analysis and governance, science communication, innovation management and business development. He is currently the executive manager of Biosafety South Africa, a national biosafety service platform, within the Technology Innovation Agency and under the auspices of the national Department of Science and Technology. It is the principal instrument within the national biotech innovation system which enables compliant, sustainable and effective research & development, innovation and commercialisation in the biotech sector. Hennie has served on numerous international and national bodies tasked with responsible research and innovation, biosafety and risk governance and sustainable biotech & agricultural innovation. The significance of Hennie’s contribution to biotech innovation in South Africa is acknowledged by the inclusion of his professional profile in the 2015 book “Blazing a biotechnology trail: Celebrating biotechnology excellence in South Africa”, which celebrates the history of biotechnology in the country.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


18

REFEREED PAPER

REVIEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE PRODUCTION IN THE 2016/2017 SEASON: Light at the end of the tunnel? SINGELS A1,3, MCFARLANE SA1, NICHOLSON R 2, WAY M1 AND SITHOLE P1 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa South African Cane Growers’ Association, 170 Flanders Drive, Mt Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 3 School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa 1

2

abraham.singels@sugar.org.za Abstract The objectives of this paper are to characterise South African sugarcane production for the 2016/17 milling season from an agricultural perspective. This is done to provide insight into successes and failures of recent production strategies, and identify priorities for improved efficiency in producing high quality sugarcane in South Africa. The season saw rainfed yields increasing from that in 2015, as the effects of the prolonged drought are gradually receding. Cane quality, though, was extremely poor due to lingering drought effects and difficult harvesting conditions brought about by winter and spring rain. Yields in irrigated areas were severely depressed by restricted water supplies. Eldana infestation levels and damage were lower than expected in coastal areas, presumably due to increased adoption of control measures to manage the pest. Smut levels remained high in northern irrigated areas, while rust infections tended to be less common and severe than previous seasons. Ratoon stunt levels, however, increased markedly in coastal areas following the drought. Routine field monitoring remains essential to identify fields that require appropriate interventions for effective disease management. Growers could not fully exploit the relatively high RV price, because of very poor cane quality in rainfed areas and very low yields in irrigated areas. The long term sustainability of sugarcane enterprises therefore remained under threat. The outlook for the 2017 season, however, is positive after good summer rainfall in 2016/17 and partial restoration of irrigation water supplies. Keywords: cane quality, cane yield, diseases, profitability, pests, production Biography – Abraham Singels Dr. Abraham Singels is a Principal Agronomist at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (joined in 1997), a fellow of the SA Society of Crop Production and holds honorary appointments at the Universities of Pretoria and Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. He obtained a Ph.D. in Agrometeorology from the University of the Orange Free State, where he also worked as researcher and lecturer for 15 years. He specializes in climate-crop interactions in sugarcane, has extensive experience in crop physiology and modelling research, and the development of decision support systems, and has published his research widely in scientific journals and conference proceedings.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


19

REFEREED PAPER

NINETY-SECOND ANNUAL REVIEW OF THE MILLING SEASON IN SOUTHERN AFRICA (2016/17) MADHO S, DAVIS SB AND BHYRODEYAL L Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa smadho@smri.org

sdavis@smri.org

lbhyrodeyal@smri.org

Abstract Performance, throughput and other relevant aspects of the sugar industries in southern Africa for the 2016/17 milling season are presented and discussed. Data from sugar mills in South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe are included. In South Africa, the quantity of cane crushed in 2016/17 was the second lowest in the past 10 seasons, whilst the quality parameters of cane recorded 10-year low values; about 15 million tonnes of cane was crushed, and quality in terms of Recoverable Value % cane and Estimated Recoverable Crystal % cane was 11.45 % and 10.65 %, respectively. Overall Time Efficiencies over the past 10 seasons were generally high due to low No-cane stops. The Overall Time Efficiency in 2016/17 decreased slightly due to increases in No-cane stops and Lost Time % Available. Extraction performance remained low due to reduced imbibition usage; this was to improve factory energy efficiency. The decreased Corrected Reduced Extraction suggests that there were slight improvements that could have been made by factories to improve extraction. In 2016/17, the Boiling House Recovery was 83.67 %, which was the lowest recorded value in the past 10 seasons. The cane and juice quality indicators, Corrected Reduced Boiling House recovery and the Molasses factor all suggest that this may have been because of the poor cane quality of cane processed rather than just poor factory operations in 2016/17. Regarding the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) B2 Affiliate Member mills in neighbouring countries, extraction was generally lower. The average pol-based Boiling House Recoveries decreased, but were still generally high, with only three mills recording values less than 85 %. Keywords: sugarcane, sugar factories, cane quality, crop size, performance, recovery Biography - Shaun Madho Shaun Madho is the Group Leader of Adaptive Research at the Sugar Milling Research Institute (SMRI). His chief duty is to employ best practices and innovative technologies to reduce the costs associated with sugar production. Other duties include SMRI support services such as consulting and training. Shaun was previously employed as a Process Engineer with Illovo Sugar Ltd at the Gledhow, Eston and Noodsberg mills. He has attained a Master’s degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


20

REFEREED PAPER

A FINANCIAL ESTIMATION OF THE MILL AREA-SCALE BENEFITS OF VARIETY ADOPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: A SIMPLISTIC APPROACH KADWA M1, RAMBURAN S2, NICHOLSON RJ1 AND REDSHAW KA 2 South African Cane Growers’ Association, 170 Flanders Drive, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa

1

Muhammad.Kadwa@canegrowers.co.za Richard.Nicholson@canegrowers.co.za Sanesh.Ramburan@sugar.org.za Kerry.Redshaw@sugar.org.za Abstract The South African Sugarcane Research Institute has a well-established commercial variety breeding programme that is funded by the industry. Studies estimating the value delivered by varieties on commercial fields and at the mill-scale are limited. Therefore, SASRI initiated a study in conjunction with the South African Cane Growers’ Association, and in collaboration with two milling companies, to estimate the potential increased industry proceeds of adopting new varieties on a farm (per hectare) and mill area-scale level (total RV tons harvested). While there are alternative methods to estimate the financial benefit, in this study, the analyses were compiled from two datasets: the Illovo Sugar (SA) Sezela estate and RCL Nkomazi production area. The results were extrapolated to the Sezela and Mpumalanga mill areas, respectively. Field production data from a five-year period (2010/11 to 2014/15) were used. For each production year, the average annualised RV yields (t/ha/annum) of a set of ‘new’ varieties were compared with an established ‘current’ older variety. The estimated financial benefits of adopting the ‘new’ varieties, with equal proportion, were then quantified based on the industry net divisible proceeds (2014/15 base year values). The estimated potential increased revenue was quantified after considering the SASRI variety development levy costs per annum. It was found that ‘new’ varieties produced higher RV yields than ‘current’ varieties on average for both the irrigated and dryland mill areas. The study confirmed that the adoption of newer varieties has the potential to significantly benefit the industry. A similar analysis can be conducted in other milling areas to estimate the financial benefit of new variety adoption and provide assurance to industry stakeholders of the value of continuing variety development. In addition, this analysis provides a method for a study that can focus on the payback period and return on investment for the variety breeding programme. Keywords: sugarcane, variety adoption, variety development, recoverable value, economics, South Africa Biography: Muhammad Kadwa Dr Muhammad Kadwa has been employed by the South African Cane Growers’ Association for two years’ as Area Manager: Umzimkulu, with a specialist focus portfolio of Research and Analysis. Prior to his current position, Muhammad spent 2½ years’ as an Agricultural Economic Advisor at the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture. He has a BSc. Agriculture Degree in Agricultural Economics and his Ph.D. focused on Bioresource Systems, both completed through the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Dr Kadwa has a keen interest in the economic science of complex agricultural value chains.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


21

GUEST PRESENTATION

CLOSING THE LOOP: MAKING FUELS, CHEMICALS AND MATERIALS FROM BIOMASS AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY DR ANNEGRET STARK SMRI Sugarcane Biorefinery Research Chair at the University of KwaZulu-Natal starka@ukzn.ac.za Anne Stark obtained her BSc in Pharmaceutical Chemistry (Isny, Germany) and her PhD from the Queen’s University in Belfast (UK). After being a SASOL postdoctoral fellow (2001-2003) at Stellenbosch University, she returned to Germany to conduct independent research at the Universities of Jena (venia legendi, 2010), Chemnitz, Leipzig and Darmstadt. Anne started in 2015 as a full professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, and heads the SMRI Sugarcane Biorefinery Research Group. This research group brings together specialists from chemistry, chemical engineering and economics, and aims to provide sustainable solutions for the South African sugar industry by diversifying the product and feed portfolio, making use of biomass. She is author of over 60 peer reviewed publications and patents, and has extensive international experience both in an academic and industrial context. Her expertise lies in the areas of biorefining, biomass conversion, separation science, and solvent design.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


22

SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

CACOSCELES (ZELOGENES) NEWMANNII (THOMSON) (CERAMBYCIDAE: PRIONINAE), A NEW PEST IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY WAY MJ1, CONLONG DE1,2, RUTHERFORD RS1,2, SWEBY DL1, GILLESPIE DY1, STRANACK RA1, LAGERWALL G1, GROBBELAAR E3 AND PERISSINOTTO R 2,4 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa 3 South African National Collection of Insects, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council, P/Bag X134, Queenswood, Pretoria, 0121, South Africa. 4 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa 1

2

mike.way@sugar.org.za 1,2des.conlong@sugar.org.za 1stuart.rutherford@sugar.org.za deborah.sweby@sugar.org.za 1rowan.stranack@sugar.org.za 1gary.lagerwall@sugar.org.za; 3 grobbelaarb@arc.agric.za 2,4renzo.perissinotto@nmmu.ac.za 1

1

Abstract In October 2015, larvae of Cacosceles (Zelogenes) newmannii (Thomson) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae: Cacoscelini) were found for the first time feeding in the stools and stalk bases of commercial sugarcane in the Entumeni District of KwaZulu-Natal. Damage symptoms were lodged stalks in patches of stunted sugarcane with basal borings and an associated red colouration around the feeding tunnels. Plant and ratoon crops of varieties N21, N39, N48, N47, N12 and N41, ranging in age from one to 22 months old, were attacked. There was only one larva per stalk. Tunnels made by this pest were visible in stubble of recently harvested crops, and in stalks stacked in loading zones. Larvae ranging in size from 2 to 9 cm in length were found in the same field. Larvae were yellowish to creamy whitish in colour. The body was distinctly segmented, elongate sub-cylindrical and relatively smooth and thick skinned. As in all cerambycids, larvae had enlarged thoracic segments behind the head. The tan to reddish-brown head capsule was extremely hard, bearing stout mandibles. From January to March 2017 adult activity was observed on multiple occasions during the daytime. Adults were tan coloured, elongate and characteristically with long antennae. Males had enlarged mandibles. The white pupa was soft-bodied. Yellow singly laid eggs were slender and elongate. In response to this new incursion into sugarcane, a two-pronged intervention approach is being considered. This involves an immediate short-term containment strategy, comprising possible combinations of mechanical and chemical measures in an attempt to restrict and suppress infestations. A longer-term sustainable integrated management plan will be based on knowledge gained about the pest through monitoring, field observations and formal research. Keywords: cerambycid, pest incursion, biology, cultural control, pathogens Biography: Mike Way Mike Way is an entomologist at SASRI involved with researching various aspects of sugarcane pests. His main focus area is the ecology of arthropod communities to better understand their role in sugarcane crops and surrounds as a means towards the development of sustainable and environmentally favourable area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) plans for the key sugar pests.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


23

REFEREED PAPER

THE EFFECT OF AN IMPROVED ARTIFICIAL DIET FORMULATION ON ELDANA SACCHARINA WALKER REARING, GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT NGOMANE NC¹,², GILLESPIE DY¹ AND CONLONG DE¹,3 ¹South African Sugarcane Research Institute, PBag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa ²Faculty of Natural Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 11 Hoffman St, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa 3 School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa Nomalizo.Ngomane@sugar.org.za Denise.Gillespie@sugar.org.za Des.Conlong@sugar.org.za Abstract Since 1970, Eldana saccharina Walker has been a key pest in South African sugarcane. Research projects on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), against this stalk borer are continually undertaken at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI). A colony of E. saccharina is routinely reared on artificial diet for use in these IPM projects. The current diet was found to be expensive (R0.22 per E. saccharina larva), so investigations were undertaken to formulate an improved diet that produced more insects per volume of diet, without compromising insect quality. Two artificial diets were compared; namely, a diet developed for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (referred to as rabbit pellet diet), and the current conventional diet (referred to as sugarcane diet). Quality assessment was conducted to determine dietary effects on E. saccharina growth and development. Texture, hardness, consistency and water content of the diets were important aspects in promoting good growth and development of the insects. Results showed that the rabbit pellet diet produced higher numbers of good quality pupae and moths (mean per 2 litres of diet = 89%) than the sugarcane diet (mean per 2 litres of diet = 16%). Time to pupation was also shorter (rabbit pellet diet = 27 days and sugarcane diet = 33 days). Given its lower cost (R0.05 per E. saccharina larva) and ease of preparation, the rabbit pellet diet can replace the current sugarcane diet as the medium on which to rear E. saccharina without compromising insect quality. This will facilitate the resulting IPM research that aims to provide sustainable control of E. saccharina in sugarcane. Key words: crop protection, integrated pest management, biological control, sterile insect technique, diet formulation Biography: Nomalizo Ngomane Nomalizo completed her BSc in Biological Sciences in 2014 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Westville Campus. Immediately after completing her degree, she started her internship at the KZN Science Centre as a Science Communicator. In January 2016 she started working at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) as a research intern for the department of Entomology, working on the development of an artificial diet for Eldana saccharina. Carol is currently doing an Honours Degree in Environmental Sciences: Plant Protection as a part-time student at North West University Potchefstroom Campus. She hopes to complete her Honours degree and her internship with SASRI by the end of 2017 and then pursue a Master’s degree.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


24

SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

ESTIMATING THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF EXTENDING THE HARVESTING CYCLE OF DRYLAND COASTAL CANE BY CHEMICALLY SUPRESSING ELDANA LEVELS DUCASSE GG1, KADWA M1, LAGERWALL G2 AND RUTHERFORD RS2 South African Cane Growers’ Association, 170 Flanders Drive, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, 170 Flanders Drive, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 1

Guy.Ducasse@canegrowers.co.za Muhammad.Kadwa@canegrowers.co.za Gary.Lagerwall@sugar.org.za Stuart.Rutherford@sugar.org.za Abstract The recommended age at harvest for coastal rainfed cane on the North Coast was 18 months, until 1978, when eldana’s presence became recognised as a significant threat. Various changes in agronomic practices were soon adopted to minimise the impacts of eldana on sugarcane yield and quality, the most effective being a reduction in harvest age to 13-15 months. While effectively minimising eldana damage, a less than optimal crop age at harvest has resulted in increased costs due to the increased area to be ratooned, as well as lower revenues resulting from a reduction in cane quality and yields. However, in late 2015, the registration of new eldana suppression chemicals utilising diamide and oxadiazine chemistries has augmented the opportunity for the lengthening of growing cycles in coastal and hinterland regions. Using Microsoft Excel® modelling, this desktop study estimates the economic cost versus benefit of ageing dryland coastal cane from an average of 13 to 16 months in the presence of chemical eldana suppression. The model considers the costs associated with planting, ratoon management, eldana suppression, and extraction in each scenario as well as the changes in cane yield and quality. The results indicate that, whilst the initial cash flow will be negatively affected, the long-term gains warrant the adoption of a stagey of extending the harvesting cycle of coastal cane. It is envisioned that the modelling developed in this study will be applied to on-farm trial results in the future, taking into account varietal and climatic differences. Keywords: harvest age, harvesting cycle, area under cane, eldana, economic benefit, North Coast Biography: Guy Ducasse Guy Ducasse, BSc Agric, is an agricultural and resource economist. Guy graduated from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Summa Cum Laude) and was Awarded the AR Saunders Medal for the Dux in the Agricultural and Dietetics programmes for 2008. Since November 2010 he has been employed by the South African Cane Growers’ Association and currently holds the position of Regional Manager: Tugela. His specialist area is that of coastal agricultural economics and economic modelling.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


25

SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

A CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR SIMULATING ELDANA SACCHARINA INFESTATION IN SUGARCANE DE WET PD AND POTGIETER L Department of Logistics, Stellenbosch University, South Africa 115691640@sun.ac.za

lpotgieter@sun.ac.za

Abstract In South Africa, the sugarcane industry has been using an integrated pest management system, developed by the South African Sugarcane Research Institute, that includes a number of good farming practices such as a reduced reliance on chemical pesticides. One of the newer interventions is the use of habitat management. In this study, the question is raised whether there exists a suitably diversified agricultural landscape, in terms of crop age, that will impact pest populations negatively. The population dynamics of the pest species Eldana saccharina Walker is modelled for various configurations of differently aged sugarcane crops across a spatial domain, where the harvesting of these fields occurs at different points in time. Also considered is the use of push and pull plants and the practicalities of incorporating farming practices. A cellular automaton model is used to simulate the pest species’ growth and dispersal patterns within the heterogeneous environments. GIS shapefiles are employed in the model to define the underlying structure of the agricultural landscape. The objective is to identify a field configuration for which the average infestation levels are minimised. Due to the multitude of possible field configurations, meta-heuristics are used to compare the various configurations and deliver the best solution found in the given time frame. In general, it has been established that grouping same aged crops together performs better. Keywords: sugarcane, Eldana saccharina, cellular automaton, agricultural landscape, pest management, habitat management, modelling Biography: Pieter de Wet Pieter de Wet is currently a Masters student as Stellenbosch University. He is working on a SASRI project for his master’s thesis in fulfilment of his MCom (Operations Research) degree. He completed all of his previous studies at Stellenbosch University, where he obtained a BCom Mathematical Sciences degree and followed on to complete his BComHons (Operations Research).

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POSTER SUMMARY

TIMEFRAME FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BORER RESISTANT GENETICALLY MODIFIED SUGARCANE SNYMAN SJ1,2 AND RUTHERFORD RS1,2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe, 4300 University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Life Science, Westville Campus, 4000 1

2

sandy.snyman@sugar.org.za

stuart.rutherford@sugar.org.za

Abstract The South African sugar Industry has elected to proceed with development of an Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) (eldana) resistant genetically modified (GM) sugarcane variety for anticipated commercial deployment within the next two decades. This decision, which was taken by the industry leadership serving on the Council of the South African Sugar Association, was based on the severe losses incurred by the Industry through eldana activity, particularly under low-rainfall conditions, which are estimated to be in the region of R1 billion per annum. In a business case prepared collaboratively by the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI), South African Canegrowers’ Association and the South African Sugar Millers’ Association, the GM commercialisation project was found to have a highly favourable internal rate of return, ranging from 21.94 to 31.77%, depending on the commercial rate of adoption of the GM variety. The development and evaluation of a GM line is likely to take 17 years, and the associated milestones are as follows: Year 1 – conduct an Intellectual Property audit to ensure that there is freedom to operate with the genetic constructs that the industry wants to use; Years 1-10 – perform genetic transformations and select promising lines based on expression of foreign proteins and performance in pot trials; Years 10-13 – field evaluation of GM lines and food and feed safety information collection; Year 14 – submit the Regulatory dossier to the Department of Forestry and Fisheries for the General Release permit; Years 14-16 – bulking up of material for release as per a new variety; Year 17 onwards – deployment to the Industry and begin breeding the GM traits into other varieties. Keywords: eldana, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), genetic modification (GM), commercialisation Biography: Sandy Snyman Dr Sandy Snyman is a Principal Researcher in the Biotechnology facility at SASRI. She has been with SASRI for 30 years and during that time she has initiated and implemented several tissue culture protocols for application in different aspects of the business. For example, NovaCane® as a means to produce seedcane that is disease-free and true-to-type as well as in vitro conservation of valuable germplasm. In addition, she has produced and field tested genetically modified sugarcane and is confident that one day the industry will benefit commercially from these novel genetic interventions. Sandy is a NRF-rated scientist, holds an Honorary position at the University of KwaZulu Natal and is involved with post-graduate student training.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

TOWARDS OPTIMISING CROP REFUGE AREAS IN TRANSGENIC SUGARCANE FIELDS HUMAN DJ AND POTGIETER L Department of Logistics, Stellenbosch University, South Africa dirk.human@gmail.com

lpotgieter@sun.ac.za

Abstract Genetically modified (GM) crops expressing genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce a protein toxic to members of the insect order Lepidoptera and are a popular alternative to chemical insecticides. Although Bt crops are considered to be an effective pest control method, poor management adds environmental pressure and the pest population may develop resistance to the toxin over time. One method of limiting the rate of resistance development is to keep small portions of the cultivated land planted with the non-GMO crop which then act as a refuge area for the pest, limiting its exposure to the toxin and removing the pressure to develop resistance. Lines of Bt sugarcane for the South African market that will limit the damage caused by the stalk borer moth, Eldana saccharina Walker are being developed. A prerequisite to releasing such GM genotypes is a recommendation on the size and layout of the refuge areas to be planted, as too small an area may not curb the rate of resistance development, but a large area may not be economically viable for the grower. The requirements for building a computer simulation-based system that can model the population dynamics and resistance development of a moth population in Bt sugarcane with various sizes and layouts of refuge areas are presented, with insects being modelled as individuals on a farm-sized scale using a simulation technique known as agent-based simulation. Keywords: sugarcane, eldana, GMO, agent-based simulation, pest management, agricultural landscape, computer modelling, cellular automata Biography: Dirk Human DJ Human is currently a master’s student at the Department of Logistics at Stellenbosch University. After graduating with his Honours degree in Operations Research (cum laude), also from Stellenbosch University in 2014, he joined one of South Africa’s largest banks as a predictive model builder in 2015 before pursuing his Master’s degree in early 2016.

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REFEREED PAPER

THE FERTILITY STATUS OF SOILS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY – 2012 to 2016: AN OVERVIEW MTHIMKHULU SS1 AND MILES N1,2 South Africa Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe. 4300, South Africa School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa 1

2

Sandile.Mthimkhulu@sugar.org.za Abstract Sugarcane places heavy demands on soil resources, thus potentially accelerating the deterioration of soil fertility. The database of the South African Sugarcane Research Institute’s Fertilizer Advisory Service (FAS) was used to assess soil fertility status in the eleven extension regions as reflected by data generated over the period 2012-2016. This period was selected as major changes in analytical methodologies were introduced in 2012. All regions showed wide ranges in soil test phosphorus (P). Disturbingly, massive ‘overloading’ with P (up to 1200 mg/L) was apparent in many topsoils, raising concerns of environmental impacts. Topsoil potassium (K) and silicon (Si) were higher in the irrigated areas relative to the rainfed areas, but K deficiencies were recorded in the sandier (<30% clay) and clayey (>40% clay) soils across all the rainfed regions. Deficiencies of zinc were recorded throughout the industry with iron only deficient in the irrigated regions. Average topsoil acid saturations (AS) were highest in the rainfed regions. The large numbers of subsoil samples submitted during the past five years highlighted the extent of subsoil acidity problems in the rainfed areas, with AS of greater than 80% being common. High AS was generally associated with prohibitively low levels of calcium and magnesium; the combination of these factors in subsoils would imply a toxic environment for root growth. This study highlights important shortcomings in the management of crop nutrition in the sugar industry, and may serve to highlight required interventions for the optimization of yields. Keywords: crop nutrition, subsoil acidity, soil fertility, sugar industry, sugarcane, leaching Biography: Sandile Mthimkhulu Sandile holds an MSc Agric in Soil Science from the University of KwaZulu-Natal. His Honours and MSc research projects focused on the response of soil physicochemical properties to continuous input of organic carbon. Upon completion of his MSc degree, he lectured in soil science at various institutions of higher learning, including Cedara College of Agriculture, Lowveld College of Agriculture and the University of Limpopo. Sandile joined SASRI as an Assistant Research Officer in January 2016. His current research project is on “Field calibration of soil P (Resin) and soil sulphur tests for the sugar industry”.  

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REFEREED PAPER

MASS AND COMPOSITION OF ASH REMAINING IN THE FIELD FOLLOWING BURNING OF SUGARCANE AT HARVEST VAN ANTWERPEN R1,2, MILES N1,3 AND MTHIMKHULU SS1 1

South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 Department of Soil, Crops and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa 3 School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3610, South Africa Rianto.van.antwerpen@sugar.org.za

Abstract Approximately 90% of the South African sugarcane crop is subjected to pre-harvest burning, resulting in the generation of large amounts of ash. Variable amounts of ash may be deposited on the field, with this depending largely on prevailing winds at the time of burning. The objective of this work was to provide some insight into the extent of in-field ash deposition and its chemical composition. The study was conducted on burnt treatments of the oldest sugarcane trial in the world, BT1. During the burn, ash was collected in steel trays (0.4m by 2.0 m) and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Si, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe. The mass of ash ranged from 0.03 to 0.24 t/ha, which was typically around 1% of the dry weight of dead leaves. Ash had an inverse relationship with soil fertility, ranging from 0.16 tons ash/ha for the most nutrient depleted treatment to 0.10 ton ash/ha for a well fertilised treatment. Ash from well fertilised treatments was also richer in nutrients. The only exception was Si (the most abundant nutrient in ash) which was present in higher quantities in ash of the nutrient depleted treatments (due to the larger biomass removed from well fertilised treatments third leaf Si was below threshold levels, which was not the case for the unfertilised treatments). The mean ash yield for a well fertilised field was 130 kg/ha, containing 19 kg Si/ ha and 0.47, 0.22 and 1.17 kg/ha of N, P and K respectively. Importantly, the amount of Si recycled might be very different for crops grown on soils low in Si. Based on the small quantities of ash remaining in the field (after wind-removal) the economic value in terms of nutrient recycling is negligible. Keywords: sugarcane burning, ash, silicon, nutrients Biography: Rianto van Antwerpen Rianto has been a soil scientist at SASRI since 1990. He has been involved in many projects over the years of which some are modelling of root growth, vertical mulching and ridging, soil compaction and controlled traffic, soil salinity and sodicity, CMS and other organic ameliorants, green manuring and soil health assessment. He is currently a senior soil scientist and manager of the Systems Design and Optimisation programme at SASRI.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

EFFECTS OF SURFACE-APPLIED LIME AND GYPSUM ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND YIELDS OF SUGARCANE RATOON CROPS ELEPHANT D1, MILES N1,2 AND MTHIMKHULU S1 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa 1

2

Dimpho.Elephant@sugar.org.za Abstract Liming agents and gypsum are used to address aluminium (Al) toxicity and calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies in crops. However, the rate at which these materials react and their efficacy when surface-applied without soil incorporation remains uncertain; there are also concerns that gypsum may leach Mg, potassium (K) and Al into the subsoil. The effects on soil properties and yields of surface applications of ameliorants to ratoon crops were studied in field trials on the North Coast (Cartref sand; commenced December, 2011) and Zululand (Nomanci clay-loam; commenced September, 2014). Both dolomitic lime and gypsum significantly increased Ca levels and reduced acid saturation in the Cartref topsoil, with lime effects being greater than those of gypsum. However, after five years, the impact of lime was restricted to the top 40 cm, whereas gypsum had improved these properties to a depth of 80 cm. Preliminary findings on the Nomanci soil show that two years after the application of Calmasil and gypsum, their effects have been confined to the top 20 cm. In both trials there was no evidence of leaching of K, Mg and Al. Total sucrose yields on the Cartref soil were improved by the combined gypsum-plus-lime application. No effects of Calmasil and gypsum on sucrose yields on the Nomanci soil were yet apparent. This study highlights the benefits in terms of yields and soil chemical properties of surface-applied ameliorants on a sandy soil. Keywords: soil acidity, soil ameliorants, lime surface-application, sucrose yields, sugarcane Biography: Dimpho Elephant Dimpho has a chemistry background and holds an MSc in Soil Science from the University of KwaZulu-Natal. His BSc Honours and MSc research projects focused on extraction techniques used as a risk assessment tool for waste management and contaminated soils. On completion of his Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree, he lectured in soil science at UKZN for two and a half years. In April 2015, Dimpho joined SASRI as an Assistant Research Officer. His responsibilities include providing specialist analytical support to FAS, developing calibrations for leaf analysis using XRF, improving methods for fertiliser and soil analysis, method validations, ensuring quality of analysis, and crop nutrition research. Dimpho is currently working on a PhD involving potassium dynamics in soils and ways of accounting for these in routine soil testing and in the development of fertilizer recommendations. â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

PREDICTION OF SOIL NITROGEN MINERALIZATION TO CROP FERTILISER NITROGEN REQUIREMENTS MILES N1, RHODES R2 AND WEIGEL A3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 P.O. Box 916, Eshowe, 3815, South Africa 3 Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture, Dresden, Germany

1

neil.miles@sugar.org.za Abstract The fertiliser nitrogen (N) requirements of sugarcane are related to the extent of N mineralization from the soil organic matter. The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;N Categoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; index, derived from clay and organic matter levels, is currently used as an estimate of N mineralization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of this index with several other soil-based tests using response data from field trials. The soil N-mineralization assessments included 7-day anaerobic N and 3-day CO2 release tests. Field trials were established on 12 sites in rainfed areas and two in the irrigated northern areas. Treatments in all trials included zero fertiliser N controls, and incremental additions of N, with actual rates varying with soil properties and yield potential. Eight of the trials were initiated at planting of the crop, with the remaining trials being established on ratoon cane. There was no significant sucrose yield response to applied N in plant crops. In contrast, highly significant responses to N were forthcoming in ratoon crops. The strength of relationships between soil based indices/tests and responsiveness to N in ratoons increased as follows: N Category (R 2=0.62) < 7-day anaerobic N (R 2=0.71) < 3-day CO2 release (R 2=0.75) < total soil N (R 2=0.94). The predictive potential of the N Category index was found to be particularly poor for low organic matter, sandy soils with a high N requirement. These findings suggest that significant improvements in the reliability of N recommendations would result from the use of total soil N (readily determined by mid-infrared spectroscopy) as an index of soil N supply to the crop. Keywords: nitrogen, mineralization, soil organic matter, sugarcane nitrogen response, soil testing, mid-infrared spectroscopy Biography: Neil Miles Neil Miles is currently a senior scientist with the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI). Prior to his position with SASRI, he spent 28 years with the KZN Department of Agriculture, as a research scientist and research manager. His PhD, through the University of Natal, focused on the nutrition of intensive pastures. Dr Miles played a leading role in the development of the Cedara Fertilizer Advisory Service, which he also managed for some 20 years. At SASRI, Dr Miles is the technical manager of the Fertiliser Advisory Service and he carries out research relating to the optimisation of soil health and the nutrient requirements of sugarcane. He is an Honorary Research Fellow with the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

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SHORT NON-REFEREED PAPER

FACTORS CONTROLLING THE SOLUBILITY OF PHOSPHORUS IN SOILS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY POSWA L1 AND MILES N1,2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3610, South Africa 1

2

lwazi.poswa@sugar.org.za Abstract Management of phosphorus (P) for crop production requires the following considerations to be taken into account: (1) in their undisturbed state, soils on the eastern seaboard of South Africa are severely deficient in phosphorus; (2) P availability to crops is reduced through chemical immobilization (fixation); (3) P is the most costly of the macronutrients; and (4) ‘overloading’ of soil with P has environmental risks. In this study, the objective was to identify the primary factors controlling P solubility and immobilization in industry soils. Thirty-eight topsoils from irrigated and rainfed areas were subjected to detailed chemical analyses. Phosphorus immobilization was determined using sorption isotherms, single point immobilization indices and glasshouse incubations. Phosphorus solubility was poorly related to clay contents, and reasonably well-related to soil sample density and oxalate extractable iron (Fe); however, an outstanding feature of the results was the evidence of the major role of oxalate-extractable aluminium (Al) in controlling P solubility in all soils, regardless of their origin and properties. R 2 values for relationships between oxalate Al and isotherm slope, Bache and Williams phosphorus sorption index (PSI) and resin P requirement factor were 0.91, 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The strong relationship between organic carbon (C) and oxalate-extractable Al (R 2 = 0.90) suggests that the bulk of the latter is complexed with the organic matter. Phosphorus immobilization in soils with >3% C was found to be four- to six-fold higher than in soils with lower C levels. The findings presented contribute to an understanding of P fixation mechanisms in industry soils, and provide an explanation for the recurring P requirement observed on higher organic matter soils. Keywords: phosphorus, immobilization, oxalate Al, organic C, sorption isotherms Biography: Lwazi Poswa Mr Lwazi Zukisa Poswa is an Assistant Research Officer (Soils) at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute. He joined the sugarcane industry in 2013 as a SASRI employee in 2013 from Cedara. He studied his BSc. Agric and Honours in Soil Science at the University of Fort Hare and recently this year obtained his Masters in Soil Science at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.  

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM RAINFALL IN THE FELIXTON MILL SUPPLY AREA AND INVESTIGATION OF DERIVATIVES AS A HEDGING MECHANISM AGAINST DROUGHT HOWES RE1, DUCASSE G2 AND FUNKE T3 South African Cane Growersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association, PO Box 888, Mount Edgecombe 4300, South Africa 1

richard.howes@canegrowers.co.za 2guy.ducasse@canegrowers.co.za 3 thomas.funke@canegrowers.co.za

Abstract Rainfall since 1948 was assessed in order to highlight the plight that growers in the Zululand region of the industry have faced. Analysis of the trend included an attempt to take a forward-looking view on future sustainability practices given the weather trends, and the potential use of weather derivatives to mitigate risk. SASRI rainfall records for the Felixton catchment area were used to make the long-term rainfall assessment to determine whether the region is facing a long-term drying off of the climate. An initial weather derivate model was built to assess suitability for mitigation of adverse rainfall risk. The conclusion reached was that the Felixton region has been experiencing decreasing rainfall over an extended period. Mean annual rainfall from 1948 to 2004 was 1038.1 mm. A total of 15 of the 16 years from 2001 to 2016 had annual rainfall below this level. It should be noted that the preliminary analysis in this paper indicates that weather derivatives have the potential to mitigate risk however further analysis is required to determine a mechanistic hedging strategy that would leave growers better off over the long term through hedging. Biography: Richard Howes Richard has been the agricultural economist and Area Manager at SA Canegrowers in the Felixton area since January 2012. Richard came into the industry with a degree in computer science and economics from the Information Technology world. Richardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s previous experience was in business process reengineering and software development in the banking, insurance, and pharmaceutical industries.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

AN EXPERIMENTAL AND CROP MODELLING ASSESSMENT OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE PRODUCTIVITY HOFFMAN N1, PATTON AB1, MALAN C2, BAARTMAN J2, BERNER J2, SINGELS A1,3, PARASKEVOPOLOUS A1 AND VAN HEERDEN PDR1,3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300 South Africa Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, P/Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa 3 Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa 1

2

Natalie.Hoffman@sugar.org.za Abstract It is predicted that atmospheric CO2 concentration could double by 2100. Sugarcane may respond favourably to elevated CO2 by increased water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass, although contrasting reports exist. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effects of elevated CO2 on the physiology and yield of two sugarcane varieties; and (2) assess the simulation capability of the Canesim model to predict CO2 effects on sugarcane. Varieties NCo376 and N31 were grown for seven months in 12 open-top chambers under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 concentrations at Potchefstroom (South Africa). The effects of elevated CO2 on stomatal conductance (gs), CO2 assimilation rate (A), WUE and stalk dry mass (SDM) and sucrose yields were assessed. The Canesim model was used to simulate the experiment in Potchefstroom, and the long-term (over 20 years) mean response of SDM yield to elevated CO2 under rainfed (La Mercy) and irrigated (Komatipoort) conditions. Under elevated CO2 concentrations, gS was significantly reduced by 30-40% in both varieties, while A was not affected. WUE was significantly higher in both varieties under elevated CO2 conditions, with increases of up to 71%. No significant increases in SDM or sucrose yields were found for either variety as compared with the control, and this was corroborated by the Potchefstroom Canesim simulation. Canesim predicted a SDM yield benefit only in response to elevated CO2 under rainfed conditions at La Mercy. These findings warrant further research into the impacts of elevated CO2 and water deficit on sugarcane productivity. Keywords: Canesim, climate change, elevated CO2, sugarcane yield, water use efficiency Biography: Alana Patton Alana began working as a Crop Scientist in Agronomy at SASRI in 2011, and received her PhD from UKZN in 2012. She has worked on a wide variety of research topics related to sugarcane growth and physiology, including drought stress, ripening, flowering, and G x E interactions. She enjoys being a part of the SASTA Congress Organising Committee and manages the delegate events, communications and media portfolios. In her spare time she loves to accidently drought stress plants at home.

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POSTER SUMMARY

THE INVESTIGATION OF A SUITABLE SUMMER BREAKCROP AFTER IMAZAPYR APPLICATION FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CYNODON DACTYLON CAMPBELL PL1, RUTHERFORD RS1,2 AND DREW K3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa 3 Tongaat Hulett Sugar, Private Bag X50, Tongaat, KwaZulu-Natal, 4400, South Africa 1

2

Peta.Campbell@sugar.org.za Stuart.Rutherford@sugar.org.za Kevin.Drew@tongaat.com Abstract While imazapyr persistence in the soil is an advantage for Cynodon dactylon (cynodon) control, it can also cause damage to the following crop. Arsenal GEN 2® (1250 ga.i./ha imazapyr) is registered for cynodon control in sugarcane fields due for replanting, with a waiting period of at least four months together with 600 mm cumulative rainfall required between application and planting. Given this, fields treated with imazapyr frequently require a long fallow during summer and, as a result, break crops tolerant of the chemical would be advantageous. Legumes are valuable summer green manures for soil health and are known to be tolerant to imidazolinone residues. Consequently, legumes might require less cumulative rainfall (than sugarcane) for sufficient herbicide residue dissipation before re-planting sugarcane. In this study, imazapyr was applied at 1250 g a.i/ha to a north coast clay soil (41% clay, 4.3% OM) and a non-irrigated humic field (27% clay, 1.8% OM) in the northern semi-arid region. Sunn hemp and velvet beans were planted immediately or at one month after imazapyr application, with associated rainfall of 0 and 106 mm in the clay soil or 0 and 157 mm in the humic soil. In the clay soil, sunn hemp displayed reduced emergence, increased leaf chlorosis, ‘broccoli’ leaf growth and plant stunting, while in the humic soil, seedlings failed to emerge. Velvet beans were severely suppressed in both soils when planted immediately after herbicide application, although some of the plants recovered. Suppression was reduced after 106 mm and 157 mm rainfall in the clay and humic soils respectively, in terms of relative % leaf chlorosis, stalk height and number of trifoliate leaves, indicating this species could survive imazapyr application in both soil types. Velvet beans appear to be less tolerant in sandy soils, and this will be further tested in the field. The results of the study indicate that velvet beans might be a valuable green manure break crop, planted in clay soils one month after imazapyr application. Keywords: sugarcane, velvet beans, sunn hemp, residual herbicide activity, green manure crops Biography: Peta L Campbell Peta is the Weed Specialist at the SA Sugarcane Research Institute, and current research focuses on developing chemical and integrated control recommendations for problematic weeds; and technology exchange of basic and new weed control principles to assist commercial and emerging farmers.

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POSTER SUMMARY

NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE VARIETIES PATTON AB1, MAKHUBEDU ITR 2 AND WEIGEL A3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 P.O. Box 001, Pietermaritzburg, 3201, South Africa 3 Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture, Dresden, Germany

1

alana.patton@sugar.org.za Abstract The assessment of crop nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) to optimise N applications in sugarcane production has been an ongoing research topic. Previous work showed that selected South African sugarcane varieties differed in their NUE. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the NUE of selected commercial sugarcane varieties and determine whether variety-specific N recommendations are required. Two field trials, one irrigated (Pongola) and one rainfed (Kearsney), were conducted with selected varieties using incremental rates of N at each site. Concurrently, a pot trial with eight varieties and four rates of N was conducted at Mount Edgecombe. Stalk yield, total dry biomass and N content (%) were used to assess NUE. There was no yield response to N in the plant crop at both field trial sites. Yield response to N and NUE in the ratoon crops were significantly higher in varieties N41 and N36 at Pongola, and N41 and NCo376 at Kearsney when compared with other varieties. The results from the pot trial showed that N41 was also found to have higher NUE compared with other varieties. Despite the higher NUE of the above varieties, there is insufficient evidence to alter the recommended rate of N based on variety, because responses to N differed from season to season and were characterized by high variability. Variety-specific N recommendations would be difficult to make because environment predominates over varietal variability for NUE. In addition, there was no significant additional benefit to yield by increasing N from 100% (100-140 kg N/ha) to 150% (150-210 kg N/ha) of FAS recommended N rates. Keywords: sugarcane, nitrogen use efficiency, crop yield, N content Biography: Alana Patton Alana began working as a Crop Scientist in Agronomy at SASRI in 2011, and received her PhD from UKZN in 2012. She has worked on a wide variety of research topics related to sugarcane growth and physiology, including drought stress, ripening, flowering, and G x E interactions. She enjoys being a part of the SASTA Congress Organising Committee and manages the delegate events, communications and media portfolios. In her spare time she loves to accidently drought stress plants at home.

â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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POSTER SUMMARY

A WEB-BASED DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR ANALYSING MONTHLY SUGARCANE GROWTH RATES IN SOUTH AFRICA JONES MR, KHAMBULE S AND SINGELS A South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mt Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa Matthew.jones@sugar.org.za Sanele.khambule@sugar.org.za Abraham.Singels@sugar.org.za Abstract Monthly sugarcane growth information can support a range of decision-making, such as crop yield estimation, mill planning, harvest scheduling, carryover field selection and chemical ripening. This information can be difficult to obtain. The objective of this work was to develop a decision support program (DSP) for providing situation-specific monthly growth rates. The DSSAT-Canegro model was used to calculate monthly yield increments for all permutations of 48 homogenous climate zones (HCZ), five soil-water holding capacities, five cycle lengths (12 to 24 months), nine harvest dates (15 April to 15 December), fully-irrigated and rainfed, for 27 growing seasons using historic weather data (1983-2010). These represent most sugarcane-growing situations in South Africa. A web-based DSP was developed to enable easy querying of the yield increment database. Prospective users were consulted during the development to ensure that the DSP produced useful information and was easy to use. The DSP allows users to define the growing situation (HCZ, soil, crop cycle and irrigation condition) and then view the relevant monthly cane and sucrose yield increments for below-normal, normal and above-normal climatic growth conditions, in graphical and tabular formats, and to compare scenarios. Data can be downloaded in CSV format. The DSP is valuable for supporting field-level decision-making, such as assessing yield gains when harvesting is delayed, and exploring ripener application strategies. The underlying database may also be used in future as the basis for more application-specific decision-support tools. For example, a prototype crop estimates tool has been developed, which allows users to define multiple fields and assess different harvesting strategies. Keywords: growth rate, cane yield, crop model, Canegro, decision support, climate Biography: Matthew Jones Matthew Jones is an independent crop modelling consultant, and works closely with SASRI on a range of modelling-related projects. Recent focus areas include development of agricultural decision-support systems, assessing sugarcane climate change impacts and adaptations, and exploring modelling of genotype by environment interactions in sugarcane. Matthew holds an MSc in Agrometeorology from the University of KwaZulu-Natal and is currently pursuing a parttime PhD at the University of Pretoria.

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POSTER SUMMARY

MYCANESIM® LITE: A SIMPLE WEB-BASED SUGARCANE SIMULATION TOOL PARASKEVOPOULOS A1, MASHABELA ML1, SINGELS A1,2,3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa 3 School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa 1

2

Aresti.Paraskevopoulos@sugar.org.za, London.Mashabela@sugar.org.za, Abraham.Singels@sugar.org.za Abstract Accurate estimates of sugarcane yield, water use and irrigation requirements are important information for efficient sugarcane production. Crop models can provide this information but utilization remains low due to model complexity. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and easy-to-use web tool to access the Canesim® model for quick and easy simulation of sugarcane growth for sites in South Africa, Swaziland and Malawi. The web interface (viewed in Google Chrome) was written in the PHP programming language and interacts with the MyCanesim® database and the Canesim® model to execute simulations and display results. It allows users to specify the weather station, crop start and harvest dates, crop class, residue layer type, soil water holding capacity, irrigation option, and expected rainfall category. Other inputs are derived from these basic inputs, or set to default values. The system outputs seasonal water balance totals, canopy cover and cane yield at harvest for a single season, or for multiple seasons. Daily data for more variables can be downloaded or viewed in graphs. Extension staff and researchers tested a prototype and provided suggestions for improvement. A test showed that default inputs had little impact on simulation accuracy, and crop water use and cane yield estimates matched well with that obtained from the full MyCanesim® system (R 2=0.99, n=20). The tool is useful for obtaining quick estimates of past and future crop water use, irrigation requirements and cane yield to support the planning and management of sugarcane production. Its ease of use should promote the adoption of crop modelling for research and management of sugarcane production. Keywords: Canesim, cane yield, crop model, weather, simulation, water use Biography: Aresti Paraskevopoulos Aresti Paraskevopoulos has been a Scientific Programmer at SASRI for ten years. He works on SASRI’s websites and assists with programming in various projects including the Canesim® Sugarcane Model and the Crop Forecasting system. He received his BScHons in Applied Mathematics with Computer Science at the University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN) in 2002 and a teaching degree from UNISA in 2004. He graduated this year with an MSc in BioResources Systems at UKZN.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

OPTIMUM HARVEST AGE OF SUGARCANE AT KILOMBERO SUGAR COMPANY UNDER HIGH MINIMUM TEMPERATURE MUNSAMY SS Illovo Sugar Proprietary Limited 1 Nokwe Avenue, Ridgeside, Umhlanga Ridge, Durban, South Africa 4320 smunsamy@illovo.co.za Abstract Kilombero Sugar Company (KSC) is situated in South Eastern Tanzania and is a subsidiary of the Illovo Sugar Group. In the 2013/2014 season, due to factory challenges, harvesting all the cane in the KSC cane supply area was not possible. This resulted in a large proportion of carry-over cane and the miller-cum-planter (MCP) average crop age increased to 13.7 months in the 2014/2015 season. The average sucrose content (%) decreased to 11.48% compared with the 5-year average of 12.50%. A statistical analysis of MCP data was carried out to determine the effect of cane age on cane yield and sucrose content (%). The statistical analysis showed an inverse linear relationship between average cane age and sucrose % cane (R²=0.87). The relationship between average cane age and tons cane per hectare (TCH) was linear until about 12.2 months and then decreased (R²=0.93). The relationship between average cane age and tons sucrose per hectare (TSH) was linear until 12 months and then declined rapidly (R²=0.94). Sucrose content (%) was negatively affected by high minimum temperature in the 2014/2015 crop season. In terms of tons sucrose/hectare/annum (TSHA) the optimum harvest age to maximise sucrose content (%) was approximately 11.8 months. There is opportunity to limit the growth of the crop by decreasing irrigation and nitrogen fertiliser, but the concept of decreasing cane yield will be difficult to embrace, although the long term benefits of farm profitability (by reducing transportation costs while maximising sucrose content) would be worthwhile. Keywords: sugarcane, harvest age, minimum temperature, sucrose content (%), cane yield Biography: Stanley Munsamy Stanley Munsamy studied for a National Diploma in Sugar Technology which included Sugar Cane Husbandry as one of the major subjects. He was the Operations Director of Kilombero Sugar Company when this paper was written. He was in charge of agriculture, milling and downstream during his stay at Kilombero. Stanley has authored and co-authored numerous SASTA papers mainly in the milling side. This is his 3rd Agricultural paper. He has been involved in SASTA structures for more than 20 years as committee member, SASTA President and recently as a referee for SASTA papers. He enjoys coaching and mentoring young technologists.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

THE EFFECT OF ELDANA SACCHARINA DAMAGE ON SUGARCANE BREEDING POPULATIONS AND THE IMPLICATIONS ON SUGARCANE BREEDING LICHAKANE M AND ZHOU M South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa Moipei.Lichakane@sugar.org.za

Marvellous.Zhou@sugar.org.za

Abstract Eldana saccharina (eldana) is an indigenous sugarcane insect pest that causes severe economic losses estimated around R900 million/annum in South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess eldana damage on sugarcane breeding populations and its implication on breeding for resistance. Data for per cent bored stalks (PBS) were collected from the coastal long cycle breeding programme stage I trials planted in Gingindlovu, comprised of seedling progenies from 112 families. The first 20 subplots of each family plot were inspected, number of damaged stalks recorded and converted into PBS. Highly significant (P<0.0001) family-effects variance components were observed, indicating high variability among families for eldana damage. Female parent effects were highly significant (P<0.001) indicating high genetic variability for female parents. Male parent effects were not significant (P>0.05) suggesting less genetic variability contributed from males or the confounding effect of polycrosses where pollinating males are unknown. The results suggested that large variability in eldana damage between families was associated with female parents. However, female and male interactioneffects were significant (P<0.05) indicating the importance of cross combination and presence of specific combining ability. High broad sense heritability of 0.86 was observed indicating the ability to discriminate between resistant and susceptible families within a population. Predicted selection gains of 33.5% indicated a high response to selection suggesting the potential to increase eldana resistance through selection. This study highlights not only the importance of choosing female parents in producing eldana-resistant families, but also that complementary males are important in resistance breeding. Keywords: Genotype by environment, broad sense heritability, predicted selection gains, percentage stalks bored Biography: Moipei Lichakane Miss Moipei Lichakane is a Plant Breeder at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute. Before joining SASRI in 2011 she worked as a Researcher in maize for the Agricultural Research Council and Monsanto. She graduated from the University of Free State with MSc Agric (Plant Breeding).

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

IDENTIFYING ELITE FAMILIES FOR THE MIDLANDS SUGARCANE BREEDING PROGRAMMES IN SOUTH AFRICA MBUMA NW1,2, ZHOU MM1,2 AND VAN DER MERWE R2 1

South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mt Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa Ntombi.Mbuma@sugar.org.za Marvellous.Zhou@sugar.org.za VanDerMerweR@ufs.ac.za

Abstract Family evaluation in sugarcane increases genetic gains for traits controlled by several genes, such as cane yield, by focusing selection on populations with a higher proportion of superior genotypes. In early stages of sugarcane breeding, families can be replicated while individual genotypes cannot because of insufficient planting material and the large numbers of progenies from a cross. The objectives of this study were to identify and determine the proportion of elite families and their trait combinations for cane yield in the Midlands humic and sandy soil breeding programmes. Data for stalk number, height and diameter, used to calculate cane yield, were measured from seedling progenies and analysed using SAS mixed models. Family data classified in categories based on cane yield were analysed using principal component analysis and mixed models. Results indicated highly significant differences (P<0.0001) among families. F-values for categories were 9 to 11 times larger than family F-values, indicating the accuracy of grouping families into yield potential and selection for high yield categories. Elite families produced 47 to 79% higher cane yield than the other families. The elite families also produced 19 to 40% more stalks that were 11 to 39% taller. High and low yield families had similar stalk diameters. Principal component analysis grouped elite families separately from the other families. The proportion of elite families in the humic soil breeding programme was 23% compared with 16% in sandy soils. Knowledge of the proportion of elite families and traits controlling cane yield is expected to increase selection efficiency. Keywords: family evaluation, cane yield, stalk characteristics Biography: Ntombokulunga Mbuma Ntombokulunga Mbuma has a BSc Biochemistry, BSc Agriculture Honours in Plant Breeding, MSc Agriculture in Plant Breeding from University of the Free State (UFS). She is currently a full-time doctoral student at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) and registered with the UFS, where she is developing statistical methods to improve the efficiency of sugarcane variety breeding for the South African sugar industry.

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POSTER SUMMARY

MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF SUGARCANE: DISCOVERING A NEW SPECIES LLOYD EVANS D1,2 AND JOSHI SV1,2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa. School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa. 1

2

dyfed.evans@sugar.org.za

shailesh.joshi@sugar.org.za

Abstract Saccharum taxonomy has not been subject to molecular assessment. Currently, the Saccharum sensu stricto (s.s) genus consists of three recognized species: S. spontaneum, S. officinarum and S. robustum, and three subspecies: S. sinense, S. barberi and S. edule. Modern sugarcane arose through the ‘nobilization’ process, and it is believed that S. officinarum and S. spontaneum were involved in an interspecific cross with subsequent backcrossing to S. officinarum. Elucidating the true origin of modern sugarcane cultivars based on phenotypic characteristics, as well as molecular evolutionary data is a complex issue due to ancient hybridizations outside Saccharum. Plastid-based studies allow for the elucidation of matrilineal descent at the species level. Next generation sequencing technologies have not only made sequencing of the entire genome of an organism feasible but also cost effective. Furthermore, de-novo assembly has become relatively easy based on recent advances in genome assembly algorithms. In our study, whole plastid phylogenetic analyses, based on whole genome, isolated chloroplast and transcriptomic data assembly, were performed to discriminate between Saccharum species and modern hybrid cultivars. Our results show the need to partition Saccharum s.s into three species; S. spontaneum, S. officinarum and the lineage of modern hybrid cultivars which are derived from a cryptic founder species that we formally name Saccharum cultum sp. nov. Lloyd Evans and Joshi 2016. This study describes the plastid-based view on the origin of all Saccharum s.s species and confirmed this discovery based on mitochondrial genome assembly. We propose a move away from conventional ‘nobilization’ towards ‘molecular saccharogenesis’. Keywords: molecular saccharogenesis, molecular evolution, Saccharum cultum, molecular taxonomy, Saccharum chloroplast Biography: Dyfed Lloyd Evans Dr Dyfed Lloyd Evans is a Computational Biologist and Molecular Systematist. He gained his BSc in Biophysics from King’s College, London and his PhD in Clinical Medicine from Cambridge University. He worked as a Senior Informatics Specialist at AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals for 14 years before joining SASRI in 2013. He is currently working on the genomics of Sugarcane and the taxonomy of the Panicoid grasses.

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43

SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

EFFECT OF SELF-TRASHING ON ELDANA SACCHARINA WALKER DAMAGE IN SUGARCANE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESISTANCE BREEDING NXUMALO PD1 AND ZHOU M1,2 SASRI, Private Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa University of the Free State, Plant Sciences Department, Breeding Division, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa 1

2

Phumla.Nxumalo@sugar.org.za

Marvellous.Zhou@sugar.org.za

Abstract Eldana saccharina is a major pest of sugarcane in South Africa, which causes losses estimated at R900 million per annum. Genetic resistance remains an important component of an integrated eldana control strategy. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between levels of self-trashing and eldana damage, and evaluate implications for resistance breeding. Self-trashing is expected to reduce oviposition sites thus, exposing eggs and larvae to predators. Data on the number of bored stalks per genotype were collected from the mini-lines trial (TML14) at SASRI’s Empangeni Research Station. There was a 7.76% decrease (P<0.0001) in number of bored stalks with every unit increase in self-trashing. The number of bored stalks decreased significantly from 68% (clinging leaves) to 52% (highly self-trashing) (P=0.0008), indicating that self-trashing was associated with a reduction in eldana damage. There were highly significant (P=0.001) family effects for self-trashing, significant variability (σ2=0.016, P=0.002) and moderate broad sense heritability of 0.58, suggesting breeding for self-trashing was possible. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction analysis showed significant female (P<0.0001) and male (P<0.0001) parental effects, and suggested that selecting high self-trashing parents will increase trait levels in breeding populations. Female (σ2=0.005, P=0.0542) and male (σ2=0.022, P=0.0003) parental variance components suggested that the choice of male parent is more important for increasing self-trashing when considering these specific parents. The results indicated that self-trashing was a trait offering an additional resistance mechanism to combat eldana in sugarcane. Quantitative genetic parameters highlight the potential to indirectly breed for eldana resistance using the self-trashing trait. Keywords: Eldana saccharina, resistance, sugarcane, self-trashing, breeding mechanism Biography: Phumla Nxumalo Phumla Nxumalo is currently employed as a Selection Officer where she provides technical and research support to the Plant Breeding Department of the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI). Prior to this, she has worked as a Crossing Officer in the Plant Breeding Department and Research Assistant within SASRI. Phumla received both her BSc (Biological Sciences) and MSc (Biology) degrees from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (UKZN). During this period, she has also had a chance to do an internship and master’s thesis (cum laude) at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute. The thesis was part of research where in vitro micropropagation systems of sugarcane were compared with respect to plant production and genotyping and phenotypic fidelity.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

PERFORMANCE OF IMPORTED GENOTYPES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR UTILIZATION IN SASRI BREEDING PROGRAMMES ZHOU, M South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa Marvellous.Zhou@sugar.org.za Abstract The South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) imports genotypes from several countries to broaden the genetic base of breeding germplasm. Evaluating the performance of imported genotypes provides data to optimise their use in breeding and guides sources of future germplasm importation. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of 28 genotypes imported from Australia, Barbados, Brazil and Colombia, and to evaluate their potential use in the SASRI breeding programme. Data for yield, quality, agronomic characteristics, eldana damage and smut infection were collected in the plant, first, second and third ratoon crops from a trial planted at the SASRI Pongola research station. There were highly significant (P<0.001) genotype differences for yield, quality, agronomic traits, eldana damage and number of smut whips. Yield and quality traits showed highly significant genotype by crop-year interactions, suggesting differential performance across ratoons and indicating the potential to select high ratooning genotypes. Principal component analysis produced three genotype clusters comprising: (a) commercial type; (b) average yield, average sucrose; and (c) high biomass, low sucrose. High biomass genotypes produced 39% more cane, 37% lower sucrose, 40% more fibre, 28% more stalks that were 21% taller and 15% thinner, with 47% fewer eldana bored stalks and three times fewer smut whips than commercial types, indicating their potential value as sources of genes for high yield, eldana and smut resistance. High yielding commercial type genotypes originated mainly from Brazil, while those from Barbados were mainly high biomass types. These results will guide the choice of future germplasm imports for SASRI. Keywords: Germplasm, genetic base, biomass, commercial type Biography: Marvellous Zhou Marvellous Zhou is a Senior Plant Breeder and Plant Breeding Project Manager at SASRI and Associate Professor in the Department of Plant Breeding, University of the Free State. He is the Vice President of Southern Africa Plant Breeders Association (SAPBA) Executive Committee. He is NRF rated C1 level scientist. Before joining SASRI, he was a Plant Breeder at the Zimbabwe Sugar Association Experiment Station and later PhD Research Fellow in the Sugarcane Genetics Laboratory at Louisiana State University. He graduated from the University of Zimbabwe with a BSc Agriculture Honours, MSc Agriculture from the University of Natal, Masters in Applied Statistics and PhD (Plant Breeding and Genetics) from Louisiana State University. He has published extensively in peer reviewed journals, refereed conference proceedings, book chapters and presented at several conferences including CSSA, SASTA, ISSCT, ASSCT, ASA, SAPBA, SAGS, and EUCARPIA. His research interest includes optimising plant breeding programmes, Plant Breeding methodology, Quantitative genetics and Applied statistics. He mentors MSc, PhD students and Plant Breeders.

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POSTER SUMMARY

THE AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF TISSUE CULTURE (NovaCane速) VERSUS CONVENTIONAL SEEDCANE UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS SHEZI SN1,2, RAMBURAN S1,2 AND MODI AT2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa

1

Sanesh.Ramburan@sugar.org.za Abstract Plants produced through tissue culture (TC or NovaCane速) have been shown to possess an altered phenotype compared with conventionally propagated material (Con). The effects of this on yields under rainfed conditions in the first propagation stage, and the effect of variety, are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether varieties differed in phenotypic response to TC and, if present, whether the altered phenotype could be mitigated through manipulation of plant spacing. A field trial was established under rainfed conditions at Mount Edgecombe. The randomised block experiment with four replications consisted of four varieties (N12, N31, N41 and N48) planted using four different methods: 1) TC plants spaced 30 cm apart; 2) TC plants spaced 50 cm apart: 3) conventional hot water treated seedcane (Con); and 4) speedlings planted 50 cm apart (SP50). Yield and yield component measurements were taken at harvest and data were analysed by ANOVA. There were no significant differences in cane and ERC yields between propagation methods for all varieties. No significant differences in stalk height, stalk mass and stalk population were observed between propagation methods in all varieties. Stalk diameter was significantly reduced in the TC treatments compared with the Con for varieties N12 and N31. The SP50 treatment had a significantly greater stalk diameter compared with the TC50 treatment for varieties N12, N31 and N41. The TC and Con treatments are agronomically comparable under rainfed conditions. Ongoing work will compare growth in the first ratoon and in the second propagation stage. Keywords: NovaCane速, variety, phenotype, plant spacing, propagation methods, growing conditions. Biography: Sbonelo Nicholus Shezi Sbonelo has a BSc Honours degree in Plant Sciences that he obtained in 2015 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He is currently doing his MSc in Agronomy (2nd year) at SASRI registered with the University of KwaZulu-Natal. His research is based on the agronomic performance of tissue culture (NovaCane速) versus conventional seedcane under rainfed conditions.

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POSTER SUMMARY

AN INVESTIGATION INTO STORED SEED VIABILITY MCFARLANE K and WALTON AD South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa keith.mcfarlane@sugar.org.za

albert.walton@sugar.org.za

Abstract In 2016 the germination viability of the SASRI Plant Breeding seed in cold storage (-20°C) was evaluated. This seed collection is a valuable resource at SASRI’s disposal, and consisted of historical germplasm which may be used for the development of future varieties. Approximately 15 000 crosses ranging from those made 49 to two years ago were tested (10% of the total weight of each cross) between February and September 2016. Approximately half of the crosses (6 150) were retested after failing the initial germination test. Several important outcomes were attained through this exercise which will greatly assist the Plant Breeders in several areas. 1) The germination results obtained indicate that any desirable crosses older than 25 years should be used immediately to prevent further deterioration in germination. 2) An accurate/updated inventory of all known and perhaps previously unknown/misplaced crosses was documented. 3) An accurate record of seed weight and germination percentage of each of the crosses was obtained. This information is valuable, particularly when preparing seed for export. 4) Once the viability was established, those crosses that were retained will be analysed by the breeders to determine their desirability, which may lead to additional removal of crosses with low genetic value. 5) More informative selection of desirable parents and or parent combinations for future crossing was obtained. 6) After two negative germination tests (10% of total weight each), approximately one third of all crosses were discarded, freeing up valuable storage space for future crosses. Keywords: seed storage, germination capacity, crosses Biography: Keith Mc Farlane Before joining SASRI in October 1988, Keith spent 16 years farming in England, managing two grain farms in his last eight years there. During that time he studied for two years at the Hampshire College of Agriculture Sparsholt obtaining a National Certificate in Agriculture and a certificate in farm business management from the City and Guilds of London Institute. In his 29 years at SASRI, he has worked as a farm planner and has managed the disease screening trials in the Pathology Department. He later became the Technical Team Manager before moving into the position of Crossing Officer in Plant Breeding where he manages the crossing and selection team based at Mount Edgecombe.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

A NEW ORIGIN OF SUGARCANE: THE UNDISCOVERED SPECIES LLOYD EVANS D1,2 AND JOSHI SV1,2 1

South African Sugarcane Research Institute, 170 Flanders Drive, Private Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, Durban, 4300, South Africa 2 School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa dyfed.evans@sugar.org.za

shailesh.joshi@sugar.org.za

Abstract The Saccharum sensu stricto (s.s) genus consists of three recognised species: S. spontaneum, S. officinarum and S. robustum, and three subspecies: S. sinense, S. barberi and S. edule. Currently, limited knowledge is available about the precise descent of these species from one another. Modern sugarcane arose through the ‘Nobilization’ process, and it is believed that S. officinarum and S. spontaneum were involved in an interspecific cross with subsequent backcrossing to S. officinarum. Molecular phylogenetic studies reveal the need to partition Saccharum s.s into four species: S. narenga; S. spontaneum; S. officinarum and the lineage of modern hybrid cultivars which are derived from a cryptic founder species that the authors formally name Saccharum cultum sp. nov. Lloyd Evans and Joshi, 2016. This necessitates the re-evaluation of the origins of sugarcane cultivation. This study integrates genome science, history, archaeology, geophysics, ethnobotany and ethnolinguistics to reveal a new history of sugarcane from its wild origins to modern cultivars. These findings overturn the current models of sugarcane taxonomy and sugarcane origins and reveal that South African Miscanthidium is the most closely related genus to Saccharum. Moreover, this study reveals a new, integrated, model of sugarcane origins that will pave the way towards more effective introgression breeding by accurately determining the effective window for hybridization outside the Saccharum genus. In light of these findings, the origins of sugarcane cultivars is re-evaluated and the claim that New Guinea is the site of sugarcane’s origin is refuted. Keywords: molecular evolution, Saccharum cultum, sugarcane cultivation, sugarcane origins, sugarcane taxonomy Biography: Dyfed Lloyd Evans Dr Dyfed Lloyd Evans is a Computational Biologist and Molecular Systematist. He gained his BSc in Biophysics from King’s College, London and his PhD in Clinical Medicine from Cambridge University. He worked as a Senior Informatics Specialist at AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals for 14 years before joining SASRI in 2013. He is currently working on the genomics of Sugarcane and the taxonomy of the Panicoid grasses.

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48

REFEREED PAPER

MODIFIED ‘TWIN-STACKER’ CANE LOADING SYSTEM LECLER NL1,2 2

1 Zimbabwe Sugar Association Experiment Station, Private Bag 7006, Chiredzi, Zimbabwe School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa (now at Tongaat Hulett Limited, Technology Group, Email: Neil.Lecler@tongaat.com)

Abstract The cost of hauling cane in the Zimbabwean sugarcane industry constitutes a substantial portion of production costs. On most farms and on large portions of the estates cane is cut and hand-piled into stacks weighing approximately five tons. These stacks are secured with two chains and loaded onto ‘Perry’ loaders for transport to a transloading site or direct to the mill. Muscane trailers have been used to improve the efficiency of the Perry loader operations. On some estates so-called ‘Triple-stack’ or ‘Twin-stack’ (T&TSLs) loaders are in use on some fields. However, it is difficult and time consuming to both chain and load a cane stack using the existing T&TSLs, and bundles are therefore pre-chained using a Perry loader in the field and then the T&TSLs loaders are used for transporting the bundles, two or three at a time, from the field edge to the transloading site. A new method to chain and load stacked cane using a Twin-stack loader has been developed. In this paper the new system is described and the costs and benefits of the new system relative to existing options are discussed. The new system was demonstrated and shown to work effectively. Proper implementation of the new system could result in a nearly three-fold increase in the productivity of tractors, drivers and chain-hands relative to Perry loaders, and very substantial cost reductions. Keywords: sugarcane, harvesting, economics, twin-stack loader, Perry loader, cut and stack Biography: Neil L Lecler Neil Lecler has recently joined the Technology Group of Tongaat Hulett as ‘Lead Agricultural Engineer – Water’. He is a Fellow of the South African Institute of Agricultural Engineers (SAIAE) and was made an Honorary Associate Professor at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, where he earned his PhD. Neil was born, grew up and went to school in Rhodesia and then Zimbabwe and has worked at: Agricor (in the former Bophuthatswana), the University of Natal (now University of KwaZulu-Natal), the South African Sugarcane Research Institute and the Zimbabwe Sugar Association Experiment Station. In addition to valuable inter-actions with students, farmers, service providers and colleagues, most of his 29+ years of professional life have been dedicated to developing, synthesising and applying systems, models, equipment and information to support more effective use of resources, especially water.

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49

REFEREED PAPER

PBS VEHICLES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY: OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS TWEDDLE PB1 AND LYNE PWL1,2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa University of KwaZulu-Natal, Bioresources Engineering, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South Africa 1

2

peter.tweddle@sugar.org.za

lynep@ukzn.ac.za

Abstract Since 2007, Smart Trucks have been operating on South African roads as part of a pilot project where a Performance Based Standards (PBS) approach to designing heavy freight vehicles is employed to design vehicles that are superior in a range of dynamic performance criteria. These performance criteria address items such as road safety, vehicle productivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. Voluntary self-regulation as defined by the Road Transport Management System (RTMS) consisting of independent auditing and accreditation, is a precursor to operating PBS vehicles to ensure that they are operated in a responsible fashion. The PBS project is an initiative to encourage innovative designs and is not limited to the design of longer, heavier vehicles. This paper evaluates potential limitations of the front-end configurations of various mills that may restrict their ability to receive specifically longer and/or heavier PBS vehicles and also provides an economic feasibility and potential for PBS vehicles within the industry. Mill receiving limitations were determined through discussions with cane procurement representatives at each of the mills where a reliance on past experiences and knowledge of the representatives were used to identify potential problem areas for PBS vehicles. From an economic perspective, PBS vehicles are typically suited for longer lead distances, and payload management is important to ensure maximum benefits from a PBS vehicle. An analysis was carried out to determine the viability of Smart Trucks in sugarcane transport and is based on a hypothetical higher payload vehicle subject to a number of assumptions as detailed in the paper. This study aims to provide guidance to interested hauliers on the suitability of PBS for their local mill receiving facilities and the economic feasibility thereof. Keywords: feasibility, mill yards, PBS, RTMS, Smart Trucks, sugarcane, transport Biography: Peter Tweddle Peter Tweddle is an Agricultural Engineer at SASRI specializing in research relating to Mechanization and Transport within the Sugarcane Industry. Peter has recently completed a PhD degree in Agricultural Engineering through the University of KwaZulu-Natal and is registered as a Professional Engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA).

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

A SIMPLE SPREADSHEET-BASED IRRIGATION ELECTRICITY COST CALCULATOR JUMMAN A South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa ashiel.jumman@sugar.org.za Abstract Accounting for expensive electricity costs in irrigation decision making has become important. Calculating the cost of electricity, however, is technical and challenging to a non-expert. The ESKOM tariff structure includes rates for fixed cost items such as infrastructure, administrative and service components, as well as rates for variable active energy use. The different cost components are charged in different units and according to time of use or electricity demand season, making calculation of the electricity costs confusing. The aim of this paper is to report on the development of a simple irrigation electricity cost calculator to supplement irrigation analysis. The fixed and operating charges for all rural tariff options (Landrate, Ruraflex and Nightsave), as published by ESKOM, were entered into a database worksheet in Microsoft Excel. The electricity cost calculator was programmed, on a second worksheet, to make use of specific and simple input variables and the corresponding ESKOM baseline rates. The end user is required to input the motor absorbed power (kW), the electricity supply (transformer) size (kVA), the area irrigated (ha), the number of operating hours per day with respect to peak, standard and off-peak hours, the irrigation application depth, cycle length and finally, the expected number of irrigation events per year. The calculator output includes the fixed, operating and total electricity costs. The number of KW.h used and the cost of electricity for a single irrigation event or cycle is also calculated. A case study was included to demonstrate the usefulness and value of the tool in providing recommendations relating to tariff option choice and start time preferences for a centre pivot. Keywords: electricity costs, irrigation economics, irrigation costs analysis, ESKOM tariffs Biography: Ashiel Jumman Ashiel Jumman is employed by SASRI as a Research Agricultural Engineer. He recently received his PhD (UKZN), whose goal was to develop recommendations to improve the adoption of irrigation scheduling using a system dynamics modelling approach. Ashiel obtained his MSc. Engineering degree from UKZN in 2009. The title of Ashiel’s MSc. Dissertation was “A framework to improve irrigation design and operating strategies in the SA sugarcane industry”. In the last 8 years, Ashiel has authored and co-authored more than 12 papers at various conferences and workshops. Ashiel was also awarded the prestigious Robin Renton Memorial award in 2010 for the best technical paper by a young engineer at SASTA. Ashiel is a very passionate and energetic young man who thoroughly enjoys working in the research field.

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POSTER SUMMARY

YIELD VARIABILITY MAPPING FOR A CUT AND STACK SYSTEM TWEDDLE PB1, HARRIS A2, MAKHAYE A1 AND RAPSON B2 1

South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 Tongaat Hulett Limited, Amanzimnyama Hill Road, Tongaat, 4400, South Africa peter.tweddle@sugar.org.za anelise.makhaye@sugar.org.za alasdair.harris@tongaat.com brian.rapson@tongaat.com

Abstract The development of infield yield maps is an essential component of precision agriculture enabling refined and more accurate investigation and treatment of infield variability. In a collaborative effort between SASRI and Tongaat Hulett on a miller cum planter (MCP) cut and stack operation, two field operations of adjacent proximity totalling 16 hectares were surveyed and analysed for yield variability. Individual daily cutter task areas were surveyed and used to determine the yields from the corresponding stack weights measured on the transloading zone. The two sites represented a range of field conditions across variable aspects, slopes and field positions. The results indicate a wide yield variability, ranging from approximately 30 to 160 tons per hectare across the two fields. Such yield variations across fields indicates the importance of further research that is required to develop practical, effective means of determining yields and yield variability routinely. This research forms part of a SASRI project investigating yield variability mapping using various techniques across a range of commercial harvesting and loading practices. This poster provides an overview of the results obtained from the field surveys, showing the yield variability across the fields. Techniques to practically obtain such yield variability maps are explored. GIS techniques to smooth the results are proposed in order to develop variable application maps for precision agriculture use. A case study to determine the economic benefit of applying precision agricultural techniques to optimise fertilizer use is explored. Further research and development opportunities are highlighted. Keywords: cut and stack, precision agriculture, yield mapping Biography: Peter Tweddle Peter Tweddle is an Agricultural Engineer at SASRI specializing in research relating to Mechanization and Transport within the Sugarcane Industry. Peter has recently completed a PhD degree in Agricultural Engineering through the University of KwaZulu-Natal and is registered as a Professional Engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA).

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING DEMONSTRATION TRIALS ARE AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF PROMOTING ADOPTION: PONGOLA CASE STUDY ADENDORFF MW, JUMMAN A, OLIVIER FC, AND PARASKEVOPOULOS A South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa marius.adendorff@sugar.org.za Abstract Accurate irrigation scheduling is not widely practised in the South African sugarcane industry, including the Pongola mill supply area, despite the availability of many scheduling tools. Ineffective scheduling leads to low irrigation water use efficiencies (IWUE) and increased production costs. Recent increases in electricity tariffs have generated renewed interest in irrigation scheduling, thus creating an ideal opportunity to promote adoption. An irrigation scheduling demonstration trial was conducted (started in 2014) on the Pongola research farm to demonstrate scheduling methods of varying sophistication. In the trial, surface drip irrigation was scheduled using a soil water capacitance probe; the weatherbased MyCanesim® simulation system and a combination treatment, namely the MyCanesim® plus a capacitance probe. Standard farm practice (fixed irrigation cycles) served as the control treatment. Performance was evaluated in terms of cane yield and quality, irrigation applied and estimated cost saving. Substantially less water was applied where irrigation was scheduled using weather and soil water data, compared to a fixed schedule, without negatively affecting the cane yield or quality. Irrigation savings of 30% (400 mm), 39% (530 mm) and 52% (700 mm) were achieved for the capacitance probe, MyCanesim® and combination treatments, respectively. Increases in IWUE were observed in all irrigation scheduling methods, the highest being 19.9 tc/ha/100 mm irrigation for the combination method as compared to 9.5 tc/ha/100 mm irrigation for the standard farm practice. The combination method had the highest cost saving (R2501/ha) followed by the MyCanesim® (R1894/ha) and capacitance probe (R1429/ha) methods. Although the results only apply for the soilclimate scenario that occurred in the trial and for the specific economic scenario, the results highlight the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling and will be used to promote implementation of irrigation scheduling tools for profitable and sustainable sugarcane production in the Pongola region. Keywords: Irrigation scheduling, sugarcane, capacitance probe, MyCanesim®, irrigation water use efficiency, demonstration trial, cost benefit Biography: Marius Adendorff Marius Adendorff, the Regional Extension Specialist for the Northern Irrigated Areas completed his post graduate studies in Plant-physiology at the University of Pretoria. He has been an Extension Specialist with SASRI for 15 years, first at Umfolozi and for the past eight years at Pongola and since 2012, has been lecturing the irrigation component of the SASRI Senior Certificate Course.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

POSITIVE INFLUENCE OF DEMONSTRATION PLOT EXTENSION METHODOLOGY IN A RURAL SUGARCANE COMMUNITY GILLESPIE WA1, WAY MJ1, MASONDO RT1, WEBSTER T1 AND MITCHELL FJ2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300 KZN Dept of Agriculture and Rural Development, P/Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200, South Africa 1

2

william.gillespie@sugar.org.za mike.way@sugar.org.za thulani.masondo@sugar.org.za tomwebster@sugar.org.za felicity.mitchell@kzndard.gov.za Abstract A thriving sugarcane community exists in a rural district in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands North area, and the local mill has benefited through increased cane supply. To sustain yield and related socio-economic stability of this grower community in the long term, Extension Specialists have implemented a demonstration plot programme as a means to (1) train through transfer of technology around best management sugarcane farming practices; (2) increase productivity and (3) establish and maintain biosecurity awareness of pests, diseases and weeds to ensure crop sustainability. Prior to the establishment of each demonstration plot, soil potential assessments were conducted. Since each soil type is suited to a range of sugarcane varieties with specific yield potential, estimated yields from the selected varieties in the demonstration plots were actually realized, thereby helping to develop trust and credibility between all parties involved in the programme. All of these factors are integral to the success of the programme. Under-delivery between achievable yield potential and actual yield in the demonstration plot can lead to project failure. This short paper discusses the increased grower yields, increased mass of cane deliveries by the community, and increased grower income. Keywords: Extension Technology Transfer, Demonstration Plot Extension Methodology, soil potential, best management practices, biosecurity Biography: Billy Gillespie WA Gillespie joined SASRI in November 1987 as a Farm Planning Technician in the Farm Planning department; this involved the planning of Sugarcane farms and soil surveys. In 1990 he was promoted to Research Farm management, and gained extensive experience in the management of research trials. In 1999 Billy moved to the Extension department as an Extension Officer- Small Scale Growers in the North coast. On the Retirement of D R Pike in 2001, Billy was transferred to the Midlands and Southern areas. Achievements include the production of seed cane and the development of a successful Small Scale grower extension programme. Previous publications include the documentation of extension, technology and methodology presented at previous SASTA and various local and international extension congresses.

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POSTER SUMMARY

HERE, THERE OR EVERYWHERE? AN INVESTIGATION INTO NEMATODE TRIAL SAMPLING PILLAY U AND RAMOUTHAR PV South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa uvendri.pillay@sugar.org.za

prabashnie.ramouthar@sugar.org.za

Abstract Yield responses due to nematicide application is easily demonstrated within field trials. An associated significant change in nematode numbers, however, proves more difficult. This is largely due to the patchy distribution of nematodes within a field. To account for this, sampling pattern and number are critical in ensuring that a representative sample is taken. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether the current sampling method (two samples from one guard row) is representative of the plot or whether a new sampling method is required. Ten sites were evaluated across the industry. A sample was collected from every square metre of a 50 m2 plot at each site. Using a desktop study, eight sampling methods, including the current method, were evaluated. For Meloidogyne, one of the most economically important nematodes, the current sampling method was shown to be inaccurate, with a significant difference to the plot mean (p=0.04). Both paired t-tests and regression analysis showed the best sampling method to be ten samples taken from two guard rows. No significant difference to the plot mean (p=0.97) was noted for this method and the R 2 value improved from 0.78 to 0.93. Results of the four other important nematode genera affecting sugarcane showed similar improvements. This sampling method is feasible practically, where smaller individual samples are taken. The current sampling equipment used could be modified to accommodate this. Adopting this sampling method will lead to a decrease in data variability and improve the statistical validity of results. Keywords: Nematode, representative sampling, desktop study Biography: Uvendri Pillay Uvendri has a BSc degree in Biological Sciences from UKZN and, since beginning as an intern, has worked on various projects within SASRI. In her current position in the Nematology department, Uvendriâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work is focussed on finding novel ways of controlling nematodes of sugarcane. This is her fourth SASTA presentation.

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COMMERCIAL PRESENTATION

THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) AND HOW IoT CAN BENEFIT THE SUGARCANE GROWERS IN IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY HART-JONES T Pylot, 14 Iver Road, Westville, KZN, 3629 trevorh@pylot.co.za Abstract Recent advances in technology have opened the door for the ability to collect agricultural data (such as moisture and salinity levels) across a large land footprint. As part of the technology wave termed the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Internet of Thingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (IoT), new network providers are entering the sub-Saharan market with networks designed specifically for machine-to-machine communication. The emphasis is on cost effective, low power devices for collection of relevant data across a large volume of devices. Globally, using these IoT platforms for improving yield and profitability in sugarcane growing is not new and has shown positive results in cost saving, yield increase and reduction in water usage. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a high level overview of IoT and how IoT can benefit sugarcane growers in improving productivity and profitability. Biography: Trevor Hart-Jones Trevor Hart-Jones holds a BSc degree in Electronic Engineering, and has 28 years of experience across various electronic system designs and implementations. He started his career in the UK designing radio transmitters for NATO and moved back to South Africa in 1994, focusing more on IT and internet related technologies. He formed Pylot Pty Ltd in 2011 with a focus on using the latest technologies to gather data to monitor, control and automate working environments to improve efficiencies and productivity.

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REFEREED PAPER

DETERMINING THE COST OF POST-HARVEST DETERIORATION IN A SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE SUPPLY CHAIN HARRIS AJ Tongaat Hulett Limited, Amanzimnyama Hill Road, Tongaat, 4400, South Africa alasdair.harris@tongaat.com Abstract Historical efforts to understand the mechanisms of post-harvest deterioration of sugarcane and the factors influencing their rates have been under scientific investigation for at least 120 years. The interaction between the various drivers is extremely complex, resulting in the vast majority of these investigations being site and methodology specific and carrying caveats related to the transferability of the findings to other sites and scenarios. The time from burning or cutting of a sugarcane crop, in the case of burnt and unburnt harvested sugarcane respectively, until its processing at a mill, is known as the burn harvest to crush (BHTC) time. Temperature and BHTC time are the most significant drivers of post-harvest deterioration of sugarcane. The financial impact of these on supply chain revenues at a mill scale has, however, yet to be published. Maidstone Mill in South Africa was the focus of the research and through extensive analyses of delivery data from the said mill for the 2015/16 and 2016/17 seasons, regressions with robust correlations were derived. These relationships were utilised in the development of a comprehensive spreadsheet-based model which enabled the impact of a change in BHTC time on total supply chain revenues to be calculated. The intention of this paper is to determine the quantum of opportunity which exists at Maidstone as a proxy for the total industry opportunity within South Africa: a 12-hour improvement in BHTC at Maidstone at a 2016/17 tonnage of 865 230 tons would result in R9 694 352 additional stakeholder revenue. This translates to ±R191 million when extrapolated across the South African industry. Keywords: sugarcane, recoverable value, agricultural supply chain, post-harvest deterioration, burn harvest to crush delay Biography: Alasdair Harris Alasdair Harris is an Agricultural Engineer and is registered as a Professional Engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). He holds a Master’s degree in agricultural engineering (UKZN - 2008) and has recently completed a second Master’s degree in Logistics and Supply Chain Management from Cranfield University in the UK. Alasdair works for Tongaat Hulett and forms part of an agricultural technical service team within the TH division; known as The Technology Group.

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REFEREED PAPER

CaneTECÂŽ: AN ECONOMIC CONVERSION TOOL FOR SUGARCANE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION SCENARIOS RAMBURAN S1,2 AND TWEDDLE P1 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3610, South Africa 1

2

sanesh.ramburan@sugar.org.za

peter.tweddle@sugar.org.za

Abstract The South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) recently developed the CaneTECÂŽ tool to convert experimental and production data into economic terms. This paper outlines the basic functionality of the tool and describes its use as an economic converter and as a production scenario tester. For experimental data, the calculator allows for the definition of individual treatment-related costs as well as inputs of plot-wise cane yields and recoverable value content (RV%). Production factors and their related costs are listed sequentially from land preparation through to cane delivery to mills, and factors that vary between treatments may be activated for further cost definition. The output is a gross margin (GM) associated with each experimental treatment. Examples of basic applications and sensitivity analyses are illustrated from variety, chemical ripener, insecticide and crop nutrition trials. As a scenario tester, the tool allows for manual variations of input costs to test the sensitivities of GMs to input cost fluctuations. Hypothetical or crop model simulated yields may also be used as inputs to investigate likely profitability associated with cane production strategies. Examples of these secondary applications are illustrated through analyses investigating profitability associated with different harvest age scenarios and ratoon cycle lengths. Case-specific plant vs ratoon crop management scenarios may also be compared through the inclusion or exclusion of applicable operations. It is envisaged that the calculator will be a useful tool to improve the adoption of best management practices through economic reporting and will assist growers and extension with scenario testing. Keywords: calculator, economic analysis, experimental results, sugarcane yield Biography: Sanesh Ramburan Sanesh Ramburan is a Senior Crop Scientist (Variety Evaluation) at SASRI. His research focuses on variety evaluation under different environmental conditions and management practices. He manages projects dealing with variety interactions with agronomic factors, including the effects of abiotic stresses and genotype by environment interactions. He is lead author of more than 25 peer-reviewed publications. He is a past president of the South African Society of Crop Production, a committee member of the ISSCT Agronomy Commission, and a member of the Editorial Board for two international scientific journals. He holds an MSc Agric. from UKZN and a PhD in plant breeding from the University of the Free State.

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REFEREED PAPER

A NEW DECISION-MAKING FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING VARIETYSPECIFIC CHEMICAL RIPENING RECOMMENDATIONS VAN HEERDEN PDR1,2 AND HOFFMAN N1 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa. 2 Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa

1

riekert.vanheerden@sugar.org.za

natalie.hoffman@sugar.org.za

Abstract Variety-specific ripening recommendations are typically developed in trials where recoverable value (RV) yield in different treatments are compared with untreated controls. Although statistical differences in RV% are readily achieved, nonsignificant variation in cane yield between treatments frequently distorts RV yield-based interpretations. A new decisionmaking framework is presented for developing ripening recommendations, based solely on statistical differences in RV% with the proviso that cane yields are not significantly reduced. Where a significant reduction in cane yield occurs the input costs, RV yield, and harvesting/transport costs are also considered, allowing for potential overriding of RV%-based recommendations on economic grounds. This new framework was applied to four seasons of data where varieties N36, N49, N53 and N57 were ripened with Ethephon (Eth), Fusilade Forte (FF) and the combination treatment (Eth+FF). In all individual and combination treatments, significant increases in RV% were achieved compared to the untreated control, with the combination treatment being the best in all varieties. Only the combination treatment in N49 and N53 caused significant cane yield reductions (13.2 and 12.1 t/ha respectively). Non-significant variation in cane yield distorted RV yields with some treatments not achieving significance, causing disparity with RV% responses. The new framework resolved this conundrum with the combination treatment being recommended for N36 and N57 on RV% grounds (no significant cane yield loss). Economic analysis revealed that the combination treatment was not the most profitable in N49 and N53. Gross margin monetary returns for the best individual treatments in N49 and N53 were R6290/ha and R10 245/ha respectively, compared to R2690/ha and R8371/ha respectively for the combination treatment, thus leading to its nonrecommendation. Keywords: cane yield, chemical ripening, economic analysis, Ethephon, Fusilade Forte, RV%, RV yield, combination treatment Biography: Riekert van Heerden Dr Riekert van Heerden (Pr. Sci. Nat.) is a senior scientist and manager of the Crop Performance and Management Programme at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI). He holds a Ph.D. in Plant Physiology from North-West University, South Africa. Dr van Heerden is a National Research Foundation (NRF)-rated scientist who has authored/co-authored 37 publications in ISI-accredited scientific journals. He also holds an honorary Professor position at the University of Pretoria. His main role at SASRI is to initiate and conduct research leading to best management practices for sugarcane cultivation with particular emphasis on the chemical ripening of irrigated and rainfed sugarcane. Research outcomes and advice on the use of ripeners are regularly shared with farmers at industry contact events and in the form of popular articles.

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59

REFEREED PAPER

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A HERBICIDE TOLERANT AND INSECT RESISTANT GENETICALLY MODIFIED SUGARCANE VARIETY UNDER COASTAL CONDITIONS NICHOLSON RJ1, DUCASSE G1, RUTHERFORD RS2, AND CAMPBELL PL2 South African Cane Growers Association, 170 Flanders Drive, Mount Edgecombe 4300, South Africa 2 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, P/Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa

1

Richard.Nicholson@canegrowers.co.za Guy.Ducasse@canegrowers.co.za Stuart.Rutherford@sugar.org.za Peta.Campbell@sugar.org.za Abstract The South African sugarcane grower is under increasing pressure, as higher input costs and lower revenue margins threaten overall sustainability. A significant cost of up to 13% of the total planting costs and 18% of ratoon management costs are attributable to herbicides and their application, mainly to control creeping grasses such as Cynodon dactylon. The way in which modern agriculture has tackled these issues is through gains in research and development, in this case the potential for the South African Sugar Research Instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (SASRI) development of a Genetically Modified (GM) sugarcane variety. This paper analyses and estimates the cost savings and benefits that could hypothetically be achieved through the implementation of a GM sugarcane variety, modified for both herbicide tolerance and insect resistance (Bt) to Eldana saccharina. Comparing two imazapyr formulations with glyphosate as target herbicides, a gross margin analysis is performed, comparing the GM variety to a standard cane variety under various lengths of growing or cutting cycle. The benefits of moving to a longer growing cycle, given enhanced Eldana resistance of a GM variety, are also investigated. The overall results show the average gain per hectare Area Under Cane (AUC) (annualised) for the GM cane variety and the weed control programme utilising Arsenal GEN2ÂŽ was R2008.75 and for Format 250SL, R2711.52. This theoretical study shows that economic gains attributed to herbicide and insect resistant GM sugarcane will potentially be important for the future sustainability of the grower and the sugarcane industry. Keywords: sugarcane, genetically modified, input costs, grower margins, herbicide tolerance, South Africa Biography: Richard J Nicholson Richard Nicholson is the Economic Research Manager at the South African Canegrowers Association. He completed all his studies at the University of Pretoria attaining a BSc Agricultural Economics in 2009 followed by a BInst Agrar (Hons) Extension in 2010. He also completed an MSc Agricultural Economics degree in 2014. While completing his Masters, Richard gained a range of experience working in the private sector as an Investment Analyst for an African agricultural investment fund. Followed by a business development post at NOSA Agricultural Services developing training and education tools for small-holder farmers, farm managers and agribusinesses in Africa.

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REFEREED PAPER

BIOGAS FROM SUGARCANE – A SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABILITY FUNKE TB1, LITTLEY GD2 AND HOWES R1 South African Cane Growers’ Association, 170 Flanders Drive, Mt Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa 2 Crownhill Resources, Crownhill Farm, Lot 14, Nyoni, South Africa

1

thomas.funke@canegrowers.co.za dlittley@mweb.co.za Richard.howes@canegrowers.co.za Abstract The South African sugar industry has faced many challenges, of which the most noticeable have been depressed real RV prices as well as increasing real input costs, which, together with a four-year drought, have put its sustainability under threat. To enhance sustainability, a model of diversified production practices has been investigated, which include the production of biogas from sugarcane residue. It is envisaged that the production of biogas through digestion will bring with it various benefits to all growers. The production of biogas from cane residue is relatively new to the sugar industry and has not been practised extensively. Initial results from the pilot plant are proving rewarding and are achieving the aim of reducing the growers’ dependence on external energy sources by producing significant volumes of gas, enhancing grower sustainability through a closed loop system by substituting a significant amount of the required nutrients and by ensuring an additional revenue stream. This paper deals with the biogas pilot plant that has been built in a Joint Venture by the South African Cane Growers’ Association and Crownhill farm. Keywords: cane, biogas, methane, tops, sustainable, energy Biography: Thomas Funke Dr Thomas Funke completed his PhD in Agricultural Economics at the University of Pretoria and University of Missouri, USA. His thesis focussed on the viability of biofuels in South Africa. Currently he holds the position of Commercial Executive at the SA Cane Growers Association and his responsibilities are an oversight of all commercial activities as well as innovation and economic research at the Association. The biogas project was initiated by Thomas and Dave Littley and has been a very successful initiative in the sugarcane farming sector.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

A TIME-SERIES ANALYSIS OF LARGE-SCALE GROWER INPUT COSTS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY: 2000/01 TO 2014/15 NICHOLSON RJ AND KADWA M South African Cane Growersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association, 170 Flanders Drive, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa Richard.Nicholson@canegrowers.co.za

Muhammad.Kadwa@canegrowers.co.za

Abstract There is an increased focus globally on the economic impacts of research and development. Farmers are more unlikely to adopt new technologies and management practices, if they have an adverse impact on profitability. This is mainly due to lower gross margins, resulting from above-inflation input cost increases. In the sugarcane industry, the gross margin squeeze has been more prominent, due to gradual decreased global yields and lower world prices since 2010. Therefore, a greater understanding of sugarcane production economics is required in the sugarcane research environment. To aid this process, the South African Cane Growersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association has been conducting large-scale grower surveys since 1926/27. The survey results are currently used for various industry purposes. This paper highlights the change in input costs to largescale growers in the South African sugarcane industry, for the 2000/01 to 2014/15 seasons, based on data provided from an average of 293 surveys per season. During this period, there have been substantial increases in many input costs, including labour, fertiliser, chemicals, machinery and irrigation. The cost changes are attributed to the increased minimum wage for farm workers and the weaker Rand exchange rate. The overall increases in input costs have significantly affected the profitability of sugarcane growers in South Africa, at a time when the RV price was relatively stagnant. The annual survey results can assist in focusing research on areas where impact can be realised. Keywords: sugarcane, time series, input costs, grower margins, economics, South Africa Biography: Richard J Nicholson Richard Nicholson is the Economic Research Manager at the South African Canegrowers Association. He completed all his studies at the University of Pretoria attaining a BSc Agricultural Economics in 2009 followed by a BInst Agrar (Hons) Extension in 2010. He also completed an MSc Agricultural Economics degree in 2014. While completing his Masters, Richard gained a range of experience working in the private sector as an Investment Analyst for an African agricultural investment fund. Followed by a business development post at NOSA Agricultural Services developing training and education tools for small-holder farmers, farm managers and agribusinesses in Africa.

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REFEREED PAPER

A STRATEGY FOR MONITORING AND REPORTING CONTINUOUS ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN A TYPICAL RAW SUGAR MILL MASONDO LL AND FOXON KM Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, Durban, 4041, South Africa lmasondo@smri.org, kfoxon@smri.org Abstract While many parameters relating to sugar processing and factory performance are monitored and reported, there are no standard measures for monitoring and reporting energy consumption and efficiency in sugar factories. Since energy constitutes a large cost for many sugar mills, there is value in establishing a monitoring and reporting system for energy. This study was part of a larger project to develop a standard energy monitoring and reporting system in sugar mills. This paper focusses on the selection of a set of energy indicators and considers the data collection requirements for this indicator set. The researchers spent time in a South African raw sugar factory over a crushing season to determine which of the identified measurements were already available in the factory. The information was sourced from factory daily reports, online measurements available on the distributed control system (DCS), local instrumentation, the mill and the South African Sugar Association Cane Testing Service laboratories. This paper presents a summary of all the types of information required to calculate energy indicators (EI) and the data sources used. A prototype set of 21 EIs was selected for analysis. To calculate these indices in a generic mill with the same level of instrumentation as the hosting mill, 95 parameters were needed, of which 50 % were not available as existing measurements. Only 33 % of the data required was available on the DCS. A full snapshot mass and energy balance (MEB) calculator of the raw sugar factory was constructed using all available factory data. While many of the important measurements were available from existing reporting systems, a substantial proportion of temperature data had to be measured by researchers. The other information was estimated or calculated indirectly based on personal communication with factory staff. Assumptions and the MEB calculator were then used to account for the missing data. Additional instrumentation would be required to reliably calculate all the EIs in the prototype set. Keywords: energy indicators, data collection, instrumentation, MEB calculator, energy monitoring and reporting. Biography: Lihle Masondo Lihle is a Research Assistant at the Sugar Milling Research institute (SMRI) NPC in Durban. He has a BSc in chemical engineering from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). He has previously worked for the Pollution Research Group at UKZN on wastewater and sanitation projects. He then joined the SMRI in 2016 as a research intern under the Sugarcane Technology Enabling Programme for Bioenergy (STEP-Bio) and is now part of the Strategic Research team. In his new role, he is looking forward to using sound science, technology and engineering to enable the sustainability of the Southern African sugar industry.

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REFEREED PAPER

EXPERIENCES OF REDUCING STEAM CONSUMPTION IN A SUGAR PLANT ARUNAPRASAD A, BABU R, SRIVASTAVA AK AND RAO GSC Global Canesugar Services Pvt, Ltd rbabu@globalcanesugar.com Abstract In the Indian sugar industry, steam consumption is a vital parameter as the steam saving will be converted into either power for export or a saving in bagasse which will be sold at a high price. Steam conservation therefore plays a vital role in the Indian sugar industry. Since the cane price is rising continuously, the margin from sugar is narrow and power export is inevitable to run the sugar industry profitably. The paper deals with innovative ways to reduce the steam consumption by utilising low vapour heat for pan boiling, waste heat recovery for juice heating, molasses conditioning and condensate flash steam recovery. Keywords: waste heat recovery, molasses conditioning, low vapour heating, condensate flash steam recovery Biography: Babu Rathinam Babu has more than 24 years experience in supervising the erection and commissioning of sugar refineries. He is an expert in preparing Techno Commercial Proposals for standalone and back end refinery with cost economics and advantages of specific systems. Babu introduced the first Continuous Ion Exchange Resin system for secondary de-colorization in India. He was involved in the erection and commissioning of first of its kind standalone refinery in India and completed the plant erection in a record eight months at Haldia. He achieved remarkable performance in process up gradation, quality improvement, and capacity enhancement of various sugar refineries. Babu has presented various paper at STAI and International Sugar conference and got the prestigious Noel Deer gold medal award for the best paper presented during the 2012 STAI convention.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

SOLAR LIVE STEAM GENERATION AND SOLAR BAGASSE DRYING FOR SOUTH AFRICAN SUGAR MILLS KROG W1, HESS S2, HOFFMANN J1 and DINTER F1 Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa

1

Email: wkrog93@gmail.com, hoffmaj@sun.ac.za, frankdinter@sun.ac.za 2

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 6980, 76049 Karlsruhe, Germany Email: stefan.hess@kit.edu

Abstract Two solar heat integration concepts have been identified as promising options for implementation in South African sugar mills in the near future as a result of work with the steering committee of the Sugarcane Technology Enabling Programme for Bio-Energy. These are the drying of bagasse using solar heated air and the generation of live steam using concentrating solar thermal collectors. By generating live steam from solar energy, electricity production can be increased up to 34.5 %, and bagasse or coal can be saved as well. Solar drying of bagasse can reduce bagasse usage up to 20.8 % and increase the boilerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s efficiency. The average solar fractions for live steam generation and bagasse drying are 12.34 % and 17.34 % respectively. This can be increased if the integration points are allowed to operate outside of the crushing season, if thermal storage is implemented or if the solar collector area is increased. Keywords: solar process heat, bagasse drying, sugar mill electricity generation Biography: Willem Krog Willem Krog is a research Masters student at Stellenbosch University in mechanical engineering. He is part of the Solar Thermal Engineering Research Group and the work presented here forms part of his thesis. He is originally from Johannesburg but travelled to Stellenbosch University to study mechanical engineering, finishing his undergraduate studies in 2015.

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REFEREED PAPER

“SLEEVE-KAMAL”, AN INNOVATIVE THREE PIECE SUGAR MILL ROLLER FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE AND LOWER OPERATING COST SHAIKH MM AND SABNIS D S. B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd, 392, E, Shahupuri, Kolhapur, India mmshaikh@sbreshellers.com dvsabnis@sbreshellers.com Abstract Most sugar mill rollers are manufactured in two parts; steel shaft and cast iron shell fitted over it. The shell has circumferential grooves for juice extraction. Due to corrosion/erosion during crushing operation and juice flow, the shell grooves wear and need to be re-grooved to form the profile required. However, during this re-grooving, the shell diameter is reduced. Eventually, the shell needs to be replaced although the rest of the shell is intact. The process is known as re-shelling. In the case of internal bleeding rollers, the juice channels are drilled/embedded in a straight line, normally parallel to the axis of the shaft despite the fact that varied geometry skewed channels are beneficial in some of the rollers. Further, the conventional shell may have provision for integral juice rings but even if they are in good condition they get replaced with the shell during each re-shelling. After considerable research and experimentation in design as well as shell material, S.B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd., patented the geometry of a roller with three major parts. This roller has the normal shaft over which a sleeve is shrink fitted and which is of equal length to the main shaft, i.e. shell length, plus both side juice rings’ width. A shell is shrink fitted over the sleeve as per a normal shell, completing the roller. This geometry, with the use of a stronger proprietary material, SBR Alloy, opened up various options for internal bleeding rollers. This paper discusses the mill roller indicated above and the advantages and other possibilities derived through this geometry. Keywords: sugar mill roller, sleeve, shell, internal bleeding, SBR alloy, Kamal, extraction, milling Biography: Mohsin Shaikh Mr Shaikh is a qualified Mechatronics Engineer and comes with a technically rich experience in the Machine Tools Industry before being involved in the exports of Sugar Mill Machinery. He is now a part of the team implementing some of the innovative concepts in Sugar Cane milling. He regularly delivers lectures and seminars at various locations globally about the best practices and energy efficiency in the process of sugar milling. He is Dy. Manager (Exports) for S. B. RESHELLERS PVT. LTD.

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REFEREED PAPER

MONITORING JUICE HOLDUP IN A CANE DIFFUSER BED USING ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY â&#x20AC;&#x201C; EVALUATION ON A LABORATORY SCALE LOVE DJ Tongaat Hulett, Technology Group, PO Box 3, Tongaat 4400, South Africa dave.love@tongaat.com Abstract The control of percolation within the bed of shredded cane is a critical aspect of the design and operation of cane diffusers. The extraction of an operating diffuser can be optimised by the suitable setting of adjustable sprays to alter the percolation rate to maximise the juice holdup within the cane bed. Without an online measurement of juice holdup within the cane bed, the adjustment is conventionally done by operators using visual observation, judgement and experience. There is clearly an incentive to operate substantially below the maximum percolation rate to avoid the possibility of flooding and thus the best possible extraction performance will seldom be achieved. An on-line measurement of juice holdup within the cane bed creates the opportunity to implement feedback control of juice holdup by automatic adjustment of diffuser sprays â&#x20AC;&#x201C; avoiding the inevitable compromise of manual operation. Previous work using a pressure measurement on the side of a diffuser as an indicator of juice holdup showed some potential but two local installations failed to gain the confidence of operating staff and have fallen into disuse. This work describes the evaluation of electrical conductivity through the cane bed (from top to bottom) as a measure of the juice holdup within a cane bed. Tests were done in the laboratory on a glass column diffuser. Suitable instrumentation and data logging allowed on-line measurement of electrical conductivity and liquid holdup within the cane bed. The prevailing percolation rate could be measured and logged using a simple manual intervention. The results confirmed the close correlation between percolation rate and juice holdup and also the potential of electrical conductivity to be used as an indicator of juice holdup within the cane bed. Key words: Diffuser, hold-up, flooding, conductivity, extraction Biography: David Love David Love is a chemical engineer in the Technology Group of Tongaat Hulett Sugar. He joined the sugar industry in 1977 and his first SASTA paper was in 1980. He has been an irregular contributor to SASTA since then. Most of his career has been with Tongaat Hulett, working in R&D, process design, equipment design, factory operations and in a technical support role to factory operations.

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REFEREED PAPER

MONITORING JUICE HOLD-UP IN A CANE DIFFUSER BED USING ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY – EVALUATION ON A PLANT SCALE ANGEL DM1, LOVE DJ2, JENSEN PS3 AND SELEGHIM P4 diana.angel@usp.br 2dave.love@tongaat.com paul.jensen@tongaat.com 4seleghim@sc.usp.br

1 3

Abstract The extraction of sucrose in a sugar cane diffuser depends on the percolation rate of juice through the cane bed. High percolation rates promote mass transfer and increase the wetness of the cane bed (i.e. liquid hold-up within the bed) thereby improving sucrose extraction. However, increasing the rate of juice applied to the surface of the cane bed above the maximum percolation rate results in flooding, causing uncontrolled mixing of juice, destruction of the brix profile and reduced extraction. Flooding in the diffuser can be avoided by installing feedback control of adjustable sprays that alter the application area of juice onto the bed surface and automatically keeping the percolation rate optimised. Electrical conductivity of the cane bed, measured between the bed surface and the bottom screen of the diffuser, has been investigated as a possible online indicator of juice hold-up within the cane bed to provide the necessary measurement for implementing feedback control that can optimise percolation rates. Full scale tests were conducted on the Tongaat Hulett design of cane diffuser at the Maidstone factory. The experimental data show the relationship between conductance and flow rate with liquid hold-up. Reproducibility tests were done to confirm the results shown in this research. Key words: Diffuser, liquid hold-up, flooding, full-scale test, sucrose extraction. Biography: Diana Angel Diana Angel completed her MSc in Energy at the University Federal ABC - Brazil in 2014 and her BSc in Physics at the National Pedagogical University – Colombia in 2010. Currently, she is a doctoral candidate in Mechanical Engineering at the University of São Paulo, she is a member of the research group of the Center for Thermal and Fluids Engineering - NETeF, which articulates academic knowledge with the development of industrial projects. Her research interests include renewable energy, biomass conversion, thermal and multiphase flow, industrial processes and efficient sugar extraction.

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REFEREED PAPER

EXPERIENCES WITH THE MILLABILITY OF DROUGHT-AFFECTED CANE VARIETIES IN THE 2016 SEASON KUNENE TM, VOIGT I and GAMA ME Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation, P.O. Box 1 Simunye, Simunye L301, Swaziland thembinkosik@rssc.co.sz, ivanv@rssc.co.sz, mandlag@rssc.co.sz Abstract The performance of selected cane varieties on milling performance in 2016, a drought year, are described and compared to 2015, a normal year. Samples of N46 taken after the shredder showed that this variety was pulping instead of making long fibres suitable for extraction. This also occurred when preparing N25, but to a lesser extent. When crushing these varieties, excessive dropping of fibre in the mills was observed and this was limiting maceration of the preceding mills, resulting in high bagasse pol and low individual mill extraction. Mill capacity was also greatly affected, resulting in overflowing of the mills and dropping of throughput from 420 to less than 380 tons cane per hour (TCH). With the filling up of the final millâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Donnelly chute, the mill was either bypassing or running at maximum speed, resulting in high bagasse moisture, low steam pressure and subsequent plant stoppages. Good extraction and throughput were realised when crushing cane varieties such as N23, NCO376 and N36. Both N46 and N25 performed better in 2015 than in 2016. Keywords: drought, varieties, mill performance, extraction, bagasse, millability Biography: Thembinkosi Kunene Thembinkosi Kunene is working for Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation as an Area Production Manager in the Front End. He has been through the Engineering in Training programme and has been trained in Ethanol and Sugar manufacturing processes. He was also enrolled in the 10Week Sugar engineering course offered by the Sugar Milling Research Institute in 2016. He holds a Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree in Chemistry obtained from the University of Swaziland.

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COMMERCIAL PRESENTATION

NEW MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENTS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HOW MATERIAL SELECTION PLAYS A KEY FACTOR GEYER I AND LEHNBERGER A BMA Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt AG, PO Box 3225, 38122 Braunschweig Germany irma.geyer@bma-de.com

andreas.lehnberger@bma-de.com

Abstract For many years, the materials used for sugar production equipment have been selected on the basis of criteria such as material strength, corrosion resistance, availability and current prices. Today, additional requirements, which are defined by the location at which the equipment is to be installed, have to be considered. Examples would be food safety (hygiene), operational reliability and maintainability. Even a few decades ago, mild steel was the standard material choice for the production of white sugar based on sugar beet. Since then, the demands of this industry have shifted to equipment made from stainless steel, either completely or at least in sections that are in contact with the product. Nowadays, these requirements may even have to be accounted for in cane sugar production. To meet product quality specifications, stainless steel is therefore now included as a standard option in offers for vacuum pans, centrifugals and drum driers. Some examples are given to explain the selection of materials made in view of modern requirements. These include compliance with hygienic standards, such as the use of inert materials, non-breakability, low surface roughness, cleanability, low abrasion, detectability, and resistance, but also a long service life and ease of maintenance. Keywords: selection of materials, hygienic standards, long service life, ease of maintenance, vacuum pans, centrifugals Biography: Irma Geyer Irma has more than 30 years of sales experience with high-technology equipment (nuclear spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, microwave technology and equipment dedicated to the sugar industry). She has worked in the sugar industry since 2004 and joined BMA in 2008, where she is the key account manager of several larger sugar producers. She was previously head of BMAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s product marketing and standard business.

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COMMERCIAL PRESENTATION

INSIGHTS IN DEXTRAN ANALYSIS AND DEXTRAN AFFECTED PROCESSING PROBLEMS ABRAHAM, K 2, 1; SCHLUMBACH, K1; THIESING, D2 AND FLÖTER, E1 Technical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Sternenzym, Ahrensburg, Germany

1

karin.abraham@tu-berlin.de

dthiesing@sternenzym.de

Abstract The presence of polysaccharides in sugar cane and beet raw juices causes several negative effects during the sugar production process, which are usually mitigated by enzymatic decomposition. An accurate process control requires detailed knowledge about the existing dextran level and also about the specific effects of the different dextran fractions and dextran fragments resulting from enzymatic decomposition. Determination and characterisation of dextran in raw juice is hence a requirement to assess occurring dextran related processing problems and also to decompose dextran in a controlled manner. Different methods (Haze and Roberts’ Copper method, chromatographic measurements) were used to determine remaining dextran levels in sucrose solutions after different degrees of enzymatic decomposition. These two combined analytical tools were not only useful to determine the remaining dextran levels but also to get an idea of the resulting molecular size distribution. This combined knowledge is a necessary prerequisite for the subsequent process effect analysis, which was at first investigated for the sucrose crystallisation process. Lab scale crystallisation experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of high as well as low molecular weight dextran on the crystal size and shape. Results show the generally known dextran-based crystal shape modifications but also give additional details with respect to precise effects of varying molecular weights present. The improved understanding of the specific effects of the different dextrans combined with adequate analytical tools allows a more targeted and hence improved mitigation of dextran induced processing problems. Keywords: dextran, determination, dextranase, decomposition products, crystal shape, crystal size Biography: Karin Abraham Karin joined SternEnyzm in 2014 to work on her Master’s thesis on the effects and analysis of polysaccharides in sugar processing. This joint project with the Technical University of Berlin led to further cooperation and Karin is currently working on her PhD thesis, in cooperation with SternEnzym, to continue research on polysaccharides in sugar processing.

Biography: David Thiesing David is a research scientist at the SternEnzym’s Research and Development facility. He was a member of the Research Center of Bioprocess Engineering and Analytical Techniques where he performed studies for systematic optimisation of parallel and sequential bioprocesses for producing functional proteins in microbial expression systems. He joined SternEnzym in 2012 and has visited sugar mills worldwide for consultancy in enzyme application.

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REFEREED PAPER

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE VISCOSITY OF C-MASSECUITE USING A PIPELINE VISCOMETER SHAH S1, LOKHAT D2 AND PEACOCK SD3 Tongaat Hulett Sugar, Durban, South Africa University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban, South Africa 3 Amalgamated Research LLC, Idaho, USA 1

2

shaista.shah@tongaat.com Lokhat@ukzn.ac.za SPeacock@arifractal.com Abstract Most product streams within the sugar process have physical properties that are well defined. However, upon crystallisation, the behaviour of the two-phase product becomes more complex. The physical properties of massecuite affect the design of all equipment and piping in the back-end of a sugar factory, however, the performance of equipment is only as reliable as the data on which the design is based. The massecuite viscosities used within the South African sugar industry were determined over 20 years ago using a rotating viscometer, however, this instrument is believed to be unsuitable for the application due to the heterogeneous nature of massecuite. A pipeline viscometer was thus constructed and experiments carried out to better understand the behaviour of massecuite. This research project aimed to use non-Newtonian theory and data from a pipeline viscometer to determine a correlation for the viscosity of massecuite for varying conditions of temperature, concentration, purity and crystal content taking into account the effects of dextran and crystal size. Keywords: massecuite, viscosity, pipeline, viscometer, non-Newtonian Biography: Shaista Shah Shaista joined Tongaat Hulett in 2009 and completed her engineering training at Maidstone sugar mill. She joined the Technology Group as a Process Design Engineer in 2011 and her responsibilities include process design, process modelling and operations support to Tongaat Hulett sugar factories with a technical focus on evaporation, energy efficiency and factory performance. Shaista holds a Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree in Chemical Engineering and has submitted a Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dissertation on the topic to be presented.

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REFEREED PAPER

DYNAMIC SIMULATION ON A SPREADSHEET AS A TOOL FOR EVALUATING OPTIONS FOR MIXED JUICE FLOW CONTROL LOVE DJ Tongaat Hulett, Technology Group, PO Box 3, Tongaat 4400, South Africa dave.love@tongaat.com Abstract Dynamic simulation is a powerful tool for both predicting and interpreting the behaviour of systems that change with time. This is particularly true for understanding and optimising the performance of feedback control loops. A spreadsheet program is a powerful, simple and widely available tool that allows dynamic simulations to be generated and operated. The use of a mixed juice tank as buffer storage to smooth out flow fluctuations and provide a more stable mixed juice flow to the juice clarifiers is an example of a dynamic system where there is no clear agreement on the best strategy to implement. Dynamic simulation provides a method for objectively comparing different strategies under varying operating conditions. A simple method for creating dynamic simulations using an Excel spreadsheet is described. Alternative mixed juice flow control strategies are described and simulated on a spreadsheet. An example of a control strategy that performed poorly at a particular factory is simulated, demonstrating the cause of the problem and allowing suggested solutions to the problem to be evaluated. Keywords: spreadsheet, modelling, simulation, dynamic, flow control Biography: David Love David Love is a chemical engineer in the Technology Group of Tongaat Hulett Sugar. He joined the sugar industry in 1977 and his first SASTA paper was in 1980. He has been an irregular contributor to SASTA since then. Most of his career has been with Tongaat Hulett, working in R&D, process design, equipment design, factory operations and in a technical support role to factory operations.

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REFEREED PAPER

ARE GUMS PRODUCED IN THE FACTORY? QUANTIFICATION OF GUMS ISOLATED FROM MIXED JUICE AND FINAL MOLASSES FOXON KM1 AND DU CLOU H1 1

Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041, South Africa kfoxon@smri.org hduclou@smri.org

Abstract Gummy massecuites in sugar factories are associated with exhaustion problems in pans and inefficient purging in centrifuges. Gums originate in stale cane because of microbial activity during burn/harvest-to-crush delays, especially in the rainy season, but are also thought to be generated by microbial activity within the factory. The proportion of gums generated within the factory is not known. This study investigated the phenomenon of gum formation in the factory by comparing the total amount of gums in mixed juice and in final molasses and considering the fate of gums in a factory. Gums were precipitated with acidified alcohol from weekly composite mixed juice and final molasses samples for a single factory over a period of 35 weeks in 2014. The total gum flows passing the mixed juice and final molasses scales were estimated from gum concentration and weekly flow data. The total amount of gums in the final molasses over the entire 35-week test period was 1 567 tonnes, and was less than the total amount of gums in mixed juice, at 1 655 tonnes. This indicates that overall, gums are not produced in significant quantities between the two sampling points for most of the crushing season. The result also shows that some of the gums measured in mixed juice leave in other factory streams, viz. raw sugar and filtercake for the factory in question. Data from the South African Sugar Terminal were used to estimate that dextran and starch in raw sugar from this factory may have accounted for approximately 40 tonnes of polysaccharides leaving the factory. An increase in gum flow in final molasses above that in mixed juice was only observed in the last few weeks of the season, indicating that some gum production had occurred in the factory during this period. Conditions conducive to gum production may be expected to occur during periods of unsteady operation such as interrupted cane supply. Measures to target and prevent gum production can therefore be justified when factors outside of the factoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s control may lead to gum production in the factory. Keywords: Gums, dextran, factory hygiene, mixed juice, final molasses, microbial activity Biography: Kitty Foxon Kitty Foxon is the Strategic Research Group Leader at the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC. She holds a BSc in Chemical Engineering (Natal) and a PhD (Chemical Engineering) from UKZN. She was a postgraduate student and researcher with the Pollution Research Group from 1998 and lecturer and senior lecturer at UKZN from 2006 to 2013. She joined the SMRI in July 2013 and has spent the intervening years trying to work out what happens in sugar factories.

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POSTER SUMMARY

CAN NIRS DETECT QUARTERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS IN REFINED SUGAR? WALFORD SN Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa

1

swalford@smri.org Abstract Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used in the industry as biocides and are present as the active groups of flocculants and colour removal additives. QACs are generally fully eliminated in the mill and refinery processes but confirmation of this is required by end-users of the product. The current method of analysis specified by bottling companies and used at the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) is based on the development of a coloured complex with the QACs, extraction with ethylene chloride, and measurement using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Disadvantages of the method include being exceptionally time consuming, requiring special cleaning of glassware, the analysis of an additional six standard samples for the determination of a standard curve with every batch of samples analysed (normally about ten samples), and the subsequent disposal of ethylene chloride. The majority of samples analysed by the SMRI over the last five years have proved negative for QAC, raising the question of whether a rapid Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) method that could detect if any particular sample contained QAC, could be developed. Identification of QAC negative samples would eliminate the need for the analysis of these samples by the tedious extraction method requiring only QAC positive samples to be analysed and quantified. The direct advantage of this methodology would be faster turn-around time and more productive use of resources. The indirect advantage is reduction in ethylene chloride disposal costs. This study investigated the potential of using NIRS to detect low concentrations of QAC in QAC positive refined sugar samples. The proposed simple identification method involves dissolution of the refined sugar in water and analysis by transmission NIRS. The method was checked by using real positive and negative samples and a spiked sugar was prepared for the extraction method validation studies. Results of the study will be presented in this poster. Keywords: Quaternary ammonium compounds, QACs, NIRS Biography: Stephen Walford Stephen manages the Analytical Quality & Development group at the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI). He has held a lifelong research interest in the chromatographic analysis of sugars and sugar solutions and has authored and co-authored many SASTA papers on the subject. Stephen has a research interest in analytical techniques and instrumentation, is the chairman of the South African National Committee for ICUMSA and presented at both local and international conferences. Outside of work, he has interests in woodwork and music.

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POSTER SUMMARY

A BENCHMARK ENERGY INDICATOR STOLZ HNP1 RCL Foods Sugar & Milling, PO Box 47, Malalane, 1320 nico.stolz@rclfoods.com Abstract Traditionally, “HP Steam % Cane” and “tons coal” have been used to represent energy used in a sugar factory. Other intensity indicators like energy (kJ)/ton cane or energy (kJ)/ton sugar made also featured. These have a place in the operation and are well understood. Reporting of coal use is important for sustainability and tax reasons but in the case of mills selling bagasse the reporting of coal can skew the understanding of the energy use. These typical indicators do not allow for easy comparison of energy efficiency between mills. Each mill has a unique arrangement of equipment and operational parameters, although the unit operations are similar. The comparison is further complicated depending on whether the mill has a refinery or not. An alternative way to see how a mill performs relative to another is currently being tested. It provides for a level playing field and the underlying input calculation takes into account the unique properties of each mill. There are three ranges in which the new Energy Indicator/Index (EI) will report, relative to design: >1 The mill is using more energy; =1 The mill is doing what it was designed for; and 0<1 The mill is achieving better energy use. The EI confines itself to energy in the fuel going into the facility. EI can be used to facilitate capital motivations and postimplementation verification of changes. This poster is the first in a series that will unpack the EI. The rules are being developed and some early result presented. Keywords: energy monitoring, benchmarking, energy intensity Biography: Nico Stolz Nico Stolz holds a Masters Degree in Chemical Engineering. He is part of the RCL Foods Manufacturing Team and is looking after energy, mainly in the sugar division. He started in the sugar industry in 1996 and spent time doing Research & Development, Product Development and lately has moved into a technical support role. He is part of industry and SMRI working groups and is working closely with the SMRI Energy Monitoring Project.

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POSTER SUMMARY

ANALYSIS OF SULPHITES IN SUGAR BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY DU CLOU H AND WALFORD SN Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041, South Africa hduclou@smri.org swalford@smri.org Abstract One of the analytical services that the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) offers to customers is the determination of sulphite in white sugar. The test method (TM) used, TM061, is entitled â&#x20AC;&#x153;Determination of the Sulphite in White Sugar by the Rosaniline Hydrochloric Colourimetric Methodâ&#x20AC;?. The TM061 method is based on the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (ICUMSA) method GS2/1/7-33. Both methods rely on the colourimetric determination of sulphite via conversion to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and complexation with para-rosaniline hydrochloride (rosaniline) in formaldehyde. Drawbacks of the rosaniline methods used in the sugar industry include their limited applicability to all sugar streams and products, the lengthy procedures, and the potential toxicity of the reagents. Although the ICUMSA method is applicable for the sulphite determination of white sugar, cane juice and cane syrup it is only tentatively acceptable for very high pol raw sugar and is not suitable for raw sugars or other processing streams. The TM061 method is only validated for white sugar. The SMRI has investigated the use of an alternative chromatographic technique for the determination of sulphite in the sugar industry. Ion chromatography (IC) promises to deliver a quicker, simpler, more environmentally- and analyst-friendly method for the accurate determination of sulphite in sugar. This poster presents the development of a suitable solvent and eluent system for determining sulphites in sugar samples in the calibration range of 5-50 ppm by IC. Comparison with the existing method is also presented. Keywords: sulphites, ion chromatography, rosaniline, white sugar, raw sugar, formaldehyde Biography: Heidi du Clou Heidi du Clou has been with the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) since 2009. Heidi holds a PhD in Chemistry and is a Research Officer involved in areas of Research and Development, Method Development and Quality for the sugar industry.

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POSTER SUMMARY

AN EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY MODIFIER FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTION OUTPUT SIGWINTA L AND VAN ZYL MJ Buckman Boulevard, Hammarsdale lsigwinta@buckman.com

mjvanzyl@buckman.com

Abstract Increased massecuite viscosity in a sugar milling factory, particularly when cane is stale or damaged by heavy rain or freezing conditions, can result in higher energy utilisation and pan boiling time, ultimately influencing production rates and associated costs. An efficient pan boiling programme would deliver the required benefits for a smooth operating sugar factory in terms of boiling times, energy use and final sugar quality. Massecuite viscosity was generally influenced by entrainment of microscopic gas bubbles and the presence of gums produced by bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The utilisation of a surface-active agent can facilitate the rejection of entrained gas and prevent its reformation. The use of the surface-active product also reduces viscosity thereby allowing the pan to boil at lower temperatures and improving throughput. An industry approved surface-active agent was evaluated to ascertain the effect on massecuite fluidity and subsequent improvements in vacuum pan boiling times, exhaustion, final sugar colour and ultimate recovery. During the trials conducted, the A molasses viscosity improved significantly, thereby allowing for less boiling times in the pans in each instance when the surface-active agent or Bupan was used. Raw sugar colours were also reduced significantly while the trials were conducted. Keywords: sugar colour reduction, viscosity, massecuite fluidity, surface-active agent, production costs. Biography: Luyanda Sigwinta Luyanda has a Biotechnology qualification with 10 yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience in various disciplines (Pulp and paper, Chemical Manufacturing, Ethanol distilleries and Sugar processing). He has been involved particularly in the application of process chemistry and water treatment.

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POSTER SUMMARY

ANALYSIS OF VITAMIN A IN FORTIFIED SUGAR NAICKER A, NAIDOO Y AND WALFORD SN Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041, South Africa anaicker@smri.org lnaidoo@smri.org swalford@smri.org Abstract Vitamin A, or retinol, is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Its health benefits include maintenance of vision and the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s immune system. It is particularly important during pregnancy, infancy and childhood growth. Many people in developing countries are vitamin A deficient. To address the problem, the governments of some countries have implemented food fortification plans and added retinyl palmitate to foods, including sugar, to fortify them with vitamin A. A number of southern African countries have implemented sugar fortification programmes and it has become necessary for the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) to investigate quantitative analytical methods for the possible routine analysis of vitamin A in fortified sugar. The analytical methods investigated in this study included ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, fluorometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both the UV-spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were found to provide a simple, robust and repeatable analysis method. The UV-spectrophotometric analysis method would be suitable for a quality control laboratory whilst the fluorometric analysis method would be suitable for a production laboratory. The UV-spectophometric analysis method was also used to investigate the effect of storage conditions of the fortified sugar on the vitamin A levels. Keywords: Vitamin A, fortified sugar, HPLC, UV-spectrophotometry, fluorometry Biography: Anayshree Naicker Anayshree Naicker holds a B.Tech degree in Chemistry obtained from the Durban University of Technology. She started her career at Illovo Sugar Ltd-Merebank as an in-service trainee and later moved to the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) as an analyst. She has been employed by the SMRI for the past 7 years and is currently the analytical supervisor within the analytical services department of the SMRI.

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POSTER SUMMARY

FACTORY CONTROL USING NIRS: ARE WE THERE YET? BARKER B, MADHO S AND RAHIMAN S Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, P.O Box 5918, Umbilo, Durban, 4075, South Africa smadho@smri.org

bbarker@smri.org

srahiman@smri.org

Abstract All the South African sugar mill laboratories have access to Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments with process stream equations supplied by the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI). The prediction equations include sucrose, fructose, glucose, pol and brix for mixed juice, clear juice, syrup and all the various grades of molasses and massecuites. Dry solids can also be predicted on C-molasses, and conductivity ash on mixed juice and C-molasses. The rapid and reliable predictions by NIRS can be used by factories to improve recoveries and the reporting of factory performance figures. This paper elucidates some approaches on how to achieve this, discussing in detail the use of the SMRI-NIRS predictions for: • • • •

Inversion loss determinations. Factory tests across evaporator stations are specifically reported on; Weekly factory balances in terms of sucrose, glucose and fructose mass balances; Reducing sugar profiles across the different unit operations and across different grade pan boilings; and Mill determination of the C-molasses Target Purity Difference (TPD) from each centrifugal.

The paper discusses results from various factory trials and investigates whether the current NIRS prediction equations are suitable for factory control. The paper also identifies areas that require further development work that will allow complete integration of NIRS technology into the factory. Keywords: NIRS, laboratory, undetermined loss, TPD, inversion, sucrose Biography: Bryan Barker Bryan Barker is a Researcher in the process-engineering department at the Sugar Milling Research Institute. He has a National Diploma in Chemical Engineering and a BSc in Chemistry. He has been at the SMRI for many years and in that time has been involved in research across all areas of sugar processing from cane to crystal and still finds research one of the most exciting and stimulating careers around.

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POSTER SUMMARY

THE EFFECT OF ROTOCLONE BACTERIAL SLIME ON THE REFINED SUGAR TURBIDITY INCREASE EXPERIENCED AT THE NOODSBERG REFINERY NAIDOO K1 AND MOODLEY M 2 Illovo Sugar Group â&#x20AC;&#x201C; South Africa

1

2

Noodsberg Sugar Mill, Private Bag X501, Dalton, 3236, South Africa knaidoo2@illovo.co.za

Abstract Refined sugar turbidity is measured in terms of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis Units (ICUMSA Units or IU). During the latter part of the 2016 season, the Noodsberg refinery experienced severe turbidity contaminations. Turbidity measurements in the raw melt ranged from 900 to 3511 IU. Under normal circumstances, this turbidity would be removed via the clarification and filtration stages, however, the turbidity experienced was evident in all stages and subsequently appeared in the refined sugar final product. The refined sugar product during this period far exceeded bottlersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; specification of less than 20 IU (Maseko et al, 2011), with the refined sugar turbidity measuring as high as 160 IU. This resulted in sugar being rejected. Investigations found that bacterial slime growth cleaned from the silo rotoclone on a maintenance stop day was inadvertently washed into the melt water tank. Analytical tests and literature led the author to assume that the slime bacteria was Leuconostoc. The author set about to simulate the slime contamination with refinery process streams in the mill laboratory. Multiple refinery streams, such as melt, clarified, filtered and fine liquor, were sampled. Food technology research (Hill, 2009), suggests that Leuconostoc creates products that introduce haziness into the solution. This phenomenon was observed in the plant during the high turbidity period as well as during laboratory trials. A directly proportional relation was then established between the bacterial slime concentration and turbidity increase across all of the refinery streams that were sampled. This poster highlights the adverse effects that rotoclone bacterial slime contamination caused by Leuconostoc can have on refined sugar quality, which subsequently emphasises the importance of having proper sanitation procedures in place. Keywords: refinery, turbidity, slime, Leuconostoc, contamination, sugar quality Biography: Keevani Naidoo Keevani Naidoo joined the Illovo group as a student. She graduated with a honours degree in BSc Chemical Engineering from the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, where she compiled an experimental thesis investigation into the moisture isotherms of sugarcane bagasse. Keevani joined the Illovo Engineer-In-Training programme in 2015, and her responsibilities as a Chemical Engineer have covered a variety of work, including design work and projects co-ordination.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOREFINERIES AS EXTENSIONS TO SUGAR MILLS: SUSTAINABILITY AND SOCIAL UPLIFTMENT IN THE GREEN ECONOMY HAIGH KF, MANDEGARI MA, FARZAD S, PETERSEN A AND GÖRGENS JF Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Stellenbosch University, South Africa jgorgens@sun.ac.za, khaigh@sun.ac.za Abstract The sugar industry has to “re-invent” itself to ensure long-term economic survival, opportunities for job creation and enhanced community-level impacts, given increasing pressure from fluctuating and low global sugar prices, increasing energy prices and sustainability demands. Biorefineries were proposed as means to revitalise the sugar industry, by annexing new product plants to existing sugar mills to convert low value lignocellulosic biomass (sugarcane bagasse and brown leaves) to a spectrum of high value platform chemicals along with biofuels, bioenergy and electricity. The opportunity is presented for greener products to mitigate climate change and overcome economic challenges. A series of biorefinery scenarios have been modelled using Aspen Plus® software to better understand the biorefinery processes, estimate the CAPEX and OPEX, environmental impacts, and overall sustainability. This approach allows for potential products such as alcohols, organic acids, electricity, furfural and other biochemicals to be compared in terms of their desirability for inclusion in biorefineries based on sustainability and the need to maximise the benefits of social, economic, and environmental factors on a lifecycle basis. This offers an opportunity to provide societal needs for greener products and to mitigate climate change while simultaneously meeting the challenges of the sugar industry. Keywords: lignocellulose, multi-product biorefinery, sustainability, environmental impact, investment viability Biography: Kate Haigh Dr Kate Haigh received her Bachelors in Chemical Engineering from UCT and moved to the UK. While in the UK, she worked at a drinking water company carrying out research to resolve water quality challenges the company was having. She went on to complete a Master’s degree at Warwick University in Process Technology and Business Management which provided insights into how engineering and business challenges are interlinked. This qualification provided her with the opportunity to work at BAE Systems in a variety of roles which allowed her to develop skills and knowledge related to process safety and project management. After 2 years at BAE Systems, her interest in the Chemical Engineering field led her to earning a PhD at Loughborough University looking at options for more effective production of biodiesel from used cooking oil. Kate is currently working at Stellenbosch University in the Process Engineering Department as a Postdoctoral Fellow, working on techno-economic assessments of biorefineries annexed to sugar mills to assess the potential for improved financial and environmental outcomes.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ECONOMIC MODEL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY IN A BIOREFINERY SCENARIO MAFUNGA W1, FERRER S2 AND STARK A3 Discipline of Agricultural Economics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Scottsville 3209, South Africa, wadzamafunga@gmail.com

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2

3

Discipline of Agricultural Economics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Scottsville 3209, South Africa, ferrer@ukzn.ac.za

Discipline of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4001, South Africa, starka@ukzn.ac.za

Abstract The South African Bio-Economy Strategy was launched in 2013 and identifies agriculture as the sector with the highest economic impact. The need to explore the revitalisation of mature industries such as the sugar and wood/forestry product industries in order to achieve “eco-efficiency and innovation in a low-carbon future”, was explicitly mentioned. In the Industrial Sector Strategy, it was stated that “South Africa will need to progressively source second generation biofuels”, in particular, by converting agricultural residues. One of the strategic interventions in the industrial sector is to develop integrated biorefineries from bio-based feedstocks. In order to implement these strategies, specifically for the sugar industry, a step change will have to take place by extending sugar mills to fully fledged biorefineries, and by adding further downstream products (materials, chemicals, fuels) to the existing product portfolios. The objective of this study is to develop a partial equilibrium mathematical programming economic model of the South African sugar industry (encompassing all stakeholders along the value chain) that allows for inclusion of biorefining investments from the cane to the biorefinery product production. The model will be used to project biorefinery investments under a range of division of proceeds scenarios, and to investigate the implications thereof for sugarcane farming. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual model that includes representative farms (representing the supply of sugarcane to the mills) and representative mills (representing the derived demand for sucrose, molasses and bagasse by the mills), and allows for sale of products on both domestic and export markets. The model will subsequently be developed by incorporating the results of techno-economic analyses (TEAs) of a limited range of biorefinery investment options. Keywords: biorefinery investment, partial equilibrium model, division of proceeds Biography: Wadzanai Mafunga Wadzanai Penelope Mafunga is a young researcher from Zimbabwe with an immense interest in solving complex and messy problems of any industry. She holds a BSc Honours degree in Agricultural Economics (University of Zimbabwe), Executive Masters in Business Administration (National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe), MSc in Bioresources Systems (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) and is currently pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Economics at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Her focus in this study is to investigate the changes in initiatives of different stakeholders in the sugarcane industry upon the establishment of sugarcane biorefineries in South Africa.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL BIO-POLYMER INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF SUGARCANE THOMSON WA1, KOHLER M1 AND STARK A 2 School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University Road, Westville, 4000, South Africa.

1

warwickza@gmail.com kohler@ukzn.ac.za 2

School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, King George V Ave, Durban, 4041, South Africa. starka@ukzn.ac.za

Abstract The South African sugar industry faces both external economic competition and internal adversity. Such difficulties have led to a decline in sugar production and revenue over the past seasons. Strategies to enhance revenue and secure production may protect against longer-term industry decline. Data gathered from individuals within the associated industries propound varying reasons for the negative growth in production and revenue. However, the consensus view converges toward a product diversification scenario, for example, the Brazilian sugarcane-to-ethanol programme. This study analyses the economic potential of converting portions of South Africa’s sugarcane to selected bio-polymers (plastics). An economic and environmental cost-benefit analysis may measure the relative viability of producing bio-polyethylene and polylactic acid from sugarcane in a South African bio-refinery. However, despite a potentially positive net-present value calculated from quantitative research, the market landscape was further revealed in this short paper by assessing the qualitative features of agents within the sugarcane and polymer industries. An interview-based questionnaire examined the rate and likelihood of the industries to adapt to bio-based diversification. European, American and Asian markets have attained bio-refining success. By conducting simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analyses, it is clear as to what the future holds not only for the South African sugarcane industry, but for the bio-based chemical industry too. Keywords: sugarcane, economic, bio-refinery, downstream, polymer, development Biography: Warwick Thomson Warwick Thomson holds a Bachelor’s degree in Economics and Philosophy, and an Honours degree in Economics - both from UKZN. He is currently completing a Master’s degree in Economics at UKZN, co-supervised Mr. Kohler of the Discipline of Economics and Finance, and the SMRI Sugarcane Biorefinery Research Chair Prof. Stark at the Discipline of Chemical Engineering. His research aims to determine the economic potential of converting sugarcane to bio-based polymers.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

ECONOMIC RECOVERY OF BIOBUTANOL - A PLATFORM CHEMICAL FOR THE SUGARCANE BIOREFINERY CHIKAVA FK1, RAMJUGERNATH D2 AND STARK A3 University of KwaZulu-Natal, 211541961@stu.ukzn.ac.za 2 University of KwaZulu-Natal, ramjuger@ukzn.ac.za 3 University of KwaZulu-Natal, starka@ukzn.ac.za

1

Abstract In recent years, the South African sugar industry has faced challenges such as drought and labour issues that have impacted negatively on its perceived sustainability. The adoption of the sugarcane biorefinery concept by the sugar industry is a possible solution to improve the sustainability of the industry amid these challenges. In this envisioned biorefinery, ‘multiple products are created within an integrated system that maximises sustainability’, as opposed to relying on producing one, or very few, commodities. This paper explores the potential economic recovery of butanol from sucrose fermentation (biobutanol) with the aim of using it as a platform chemical for the production of higher value products, e.g. esters. Biobutanol production was characterised by very low butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth (around 2 % (m/m)) due to high inhibition, resulting in a very high cost of recovery and the need for several downstream purification steps. According to literature, there are promising technologies that can make the recovery and purification processes viable. Gas stripping, adsorption, extraction and distillation process steps were simulated on Aspen Plus® to determine the profitability of the process to produce pure butanol. Simulation results were verified by experimental measurements in the case of extraction and gas stripping. Overall, technoeconomic analysis results were used to determine the best performing arrangement of technologies or unit operations. Keywords: butanol recovery, technoeconomic analysis, Aspen Plus® modelling Biography: Frederick Chikava Frederick Kudzanai Chikava graduated with a BSc.Eng. (Chemical Engineering) from the University of KwaZulu-Natal in 2015. This work is part of his Masters dissertation at the same institution in the SMRI Sugarcane Biorefinery Research Group of Prof. Stark. This work is being extended to a PhD in the same group with the ultimate aim of modelling sugarcane biorefineries that produce high value chemicals and materials.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

REACTIVE EXTRACTION AND REACTIVE DISTILLATION: A NEW RECOVERY PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LEVULINIC ACID FROM FERMENTATION BROTHS INYANG V1, RAMJUGERNATH D2 AND STARK A3 Discipline of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban

1

vickyinyang@yahoo.com 2

Discipline of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban ramjuger@ukzn.ac.za

3

Discipline of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban starka@ukzn.ac.za

Abstract Levulinic acid is sourced either from petrochemical or bio-based feedstocks. Although its production from fossil resources is still more cost efficient, the application of fermentation technologies has gained attention as carbohydrate-based feedstocks can be used, giving access to the fine chemical, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets. One of the biggest challenges in this process alternative is that an aqueous solution with inherently low product concentrations is produced. Various separation processes (liquid-liquid extraction, ion exchange, chromatography, precipitation) have been proposed, but they all suffer from some limitations such as waste generation, large energy input and material requirements leading to high costs of production (estimated to be above 60 % of the overall costs). As a result, much research is being undertaken to find a successful technology with the potential for industrial application. In this paper, the direct conversion of levulinic acid to esters from the primary aqueous solution using hybrid reactors is investigated as a potentially promising separation process. It has the advantage of being substantially cheaper than other separation processes. It also provides esters as intermediate products that can be used either directly, or hydrolysed to levulinic acid. A meta-analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of esterification reactions of levulinic acid to ethyl levulinate is under way. The aim is to create a chemotechnological toolbox that can be used to predict the operation performance of integrated reactive separation strategies, and to work towards a scale-up to commercial production. Keywords: Reactive extraction, recovery process, fermentation broth, levulinic acid. Biography: Victoria Inyang Victoria Inyang obtained her Bachelor and Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree in Chemical Engineering from Nnamdi Azikiwe University and the prestigious Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria respectively. She is currently a doctoral candidate in the SMRI Sugarcane Biorefinery Research Group, Discipline of Chemical Engineering of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Her thesis is on the Development of Separation Strategies for Carboxylic Acids and their Products from Sugarbased Fermentation Broths.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON NANO-TUBES SYNTHESIS FROM BIOREFINED SUGARCANE BAGASSE MUGADZA K1, NYAMORI VO1, NDUNGU PG2 AND STARK A3 School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa

1

mugadzakudzie@gmail.com 2

Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, P.O. Box 17011, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa pndungu@uj.ac.za

3

School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus Durban 4001, South Africa starka@ukzn.ac.za

Abstract The need for socio-economic sustainability in modern societies has triggered the introduction of various concepts and technologies with regards to biorefining. By-products of the processes involved in a biorefinery have numerous applications when produced or upon further processing, thus positively contributing to the three pillars of sustainability, i.e. encompassing environmental, social and economic aspects. Sugarcane bagasse, for example, can be further refined to produce cellulose, amongst other by-products. Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse can be advantageously utilised as a starting material for the synthesis of various carbon nanostructured materials. Carbon nanostructured materials have applications in different key areas, such as in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, and water treatment. In this work, we describe our recent efforts to produce nitrogen-doped carbon nano-tubes (N-CNTs) using sugarcane bagasse as the starting material, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C4MIM]Cl as the solvent and ferrocene as the catalyst source. N-CNTs were synthesised using the chemical vapour deposition method at temperatures of between 8001 000 °C. The synthesised N-CNTs were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. Typical hollow tubular structures of N-CNTs were observed using TEM. These observations correlated morphology from SEM which showed spaghetti like structures and EDS, showing the presence of nitrogen. Raman spectroscopy indicated typical CNTs bands, G-band and D-band, due to graphitic carbon vibrations and defects, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also conducted to study the thermal stability of the N-CNTs. The study showed that N-CNTs were successfully synthesised from bagasse. Keywords: biorefinery, sugarcane bagasse, doped carbon tubes Biography: Kudzai Mugadza Kudzai Mugadza is a PhD student at University of KwaZulu-Natal. She did her MSc Chemistry degree at University of KwaZulu-Natal where her research focus was on the growth and physicochemical properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for energy conversion devices. She obtained her BSc Honours in Chemistry from the University of Zimbabwe. Her current principal research interests lie in the field of nanotechnology where focus is in renewable resources material and energy.

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SHORT, NON-REFEREED PAPER

ORGANIC ACID TREATMENT OF SUGARCANE RESIDUES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIOGENIC SILICA MASEKO NN1, SCHNEIDER D2, WASSERSLEBEN S2, ENKE D2, POCOCK J1, STARK A1 Discipline of Chemical Engineering, University Of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4001

1

masekon@ukzn.ac.za 2

Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Leipzig, LinnĂŠstr. 3, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract Biogenic silica was extracted from sugarcane leaves through an organic acid thermo-chemical treatment method. Two sugarcane leaves batches were investigated: one batch with a midrib and the other without the midrib. Both produced amorphous silica with high purity (> 90 % (m/m) silica) but their textural properties were distinctly different. The sugarcane leaves were leached with 7 % (m/m) citric acid at 80 oC for two hours prior to being washed, dried in the oven for 24 hours and burned using a four step programme ranging from room temperature to 873 K in a furnace. The characterisation of the final products was performed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), nitrogen sorption and Elemental Analysis (CHN). The produced white ash had an insignificant amount of carbon and the pore structure was mainly formed by mesopores. Keywords: sugarcane, sugarcane leaves, biogenic silica, amorphous silica, mesoporous, thermo-chemical treatment. Biography: Ncamisile Maseko Ncamisile Maseko is from KwaZulu-Natal. She holds a BSc in Chemistry from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, a BSc (Hons) in Chemistry from the University of Zululand, and a MSc in Chemical Engineering from North Carolina State University (USA). She is currently doing her PhD in Chemical Engineering at UKZN.

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REFEREED PAPER

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCREENING TOOL TO IDENTIFY NEW PRODUCTS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY BOOYSEN KC1, FOXON KM1 AND DAVIS SB1 Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041

1

kbooysen@smri.org kfoxon@smri.org sdavis@smri.org Abstract The production of new revenue streams within the sugarcane industry would represent an opportunity to enhance economic stability and sustainability of the industry. However, identifying the most commercially feasible new product option from the numerous possibilities available is a challenge. The Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC developed the New Products Greenhouse (NPG) toolbox as a screening tool for generating a first-pass assessment of the commercial feasibility of new products. The NPG screening approach considers key aspects pertaining to the successful implementation of a bio-based product in a South African sugarcane biorefinery and integrates feedstock competition, market, technology and economic criteria into the assessment. A standardised pre-defined set of criteria and a scoring scale are used to assign risk scores based on data gathered for a product candidate. Once a product is assessed, the NPG toolbox uses built-in algorithms to calculate an economic potential index (termed economic constraint), a business risk and a technology risk score. These outputs can be used to rank new product candidates according to their commercial potential. The toolbox excludes consideration of capital and operating costs and therefore the results should not be interpreted as a recommendation to invest in a particular product but rather that there may be merit in undertaking further technoeconomic analysis on that product. The toolbox also includes a system to store information gathered for products of sugarcane in a structured manner. The NPG project team intends to further refine the toolbox and validation of the NPG approach will be performed to strengthen the credibility of the outputs. This paper describes the development of the NPG toolbox and demonstrates its ability to enable quick and crude assessments to reveal where opportunities lie in the field of bio-based products. It is anticipated that this toolbox will facilitate the identification of promising commercially feasible products, providing a rational basis for the selection of sugarcane derived products for detailed techno-economic research studies. Keywords: Biorefinery, New Products Greenhouse toolbox, assessment, screening, bio based products, criteria Biography: Kim Booysen Dr Kim Booysen joined the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) in 2013 as a Research Officer. She obtained her PhD degree in Inorganic Chemistry at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in 2012. Her main research focus over the past few years at the SMRI has been in the area of New Products, exploring potential biorefinery products for the South African sugarcane industry.

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89

REFEREED PAPER

INCLINED PERFORATED DRUM DRYER AND SEPARATOR FOR CLEANING AND DRYING OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE LOKHAT D1 AND BERNHARDT HW1 School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041

1

Lokhat@ukzn.ac.za, Bernhardth@ukzn.ac.za Abstract Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable energy source that has the potential to be used to generate electricity in sugar mills. The moisture content of bagasse as generated in the normal sugar extraction process is typically around 50 %. Its energy value could significantly be enhanced if the moisture content was reduced to 20 % or below. The bagasse contains a significant amount of pith, a fibrous component of the biomass that has a lower calorific value than the remaining constituents, as well as sand. In this work it was shown that pith and sand removal as well as drying of the bagasse could be effectively carried out using a perforated rotating drum dryer. Hot air passes counter-current through a rotating drum inclined a few degrees to the horizontal where bagasse moves down through the drum by gravity and heated air flows upward through the tumbling bagasse. The pith and sand are able to pass through the perforations in the drum whilst the remaining bagasse exits at the bottom end. The extent of moisture and pith/sand removal were found to be dependent on the rotational speed of the drum, feed rate of biomass, angle of inclination, and flowrate and temperature of the air. The initial modelling study assumed plug flow of bagasse and a constant air temperature in the drum. The full model is able to adequately predict the performance of the dryer. Keywords: sugarcane, drying, rotating drum, moisture ratio, inclined, bagasse Biography: David Lokhat Dr David Lokhat is the head of the Reactor Technology Research Group of the School of Engineering at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. His research interests are in catalysis and reactor engineering, specifically micro-scale engineering, thermal processing of biomass, surface treatment of polymers and applications in fluorochemistry. In 2013 he received, in conjunction with fellow researchers, the South African Institute of Chemical Engineers Innovation Award for the development of a novel continuous process to produce a fluorochemical intermediate.

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POSTER SUMMARY

CONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE INTO CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE (CMC) MAKHANYA FM AND DEENADAYALU N Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, P.O Box 1334, Durban 21001611fm@gmail.com nirmalad@dut.ac.za Abstract Sugarcane substrates contain lignocelluloses which are attractive products in the fuel, ethanol, paper and textile industries. Their high demand is because of their availability in large quantities and low costs. The substrates are produced largely by sugar industries and are commonly referred to as sugarcane bagasse. It was estimated that 280 kg of bagasse was produced per ton of sugarcane. The conversion of biomass into biomaterial increases the value of that particular biomass and generates a lower rate of waste streams because a new demand has been created in the market/related research sectors. Lignocellulosic biomass is known to provide a low cost source of biological production of fuels and high value chemicals. It offers economic, environmental and strategic advantages. Bagasse contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; cellulose was extracted from bagasse through an alkali treatment followed by a nitric acid hydrolysed process. Thirty percent of the cellulose was successfully extracted and the cellulose was converted into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). CMCs are anionic water polyelectrolytes used in sectors such as textile, food and cosmetics. The cellulose was converted to CMC using mercisation with 20 %, 25 % and 30 % w/v NaOH concentrations. The characterisation will be done using spectroscopy in the form of IR, thermal studies using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), microscopy to investigate further the geometry, and morphology of the synthesised CMC relative to commercial/pure CMC using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, biomaterial, alkali treatment, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), commercial sample Biography: Mfundo Makhanya Fezokuhle Mfundo Makhanya is an MSc Student at the Durban University of Technology, Department of Chemistry in South Africa, the current research has geared him to renewable waste materials such as sugarcane bagasse and the extraction of cellulose from bagasse then converting cellulose into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).

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POSTER SUMMARY

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF CELLULOSE NANO CRYSTALS (CNCS) FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE USING IONIC LIQUID (1-BUTYL-3METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM HYDROGEN SULPHATE)-DMSO MIXTURES MDLETSHE GP1, DEENADAYALU N1 AND RAY S S2 Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, P O Box 1334, Durban, 4000, South Africa

1

gpmdle@gmail.co.za, nirmalad@dut.ac.za 2

CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Building 19B Scientia Campus, CSIR, Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, Pretoria, 0184 RSuprakas@csir.co.za

Abstract Lignocellulosic materials have the potential to partly replace fossil-based resources as a source of bio-fuels, bio-chemicals, bio-composites and other bio-products. Ground sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with ionic liquid (IL)-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mixtures. The IL used was 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate and DMSO as a co-solvent. Mixtures of IL-DMSO solutions were prepared at different concentrations, i.e. 50 %, 75 %, 90 % and 100 % of IL at a constant temperature. The IL pretreatment was successfully applied to produce cellulose nano crystals (CNCs) from sugarcane bagasse. The dissolution of sugarcane bagasse in IL resulted in structural changes in the CNCs and was dependent on the amount of IL present. Freeze drying the CNC suspension showed morphologies of long fibrous structures, rods and spheres as evident in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The crystallinity index obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of CNCs increased with the IL pretreatment composition. Thermal analysis of the CNCs was obtained from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning colourimetry (DSC). Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to confirm the absence of lignin and hemicellulose in CNCs. The size distribution of CNCs was obtained by using a nanoparticle size analyser and showed that all the CNCs for the 100 % IL pretreatment had a length <400 nm and diameter <50 nm. It was found that ionic liquor with no DMSO was the most effective in terms of cellulose dissolution and the crystal sizes of CNCs. Keywords: biomass, sugarcane bagasse, cellulose solubility, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), isolation, ionic liquid Biography: Gcinile Mdletshe Gcinile Pretty Mdletshe was born and raised in the Northen part of KwaZulu Natal, eMpangeni. Since childhood, she dreamed of being a scientist. She is currently enrolled at Durban University of Technology for a MSc in Applied Sciences.

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POSTER SUMMARY

SUGAR CANE JUICE CONCENTRATION AND SEPARATION WITH HYDRATE TECHNOLOGY DOUBRA P, NAIDOO P, NELSON W AND RAMJUGERNATH D Thermodynamics Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban, Howard College Campus, South Africa, 4001. parisa.dobra@gmail.com naidoop18@ukzn.ac.za nelsonw@ukzn.ac.za ramjuger@ukzn.ac.za Abstract Various treatment methods, including evaporation, membrane and freezing separation technologies, are used to concentrate sugar cane juice. Evaporation is the traditional and most commonly used method, however, the juice is very sensitive to heat which can alter its colour and flavour. The use of membranes is a developing technology whereby juice can be concentrated up to 70 % (m/m) sucrose, however, capacity and downtime for cleaning and maintenance are some of the drawbacks. Freezing is another developing technology, applicable to sensitive materials, with reported concentrations of up to 20-40 % (m/m) solids. It, however, results in high energy costs and a lengthy processing time. Gas hydrate separation is an emerging technology which concentrates fruit juice by trapping the moisture in water cages. The advantages, drawbacks and feasibility of the different separation methods of juice concentration have been investigated. In the processing of sugar cane to produce sugar crystals, the clarified juice is concentrated in a multi-effect evaporator train to 60 % (m/m) sucrose. Thomsen et al. (2009), Li et al. (2015) and Smith et al. (2016) investigated sucrose concentration using the gas hydrate based method. For this study, new equipment has been designed in the Thermodynamics Research Unit (University of KwaZulu-Natal) to investigate the effect of juice concentration with sampling of the concentrate to analyse the final sucrose content. Kinetics studies, using a 750 ml gas hydrate reactor vessel, will also be performed. Key words: juice concentration, hydrate technology, separation technology Biography: Parisa Doubra Parisa Doubra is currently a PhD student in the Thermodynamics Research Unit (TRU) in the School of Engineering at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). She started her PhD studies on sugar cane juice concentration with new emerging hydrate technology in early 2016. She has a BSc. Eng. in petrochemical engineering from Urmia University of Technology (UUT) class of 2013, and a MSc. Eng. from the University of Science and Technology of Mazandaran (USTM), class of 2015. She is a researcher on both experimental and modelling fields of chemical engineering related systems.

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REFEREED PAPER

ENERGY FOOTPRINT AND OPERATING COSTS, A COMPARISON OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN AND ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE APPLICATION OF SUGAR DECOLOURISATION HARDWICK JG AND HARDWICK EK Cwenga Technologies, Dunvegan, Johannesburg - South Africa jenny@cwenga.com, ed@cwenga.com Abstract Both ion exchange resin and activated carbon are well established technologies used in final stage decolourisation of sugar liquors for the production of high quality white sugars. These technologies are often seen to be in direct competition, but there are unique advantages and disadvantages to both, and they are applicable in different circumstances. This paper attempts to clarify the distinction. The colour removal mechanism between these technologies differ, resulting in slightly different colour causing molecules being removed and, as such, have been used as complementary processes. Activated carbon is made reusable by thermal reactivation, a process that is highly energy demanding. The advantage of this is that there is no chemical addition to the process, and it can be run effectively as a zero liquid discharge system. This is in direct contrast to the ion exchange system, which in its traditional format requires very little energy to run. The effluent volumes produced by regeneration of ion exchange resin have been identified as a disadvantage of the technology. There has been research into the recovery and reuse of regenerant chemicals. This causes a reduction in chemical costs that is balanced with a rise in energy consumption by membrane and evaporation processes. The key operating costs of energy footprint and chemical demand are compared, as well as secondary costs of effluent treatment and energy recovery systems applicable to both unit processes. Keywords: activated carbon, ion exchange resin, decolourisation, energy costs, comparison study Biography: Jenny Hardwick Jenny received her degree in chemistry from the University of Witwatersrand in 2012. She then joined Cwenga Technologies to head the technical research laboratory. In this position she has been exposed to a large number of fields in which ion exchange and activated carbon have applications, including mine water treatment, metal recovery, water chemistry and sugar purification. Jenny is a member of SAIChE, IChemE, SCI and WISA.

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REFEREED PAPER

AUTOMATION OF WHITE PANS AT THE TONGAAT HULETT REFINERY MNCUBE FS1, LOVE DJ1, SIKHAKHANE P1, OGLE D2 AND MTEMBU T1 Tongaat Hulett Sugar, Technology and Engineering Group, P O Box 3, Tongaat 4400, South Africa. 2 Tongaat Hulett Refinery, P.O. Box 1501, Durban 4000, South Africa.

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fred.mncube@tongaat.com dave.love@tongaat.com paul.sikhakhane@tongaat.com duran.ogle@tongaatcom thembelani.mtembu@tongaat Abstract Pan boiling relies substantially on “art” rather than “science”, thus requiring skilled and experienced operators to optimise crystal sugar production. This puts heavy demands on staffing, training and skills transfer. Particularly in this context, automated pan boiling has the potential to provide substantial benefits in terms of plant capacity, process performance and product quality. Successful pan automation relies largely on the following aspects: instrumentation that reliably measures appropriate process parameters, a suitable control strategy that relies both on crystallisation fundamentals (science) and practical considerations (art), and control hardware that implements the strategy in a manner that is easy to understand, operate, configure, modify and maintain. Building on past experience with pan automation, an updated control system was installed on a fourth boiling batch pan at the Tongaat Hulett refinery. Existing measurements were supplemented with a pan stirrer power measurement, an online refractometer and an online microscope. New control hardware, a Yokogawa Distributed Control System (DCS), was installed. Pan boiling control strategies, using the expanded range of measurements available, have been developed. The control strategies have been implemented on the DCS, tested and then operated in production mode for an extended period. The new control strategy has changed the previous manual shock seeding to automated seeding with ball milled slurry in an attempt to approach the ideal of “full seeding”. Work is continuing to replicate the success of this automation to the other four refined sugar batch pans. This paper describes details of the instrumentation installed, the control strategies implemented and the preliminary results that have been obtained. Key words: pan boiling, crystallisation, automation, graining, pan control, instrumentation Biography: Fred Mncube Fred Mncube is a chemical engineer at Tongaat Hulett based at the Technology Group. He joined Tongaat Hulett in 2000 after finishing an in-service training at SMRI. He finished his EIT at Amatikulu Sugar Mill and worked there as a process engineer. He moved to the Technology Group in 2009. He has co-authored three SASTA papers and one SIT paper.

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REFEREED PAPER

POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON (PAC) WITH MEMBRANE FILTER PRESS FOR SECONDARY DECOLOURISATION SYSTEM TO PRODUCE REFINED SUGAR IN BACKEND REFINERY BABU R, SRIVASTAVA AK, CHANDRASEKAR R AND RAO GSC Global Canesugar Services Pvt, Ltd. rbabu@globalcanesugar.com Abstract In India, most of the backend refineries currently use Ion Exchange Resin (IER) or the Activated Carbon Process for secondary decolourisation. The problem in the IER process is the disposal of a dark brown brine effluent. Due to stringent norms of the pollution control board, this brine solution cannot be discharged as is. To treat the brine solution, the factory had to install a Brine Recovery System and Brine Concentrator and Dryer to dispose of the effluent as solid waste. This is capital intensive. The paper deals with an innovative way to produce good quality refined sugar in Indian sugar plants by using an energy efficient membrane filter for the Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) process as secondary decolourisation. Keywords: plantation white sugar, raw sugar, refined sugar, phosphatation, carbonation, powdered activated carbon, membrane filter. Biography: Babu Rathinam Babu has more than 24 years experience in supervising the erection and commissioning of sugar refineries. He is an expert in preparing Techno Commercial Proposals for standalone and back end refinery with cost economics and advantages of specific systems. Babu introduced the first Continuous Ion Exchange Resin system for secondary de-colorization in India. He was involved in the erection and commissioning of first of its kind standalone refinery in India and completed the plant erection in a record eight months at Haldia. He achieved remarkable performance in process up gradation, quality improvement, and capacity enhancement of various sugar refineries. Babu has presented various paper at STAI and International Sugar conference and got the prestigious Noel Deer gold medal award for the best paper presented during the 2012 STAI convention.

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REFEREED PAPER

WHERE DO YOU GO TO, MY SACCHARIDES? A PRELIMINARY SACCHARIDE ANALYSIS OF REFINERY STREAMS WALFORD SN1 AND MOODLEY M 2 Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa 2 Tongaat-Hulett Sugar Refinery, P.O. Box 1501, Durban 4000

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swalford@smri.org

mano.moodley@tongaat.com

Abstract The Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) has a long history of determining minor saccharide constituents in sugar process streams. These include the common monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and trisaccharides such as kestoses and oligosaccharides. Within a refinery, minor saccharides can not only originate from the incoming raw sugar but can build up due to the use of recycle streams and may also be formed as a result of sucrose deterioration in low brix process streams. The presence of some of these minor constituents can have a detrimental effect on crystal habit. A study was undertaken to determine the fate of some of these saccharides at the Tongaat-Hulett Sugar Refinery. Sampling was conducted over a three-month period during 2016 and analysis of the samples was undertaken using the methods developed by the SMRI. The results showed that not only was a large proportion of the kestoses being recycled but an unequal division of selected kestoses occurred between refined sugar and High Test Molasses. The results also indicated that the commonly assumed pol:sucrose ratio of one is not true for High Test Molasses. Keywords: refinery, mass balance, kestose, refinery pol:sucrose ratio Biography: Stephen Walford Stephen manages the Analytical Quality & Development group at the Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI). He has held a lifelong research interest in the chromatographic analysis of sugars and sugar solutions and has authored and co-authored many SASTA papers on the subject. Stephen has a research interest in analytical techniques and instrumentation, is the chairman of the South African National Committee for ICUMSA and presented at both local and international conferences. Outside of work, he has interests in woodwork and music.

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REFEREED PAPER

THE TRANSFER OF NON-SUCROSE SPECIES INTO THE SUCROSE CRYSTAL: CAN IT BE USEFUL? LIONNET GRE1 AND MOODLEY M 2 Consultant, Australia

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glionnet@bigpond.com 2

Tongaat-Hulett Sugar-Refinery, P.O. Box 1501, Durban 4000 mano.moodley@tongaat.com

Abstract The crystallisation of sucrose has been, and still is, extensively investigated both in academia and in industry. The literature is reviewed to summarise the main points which have been well established, the many areas where work still needs to be done, and more particularly to highlight the effects of non-sucrose species both on classical crystallisation to produce food grade sugar, and on the possibilities of manufacturing co-products through co-crystallisation processes. The literature shows that the non-sucrose species which affect the crystallisation process can be categorised in two groups: those which enter the crystal but do not alter the crystal shape, and those which enter into the crystal and cause deformation. This second group can also severely slow down the sucrose crystallisation rate. Investigating the mechanisms through which sucrose crystallises is difficult; various models have been tested. Finally, recent work used mathematical models, based on industrial data, to improve the quality of the sugar produced. The financial impacts of the modifications were also investigated. It was suggested that apart from improving sugar quality the knowledge obtained about the crystallisation of sucrose should be used, and extended, to investigate the possibilities of producing high value co-products through co-crystallisation with sucrose. Here the goal is not to prevent or reduce the incorporation of non-sucrose species (usually called impurities in classical literature) but, on the contrary, to increase and control the concentrations of selected species incorporated in the sucrose crystal. Secondly, the possibility of producing white sugar directly should also be re-visited. Obviously, these projects will require extensive technical and financial investigations. Biography: Raoul Lionnet Raoul Lionnet is a sugar technologist who worked in the South African industry for many years. He worked for Tongaat Hulett in Darnall, and at Hulettâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s R & D. He joined the SMRI in 1980, taking early retirement in 2002 to join THS. In 2009 he left THS and South Africa to settle in Australia. He is now a sugar technology consultant and trainer.

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REFEREED PAPER

OPTIMISATION OF WHITE SUGAR COLOUR MANAGEMENT THROUGH THE UTILISATION OF ON-LINE COLOUR CAMERAS BOUCHÉ C, DUC N AND GAILLAC B ITECA SOCADEI, 445 rue Denis Papin, 13592 Aix- en Provence, France catherine.bouche@iteca.fr

norbert.duc@iteca.fr

bertrand.gaillac@iteca.fr

Abstract The priority for any factory operation is to produce sugar that meets its customers’ specifications while minimising the financial impact of such compliance. To ensure low colour sugar, the default position tends to be to over wash it. It leads to substantial water volume and energy consumption with a high amount of melted sugar which should instead be reduced. The over washing at the sugar end of the process can also mask significant variations occurring within the beet end operation. This paper describes the optimisation of a Thai centrifugal workshop that is particularly subject to significant variations in the quality of the massecuite. The Erawan sugar refinery installed two Colobserver® from Iteca Socadei in early 2016 to successfully address this issue, stabilise its production within a few months, and improve its productivity. Keywords: on-line, colour, measurement, Colobserver®, out of specification, detection Biography: Bertrand Gaillac Bertrand Gaillac is the Manager of the Colour Dpt in the Iteca Company. He received a postgraduate degree in sensors and industrial instrumentation at St Charles’ University in Marseille in 1991. He began work the same year in a company specialising in industrial instrumentation where he registered a patent on a system of video signals treatment to make on-line colour measurement with a video sensor. In 1993, he successfully set up the first colorimeter of this kind in the Bazancourt sugar factory in France. Two years later he launched his own company and started to equip many plants worldwide both in the sugar industry and bulk sector with products like Calcium carbonate. In 2003, Bertrand joined Iteca and opened a Department devoted to on-line colour analysis. Supported by his team, he launched a new range of on-line colorimeters and spectrometers based on digital technology, able to store and treat images of checked products. In 2006 in cooperation with the world leader in calcium carbonate, he developed an on line particle size analyzer based on a system of automatic sieves.

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REFEREED PAPER

LEARNINGS FROM THE 2015 PONGOLA SILO FAILURE LAWLOR WK RCL Foods, Westville, South Africa warren.lawlor@rclfoods.com Abstract During June 2015 the refined sugar silo at the Pongola Sugar Mill suffered a severe buckling failure. The failure occurred with the silo in operation and full of sugar. During the months which followed the silo was stabilised, strengthened, the sugar was removed, the damaged sections were safely dismantled and a thorough investigation into the cause of the failure was undertaken. This paper reports on the steps taken to safely dismantle the silo and on the various mechanisms by which silos can fail which were considered during the investigation. Most importantly, the paper provides a list of recommendations to be followed to reduce the likelihood of future silo failures. Keywords: silo failure, silo stabilisation, silo strengthening, silo design, buckling strength, compression buckling Biography: Warren Lawlor Warren Lawlor completed his degree in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Natal, Durban in 1992. He has since worked in operational and consulting roles for Illovo Sugar, Booker Tate, and TSB Sugar. He is a Charted Engineer registered with the Engineering Council of the UK and his current position is Senior Manager: Projects with RCL Foods, Sugar and Milling Division.

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REFEREED PAPER

TO BEE OR NOT TO BEE (STUNG) HULREF’S INTERVENTION IN REDUCING BEE STINGS MOODLEY M1, NAROTHAM A1 AND DAWSON G2 Tongaat-Hulett Sugar-Refinery, P.O. Box 1501, Durban 4000

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Dawson Bee Removals, 19 York Road, Gillitts, Durban 4000

Abstract As sugar refineries are a source of food for bees, one of the major contributors to injuries at the Tongaat-Hulett SugarRefinery (Hulref) is bee stings. In 2013, management at the refinery observed that the number of employees stung by bees was on the increase and 47 % of the medical treatment cases (MTC) were for bee stings. In view of this an urgent intervention was needed to reduce the number of bee stings. Bees play a vital role as pollinators in the environment and as a result the approach adopted was to find a “win/win” solution to the bee problem. The steps taken to reduce the number of people being stung at the refinery are listed below:• • • • •

Minimisation of spillages in the factory; Installation of bee catch boxes; Planting of bee attracting flowers on the periphery of the plant; Installation of bee feeding stations in the plant; and Location and re-locating of bee hives.

In this paper each element will be discussed in detail. Data on the effectiveness of the approach taken to reduce the number of bees visiting the refinery for food will also be presented. Keywords: bees, safety, medical treatment, allergic reaction. Biography: Mano Moodley Mano Moodley is currently the Factory Manager at Hulref. He has 30 years of sugar experience (SMRI, TSB, TEG and now at the refinery). He has authored and co-authored a large number of both SASTA and SIT (Sugar Industry Technologist) papers.

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COMMERCIAL PRESENTATION

CAIL & FLETCHER E-CRYSTAL: INNOVATION NEVER STOPS DHAUSSY P, DEFREYNE J AND DESVIGNES R 100 rue Chalant 59790 Ronchin France philippe.dhaussy@fivesgroup.com jeremy.defreyne@fivesgroup.com roland.desvignes@fivesgroup.com Abstract Fives Cail, known as EPC and OEM, decided to extend its range of sugar equipment in the 1960s with continuous and batch centrifugals. In 1976, Fives Cail launched an innovative continuous centrifugal named the FC1000. Fives Cail was then, and continues to be, a pioneer in the sugar industry, more specifically in higher capacity and crystal preservation through a “large casing” design. As a world leader, both in cane and beet sugar applications, Fives Cail continues to develop its range of continuous centrifugals with increased capacity, following the ever-increasing size of sugar mills: FC1250, FC1300, FC1550. These continuous centrifugals are recognised for their reliability, robustness and high productivity, reducing both sugar losses and energy consumption. Fives Cail remained at the forefront of innovation by introducing the STG in the early 80s, the first continuous centrifugal to process high purity massecuite of raw and refined sugar, which satisfied a need in the sugar process. The concept of a double stage basket, first created for the STG, still prevails in Fives Cail’s new continuous centrifugal, the E-CRYSTAL, which also benefits from the 50 years of proven experience in processing B and C massecuite. It is equipped with sensors and a PLC, and the sugar is only in contact with SS components. This new centrifugal is also smart and connected, and meets all the reliability and productivity requirements of efficient sugar factories of the future. Keywords: sugar, continuous, centrifugal, basket, smart, crystal Biography: Philippe Dhaussy Born in 1965, in Fives Cail since 1991, first involved in centrifugals development and operation and next in services for Fives Cail’s equipment range, I industrialized for Fives Cail the innovative first High Grade Sugar Continuous Centrifugal named STG, being an iconic centrifugal and a great success. Now the Director of Centrifugals Business Unit for Fives Cail Group.

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COMMERCIAL PRESENTATION

QUALITY DETERMINATION OF SUGAR INSIDE CONTINUOUS CENTRIFUGALS DIRINGER T AND NIELSEN BC Neltec Denmark A/S, Vestergade 35, 6500 Vojens, Denmark mail@neltec.dk Abstract The performance of continuous sugar centrifugals and the quality of the delivered sugar are dependent on the massecuite quality, the steam addition and the water addition. Until recently, the impact of the combination of the above-mentioned parameters on the sugar quality in continuous centrifugals was not fully known. The centrifugals are usually trimmed by the trial and error method. An inline colour measurement instrument has been developed and installed on top of continuous centrifugals, allowing real-time monitoring of the changes of the sugar colour inside the centrifugals. While monitoring the sugar quality online, it was observed that the sugar colour inside the centrifugals varied rapidly and with larger variations than expected. By optimising the water addition, the centrifugals were trimmed to produce a more uniform sugar quality. The results showed that online monitoring of the sugar colour inside continuous centrifugals, would give the factories the possibility to reach the required sugar colour with less sugar loss to molasses. Keywords: centrifugals, inline colour measurement, sugar quality, sugar colour Biography: Tim Diringer Tim has worked as a sugar technologist since 1996 and has been involved in projects at more than 150 sugar factories worldwide. His first sugar technology experience in South Africa was at the Gledhow sugar factory. Since 2011, he has been working with Neltec on colour measurement.

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COMMERCIAL PRESENTATION

SUGAR MILL MULTI-DRIVES INSKIP S Fives Cail, Ronchin, France steve.inskip@fivesgroup.com Abstract Crushing mills have historically been driven by a single prime mover with gearing reduction to turn the Top Roll of the mill. Multi-drive installation allows each main roll to be driven independently, mounted at the end of each roll shaft. Hydraulic multi-drives have been available for many years now and more recently, electro-mechanical drives have been gaining popularity with Mill operators. The two options will be compared together with advantages and disadvantages of all types. Process Separate drives allow for fine tuning of the linear speed of each roll to match exactly with the speed of the adjacent rolls, minimising fibre shear and re-absorption. The Feed Roll can be increased in speed by up to 5 % compared to the other rolls to create a force-feed into the delivery nip, reducing voids. Mechanical Drives on each roll reduce the individual roll torque. Top roll headstock loadings are significantly reduced, increasing the life expectancy of the headstocks due to fatigue failure and reducing the possibility of shaft failure due to excessive torque. Protection of the mill is improved as excessive shock loads on the mill are limited due to torque monitoring and limitation. Affordability There is a significantly lower cost of each individual drive allowing for the affordable retention of spare drives. The amount of civil works is reduced due to compact installation. Torque reaction is spread across the civil structure. Operation Consistent Donnelly chute operating levels are easier to maintain due to increased sensitivity of the drive compared to a turbine. Keywords: multi-drive, mill, electro-mechanical, extraction, process, hydraulic Biography: Stephen Inskip Stephen is the senior mechanical engineer at Fives Cail. He has worked with Fives Fletcher (originally Fletcher Smith Limited) and now with Fives Cail for more than 25 years and has presented papers, both technical and commercial, at many international conferences.

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EXHIBITION FLOORPLAN

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EXHIBITOR KEY EXHIBITOR (ALPHABETICAL) Adapt IT (Pty) Ltd Andritz Euroslot SAS Anton Paar Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd API Solutions International (Pty) Ltd Bearings International Bell Equipment Company BMA / Sucrotech BMG Bonfiglioli South Africa Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd Brenley Engineering Sales CC Bruker South Africa (Pty) Ltd Buckman CMD CMG Pumps Dube AgriLab Emineo Ltd / De Smet Engineers ImproChem Industrial Water Cooling ITECA Color & Vision John King Chains SA (Pty) ltd John Thompson J-Pak (Pty) Ltd Kelvion Services (Pty) Ltd Lakeside Equipment Mecosa (Pty) Ltd. Meru Industries LLP NETAFIM SA OE Bearings (Pty) Ltd Paras Bhavani Steel Pvt Ltd. Peter Brotherhood Ltd PGBI / DRA Pylot (Pty) Ltd Regal Beloit Rheochem Rossi Gearmotors (Pty) Ltd Rotating Technologies and Services S. B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd. & F. P. Engineering SASTA Sew-Eurodrive Sonkor Engineering (Pty) Ltd Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) Thomas Broadbent (Zivozest (pty) Ltd). Topcon Agriculture Turbine Generator Services Universal Water Solutions CC Weir Minerals Africa (Pty) Ltd Zest Weg Group Zungu-Elgin Engineering

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

STAND NO 49 50 54 42 19 39 38 33 & 34 32 47 26 5 56 60 20 22 10 13 8 61 41 14 18 59 45 21 36 52 12 17 25 53 & 55 35 27 23 58 40 29 & 30 11 1 46 7 16 15 48 6 31 51 9

STAND NO EXHIBITOR (NUMERICAL) 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 29 & 30 31 32 33 & 34 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 & 55 54 56 58 59 60 61

Sew-Eurodrive Bruker South Africa (Pty) Ltd Universal Water Solutions CC Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) Industrial Water Cooling Zungu-Elgin Engineering Emineo Ltd / De Smet Engineers SASTA OE Bearings (Pty) Ltd ImproChem John Thompson Topcon Agriculture Thomas Broadbent (Zivozest (pty) Ltd). Paras Bhavani Steel Pvt Ltd. J-Pak (Pty) Ltd Bearings International CMG Pumps Mecosa (Pty) Ltd. Dube AgriLab Rheochem Peter Brotherhood Ltd Brenley Engineering Sales CC Regal Beloit S. B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd. & F. P. Engineering Weir Minerals Africa (Pty) Ltd Bonfiglioli South Africa BMG Pylot (Pty) Ltd Meru Industries LLP BMA / Sucrotech Bell Equipment Company Rotating Technologies and Services John King Chains SA (Pty) ltd API Solutions International (Pty) Ltd Lakeside Equipment Sonkor Engineering (Pty) Ltd Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd Turbine Generator Services Adapt IT (Pty) Ltd Andritz Euroslot SAS Zest Weg Group NETAFIM SA PGBI / DRA Anton Paar Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd Buckman Rossi Gearmotors (Pty) Ltd Kelvion Services (Pty) Ltd CMD ITECA Color & Vision


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EXHIBITOR DIRECTORY

ADAPT IT (PTY) LTD

BEARINGS INTERNATIONAL

Stand Number 49 Telephone +27 (0)31 5147300 Website www.adaptit.co.za

Stand Number 19 Telephone +27 (0)31 480 2114 Website www.bearings.co.za

Adapt IT is a strategic ICT partner for clients in agroprocessing (sugar), process manufacturing, mining, and utilities sectors. We understand your sector challenges and create innovative ICT solutions to address them. Adapt IT has over 1200 employees and customers in 40 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America and North America. For more information, visit our website.

Bearings International (BI) has been supplying industrial power-transmission products to the sugar industry for the past 50 years. A particular area of expertise has been the design, selection, and supply of specialised chain for sugar mills. We partner with the industry in refurbishing chain in order to realise a longer service life, thereby assisting sugar mills with the lowest total cost of ownership with regard to the purchase of new chain.

ANDRITZ EUROSLOT SAS Stand Number 50 Telephone +33 (549) 9393 93 Website www.andritz.com/euroslot ANTON PAAR SOUTHERN AFRICA (PTY) LTD Stand Number 54 Telephone +27 (0)11 021 5165 / (0)31 207 5318/9 Website www.anton-paar.com Great people. Great instruments. Anton Paar develops, produces and distributes highly accurate laboratory instruments and process measuring systems. We offer a wide range of solutions for sugar analysis in all steps of the sugar production, including payment analysis and quality control of raw, intermediate and final products. Anton Paarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sugar analyzers comply with all international standards in the sugar industry like ICUMSA, OIML and K157.

BELL EQUIPMENT Stand Number 39 Telephone +27 (0)35 907 9437 Website www.bellequipment.com Bell Equipment has a solid reputation in the sugar industry for quality innovation gained through over sixty years of experience. Our product range represents the lowest cost per ton solutions for Southern African sugar operations. Marketed, distributed and supported locally through our wide network of Bell Customer Service Centres, providing Strong Reliable Machines and Support. BMA/SUCROTECH Stand Number 38 Telephone +27 (0)31 579 2211 Website www.sucrotech.co.za BMG API SOLUTIONS INTERNATIONAL (PTY) LTD Stand Number 42 Telephone +27 (0)31 579 1502 Website www.apisolutions.co.za We are a provider to the sugar milling industry whose expertise is in Batch and Continuous centrifugation and evaporator de-scaling. A host of products related to these areas is stocked at our Durban office. Services include Centrifugal basket refurbishments, Centrifugal sub-assembly maintenance and de-scaling equipment refurbishment at our Durban workshop backed by highly competent mechanical and process support from our staff.

Stand Number 33 & 34 Telephone +27 (0)11 620 1500 Website www.bmgworld.net BMG occupies a pivotal role in supporting the productivity and production targets of all Industrial, Manufacturing, Mining and Agricultural sectors of the economies in the countries it serves. From the smallest component to entire integrated solutions, BMG supports your operation with a single source for the most comprehensive range of quality industrial components and technical expertise.

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BONFIGLIOLI SOUTH AFRICA

BUCKMAN

Stand Number 32 Telephone +27 (0)31 701 4150 Website www.bonfiglioli.com

Stand Number 56 Telephone +27 (0)31 736 8800 Website www.buckman.com

Bonfiglioli is a benchmark in the sugar processing industry for the supply of high quality power transmission equipment. This versatile range of industrial gearboxes provides solutions across a full spectrum sugar processing applications and has earned it an unrivalled reputation for performance quality and reliability.

A chemical by itself doesn’t solve problems. But in the hands of a Buckman professional it becomes a solution. The difference? Commitment. A commitment to finding new and better ways to apply chemistries. To helping highperformance companies perform even better. To making service a science. And to finding sustainable ways of working that benefit not only ourselves and our customers, but also the communities we share.

BOSCH PROJECTS (PTY) LTD Stand Number 47 Telephone +27 (0)31 535 6000 Website www.boschprojects.co.za Project and Construction Management, Engineering Services and Equipment Supply in the Sugar, Agricultural and Industrial Sectors. • Feasibility Studies and Factory EMB’s • Complete Sugar Factories and Refineries • Cogeneration • Sugar Equipment Design and Supply • Agriculture

CMD Stand Number 60 Telephone +27 (0)83 293 7937 Website www.cmdgears.com CMD designs and manufactures cost effective, world class helical, planetary and worm gearboxes for low speed, high torque applications. The CaneMaster, CaneFlex and ERSun gearboxes are class leading sugar mill & diffuser drives, designed with a long bearing life and service factors >2. CMG PUMPS

BRENLEY ENGINEERING SALES CC Stand Number 26 Telephone +27 (0)83 448 7396 Website www.brenley.co.za Brenley Engineering Sales cc is a leading distributor of specialized instrumentation to the sugar industry for more than 2 decades. The business has led to numerous customer relationships with leading companies in the Southern African and Sub-Saharan regions. Our company vision is to provide workable solutions that will result in increased production through reliable and measurable continuity at a lower cost of ownership. BRUKER SOUTH AFRICA Stand Number 5 Telephone +27 (0)11 463 6040 / (0)83 313 0155 Website www.bruker.com Bruker South Africa supplies state of the art spectroscopic solutions to the Sugar- and related industries. This includes the analysis of Soil and leaf samples by MID-infrared spectroscopy to the analysis of cane and all related products by NEAR-infrared spectroscopy.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Stand Number 20 Telephone +27 (0)31 305 2400 Website www.cmgpumps.com Representative of Western states centrifugals and supplier of mp sugar pump range of positive displacement massecuite pumps (previously MES Engineering). DUBE AGRILAB Stand Number 22 Telephone +27 (0)32 814 0000 Website www.agrizone.dubetradeport.co.za Dube AgriLab’s micropropagation facility supplies disease free, true-to-type young plants for agricultural and horticultural growers. Located adjacent to King Shaka International Airport, Dube AgriLab serves both national and international markets and has the ability to develop protocols internally for a variety of plant cultivars’, the laboratory has the capacity to propagate over 3 million plantlets a year.


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EMINEO LTD

ITECA COLOR & VISION

Stand Number 10 Telephone +23 06988200 Website www.emineo.mu

Stand Number 61 Telephone +33 442 97 77 00 Website www.iteca.fr

Emineo Ltd is an engineering company based in Mauritius which provides engineering solutions and project realisation services to the sugar industry since 2007. The company has a dedicated team of engineers, technicians and project managers who have a long experience of delivering projects on the African Continent.

65 collaborators, exporting to 40 countries Colobserver® On-line sugar color analyzer with real time image processing, out of specs sorting, video and automatic wash water adjustment. Crystobserver® High Definition Video pan microscope with comparison tools between strikes or pans.

IMPROCHEM Stand Number 13 Telephone +27 (0)11 971 0400 Website www.improchem.co.za The ImproChem vision is to go beyond our own success, measuring ourselves against the contribution we make to the productivity of Africa. We focus on the Sugar and Ethanol Industry to deliver customised, service oriented solutions by combining relevant products and technology, our experience and innovation. We constantly measure our performance to demonstrate delivery and to identify further efficiency to our customer operations. We constantly apply care by never compromising on safety and always looking after the environment. INDUSTRIAL WATER COOLING Stand Number 8 Telephone +27 (0)11 466 0699 Website www.iwc.co.za Industrial Water Cooling (IWC) has been providing cooling tower solutions since 1986 and is deemed by many to be South Africa’s leading cooling tower specialists. IWC has a long and proud association with the sugar sector and has designed, engineered, manufactured, and installed cooling towers for most of the sugar mills in South Africa and neighbouring countries.

Part’Sizer® On-line particle size measurement with automatic dry sieving inside a rotating drum and auto sampling from 1 to 4 production lines. JOHN KING CHAINS SA (PTY) LTD Stand Number 41 Telephone +27 (0)11 894 3570 Website www.johnkingchains.com JOHN THOMPSON Stand Number 14 Telephone +27 (0)31 408 9700 Website www.johnthompson.co.za “Our mission is to be the best boiler and environmental solutions company serving the power generation and industrial markets, both locally and internationally, with innovation and enthusiastic response.” J-PAK Stand Number 18 Telephone +27 (0)11 825 0300 Website www.jpak.co.za J-Pak, established in 1976, are project specialists for filling, packaging machinery, quality control, marking, traceability & end-of-line Inspection for Food & Beverage applications. J-Pak, the solution and project specialists offers a wide range of equipment and known for quality assurance, printing, packaging, filling, labelling ,traceability and end-of-line inspection for Food, Beverage, Household and chemical applications, as well as the industrial and automotive applications.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


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KELVION SERVICE (PTY) LTD

NETAFIM SA

Stand Number 59 Telephone +27 (0)11 866 4000 Website www.kelvion.com

Stand Number 52 Telephone +27 (0)21 987 0477 Website www.netafim.co.za

Meeting the growing demand for sugar means higher production costs and use of energy. At Kelvion Services we provide innovative thermal engineering solutions for all applications in the sugar industry. Our state-of-the-art range of heat exchange technologies and expertise enables customers to operate profitably and energy efficiently. Give us a call!!

Netafim is the global leader in smart drip and microirrigation solutions for a sustainable future. Since 1965 we have led the way by developing products that help our customers optimize results. We are proud to be celebrating our 25th anniversary in South Africa, by helping to grow more with less.

LAKESIDE EQUIPMENT Stand Number 45 Telephone +27 (0)31 700 2137 Website www.lakesidequipment.com Manufacturers of Magmaflo Pumps MECOSA (PTY) LTD Stand Number 21 Telephone +27 (0)11 257 6100 Website www.mecosa.co.za Mecosa (Pty) Ltd is a leading supplier of Process Instrumentation in Southern Africa. In the sugar industry Mecosa (Pty) Ltd specializes in Brix concentration, density, moisture, flow, level, pressure, pH and conductivity measurement. Mecosa (Pty) Ltd has been serving the industry for more than 35 years and continues to grow from strength to strength.

OE BEARINGS (PTY) LTD Stand Number 12 Telephone +27 (0)11 493 4463 Website www.oebearings.co.za OE Bearings (Pty) LTD, the sugary sweet company with a specialist focus on the refined SRB Split Roller Bearing from Timken, Revolvo UK. This combination has broken free from the molasses of the monopoly of the other split bearings. We cane any previous bearing issues! 50% Proudly South African. PARAS BHAVANI STEEL PRIVATE LIMITED Stand Number 17 Telephone +91 (0) 79 2290 1235 Website www.parasbhavanisteel.com Manufacturer of Stainless Steel Seamless & Welded Pipes, Tubes & U-Tubes. ISO 9001 : 2008, ISO 14001 :2004, OSHAS 18001:2007, AD 2000, PED 97/23/EC Certified Company. We also have Bright Annealing.

MERU INDUSTRIES LLP Stand Number 36 Telephone +91-8378004555 Website www.meruindustries.com MERU INDUSTRIES LLP is one of the leading EPC organisations in the field of Sugar, Power, Bio ethanol, Distilleries. Over the span of 30 years MERU has been empowering the industry with technology, inovation and engineering excelence. Over the course of multiple projects with numerous clients MERU has achived the targeted performace wiithin the alloted time schedule and budgets.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

PETER BROTHERHOOD LTD Stand Number 25 Telephone +44 (0)1733 292200 Website www.peterbrotherhood.com Peter Brotherhood Ltd was established in 1867. We have been manufacturing and servicing steam turbines from our facility in Peterborough UK for over one hundred years with over 500 steam turbines in sugar mills with outputs up to 38 MW.


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PGBI

RHEOCHEM

Stand Number 53 & 55 Telephone +27 (0)31 202 3098 Website www.pgbi.co.za

Stand Number 23 Telephone +27 (0)31 700 3700 Website www.rheochem.com

For over 30 years PGBI has been committed to delivering projects that not only meet client needs but those that exceed client expectations. Our unrivalled expertise in the sugar, bio-ethanol, biomass power generation, timber and food and beverage industries is why clients elect us as their partner of choice. Over the past three decades, our knowledge has grown with our clients and together we have transformed ideas into realities and fostered relationships that develop the solutions of the future.

Rheochem is a long-time supplier to the Southern African Sugar Industry, offering an extensive range of flocculants for use in the clarification of sugar juice, effective juice and refinery liquor decolourisation agents, as well as filter aids, enzymes, viscosity modifiers and biocides. A high level of technical support is provided to ensure optimum product performance.

We are recognised throughout the industry as leaders in project planning, project management, engineering and agricultural development services, offering comprehensive solutions to suit our client’s specific requirements. Our golden standard of service delivery ensures we deliver projects within time, cost and quality constraints as set by our clients while our commitment to excellence ensures we achieve our clients’ financial performance objectives, throughout a project’s lifecycle. PYLOT PTY LTD Stand Number 35 Telephone +27 (0)31 816 9398 Website www.pylot.co.za Pylot is a technology systems integration company that assists growers and millers in collecting business relevant data of their environment, and providing a user friendly interface to analyse this data and make business beneficial decisions to reduce costs and improve efficiencies. REGAL BELOIT Stand Number 27 Telephone +27 (0)11 453 1930 Website www.regalbeloit.com

ROSSI GEARMOTORS PTY LTD Stand Number 58 Telephone +27 (0)32 815 0380 Website www.rossi-group.co.za Rossi delivers smart cost effective drive solutions, our products have been designed around modularity, robustness and reliability. Rossi Southern Africa is a full subsidiary for Rossi Italy with the South African head office and 2000 m2 assembly plant based on the north coast of Durban. Rossi offers modern drive solutions for crystallisers, conveyors, mills, diffusers, pumps, levellers, feeders and more. ROTATING TECHNOLOGIES & SERVICES Stand Number 40 Telephone +27 (0)11 421 5904 / (0)76 548 6002 Website www.rtserv.co.za RTS is a leading specialist Engineering Services provider dedicated to the installation, maintenance and repair of steam turbine plant, compressors, gear boxes and their control systems. Work is carried out throughout Africa in all major industries. We have a modern well equipped factory with in-house white metal bearing manufacture and mobile workshops that facilitate on-site tooling for major projects.

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SASTA

SONKOR ENGINEERING (PTY) LTD

Stand Number 11 Telephone +27 (0)31 508 7543 Website www.sasta.co.za

Stand Number 46 Telephone +27 (0)32 946 5904 / (0)82 853 8170 Website www.sonkor.co.za www.speccastwearparts.co.za

South African Sugar Technologists’ Association, founded in 1926, is an association of people interested in the technical aspects of the SA sugar industry. SASTA operates under the aegis of the South African Sugar Association, but is governed under its own constitution by a Council, elected by its members. SASTA organises the annual SASTA Congress, 2017 being the 90th ! Workshops, visits to factories, farms and sites of interest are periodically arranged around topical issues. SASTA publishes the annual Congress Proceedings and the official methods SASTA Laboratory Manual. S. B. RESHELLERS & F. P. ENGINEERING Stand Number 29 & 30 Telephone +91 98 2204 9655 / +27 83 459 7799 Website www.sbreshellers.com www.fpengineering.co.za SB Reshellers is the leading manufacturer of Sugar Mill rollers, Mill spares and complete Mill Tandems. We have state of art foundry and machining facilities at Kolhapur, India. With multiple patented products, we export to over 20 countries worldwide. Our partners FP Engineering are experts in Design and developing all types of machinery, structural steel fabrication, silos, tanks and platework.

Sonkor Engineering, a subsidiary company of the SpecCast group of companies in association with Qadbros Engineering specializes in the design & manufacture of front end milling & preparation equipment for the sugar industry within the African continent. SUGAR MILLING RESEARCH INSTITUTE NPC Stand Number 7 Telephone +27 (0)31 273 1300 Website www.smri.org The Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI) is the central scientific organisation involved in research work and technical services for the southern African sugarcane processing industry, the purpose being to enable the sustainability of the industry in both the short and long terms. THOMAS BROADBENT & SONS LTD Stand Number 16 Telephone +27 (0)81 396 5528 Website www.broadbent.co.uk

SEW-EURODRIVE

Represented by ZivoZest (Pty) Ltd

Stand Number 1 Telephone +27 (0)11 248 7000 Website www.sew.co.za

TOPCON AGRICULTURE

Without drive technology from SEW-EURODRIVE, many things in the world would grind to a halt, such as retractable roofs in modern stadiums, luggage conveyor belts in airports, conveying in mining and manufacturing and escalators in large department stores. There is hardly any industry in the world that does not utilise complex and complete drive technology solutions. SEW-EURODRIVE is present wherever there is motion.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS

Stand Number 15 Telephone +27 (0)83 233 5497 Website www.topconagriculture.com Topcon has more than 30 years’ experience in agriculture. Topcon have specific applications improving sugarcane production. Topcon produces a range of controllers for steering and guidance, spraying, seeding, planting, fertilizing, spreading, and incorporating auto-section and variable rate control. Topcon’s advanced products are designed to increase efficiency, improve yields, reduce input costs, conserve water, protect the environment, and enhance your farm management system.


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TURBINE GENERATOR SERVICES

ZEST WEG GROUP

Stand Number 48 Telephone +27 (0)31 705 3800 Website www.tgs.co.za

Stand Number 51 Telephone +27 (0)861 00 ZEST (9378) Website www.zestweg.com

Turbine Generator Services offers a full range of specialist services to satisfy our customer’s power generation needs, from routine maintenance to major overhauls and comprehensive co-generation up-grades. These services are enhanced by our principals, NG Allen, GE Oil & Gas encompassing Lufkin and Allen Gears as well Heinzmann with their wide range digital governors and co-generation control systems.

The Zest WEG Group, a leading supply of low, medium and high voltage electric motors, vibrator Motors, variable speeds drives, softstarters, transformers MCC’s, containerised substations, diesel generator sets, switchgear and co-generation and energy solutions as well as electrical and instrumentation engineering and project management services in Africa.

UNIVERSAL WATER SOLUTIONS CC Stand Number 6 Telephone +27 (0)31 312 3307 Website www.uws.co.za Universal Water Solutions is a supplier of water quality monitoring equipment in the Kwa-Zulu Natal area. We have partnered with one of the leading names in water analysis, an American company called Hach Company, to offer customers a wide variety of quality and dependable products for lab, process, and field analysis. Universal Water Solutions serves the paper & pulp, sugar, municipal drinking & waste water and other industrial markets. WEIR Stand Number 31 Telephone +27 (0)11 929 2600 Website www.weirminerals.com www.weirpowerindustrial.com Weir Minerals is a specialist provider of Dewatering pumps in numerous industries such as sugar, agriculture, pulp and paper, power generation, waste-water treatment works, bulk-water supply, petrochemical, mining and general industries.

ZUNGU-ELGIN Stand Number 9 Telephone +27 (0)82 851 9281 Website www.zungu-elgin.co.za The Zungu-Elgin Engineering business has been established for over 67 years and is one of the leading Engineering Design and Manufacturing companies in South Africa offering innovative engineering solutions to the Sugar, Petrochemical, Pulp and Paper, Chemical, Energy, Mining and Minerals, Maritime, and Steel industries. Zungu-Elgin Engineering is a world class company providing safe, quality, turnkey solutions for manufacturing and installation of equipment throughout Africa. We are well-known for the manufacturing of Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, Columns, Sugar Factory Process Equipment , complete Sugar Crushing Mills and Mill Rollers, Foundry Castings and various mechanical equipment. We have a 25000m² facility under roof which is serviced by overhead cranes for material preparation, heavy fabrication and welding, foundry, medium to heavy machining, CNC drilling and machining, dished end forming, heat treatment, and industrial painting. We have a logistical advantage of being placed in the Port of Durban, which makes ease of access to shipping. Our manufacturing expertise are backed by in-house, front-end design and drawing, planning and a quality management system to ISO 9001:2008.

Weir Flow control designs and manufactures engineered products and provides aftermarket support for flow control and rotating equipment across power generation, oil and gas as well as the general industry.

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


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SASTA OFFICERS 1926 – 2017 COUNCIL OF THE ASSOCIATION 2016 – 2017 R LUTGE (Patron) CM BAKER (Vice-President)

P GOVENDER

KM HURLY

WK LAWLOR

S MADHO

K McFARLANE

G NAIDOO

RJ NICHOLSON

A PATTON

S RAMGAREEB (Congress Chair)

PM SCHORN

N SHARMA

GT SMITH (President)

D SUTHERLAND

DL SWEBY

A VAN DER NEST (Treasurer)

FORMER PRESIDENTS 1926-27

M MCMASTER

1956-57

JB GRANT

1986-87

AB RAVNO

1927-28

M MCMASTER

1957-58

JPN BENTLEY

1987-88

PK MOBERLY

1928-29

HH DODDS

1958-59

JPN BENTLEY

1988-89

PK MOBERLY

1929-30

HH DODDS

1959-60

JPN BENTLEY

1989-90

PK MOBERLY

1930-31

GS MOBERLY

1960-61

JL DU TOIT

1990-91

PW REIN

1931-32

GC DYMOND

1961-62

JL DU TOIT

1991-92

PW REIN

1932-33

GC DYMOND

1962-63

JL DU TOIT

1992-93

PW REIN

1933-34

BED PEARCE

1963-64

JR GUNN

1993-94

PW REIN

1934-35

E CAMDEN-SMITH

1964-65

JR GUNN

1994-95

PH HEWITT

1935-36

GC WILSON

1965-66

JR GUNN

1995-96

PH HEWITT

1936-37

GC WILSON

1966-67

LF CHIAZZARI

1996-97

GB O’REILLY

1937-38

J RAULT

1967-68

LF CHIAZZARI

1997-98

GB O’REILLY

1938-39

P MURRAY

1968-69

TG CLEASBY

1998-99

TJ MURRAY

1939-40

P MURRAY

1969-70

TG CLEASBY

1999-00

TJ MURRAY

1940-41

EP HEDLEY

1970-71

TG CLEASBY

2000-01

TJ MURRAY

1941-42

FW HAYES

1971-72

TG CLEASBY

2001-02

TJ MURRAY

1942-43

A MCMARTIN

1972-73

J WILSON

2002-03

MS GREENFIELD

1943-44

G BOOTH

1973-74

J WILSON

2003-04

MS GREENFIELD

1944-45

GS MOBERLY

1974-75

J WILSON

2004-05

KM HURLY

1945-46

GS MOBERLY

1975-76

JB ALEXANDER

2005-06

SS MUNSAMY

1946-47

W BUCHANAN

1976-77

JB ALEXANDER

2006-07

PM SCHORN

1947-48

W BUCHANAN

1977-78

GD THOMPSON

2007-08

PM SCHORN

1948-49

JL DU TOIT

1978-79

GD THOMPSON

2008-09

PM SCHORN

1949-50

HH DODDS

1979-80

GD THOMPSON

2009-10

PM SCHORN

1950-51

A MCMARTIN

1980-81

GD THOMPSON

2010-11

GT SMITH

1951-52

GC DYMOND

1981-82

GW SHUKER

2011-12

GT SMITH

1952-53

GC DYMOND

1982-83

GW SHUKER

2012-13

GT SMITH

1953-54

GC DYMOND

1983-84

AB RAVNO

2013-14

GT SMITH

1954-55

GC DYMOND

1984-85

AB RAVNO

2014-15

GT SMITH

1955-56

JB GRANT

1985-86

AB RAVNO

2015-16

GT SMITH

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


114

FORMER VICE-PRESIDENTS 1926-27

LE ROUILLARD

1956-57

WG GALBRATH

1988-89

PW REIN

1927-28

HH DODDS

1957-58

JL DU TOIT

1989-90

PW REIN

1928-29

GS MOBERLY

1958-59

JL DU TOIT

1990-91

GW SHUKER

1929-30

GS MOBERLY

1959-60

JL DU TOIT

1991-92

PH HEWITT

1930-31

GC DYMOND

1960-61

J DICK

1992-93

PH HEWITT

1931-32

AC WATSON

1961-62

JPN BENTLEY

1993-94

PH HEWITT

1932-33

AC WATSON

1962-63

JPN BENTLEY

1994-95

GB O’REILLY

1933-34

GC DYMOND

1963-64

LF CHIAZZARI

1995-96

GB O’REILLY

E CAMDEN-SMITH

1964-65

LF CHIAZZARI

1996-97

TJ MURRAY

1934-35

BED PEARCE

1965-66

LF CHIAZZARI

1997-98

TJ MURRAY

1935-36

E CAMDEN-SMITH

1966-67

TG CLEASBY

1998-99

BS PURCHASE

1936-37

J RAULT

1967-68

TG CLEASBY

1999-00

BS PURCHASE

1937-38

P MURRAY

1968-69

JB ALEXANDER

2000-01

BS PURCHASE

1938-39

EP HENDLEY

1969-70

JB ALEXANDER

2001-02

MS GREENFIELD

1939-40

EP HENDLEY

1970-71

JB ALEXANDER

2002-03

KM HURLY

1940-41

FW HAYES

1971-72

JB ALEXANDER

2003-04

KM HURLY

1941-42

A MCMARTIN

1972-73

M MATIC

2004-05

SS MUNSAMY

1942-43

G BOOTH

1973-74

M MATIC

2005-06

RA BAILEY

1943-44

FB MACBETH

1974-75

M MATIC

2006-07

DL SWEBY

1944-45

G BOOTH

1975-76

GW SHUKER

2007-08

DL SWEBY

1945-46

W BUCHANAN

1976-77

GW SHUKER

2008-09

DL SWEBY

1946-47

GC DYMOND

1977-78

GW SHUKER

2009-10

DL SWEBY

1947-48

GC DYMOND

1978-79

GW SHUKER

2010-11

BM MUIR

1948-49

GC DYMOND

1979-80

GW SHUKER

1949-50

JL DU TOIT

1980-81

GW SHUKER

2011-12

KA REDSHAW

1950-51

OWM PEARCE

1981-82

AB RAVNO

2012-13

KA REDSHAW

1951-52

OWM PEARCE

1982-83

AB RAVNO

2013-14

KA REDSHAW

1952-53

K DOUWES-DEKKER

1983-84

PK MOBERLY

2014-15

KA REDSHAW

1953-54

JB GRANT

1984-85

PK MOBERLY

2015-16

CM BAKER

1954-55

K DOUWES-DEKKER

1985-86

PK MOBERLY

1955-56

GC DYMOND

1986-87

PK MOBERLY

WG GALBRATH

1987-88

PW REIN

KA REDSHAW

FORMER CONGRESS ORGANISING COMMITTEE CHAIRS 2013-14

DL SWEBY

2014-15

S RAMGAREEB

2015-16

S RAMGAREEB

2015-16

A VAN DER NEST

FORMER TREASURERS 2013-14

A VAN DER NEST

2014-15

A VAN DER NEST

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


On-line analyzers www.iteca.fr

Crystobserver HD Video Pan Microscope Monitor crystal growth in Real time Provide statistical data : MA, CV, number of fines Measure crystal sizes from 4 µm Keep video records of the process Trigger out-of-specification alarms Compare various strikes to your standard

Colobserver Color Analyzer Track wet or dry sugar color in Real-time Display quality trends of each centrifugal Record video sequences on events Optimize centrifugal washing time Maximize your ROI reducing remelted sugar Detect and divert out-of-specification sugar Provide remote maintenance via internet

Part’Sizer Particle size measurement

REAL TIME VIDEO

Automatic dry sieving inside a rotating drum Auto sampling from 1 to 4 production lines Measure crystal sizes from 75 µm to 4 mm Detection in Real time of off-spec product Calculate and display MA, CV, distribution in size We assist you in exceeding your challenges for quality, performance, value and reliability

info@iteca.fr, in the Sugar Industry since 1990


116

EXHIBITORS & SPONSORS Adapt IT (Pty) Ltd

Andritz Euroslot SAS

Anton Paar Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd

API Solutions International (Pty) Ltd

Bearings International

Bell Equipment Company

BMA / Sucrotech

BMG

Bonfiglioli South Africa

Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd

Bruker South Africa (Pty) Ltd

Buckman

CMD

CMG Pumps

Dube AgriLab

Emineo Ltd / De Smet Engineers

ImproChem

Industrial Water Cooling

ITECA Color & Vision

John King Chains SA (Pty) Ltd

John Thompson

J-Pak (Pty) Ltd

Brenley Engineering Sales CC Brooklyn Engineering (Pty) Ltd

®

Kelvion Services (Pty) Ltd

Lakeside Equipment

Lasec

Mecosa (Pty) Ltd

Meru Industries LLP

NETAFIM SA

OE Bearings (Pty) Ltd

Paras Bhavani Steel Pvt Ltd

Peter Brotherhood Ltd

PGBI / DRA

Publishing Powerhouse

Pylot (Pty) Ltd

Regal Beloit

Rheochem

Ronins

Rossi Gearmotors (Pty) Ltd

Rotating Technologies and Services

Sew-Eurodrive

S.B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd. and F.P. Engineering

SASTA

Sonkor Engineering (Pty) Ltd

Sugar Milling Research Institute NPC (SMRI)

Thomas Broadbent - Zivozest (Pty) Ltd

Topcon Agriculture

Turbine Generator Services

Universal Water Solutions CC

Weir Minerals Africa (Pty) Ltd

Zest Weg Group

Zungu-Elgin Engineering

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


118

NOTES

SASTA 2017 | 90th CONGRESS


SOLUTIONS FOR THE SUGAR INDUSTRY We believe the work you do is important. Whether you are managing soil moisture & nutrient content for a healthy crop, or analysing samples for quality in the laboratory - we understand your challenges. You can rely on Lasec® to support the sugar industry with expert advice, support & technical know-how.

• Refractometers for Brix Analysis

• Saccharimeters for POL Analysis

• New SM15OT for Soil Moisture & Temperature

• WET Sensor for Soil Moisture, Temperature & Nutrient status

• Profile Probe for Moisture Profiles down to 1m

• HH2 Moisture Meter for immediate display of water content

For more information, please contact your Lasec® Representative

sales@lasec.co.za

www.lasec.co.za


www.sastacongress.org.za

SASTA 2017 Abstract & Exhibitor Directory  

The 90th Congress of the South African Sugar Technologistsʼ Association